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17,082 attended on what was called “students » less risk of losing boats from the davit-head sud- | Green's ship, the Orwell, that “the fore pendant (not free) days; 237,272 attended in the day, and denly altogether.”

hung when the boat was at the water's edge, and 219,016 in the evening. The public lectures It can hardly be necessary for us here to discuss the whole of the crew were drowned in conseappear to be useful and instructive. The results the relative merits of the two methods of releasing quence." On the authority of Messis. Green of the working of the Department of Science and by the lowering fall, as in Mr. Clifford's plan, (after they had themselves instituted inquiry into Art in all its divisions, for 1858, exhibit a great or by an independent apparatus as in Captain the circumstances), and also on the captain's, I increase on the previous year in the attendance of Kynaston's, and the new plan now before us. showed that this statement was not true, and the public at the museums, schools, and lectures. For some time to come, officers will doubtless be that the accident to the boat's crew was “not in The visitors to the various museums, &c., in the found to prefer each of them.

any way attributable to my lowering gear.Any three capitals of the United Kingdom, under the The engravings show the new plan very com- further particulars would have been merely super. superintendence of the Department, amounted to pletely.

fluous, but it appears to have answered the pur875,898, equivalent to an increase of 117,923 on A is the norman or lock bolt to be withdrawn pose of "Nauticus” to relate the details of the the previous year. The committee can state with whilst lowering from the davits. B is the lever catastrophe over again, and still to labour to atconfidence that at no period since the Department handle for heaving round the barrel, by which tribute the cause to my lowering gear. has been founded have its condition and working action simultaneously four rods or bolts are with It certainly is a fact that ought not to be lost been so sound, or the public appreciation of the drawn from either end, setting free the slings by sight of, that the entire exculpation of my plan on advantages which it offers in aid of private efforts which the boat is suspended. CC are the long the occasion in question proceeds from a firm that to promote science and art among all classes so rods or bolts that are worked by the barrel, never used it through any feelings of friendship to marked as in 1858.

secured to the sides by staples or cleets as re me, or interest in the invention itself, but under

quired. D D are the slings; they can be made the compulsion of Government. I may therefore WOOD AND ROGERS' BOAT-RELEASING end to receive the bolts. In lowering the boat, it behair. Evidence from such a source cannot be

of rope-wire, rope, or bar-iron, with eyes in each justly claim the full value of all they state in my APPARATUS.

the ship is under way, the after-tackle should be summarily set aside by mere assertious, even if The accompanying engravings illustrate a new lowered slightly more than the bow-tackle, so advanced by “ an original informant of rank and arrangement of apparatus for disconnecting both that the rudder may have all power over the boat position" (but whose name, like that of “ Nauends of a ship's boat simultaneously from the to sheer her off immediately from the ship's side, ticus," is withheld), and who, by the showing of the lowering tackle, invented by Mr. Wood, an officer and clear her if the ship is propelled by a screw; latter, stated one untruth at least when he deof the Peninsular and Oriental Company's ship if the screw enters the water on the side the boat clared “the whole of the crew were drowned.China, and Mr. Rogers, of Green's Dockyard, is hung, it is more liable to suck the boat towards One of the two men who were not drowned, and who Black rall. In the opinion of Mr. Wood, as he the propeller, and vice versâ if the ship is going were in the boat at the time it was lowered, stated informs us by letter, the manœuvre of disconnect- astern or reversing with the engines. The boat positively in evidence that the patent did not ing the boats when lowered by the tackles within should be let free from the tackles when about foul." I may further add that the attention of a safe distance from the water should be left to one foot or nine inches clear of the water.

Captain Lean, R.N., the chief emigration officer the judginent of the boat's crew, according to the

of the city of London, having been directed to this rolling of the ship and the prevailing state of the BOAT LOWERING APPARATUS.*

caze (not by Messrs. Green, the parties interested), weather. “My methodi,” he says, “does not


I have been given to understand the result of his embrace the lowering of the boat, presuming that

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GENTLEMEN,—Having candidly admitted the whatever was to be attributed to the apparatus.”

inquiry was, that in this misfortune " no blame to be under control of careful hanıls on the ship’s deck. I will, if required by any patrons of this unfairness of continuing to publish correspondence

My plan or any other can do no more than method, so arrange the boat tackle falls inboard attacking me when unauthenticated by the name of safely lower a boat on to the

water, and this it did the ship, by connecting them on one roller or leading through a block, as to insure the falls decline doing so again, I shall of course contine in the instance referred to, in a heavy snoweasing off equally and together, thereby commyself, as far as this subject is concerned, to an

storin, with such a sea running that it was a pelling the boat to lower on an even keel; and, by swering once more, and for the last time, what source of wonder to those on board that the boat shortening the stern rods of the after end of the “Nauticus” advanced in his last letter to you.

ever lived through it at all even when on the

water, and when the officers of the ship generally wat, cause the after slings to be thrown off

When he first alleged the loss of a boat's crew

admitted that any attempt to lower a boat ought slightly in advance of the bow slings, and allow through the use of my lowering gear, I challenged not to have been made; and it is a sufficient testhe boat to enter the water a little by the stern.” him to name the instance to which he referred. timony to the soundness of my system that after I have brought this out,” he adds," as a prac- He replied by stating that it occurred to Messrs. having been fitted in at least a thousand boats tical nautical man, and from experience of other methods in use have adopted this for security and Number, or it would have appeared there.--Eps. M, M. *Space could not be found for this letter in our last during the last four years, the only case of fail.

ure with a fatal result that can be set up against


or canvas.

it by opponents having other interests to serve is Boat-lowering safely in heavy weather is no manufacture cables upon my plan without the this iniserable one of the Orwell.

theory; it is a hard matter of fact, and the diffi. slightest difficulty; and if Nessrs. H. and w. That my plan stands alone in the proofs of culties to be surmounted purely mechanical, and should ever think of carrying out my process to practical utility it has shown by the number of he must evidently deserve the first place who can the extent contemplated by me, adopting india. lives saved I now repeat. Take, for instance, Her give the most practical proof of efficiency; While rubber as the medium of insulation, I shall be very Majesty's Ships, Shannon (on two occasions), Ra- the feet is in the Channel or off' Spithead, let the happy, with a proper understanding, to put them coon, Chesapeake, and Perseverance; from steamers Admiralty order a series of public trials to be in the way of doing so, as there is not the slightest of the largest class. Australasian (on two occasions), instituted ; not a casual lowering or two now difficulty in the matter. Messrs. H. and W. proQueen of the South, and Indiana ; from sailing and then under particular cílicers, who may fess to be practical men; I will not dispute this ; ships and other steamers, the Commodore Perry happen to be relatives or personal friends of one but I am afraid that they are not equally good and Champion of the Seas (ships of nearly 2,000 of the competitors, but such a series as will afford electricians; hence perhaps their reason for the tons cach); the Washington Irving, Blundell, a sure and certain proof of the relative qualities expression, “we cannot follow Mr. Hearder Black Eagle, Ebba Brahe, Omega, Medway, of any improved system, and let those be visible to through such a multiplicity of ideas as to the Queen, Transatlantic, Admiral Boxer, Grand the profession and the public.

construction of a cable under his patent, as it Trianon, Lady Mc Naghten, Rodney, Duke of In the heavy sea-way, and from the rolling or would be simply a waste of time." I may inform Rothsay, and several others I cannot now call to pitching ship, whether at anchor or under way, Messrs. H. and W. that other manufacturers mind. From all these ships have lives been saved, such things are most wanted, and it is under such ditter from them in opinion, and certain electriand nearly always under circumstances of con positions they should be tried. If the Admiralty cians and telegraph engineers whom 'I might siderable difficulty, often in the severest gales, or “Nauticus” will endeavour to bring about this mention, of the very highest authority, are unand almost universally from vessels under steam end, more national good will result than from measured in their terms of approbation of the

In two of these cases the entire crews columus on lumns of argument; and when such plan. Lastly, I may mention for Messrs. H. and of the ships have been preserved by its instrumen an occasion is afforded, results will prove whose W.'s information, that being myself a mechanical tality, and on several occasions more than one theories are mere theories, and whose deserve a engineer as well as an electrician, I have appliances human being at the time. All these cases are higher appellation.

for constructing any description of machinery revouched for by the officers of the ditferent ships. The way in which your pages have always been quired for the purpose, or, if necessary, of conAt the memorable preservation of the steam troop open to discussion on this important subiect merits structing the cable itself

, and I can show them ma. ship “Sarah Sands” (when half consumed by fire) the warmest thanks of the seaman, and I trust chinery much on the same principle as that Captain Castle has publicly recorded its “perfect that in your desire to steer clear of purely personal described in their specification, which I have had efficiency” in lowering the life-boats filled with controversy which can never benefit a public in operation for covering and counter-covering the women and children, when he says that by cause, you will not hesitate to find space for any wire nearly 20 years. "the ordinary method he would not have at. who strive to fix public attention on the present I cannot imagine that Messrs. H. and W. can teinpted such a thing;” and the captains of the neglected state of boat lowering, but will yourself have read my specification attentively, or they Eastern City and Merchantman also bear their urge as you have heretofore the imperative certainly would not have ventured to dispute the written testiinony to a like result, when the necessity of the Admiralty's taking the lead (as it novelly of every part of my process in its applica. former ship was entirely burnt. Only during the should do,) in the movement now happily going tion to the intended purpose, viz., that of lessen. last few days two other cases have reached me, on, for benefitting the hard fate of those “ whose ing the mischievous effects of induction. one from Her Majesty's ship “Archer," on the lot is cast upon the waters,” by ensuring for them I hope that my remarks will not be received as coast of Africa, about which an officer on board the advantages of an efficient means of lowering uncourteous; I have not the slightest desire to writes, a “few days since a man who fell over the boats in every ship that puts to sea, and visit. take any hostile position with regard to Messrs. board was saved from the sharks, thanks to Mr. ing with deserved punishment all who, having such H. and w., because from the samples of their Clifford's apparatus ;” and the other from a Scotch means on board, neglect to keep it in proper work cable with which they have favoured me, I can steamer, in which the same gear has been in use ing order, and available at the required moment. see plainly that much greater advantages would for two years. The carpenter fell overboard from Whilst their lordships give every encouragement accrue from our co-operation, as my process can the sponson in the night, vessel under full to any new means for the destruction of human be carried out quiteas etficiently with india-rubber steam, but was instantly picked up. The last life, surely they will make some effort to help its as an insulator as with gutta-percha. The object case proves that time, as “Nauticus” states, has preservation, and let the seaman see that the better which I have had in view has been to apply well not been such an enemy to my system. Captain feelings of human nature find a place for bim in recognised electrical principles to the improveMorris, of the late " Eastern Monarch,” only this the breasts of his superiors and officers, and that ment of telegraph cables, principally with a view week writes me also of a boat lowered for a like in the hour of need he will not now be left as of lessening the effects of inductive action, still purpose under most trying circumstances with heretofore to struggle and sink into eternity also keeping in sight the attainment of desiderata perfect success. It is not from arrogance I have because official lethargy and inditỉerence withheld which experience has shown to be necessary in mentioned these instances, but only in reply to one the means that might have saved him.

the construction of new cables. One of my who uses that term for no other purpose than to

Yours, &c., CHARLES CLIFFORD. processes for accomplishing this object, is by eminjure me; and I have a right to ask if any equal August 2, 1859.

|-bodying with the layers of insulating materials list can be shown by any other invertor ?

strands of suitable substances, twisted or braided, The imaginary parallel that “Nauticus” fabri

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CABLES. or laid on in any convenient and efficient way, cates about the patent safety lamp for the purpose TO THE EDITORS OF TIE “MECHANICS MAGAZINE." and, if necessary, I braid or twist string over the

whole cable, and render it waterproof. of detracting from the value of positive evidence GENTLEMEN, -- May I beg the insertion of a that he cannot disprove, needs no answer from me.

My internal conductor, also, is made of dimenfew remarks on a letter which appeared in your sions suitable for affording the least resistance to It is not a fact, moreover, as he states, that journal of last week, from Messrs. Hall and Wells, the transmission of the current. I believe that “my desire for competitive trials was forestalled,” on the subject of my telegraph cable. for since I first turned my attention to this sub. It appears that my letters to them respecting will be prepared to deny that a cable carefully

no one acquainted with telegraph engineering ject, eight years ago, I have urged upon the their infringement of my patent, which were esGovernment the public good that must result sentially of a private character, have induced every quality that could be desired. It would be

construcied upon this principle, would possess from such course being taken by the them to adopt the strange course of attempting light, amazingly strong, as perfectly insulating as proper authorities, and the right that every publicly to disparage my invention, and repudiate the best that have been made, and infinitely more inventor had to a like opportunity of proving my claim. I hardly know whether Messrs. H. and free from the effects of induced residual disthe efficiency of his system. I felt this the w. are fishing for information upon the subject charges than any cable that has been, or can be more strongly as for some time I was refused about which they confess they are “puzzled,” or a trial by the Admiralty at my own expense; but whether they have fallen into the error of imagi, an quite aware that the complete apprehension

made, upon any plan existing prior to iny own. I which, like other inventors, I might have obtained ning that I am not myselfo a practical man, and of the principles upon which my plan is founded, if I had courted interest or patronage. But I that I had not fully provided for all the little diffi. involves a rather more intimate acquaintance have never sought advancement by such means, culties which to them at present appear insur. with electrical laws and phenomena than is posand I will not begin now. I have had no friend mountable. I admit the fact, in my specification, sessed even by many “practical men;" but the high in the service to open the door for me, or to that wires have been sometimes covered with careful consideration of them, however, by those sue in Parliament for a dignity or a recompense fibrous substances previously to coating with the competent to form an opinion, has resulted in the when the first life was saved by my gear. No insulating material, but I deny that this process full recognition of the value and efficiency of my one knows better than I do how seriously the has ever been employed for the object patented want of professional standing adds to the uphill by me.


As for the portion of my patent, viz., the work of prosecuting such a cause as I have had in employment of porous or fibrous substances in little greater than that of water, the simplest

The specific gravity of this cable being very hand; and, however gratifying it may be to one conjunction with the insulating material, for possible form of break would be sufficient to lay of “Nauticus”” position to refer to “a person of which Messrs. H. and W. gave me credit, but of it, small weights being only necessary at intervals an opposite calling,” it is some testimony to the the practicability of which they seem to express to facilitate its sinking when in deep water. intrinsic value of my invention that, with this doutts, although they are themselves actually in. dead weight, it has reached its present position in fringing my patent by adopting a modification of

I remain, Gentlemen,

Your obedient servant, the public estimation, and the different depart. the process, I can only tell them that the Guttaments of the Government.

J. N. EARDER. percha Company will be ready when required to

Plymouth, August 8, 1859.


But we


, which did not form a part of the patent of salutary offect, both in the industrial as well as in the AND EFFICIENCY.

Louis, filed the present bill to restrain the alleged political world. Personally, I will do everything in H.M. Dockyard, Portsmouth, 8th Aug., 1939. infringement of his patent. It appeared that the my power to promote so noble and excellent a cause.” SIRS,-Courtesy always permits a reply to a per- plaintiff's invention had been extensively used at A drinking fountain or two, for the splendid and sonal attack. The undue prominence you have given Balaklava, and by Miss Nightingale during her extensive pleasure grounds for the people at Kew, is tomy name with reference to the Report of the Com. attendance on the sick.

now, from the very great numbers flocking to them, mittee on Dockyard Economy and Efficiency, re. Mr. Glasse and Mr. Bristowe appeared in supplied, a delicious glass of pure spring water may be

very inuch required : till such a necilful want is supquires that I should address you to disclaim that port of the motion. Mr. Baily and Mr. Cadman had (gratis), we are requested to state

, by all visitors, prominence, and to say that you have formed a very Jones, for the defendant, were not called upon, of the official attendant in livery in charge of tho false estimate of the part taken by the other The Vice-Chancellor observing that, as

it lower room of the new museum, opposite tho palın members of the Coinmittee.

might turn out and must be assuined that the house in the botanic gardens. The Report may with much more justice be said plaintift"s patent might be invalid, unless there

Mr. Hearder, the well-known electrician and ongito be based on the experience of Admira! Smart as was a user and enjoyment for a long time, he

neer, favours us with the following :-“ Gentleinen, Superintendent of Pembroke Yard-on the great ought not to grant an injunction. The motion

In compliance with the wish of your correspondent, and varied knowledge possessed by Mr. Laws re

Mr. Chick, I have pleasure in explaining to him the must stand over, with liberty to the plaintiff to

cause of the result described by him in connection specting all branches of the Dockyards, obtained bring such action as he might be advised, an with his induction coil in your issue of July 29th, while serving as clerk in the Master Shipwright's account being meantime kept.

which to him appears so novel and curious. It Office, as Superintendent's Secretary, Store Re

simply indicates that his battery liarl not surface or ceiver and Storekeeper--and on Mr. Bowman's

rather quantity enough to fill, if I may use the exknowledge and experience of the mode of conduct

Our Wechly Gossip. pression, his thick No. 104 primary coil. He will ing work in private shipbuilding and other esta

obtain still more exalted effects by making the blishments, in addition to the information obtained The Atlantic Telegraph Company have issued the number of plates in his second series equal to those of while serving on the Committee.

following invitation :-"All persons having any speci. the first, which is equivalent to doubling the surfaco

mens or plans of submarine cables calculated for lay. of each plate. Your correspondent does not say To your insinuations against my own character,

whether his graphite battery is a nitric acid one, or I could easily reply, but knowing that your Editor ing across the Atlantie are hereby invited to send the

same to the Secretary of this Company, together with whether it is simply excited by sulphuric acid without Mr. Reed, wło writes the ship-building articles any description they may desire to append to them, a diaphgram, after the manner of Smee's. If the in connexion with your journal, was a dockyard

as soon as possible, in order to their being immediately former, he will find that if he employs his series of 12 apprentice, and was educated within the last few subunitted to the officers of the Company, and by them

in a double set of six, or perhaps even better, in a years at the late Central Mathematical School under to the consulting committee, for the purpose of triple set of four, he will get still finer effects. . Twelvo the system disapproved of in the Report, and his examination, testing, and experiment.”

in series give him more intensity than his coil wants. schooltellows being employed in the Surveyor's office Arrangements for the meeting of the British Asso.

Iloping that this will meet the wishes of your corand in the Dockyards, I do not consider it neces

ciation for the Advancement of Science at Aberdeen respondent, I am, &c., J. N. HEARDER. Plymouth, sary to do so, more especially as I feel that while Wednesday tlie 11th of September for the delivery of are proceeding. The Prince Consort has fixed on Aug. 6, 1859."

Some Steffield correspondents send us the followwe may have will do your journal no good, it is his inaugural aldress. The following Vice-Presidents ins:-“ It is a allowed by all parties that the defences have been chosen :- The Duke of Richmond, the

of this country against foreign aggression are in a not likely to do us or our Report inuch harm. Earl of Aberdeen, the Lord Provost of Aberdeen, Sir

very unsatisfactory and undesirable state. I am, Sirs, yours obediently, John F. W. Herschel, Sir David Brewster, Sir R. I.

think they may be put in a more safe one at a comANDREW MURRAY. Murchison, the Rer. W. V. Harcourt, the Rev. Dr.

paratively small cost. We have to propose that a To Messrs. Brooman & Reed, Joint Editors.

Robinson, and A. Thomas Esq.; Major-Gen. Sabine sufficient number of iron vessels made shot and firewill act as General Secretary, and Prof. Phillips as

proof rams, built to strike the enemy's vessel under Assistant General Secretary; the General Treasurer

the water line, and to be built as low as possible above Law Case. will be John Taylor, Esq., and the Secretaries for

the water line, so as to be lower than the enemy's fire, the meeting at Aberdeen, Profs. James Nicol and

to be of the greatest speed. These vessels to be Frederick Fuller, and Mr. John F. White. Messrs.

armed with powerful fire-engines to throw liquid (Before Vice-Chancellor Sir R. T. Kindersley.) John Argus and Newell Burnett will act as Local

inflammables (such as coal, naptha, turpentine, mixed TIIE DESICCATED COMPANY (LIMITED) v.

with coal, tar, and phosphorus, &c.) into and upon Treasurers. Sir William G. Armstrong has been good cnough through small port-holes. By this means, in less time

the enemy, which may be done in hundreds of jets This was a motion for an injunction to restrain

to confirm the doubt expressed in our last number the infringement of a patent for solidifying and respecting the canard, or as he calls it. the wild might be enveloped in one entire sheet of tlame. preserving milk, under these circumstances :-It goose story of a contemporary. He says, “Whomade These fire-ships to be stationed at the entrance of

the wonderful shot that brought down a wild goose rivers and harbours. appeared that the plaintiff, Thomas Shipp Grim at six miles and seven furlongs? This is a question enemy from attempting to enter, as we think they

We think they would deter an Wade, took out a patent in 1855 for preserving that meets me everywhere, and, disagreeable though could not escape destruction either from the ram or and solidifying milk, which was effected by the it be to spoil a marvellous story, I am obliged to answer

the inflammables. If these fire-ships were generally following process :—The milk, being mixed with -Nobody. A wild goose certainly was shot by a

wua de use of, it would be more than useless to build certain proportions of alkali and sugar, was then shell from one of my guns at a distance somewhat

any more wooden ships of war; it would be a complete evaporated by being placed in a square tin tank short of half a mile ; and, although half a mile is not

waste of money, time, labour, and materials.” with a chamber beneath, containing hot water,

to be regarded as the limit of safe distance for a goose
to stand at, yet I am bound to say that six miles and

The most recent improvements in arms hare been and constantly agitated by means of a crank and

seven furlongs is a range which as vet has only been adopted, says the Times correspondent, by the Prussian quadrant beneath, until the mass became of the reached with the long-bow." Honours and emolumen's Government. The needle gun with which the army consistence of dough. This dough was then dried have made Sir William jocular-on the principle, we

is furnished is known in England as the rival of thio into hard cakes, which were again crushed between presume, that he may laugh who wins.

Enfield, and many consider that it is less liable to get

out of order. The merits of the two systems have not powerful granite rollers and bottled, the bottles In consequence of the continued favourable reports yet had a sufficient trial to enable a final judgment to being closely stopped. It was then fit for use. from the Captains and Commanders of ships whose be formed. The artillery already possesses 72 rifled The defendant, Valentine Bernard Fadeuilhe, was boats are fitted with Captain Kynnston's life-hooks, the assignee of a patent taken out in 1848 by the Admiralty have given directions to the sereral 12-pounders of remarkable lightness. They are of

cast-steel, and breech-loaders. In the experiments Felix Hiacynthe Folliett Louis, whose process was

Dockyards, says the United Service Gazette, that they which have been made the guns were found iininjureil of this kind :-Sugar and alkali being mixed with making application for them, without reference to the

are, for the furture, to be supplied to any Captain after firing 2,000 rounds. Their manufacture is being milk or with curd turned in the ordinary mode by Admiralty Captain lillyar, of the Calmus, has pushed on with

vigour, and they are turned out at runnet, it was placed in circular pans with false reported that during the voyage to Malta the boats had

the rate of one gun in two days. It is intended that bottons, communicating with three upright been lowered under every variety of wind and weather unrifled 19-pounders, as the new guns have not been

there shall be in cach field battery a proportion of bollow standards, and a reservoir at the bottom, with perfect success. There is one very important found adapted for firing grape. They have no such into which, by incans of a valve, steam was intro- feature in connection with this intention, which is the destructive missile as the Armstrong shell is described duced, and the liquid in each pan while evaporat- facility for applying the houku to boats fitted on the old

to he. This is the praçtical way in which Prussia is. iug was kept in agitation by means of a spindle plan, in the course of a few ininutes. They require no

imitating the example of disarmament.
pacing through the centre of each with fluid-tight curnbrous machinery or windlass, and can be trans-
collars, to which spindle in each pan a rake was

ferredfroin one boat toanother without interfering with
tackles or slings, while the cost of them is a mere

attached, the spindle being turned by a handle trille.
acting laterally upon a toothed wheel at the top

Vons. Barbedienne, of Paris, so well known for his The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to of the spinille. The milk thus evaporated was bronzes d'art, and who received the highest medals

all subscribers of £1 ls, 8d., annually, payable in adtance.

Post Office Orilers to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at formed into cakes, and the defendant, after a time, for his works, hoth in 1551 and 1855, says, in writing the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.c. zrated these cakes into powder and bottled it. to his correspondent in London, under the date of This was in 1853, but subsequently to the date July 31st :-Now that peace appears to become more

TO ADVERTISERS. of the plaintitl’s patent he admitted that he had firm every day, will it not be possible to return to

All Adrertisements occupying less than half-a-column dried the mass, but in ignorance of the fact that your project for the exhibition of 1861? It appears

are charged at the rate of 5d. per line for any number of to us that it is the duty of commerce and industry to shis method förmed a part of the plaintiff's inverely with confidence on the interests of nations, and

insertions less than 13; for 13 'insertions, 4d. per line; and Lion. The plaintiff, having discovered that the

or 52 insertions, 3d. per line. to discard all foolish and transient causes of anta

Each line consists of 10 words, the first lthe counting as defendant was manufacturing and selling the gonism and strife. In the actual state of things, a two. Wood-cuts are charged at the game rate as type for article in bottles, drying it by a process similar to | Great Exhibition in London would have a double the space occupied.


Patents for Inventions.



and on which are mounted a number of gill teeth, the 2919, W. MAINWARING. “ Improvements in upper and lower teeth of which intersect each other. brakes for common road vehicles.” Dated Dec. 21, These endless chains are stretched between two pairs 1858.

This relates to brakes for two-wheeled vehicles to ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. of drawing rolls and work upon pullies at each end.

The machine is so arranged that the gill teeth travel relieve the horses attached thereto when going down

a little faster than the periphery of the first pair of hill. On the axletree is attached a rigid pendant arm THE abridged Specifications of Patents given below are classified, according to the subjects to which the respective drawing rolls, and the second pair of drawing rolls or arms the lower part of which supports the fulcrum inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of

are driven a little faster than the gill teeth, so that of a long lever the fore-end of which carries a skidor classification adopted, the numerical and chronological there may always be a drawing action on the fibres brake surface which when lowered rubs against the order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with during their passage through the machine. Patent ground; this end of the lever projects forward in front all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be completcil.

of the wheels while the back and free end by which understood that these abridgements are prepared exclu

2011. A. V. Newtox. sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the

“ An improvement in lan the brake is actuated projects behind the cart, &., 80 Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie- terns.” (A communication.) Dated Dec. 20, 1858. that the driver mas readily apply it. This end of the tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not The object here is to obtain by simple means a lever is turnished with an are and stop pin by which to to produce them without acknowledgeancat :

combination of reflecting surfaces with or without a fix the lever in the ditterent positions desired. Patent STEAM ENGINES, &C., 2932, 2962.

lens that will project the rays of light from a lamp into abandoned. BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, 2922, 2955, 2962.

space in a concentrated form, and in parallel lines. The 29:20. R. CLEGG, F. ANGERSTEIX, and G. FERRI, ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car

invention consists mainly in the employment of a “ Improved inechanism for imparting reciprocating riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 2919, 2948, 2950), 2963, peculiar arrangement of conical and convex reflector, motion to machinery, and more especially pumps." 2970.

which form a chamber for the reception of the lamp, Dated Dec. 22, 1858. SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings, 2908, 2914, 2928. and also effects the object above aliuded to. Patent The inventors propose to so construct a cam, as CULTIVATION OF THE Soin, including agricultural and hor abandoned.

that about three-fourths of its entire resolution shall ticultural implements and machines, 2925, 2964, 2977. 2912. F. WINTER. “Improvements in the pre be effectively employed for lifting, and the other FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing paration and application of varnishes for waterproof- fourth for the descent of the bucket; or instead of

food for men and animals. None. Fibrous FABRICM, including machinery for treating fibres, ing paper, linen, and textile fabrics, and coating the lifting and descending only once during each revolupulp, paper, &c., 2910, 2012, 2013, 2017, 2923, 2932, 2933,

same with metallic foils.” Dated Dec. 21, 1858. tion of the said cam, the saine may be made to litt 2934, 2941, 29 12, 29-45, 2916, 2969, 2972, 2974, 2976.

This varnish may be composed of shell-lac, benzoin, end descend twice in each entire revolution thereof, BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, and Venice turpentine dissolved in spirits of wine and or more times if desired according to the size of the drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 2924.

wood naphtha. Other combinations are included. Patent completed. LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 2011, 2949, 2935, Patent abandoned.

2921. R. MUSIET. “An improvement or improve. 2960, 2975, FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils,

2913. R. M. LIVINGSTON. “ An improved self ments in the manufacture of cast steel." Dated Dec. time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 2927, detaching safety hook or coupling.” Dated Dec. 21, 22, 1858. 2931, 2954, 2965, 2971. 1858.

This consists in manufacturing cast-steel by melting Merals, including apparatus for their manufacture, 2921, Instantly on the suspended boat or other weight together, or combining when melted, the following

coming into contact with water or otherwise, and the materials, that is to say, broken or crusted or granu. CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 2961.

small chain being disengaged from one of the lever lated cast-iron, whether cast-iron, whether pig.iron, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 2937.

ends, their weighted ends will cause the lower or or refined metal, deoxydized iron ore or oxide of iron, WARFARE, 2938. hooked ends to open. Patent aban loned.

and a metallic compound consisting of or containing LETTER Press PRINTING &c. None.

2914. W. E. DANDO. “Improvements in appa. iron carbon and manganese. The said materials are MISCELLANEOUS, 2907, 2009, 2912, 2013, 2916, 2018, 2920, ratus for lowering boats from ships or vessels, and melted in melting pots or crucibles heated in furnaces

2926, 2929, 2930, 2936, 2937, 2939, 2943, 29 H, 2947, 2951, also for raising the same as required.” Dated Dec. of the kind ordinarily employed for melting steel. 2952, 2953, 2956, 2957, 2958, 2959, 2966, 2967, 2968, 2973. 21, 1858.

Patont completed.

This invention is not described apart from the 2022. G. SHARP and W. ELDER.“ Improvements 2907. T. S. Woodcock. An improved index or drawings. Patent completed.

in furnaces and steam-boilers." Dated Dec. 22, 185%. book and paper marker." (A communication.) 2915. J. II. Bolton and C. GARPORTA. “Certain The inventors supply fuel to the furnace at the Dated Dec. 20, 1858.

improvements in drying yarns or fabrics, and in the speel and time required by a screw placed outside of Iere the clasp is of any convenient size, and made apparatus connected therewith.” Dated Dec. 21, a hollow barrel or cylinder through the interior of of one piece of metal with the angle between its 1853.

which the necessary air passes to the furnace. The points for receiving the leaf while the clasp is applied The sizeing vnt or vessel is furnished with a series of air enters through a nozzle or other suitable arrange. in a vertical position or nearly so, and opening to rollers, so arranged that the yarn or fabrie may pass ment, and the fuel through a hole or other contrireceive the leaf as it is pressed against its edge, and over a sufficient number of them, and remain in the vance. Upon the exterior of the barrel are place firmly grasping the leaf. Patent completed.

size until saturated. It then passes out of the vat feathers or arms for spreading the coal and forcing 2908. S. Hunter. "Improvements in the con between a pair of squeezing or pressing rollers, and the air into the interior of the furnace. Patent struction of anchors," Dated Dec. 20, 1858.

becomes partially dried ; it is then again passed abandoned. This relates to the arms and palms of anchors, and through the size, and finally between pressing and 2923. J. NICHOLSON and D. CROSSLEY. “Improve. consists in enclosing the palm at the end of the arm, delivery rollers into a chamber containing near its ments in jacquard machinery or apparatus employed and making the arm open up to the point of junction base a number of vertical arched or bent plates in weaving." Dated Dec. 23, 1858. with the shank, for which purpose the arm is divided arranged in pairs and forming chambers, and having The object here is the weaving of all kinds of into two parts, whereby the earth in front of the palm a series of rollers, so arranged that the yarn or fabric double, triple, and two-faced or reversible cloths or lluke is not crushed or divided by the arm during may first pass under or between or in the interior of plain or twilled, by hand or power without the use of the dragging of the anchor

, but passes through the these arched plates or chambers to be partially dried, heddles, gear, moveable harness boards, or having to arm and over the upper edge of the palm in a com and thence along the outside of the plates and over stamp the ground on the pattern cards, by jaequaril paratively compact and solid state, thereby greatly rollers at the top of the outer vertical chamber or machinery or apparatus so constructed und arranged increasing the hold of the anchor by creating a more room in which all are enclosed where the drying is that it can be operated by a single treaullo on the perfect downward pressure. Patont completed. completed; the yarn passes out of this chamber treading tappet of the loom. The inventors employ

2909. R. MACLEHOUSE. “Improvements in stereo in a dry and finished state, such chamber plates being lifting bars which receive reciprocating motion from scopes.” Dated Dec. 20, 1958. heated by steam. Patent abandoned.

the treadle or treading tappet by a lever and conThis apparatus is in the form of a deep rectangular 2916. A. S. BELIARD. * An improved machine for necting rod, also a series of grifes or litting boards box fitted at one end near the top with the usual pumnicing felts, tissues, and skins.” Dated Dec. 21, with knotted tabby bands for working both the figure stereoscopic glasses. In the line of sight and between 1858.

and the ground, which are raised by hooked rods the glasses and the extreme back of the box or case, Here the felt is submitted to what may be called a hinged so as to be capable of connecting the boards there is placed an open drum or roller having four or grinding operation by a small mill or grindstone of with the lifting bars at the proper time required, and other convenient number of sides. This open drum pumice stone, which is caused to revolve by mechani- which is indicated by cams suitably arranged on a is arranged to work upon a horizontal spindle to cal means, and is pressed by hand upon other felt. shalt or shafts which receive intermittent motion which is attached a projecting handle for turning it Patent completed.

from the motion of the lifting bars. The pattern by. Behind this drum and in the end of the case 2917. W. S. YATES. "Machinery or apparatus for cylinders receive intermittent motion froin the there is a hinged door folding downwards, and fitted dragging bristles and drawing hair and vegetable lifting apparatus at the first, second, or third lift up with a mirror for throwing light into the interior of fibre." "Dated Dec. 21, 1858.

the machine, according to the kind of cloths required the case. The pictures are disposed in the chain formi The inventor employs gill combs and presses to be male, and it is so arranged that it may be over the drum, and so arranged that one end of the between which the bristles, hair, or fibre is placed turned without moring the loom. Putout aban lonel, chain can fall down into the bottom of the case at the and held to be operated on; and nippers or jaws 2:21. M. RENSET. * Improvements in bridges." front, and the other at the back portion of the case. capable of closing and opening by the action of Dated Dec. 22, 1858. With this arrangement as tilo drum is turned, the tappets or cams, and also having a receding and ad This relates to bridges usually designated sliding or pictures are successively drawn up from the back vancing or reciprocating motion given thereto, so as rolling bridges, which are substituted for swing or section of the bottom of the case, passed over the to advance and take hold of the projecting ends of swivel bridges, and consists in so constructing a faces of the drum on the vertical side of which for the bristles, hair, or fibre and draw them out from the rolling bridge that it shall be perfectly balanced and time being they are successively displaced, and then rest, and which by the opening of the said nippers require but little power to open and close it, and that passed down in a zig-zag or regularly folded pile in when out, are deposited in a receptacle. Patent comthe bottom of the front portion of the case.

whilst it is closed, and in use, it is perfectly secure, The i pleted.

and the road and approaches are made as it were conopen form of picture drums with the door behind 2918. N. Dawson. "Improvements in order tinuous and unbroken, and when opened or withadmit of transparencies being viewed in this appa- books.” Dated Dec. 21, 1838.

drawn the tail or balance end is drawn over the Patent abandoned.

This consists in hinding up a number of leaves, every ground line or approach on the balance or witb2910. J. RONALD. An improved machine for the alternate one of which is perforated so that it may be drawing side, and without injury thereto. The direct spinning of hemp, flax, and other like fibrous readily torn out of the book while the others remain travelling of the bridge in and out may be effected by materials." Dated Dec. 20, 1858.

in the book. While taking orders on these perforated a rack or racks or otherwise. Patent completed. This machine is constructed of a horizontal endless leaves a piece of carbonized paper is placed between it 2025. W. SPENCE. " Improvements in granaries band or chain, or by preference a pair of horizontal and the next leaf, so that an exact counterpart of the or apparatus for preserving grain.” (A communicaendless bands or chains placed ono above another, order will be obtained. Patent abandoned.

tion) Dated Dec. 22, 1858.


This consists of a strong chest composed of wood | ornamental encls or tips to the ends of neckties, | pipes to the top of the house. In this way so long or other material a lapted to give it strength sup scarfs, or cravats, and such ornamental ends may be as much rain water is discharged into the trap porter on pillars or standards and strengthened by so attached by the aid of the sewing machine or by chamber the gases are carried directly off down tho cross tie pieces bound together by clamps, being also hand work. Patent abandoned.

drains, but when the water pipes are empty the kept from yielding to the pressure in an outward di 2932. D. LICHTENSTADT. “ Converting a certain deodorized gases are passed off high into the air rection by longitudinal and lateral stretchers. The vegetable substance into fibrous material for the without doing injury. Patent completed. bottom of the said chest terminates in a funnel or manufacture of textile and other fabrics." Dated

2937. A. BarcLAY. "Improvements in obtaining hopper, and at its extremity is fitted a pipe or conduit, Dec. 23, 1858. farnished with a valve or regulator, which is closed by This consists in utilizing the sugar cane deprived netism, and obtaining motive power therefrom.”

and distributing or applying electricity and mng. a padiock when the apparatus is at rest. This pipe of its sugar by reducing that vegetablo substauce to Dated Dec. 23, 1858. or conduit, which serres equally for putting grain fibrous material which may be spun, woven, and This consists in a means of obtaining electricity into sacks, leads to a sieve of ordinary form and fur otherwise treated so as to produce textile and other

from the earth in great quantity, and in distributing nished with a handle or means of turning it on each fabrics. Patent abandoned. side. To the sieve is connected an inclined board or

it and applying it either in quantity or intensity to

2933. J. RONALD. “ Improvements in, and ma- practical" use. According to one modification the channel receiving a jerking kind of movement from chinery for, the manufacture of hard-topped and soft receiving end of a conducting wire or series of wires the sjeve, and which conducts the grain from the laid twine, mill banding, strands for ropes and other

is connected to a vertical or other line of parallel latter to a receptacle either under or above ground, purposes, and corlage generally from herp, tlax, cotwhich receptacle is closed by a door. Into this re ton, and other like fibrous material.” Dated Dec. 23, of a series of transverse or radial aries. These wires

wires laid together, and which line forms the centre ceptacle an endless bucket chain dips, being pasged 1858.

are so attached to the main central line that the orer a pulley at the lower part of the receptacle, and This consists of a number of revolving spindles or

arrangement resembles a " bottle brush,” presenting over another mounted at the upper part of the appa: frames, each of which carries one or more bobbins on ratus. On the axle of the former pulley is another which the yarn is wound. The inventor gives an in reception of electricity. This collector is sunk in

a vast number of radial points for the collection and of larger diameter, which by means of an endless strap dependent rotary motion to cach of these spindles or

the earth, so that each wire point takes up a portion or band communicates the motion of the chain to the frames by which any required amount of twist can be sieve when the apparatus is driven by mechanical put into each yarn as it is drawn off the bubbin or electricity to the main central line of wire, and thence

of electricity and the points as a whole convey the power, but when manual labour is employed motion bobbins, which is effected by a series of drawing rollers.

to the line-wire or conductor, which may be a tele. is communicated from the sieve to the chain. The The yarns required to form the twine or cord are chain receives its motion from the prime mover conducted to sets of drawing rollers through drawe graph cable or a conductor to an electric power through a driving pulley. At the upper part of the plates or other guides, and after the yarns have passed well containing a solution of sulphato of copper.

Or the apparatus may be immersed in a apparatus is a receptacle for the grain as it is carried through several sets of these drawing rollers the hard Instead of radial wires metal discs may be used. In up and deposited by the working of the chain, such yarns are then carried vertically down to a flyer by the case of a telegraph cable one of these arrangepareptacle communicating with the apparatus through which they are laid, and as the cord is formed it is

ments is fitted up at each end, one being the collector s yrating to prevent mice, &c., from passing into the taken up by the bobbins on the flyer spindles. To

and the other the distributer of the electricity. The Access is afforded to the upper part of the spin twine, &e., direct from fibres of hemp, flax, invention also relates to an apparatus operating Apparatus by a staircase or otherwise, and there is manilla, &c., the inventor gives a rotary motion to the generally upon the galvanometrical principle, and a railing to prevent accidents. There is also an indi. cams containing the slivers by mounting them on or

capable of use for cator consisting of a ball suspended by a cord or chain, in suitably formed revolving frames fitted with drawing obtaining motive power. The details of this part of

legraphic purposes and for to which is also connected a kind of parachute with heads. The twist being put into the sliver, and the

the invention are voluminous. Patent completed. moveable wings. As the grain bas become ventilated yarn formed by the revolving drawing head, is carried or windowed the ball descends to obstruet the passage forward by a series of the drawing rollers as before

2938. J. MAUDSLAY. “Improvements in the conof it to the siere, and when the contents of the described, when the yarns are laid by flyers, and the struction of ordnance and projectiles to be used thero. granary or apparatus have been operated upon, the strands as formed are taken up on bobbins on the with.” Dated Dec. 23, 1858.

This consists in the construction of ordnance and outlet 'is closed, and the ball is drawn up again, flyer spindles. To form laid rope or cordage all that the wings of the parachute collapsing as it passes is required is to supply the bobbins with strands in projectiles in such manner as tocombine means of loadthrough the mass of grain. There is also a graduated place of yarn. Patent completel.

ing at the breech with a rifled bore and corresponding index intended to show the quantity of grain which 2934. S. Bind. “ Improvements in spinning, and projectile. The breech chamber which is to contain the granary or apparatus contains. Patent com in the manufacture of cop bottoms or cop tubes.”

the charge of powder is to be formed by preference of Dated Dec. 23, 1858.

wrought-iron or steel, while the remainder of the 2926. E. T. Dunn. "Improved fabrics suitable for Here, to prevent waste after the cops are taken off gun is to be formed of cast metal. The shot, shell, the curering of foors, walls, and other like purposes." the spindles the inventor applies gum, stareh, paste, c, is to have formed on it a key or keys, feather or Dated Dec. 29, 1858.

or varnish, or mixture of chalk, whiting, or tlour, feathers for the greater part of its length, and the This invention was described at page 62, No. 4, of either to the spindles or to the threads by a brush or

gun has formed in it a corresponding groove into the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE (New Series). Patent sponge so that when the spinning cominences the

which the key or feather on the projectile takes, and

The thickness of the gun is

along which it moves. completed.

threads shall be lapped to any desired thickness on 9927. E. GREEX. " Improvements in tables." to the sticking or thickening substance, which latter increased about the groove in order to provide for the Dated Dec. 92, 1858. becomes hard before the cop is completed, so that

weakening effect which the formation of the groove This consists in forming tables with a central re the cop can be taken off without injuring the bottom, would otherwise produce. The shifting breech is to volving disc, which is fixed within or placed upon the and which also prevents any unravelling or waste

have a lateral motion imparted to it bodily, and centre of a table. Or in constructing tables with two from picking. There are modifications included. sufficient in extent to permit of the projectile being or more discs, each having a separate motion to enable Patent abandoned.

placed in its proper position in the gun. The breech them to move in the same or in a reverse direction. 2935. J. Broom. "Improvements in the manu.

is then brought back to its place by any convenient It also consists in fitting suitable gear to the tables, facture of steel.” Dated Dec. 23, 1858.

means, and there secured by a screw or otherwise.

Patent abandoned. so that the dise's on one or more of thein may be Here pig iron is deposited in its raw unheated rotated by turning a handle or treadle. Patent aban state in the furnace, and it is worked and pudilled in

2939. J.T. P. NEWBOX, T. SMIT, and J. Brown. doard. the usual way except that the furnace is kept as full

" Improvements in machinery or apparatus for raising

and lowering, or otherwise moving heavy weights.' 2923. M. SHULDIAN. "Improvements in ships as possible of pure white flame, the atmospheric air

Dated Dec. 21, 1858. and vessels, and in working parts of their gear and being excluded from it as much as possible. The mass rigging." Dated Dec. 22, 1858. of iron is also kept surrounded with cinder as a pro

This relates, 1, to the combination of grooved This consists in methods of running in or hoisting tective covering to keep off the contact of air with drums, pulleys, or barrels as described with worm and up a ship's bowsprit, with its jib-boom and flying-jib- the metal. Sal ammoniac or salt may be added to

wheel gearing. 2. To a novel contrivance for com. hoom, so as to enable a ship, constructed as a steam improve the protective covering of cinders. The iron pressing the links of chains after they have been ratu, to carry sufficient head-sails, and notwithstand. so puddled when tilted, hammered, or rolled becomes hauled in. The inrention is not described apart from

the drawings. Patent completed. in to be in a fit state to perform the duty of a steam good steel. Patent abandoned. Patent abandoned. 2036. J. Wwtblaw. “ Improvements in sewerage dissolved sugar and other liquids.” Dated Dec. 21,

2910. W. ELERs and L. FINK. “The filtration of 29. F. RANSOME. “Improvements in the manu. and drainage apparatus. Dated Dec. 23, 1853. facture of grinding and rubbing surfaces.” Dated In arranging receiving and descharging apparatus 1858. Dr. 22, 1858. according to this invention the trap or sewer and

This consists of a vessel with two bottoms, the This consists in combining ground glass or emery drain chamber is so contrived that the fluid matters upper one perforated with holes to which is with soluble or easily fusible silicates with or without discharged from the road or street are caused to flow attached the bag or filter. The two bottoms are other matters. Patent completed..

into the receiver through a hinged grating into the placed apart from each other, thereby forming a 23. A. PRINCE. * Improvements in ornamenting body of the trap.chamber. From this part the chamber into which the liquor is introduced by a pipe and illuminating surfaces of glass.” Dated Dec. 22, matters flow off beneath a hanging diaphragm, from a higher level, which liquor rises through the thence passing off at the other side over the top of a

holes into the bag or filter, and when filtered escapes This consists in the application of lace or flower second diaphragm or division, and thence down to the by a pipe above the chainber between the two pattern glas having clear plain centres or spaces, main sewer or descharge duct. This diaphragın porbottoms while the refuse remains in the chamber, or such centrey or spaces being encircled or delineated tion of the chamber is covered by a perforated plate may fall into another chamber placed below it, from by ornamental plain or coloured bordering, so as to of inetal on which is disposed å laver of charcoal, whence through an aperture the refuse can be rekirm an interval frame pattern, and in and upon such lime, or gypsum, which layer is again covered in by moved and the chamber cleaused without disturbing culorur centres or spaces chromolithograph or other an adjustable top plate level with the surface of the the bag or filter. Patent abandonel. impressions prints or paintings are transferred, roal. The roof-water from the houses is conducted 2911. J. W. CHLD. “Improvements in the manuattached, or painted, and then coated and covered into the chamber at the part between the two dia facture of fabrics a:lapted to be used for curtains, with suitable erystal cements and varnishes as a pro. phragms so as to discharge the water in the same coverings of furniture, tables, covers, and such like taction against damage from atmospheric influence or way as the street-surface water. Another branch


Dated Dec. 21, 1858.
Patent completed.

also from the water pipe leads into the space contain The object here is to produce fabrics of a character 9931. J. J. WELCH.“ Improvements in the manu. ing the deodorizing matter. This branch serves to now generally called “rep," or ribbed, and adapted to fzeture of neckties, scarfs, or cravats.” Dated Dec. 22, allow of the free escape of the gases from the be used for curtains, coverings for furniture, &c.,

chamber after passing through the deodorizing with pattern in various forms alike on each surface, This consists in letting in, inserting, or attaching matter so as to pass right up the water-conducting combined with a ground work composed of ribs of

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