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miles. A native Bengalee scholar moting the translation and dis. will find it a year's labor to ac- persion of the Scriptures in Asia, quire any dialect of the vulgar went to India in the year. 1786. tongue, and in speaking his own Dr. Buchanan, it is understood, language will be understood by was there before.

In the year none except those who are able 1793 a bill was brought into the to read. In the northern part of Parliament of Great Britain for the province that number is communicating Christian small; in the neighborhood of struction to the British subjects Calcutta it appears from Dr. Bu, in Asia, in which was a clause chanan that they can generally for an “Establishment of Missionread. The Missionaries, after aries and schoolmasters.” The learning only Bengalee, could resolutions which recognized the not make their preaching intel- general principle of "civilizing ligible to the common people; the natives of India,” were car. and they found the Bengalee ried; but it was considered an in, translation of no service to the auspicious moment, (at the com multitude. It was necessary to mencement of a perilous war,, make two other translations, (the to organize the necessary estabPersian and Hindostanee,) for lishment for India, and the bill the single province of Bengal. was referred to future consider

As the different languages of ation. About the year 1795 the the East are written with a differ. Earl of Mornington, (now Marent character, it was necessary to quis Wellesley,) went out to Ins. cast distinct types for each. In dia in the character of Governor most of them nothing had ever General. been printed before, and the

The very year that the bill translators were obliged not only was before Parliament, Mr. to construct for themselves Thomas returned to India with grammars and vocabularies, not Mr. Carey, and both united in only to settle the orthography of carrying forward the Bengalee the languages, but to initiate Translation which had been be. their native workmen into the gun by Mr. Thomas in !789. At whole business of founding and that time, and for several years, printing. There were indeed the Missionaries were

so far some Bengalee books, and there from extending their views to were types and native printers other versions, that they scarcely for that language; but the types cherished the hope of living to were not used, and the books

ap- see the Scriptures published in pear to have been few, as Mr.

one language. They did form a Thomas had seen none after be- plan in January, 1795, to make ing in the country five years.* and publish a Hindostanee ver

The Rev. David Brown, who sion; but their poverty, and the has had great influence in pro.' unexpected protraction of their

labors upon the Bengalee transla• B. P. A. vol. I, p. 32, 79. 92. 91, rion, obliged them to abandon 123, 178, 182, 183, 203, 204, 216, 217, that design until it was executed 222, 223, 320, 318, 339, 446. M. B. M. M. vol. ii, p 130. Mem. p. 10,

by another. They never ceased 69. Ch. Res.p. 134 nute, 157, 209 211, to look forward to future Mis 253 nutc, R's Cyc. under Bengali

sions among people of various

tongues, and did all in their the Missionaries had lived in ob power to rouse a spirit in Eng, scurity, in a remote part of the jand to sepd out laborers suffi- province, without funds, without cient for that purpose. They patronage, thcir names scarcely early learnt the Shanscrit and known at Calcutta. Having laHindostanee languages. The bored almost seven years without former Mr. Carey began as early success, they were greatly disas April 1796, and in the latter, heartened, and instead of extendby the end of that year, he could ing their views to translations preach with tolerable ease. He for other provinces, they doubted resolved from the first to devote whether they should ever preach his eldest three sons to the study with any effect in Bengal The of Persian, Chinese, and Shan- year 1800 was the season of the scrit, to qualify them for future greatest depression of their hopes. Missions. He urged upon Oppressed with poverty, and the Baptist Society to form a having no means or influence to school or college in Bengal, collect learned natives from rewhere Missionaries might be mote provinces and kingdoms to formed, and the languages of the instruct them in the different different countries acquired. But languages, they were incapablo the want of men and money, to- of seeing or imagining those gether with the slender attain. splendid prospects which were ments he had made in Asiatic about to open to their view. A Jiterature, limited his views for single Translation was begun, the present, to a singie transla- and that was not put to press. tion. For several years he scarce

This was the state of things ly dared to hope for a press and when an event took place, which types 10 print any part of the was designed to have incalculaBengalee version. One anxiety ble influence on the civil and re. was removed by the establishi- ligious interests of Asia. On ment of a Letter Foundery at the 4th of May, 1800, the College Calcutta towards the end of 1797, of Fort-William was established another by the acquisition of a at Calcutta by the Marquis Welprinting press in the month of lesley, with a leading view to in September, 1798. By that time

By that time itiate the English youth, who a Persian translation had been were to be employed in the differ. commenced at Calcutta by a ent departments of the Govern, Captain of the army, who appears ment, in the languages of the afterwards to be mentioned un- country, and thus break down the der the name and distinction of partition wall between the govLieut. Colonel Colebrooke. In ernois and the governed, which October, 1799, four new Mis- had been found injurious to both. șionaries, one of whom had been There was a department also for regularly trained to the business translating the Scriptures into of printing, arrived; and by Janyary following, the whole com

• B. P. A, vol. i, p. 79, 472. Vol.

ii, p. 9. M. B. M. M. vol. ii, p. 130, pany, except Mr. Thomas, were

356 357. established at Serampore, in a

Vol. iji, p. 97, 98. Nar.

p. 72. 73. Ch. Res. p. 89, 90. Mem. situation highly favorable to their

p. 29, 55, 57. Pan. vol. vi, p. 44; and future operations. Till that time ihe References in No. II and 111.

the various Oriental tongues. of Fort-William “a flood of lighi Mr. Brown was appointed Pro- shooting through a dark cloud un vost, and Dr. Buchanan Vice- a benighted land.The strong Provost of the College. How far eulogium pronounced on that the counsels of these gentlemen, Institution and its noble Founder and of other friends of Christian- by Mr. Carey, in a Speech deity in India, influenced the meas- livered at one of the public Disures of the Governor General, putations, shows that all parties we are not told; we have a right are united in these sentiments.* 10 conjecture; but in less than Before the end of the year

that distinguished 1802 a commencement was made nobleman had assembled from in a translation into the other different parts of India, Persia, language spoken in Bengal, viz. and Arabia, and attached to the the Hindostanee. Mr. Carey in college, more than one hundred announcing this event, after the learned natives; and in the pres. first volume of the Bengalee Old ence of that venerable body of Testament was published, says, Asiatics the Christian Scriptures “A gentleman who is our cordial were exhibited for translation in- friend has begun to translate the to the languages of the East. New Testament into Hindos. The design was to combine the tanee. I have much desired to different exertions which were sce the Bible printed in Begalce making into one effort, and 10 and Hindostanee before I die.” render the College the centre of As yet he had not extended his all the translations for Eastern views to Translations for other Asia. For this purpose the two provinces, but was still occupied Protestant Missions were drawn with thoughts about the two Hin. into co-operation by selecting doo languages of Bengal which Mr. Carey and one of the Danish he and his colleague had planned Missionaries, (apparently Mr. to print in 1795. This "cordial Pæzold,) for Teachers, the form- friend” to the Baptist Mission er of the Bengalce and Shanscrit appears to have been William languages, the latter of the Ta. Hunter, Esq. of the College. mul. Mr. Carey received his Dr. Hunter superintended the appointment in the spring of first version of the Gospels that 1801, just at the time when the was made into this language, and Bengalee New Testament was printed a part of it for the Colpublished. Col. Colebrooke also lege; and this was the first Hin(if he was indeed the person be- dostanee translation that was pubfore mentioned as having com- lished in India. It was in the menced a Persian translation, press in September, 1804, and and his is called by Dr. Buchan- by the next February Matthew an “THE FIRST,'') was with his and a part of Mark were print. labors swallowed up in the unity ed. What prevented the publi. of the plan, and became identified with the College. It was a • Ch. Res. p. 89—91 240, Mem, noble and stupendous design, suf- p. 10, 11, 66, 69--72. Nar. p. 24. N. ficient to distinguish an age No Y. M. M.vol.iii, p. 275, and Referwonder that the transported Hin

five years

ences in No. III. doo poet proclaimed the College

cation of the whole translation, help support them there. As we are not told.*

early as the latter part of 1804, Thus the three languages when the Chinese translation spoken in Bengal were actually was begun, (and how much ear. undertaken, one by Mr. Carey, lier does not appear,) the super. and two by the College, and vast intendents of the College were preparations were making in daily expecting the order for that Seminary for a more gener reducing the establishment. al work of translation. It be. The letter of the court of Di. comes then an interesting inquiry rectors on the subject, and the by what means the business was answer of Marquis Wellesley, transferred from the College to (who left India in the following the Mission-house. The truth spring,) are preserved in the seems to be, that the College and State papers of “The Asiatick the Missionaries were harmoni- Annual Register for 1805.” But ously united in these operations. whether any prospect of this The great Baptist Translator was event appeared in 1803, when himself one of the officers of that the Missionaries formed the Institution. It is on all hands as- plan for executing various serted, particularly by Dr. Buchan- Translations,—whether it was a an and Dr. Carey, that in rela- joint plan of all concerned to tion to this work,(and indeed eve- provide in season a safe retreat ry other,) there is no party spirit for the Translations, or whether in India among evangelical men the Missionaries, availing themof different denominations; that selves of the facilities furnished they all put their hands to it as by the collection of so many a common cause, and help each learned natives, and the public other as much as they can; that spirit excited in favor of such forgetful of those points which an undertaking, started indedivide their brethren in Europe pendently and alone, is left to and America, they consider the conjecture. The compiler has only strife on that ground to be laboriously searched for some between God and an idol. None ray to illumine this point, with çared so much where the work a conscientious desire to do jus, was done, as to have it done. tice to all parties; but has found While the College was suffered none but what appears in the ane to remain the centre of the tecedent and following narrative. Translations, all seemed willing, When a number of men unite (certainly at first,) to support their strength to lift a weight, them there, but when it became how large a part is raised by each morally certain that the Court of is difficult for any, especially for Directors in England would ex

those who look on at a distance, pel them by reducing that es- to determine. It is certain from iablishment, all agreed to carry Dr. Buchanan's Memoir, written a very considerable portion of in the beninning of 1805, that them to the Mission-house, and the College claimed the seven

Translations then begun, in*Ch. Kes. p. 89, 90, 1.14 note. Mem. p. 12. Pan. vol. ii. p. 138. B. P. A. cluding the labors of Mr. Carey, Yol. iii. p. 23, 24, N. Y. M, M, vol. and it is equally certain that be. vi. p. 217.

fore as well as after the reduc

tion of the establishment in ing experience of the seven pre1807, the Superintendents of ceding years, they saw the imthe College encouraged and as- mense importance of a printed sisted the Missionaries to the Bible, and the fruitlessness of utmost of their power. It is sending missionaries to other certain, on the other hand, that provinces without it. in their communications to their Under these circumstances the friends, the Missionaries have Missionaries, in 1803, formed a from the first spoken of the un- plan for translating the Scripdertaking as exclusively their tures into various tongacs, and own. It ought to be remember- as early as March, as would ed that they possessed at the seem by the bill of expenses time a respectable establishment which they have exhibited, had at Serampore, with a printing in their employ Hindostanee, office, wholly distinct from the Persian, Orissa, and Mahratta College, which drew its support Pundits. About the same time from their own exertions, and

a new fount of Nagree types, from their Society in England. containing more than 800 letters Five Missionaries, four of whom and combinations was finished were unconnected with the Col. for them. The accounts of relege, were already on the ground, ceipts and expenditures for these and more were expected. Three languages, are exhibited to the of these had been long enough public as kept by no other than in the country to acquire perfect- the Missionaries themselves.* by the popular dialects of Ben- Mr. Ward's journal under date gal, and two of them were now of Jan. 21, 1804, contains this ready to turn their attention to clause; “Brother Carey has taken other languages, while the third a moonshee this week, to begin could superintend the press. translating the Scriptures into The Bengalee Translation was the Orissa language. Another nearly off their hands. The ver- is translating them into the sion was complete, the first vol- Mahratta.” And in the account of ume of the Old Testament, to- expenses which the Missionaries gether with the Psalms and part have exhibited to the world, of Isaiah, was printed; and a they iniplicitly claim to have new edition of the New Testa- borne all the charges of these ment was brought to the press. two Translations from the first The profits arising from their But Dr. Buchanan expressly deprinting office and English clares in his Memoir, and in his school, together with Mr. Ca. Christian Researches, that the rey's salary of $3,330, (which Gospels were translated into went into common stock,) and these two languages in the Cole the income derived from the lege, into one by Pooroosh Ram, sale of the Bengalee Scriptures, and from England, gave them a

*Ch. Res. p. 91, 92. $6. Mem. Psort of pecuniary independence. 10-12, 14, 66, 62. Star in E. p. 14, From the success which had im

18. Q. K. No, 1. p. 52. Pan. vol. vi. p. mediately followed the distribu

39, 40 B. P. A. vol. ini. p. 24. M. B.

M. M. vol. 1. p. 297. vol. 2. p. 131. tion of one Translation, in 1800, Nar. p. 32, 37. and References in compared with the dishearten: No. 1l.

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