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“And even of these three two were not quite | as practised before the improvement, may be manufactured. In either case we would uphold equal, viz., the trial at Woolwich of second thereby sufliciently instructed in the principles the forze and make good the wet and tear. sized hooks, and second trial of top-tackle iron- of the new invention, and enabled to put it in “Mr. Cort should then have the entire direcstrapped blocks at Chatham. practice.

tion of the force, both as to the mode of his “ The comparative trials of bolts in driving " The application of these rules of law would operations and as to the workinen that should and in holding fast were fourteen. Mr. Cort's be better made by an artist than a lawyer, as perform them. He might either bring down iron proved the stronger in three ; equal in his knowledge of the art would better inform his own people or take such of ours as would seven ; weaker in four.

him how the matter of fact is established by answer his purpose. In this situation Mr. Cort “But in one of these four experiments, viz., evidence; and the questions will be merely would be perfectly at case and undisturbed as that with the P bolt at Plymouth, 5th of matters of fact, for the law is clear. As far as to his pursuits ; and he alone would be answerAugust, there was a defect in the workmanship I can judge, the specification is unexceptionable. able for their success. of the bolt made with Mr. Cort's iron. And it I think, too, under all the circumstances, that “ Under such circumstances Mr. Cort might must be remembered, that in all these trials the Mr. Cort appears to be the first person who make use of our name to the Public Boards in strain applied to the different articles was far perfected the discovery, and consequently that order to convince them of his abilitie: to deliver more violent than any to which they are exposed his patent is valid. However, this is a point the quantity he contracts for ; and no doubt it in actual service except the driving of bolts; upon which no very decisive opinion can be must be from a connection with such extensive and in this operation Mr. Cort's iron had the formed without knowing what cau be offered in works as ours that he can prevail upon the superiority. The general result of these trials, proof of the discovery being of older date. The Beard to entrust the supply of their yards to a therefore, gives full conviction of the excellence idea of applying an air furnace certainly is not British manufacturer of bar-iron. of Mr. Cort's iron." new, and the principal parts of the process ap

(Signed) “C. GASCOGNE." Another important class of testimony to the pear to have been practised before, and perhaps success of the invention is afforded by the agree the very mode may have been hit upon; but it

The following letter from James Black, the ments entered into with, and the conduct of does not signify how near the discovery former | brother of Dr. Black, to Lord Stanhope, affords those engaged in the same manuficture, who experiments have arrived, or even that they independent testimony as to wiat was going must be presumed to have been alive to the im- have produced the effect, if the persons pracportance of the subject, and be competent to tising these experiments have not known to

“29 Mincing Lane, as 24h, 1786. form a judgment thereon.

what their success in a particular instance has "My Lorn,-By your permission, I have the Among the persons competent to form such been owing, and have been unable to practise honour of waiting on your lordship with the an opinion, William Hawks, of Gateshead, would' or communicate any certain method of attain- enclosed letter from my brother, containing his be prominent. By agreement, dated the 29th ing the object. I take for granted that work- reasons for approving Nr. Cort's process to make of May, 1784, between Cort and Hawks, after men will be produced to prove that the inven- bar iron. reciting the grant of a patent 13th of February, tion is not new, but it is so improbable that “I was with Mr. Cort yesterday two hours, 1784, the second patent, and that Cort had in- opulent companies engaged in the business of who related to me that a quantity of ballast formed Hawks that part of his invention con

manufacturing of iron should neglect such a iron had been delivered to him by order of sists in the making of pig or other cast metal source of profit if they knew of it, and that it Government, which he had converted into bar whether of a cold, short, or other quality into should be considered by scientific men of the iron under three of their inspectors. That tough merchant iron without either coke, coal, first eminence down to the time of Mr. Cort's several anchors had been made at and in the or charcoal, and without blast of bellows or patent as a great desideratum in the art yet un- principal dockyards ; and other chain-bolts, &c., cylinders, which was never before known

attained, that I should suppose that sort of &c., of the said iron. That similar anchors, &c., practised' in Great Britain ; and that the said evidence would either be weak in itself, or had likewise been made of the best Swedish Hawks was desirous that the said Cort should would not receive much credit. If Mr. Cort's iron called Orgrounds. That comparative trials make known to him the said invention ;-it was patent has any validity I think it will exclude have been made at several of the dockyards. agreed, for the consideration stated, that Hawks the Coalbrook Dale Company as much as any Mr. Cort, from the minutes he has taken, and should have the privilege of making pig or other others, for their patent is of no importance which he showed me, has the fullest proof by cast metal, whether of cold, short, or other unless they had discovered the process, and if experiment of his iron possessing every quality quality, into tough merchant iron, without either they had, then, whether it was described in of the above-mentioned Orground Swedish iron, coke, coal, or charcoal, and without blast of their specification or not, Mr. Cort's patent and of its surpassing the quality of that iron in bellows or cylinders, paying 20s. for every ton would be of no validity. It seems to me that toughness and strength. Mr. Cort proceeds to of malleable iron shingled into half-blooms, if Mr. Cort determines to enforce his patent, Portsmouth and thence to Plymouth, where he slabs, or other forms proper for making into and to bring actions for infring-ments upon it, has reason to expect the same result in his tough or merchant iron, each ton to be accounted he had better contend with that company than favour, as the iron is the same.

I took the to weigh 2240 lbs. weight. The agreement con- with any others; for their conduct affords many liberty of mentioning to Mr. Cort that I had tains clauses for accounts, &c., and against his circumstances which could not so well be given no doubt of his having established by the fullest making known to any person the manner of in evidence in a contest with others, and which experimental proof the quality of his iron ; but practising the invention, for determining the may be very material ; and besides, if Nir. that it now remained with him to establish the agreement, and for a penalty; and a memoran- Cort proceeds against persons setting up a rival cheapness of his process by comparative experidum annexed, that instead of the 20s. per ton patent, and pretending the merit of first dis- ments equally well ascertained. He said that specified therein, one-third of the sum saved coverers, it is not very likely that others will so soon as he had finished what he was about should be paid by Hawks to Cort for every ton hereafter contest the point with him.

he would immediately set bimself to prove the of iron manufactured into bars or uses of mer- (Signed) “A. CHAMBRE, Gray's-inn. cheapness of his process ; in which he said he chant iron. Other similar agreements, reserving “4th March, 1785.”

had no doubt of his success, upon grounds as royalties of variable amount, and conditions

incontestable as those on which he has estaunder special circumstances, were entered into

The Carron Company, by letter dated the blished the good quality of the bar iron manuwith Messrs. Brodie, Crawshay, Cooke, and most 18th of February, 1786, invite Cort to their factured by his process. of the principal iron masters, which, but for the works :

“I hope this communication may be agreeunfortunate sequel, would have yielded a

"Carron, Feb. 18th. 1780. "John Wauchope, Esq.

able to your lordship, and I have the honour to princely return to the meritorious inventor and

be very respectfully, those arsociated with him in introducing the “Sir,- We have taken into consideration your

(Signed) letter of the 9th, respecting our engaging to

“JAMES BLACK. invention.

It may be presumed that Cort shared the manufacture bar iron under Mr. Cort's patent. "P.S.—Your lordship will be pleased to refate of most, if not all other inventors in having Should he enter into contract with Goverument turn me my brother's letter.” the validity of his patent questioned so soon as

for the furnishing of that article, we now become the success of the invention was established ; leave to acquaint you that we should be very

The Scientific American states that one of the and the following opinion of Mr.Justice Chambre, ready to accommodate Mr. Cort with our works newly-constructed locomotive steam fire-engines lately when at the bar, will be perused with interest. in the following manner: —

ran twenty miles on a cominon road. “To establish a right to the monopoly of an

“We would, in the first place, sell Mr. Cort weight of the engine, water, and nine passengers, was invention under letters patent two things are our pig iron to any extent he may have occasion 12,000 lbs., 9,000 lbs. being the weight of the engine necessary. Ist. That the invention is new, and for at a stated price, and deliver it at the forge. minutes running time, and it went over a bridge 350 not laid open to the public at the time of ob- “In the next place, we would either rent feet long, with a draw of forty feet in the centre, and taining the patent. 2ndly. That the invention him out the forge for a certain sum of money

up a very heavy grade, making 1,000 feet in exactly be sufficiently explained in the specification so annually, or if it were thought more eligible at twenty miles

one minute. The time occupied in travelling the as that persons of competent skill in the arts, a fixed rate per ton on the quantity of iron included.

tiro hours, glades and all

The whole

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THE WESTMINSTER CLOCK. clock were included, namely, quarter part, hour part, tendered, and a much easier way is adopted of making TO THE EDITORS OF TIIE“ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

and going part. Yet, notwithstanding this, Mr. up for the low tender. Mr. Denison, having fairly

Denison gave his certificate, and caused nearly the established himself in the double position of designer GENTLEMEN, - It is now more than two years since whole of the contract money to be paid to Mr. Dents and referee, acting professedly for the Government, the controversy between Mr. Denison and myself con. successor more than two years before the clock had begins the process by causing the material to bo cerning the Westminster clock and bell appeared in been fixed in the building at all, under the plea that altered from expensive gun-metal to cast-iron, and the Journal of the Society of Arts, the MECHANICS' the going part alone had been acting satisfactorily in the contract price instead of being lowered, to bo MAGAZINE, Builder, and some of the daily news. Mr. Dent's shop waiting for the bells; but this was raised from £1,600 to £1,900, partly under the plea papers. That controversy, which was commenced in without either the hands and motion work or the of iron being more expensive to work, and then the November, 1856, in the magazines, contained sugges- hour and quarter parts being attached, and under next step is to dispense with the said workmanship tions which would have prevented the principal none of the disadvantages of strong winds, snow, and altogether, but retain the full price in the contract, failures that have since ocourred if the Government frost, which will exert considerablo influence upon thus evading not only the original workmanship had acted upon them. Somo of the subsequent them when at their great elevation. In fact, to have which zun-metal wheels would have necessitated, but failures have become publio; but the persons re. taken the trial in Mr. Dent's shop as the test of what the additional labour of cast-iron, for which the extra sponsible for them have ungenerously shifted the the clock was capable of doing, was like trying a sum was added. And then, as each failure occurs in blame from their own shouliers on to others. The locomotive for its power without attaching any train the plans of Mr. Denison, the designer and the question of who is responsible for the failures was to it, and taking the speed it was able to attain as the Astronomer Royal's conditions of construction are inooted in the House of Commons on Friday, 15th result which might be expected when encumbered sacrificed after each other; Mr. Denison the referee is July, and as no satisfactory answer was elicited, I with its compliment of carriages.

ever ready to put a bold face on the matter and propurpose supplying the deficiency to some extent in The last failure publicly announced is the extreme nounce the sacrifice of the conditions as really the this and a subsequent letter. And in doing so, weight of the minute hands, which the first com- best thing that could have happened, and modestly perhaps I should claim some credit for forbearance missioners of works has stated in the House of Com- intimates that the Government is fortunate inhaving when the first bell was broken, in not then calling mons to weigh more than 3 cwt. each. This weight the man " who understands the subject better than attention to the fact of the bell having been destroyed for a minute-hand of only 11 feet radius is incompre- any one else in England.” Mr. Dent's original esti. by the clapper, which, throughout the last contro- hensible, even when allowance is made for the fatality mate for the entire clock was, as we have seen, versy, I had pointed out as being so enormously heavy which seems inseparable from the Westminster clock. £1,600, but what the sum may have reached under compared with the weight of the bell and the size of Instead of 3 cwt. the hands should not have weighed Mr. Denison's management, now that the principal the clock that was to work the equally dispropor- 1 cwt. each; and if the metal had been disposed in advantages of the clock have been sacrificed, there is tionate hammer. A referenco to the publications the best form for giving the greatest strength with no available evidence at present to show. already mentioned will show that the tone in which the least weight, they would have been amply strong Having briefly sketched the failures that have oc. my statements were contradicted was sufficient to enough with considerably less than 1 cwt. of metal in cured and those which are likely to follow, with re. have justified the earliest opportunity being taken of each. The First Commissioner of Works added that gard to the clock, and shown who is responsible for recurring to the subject after events had confirmed lighter hands were about to be made, and that it was them, I purpose giving a similar sketch concerning my opinions.

probable the clock would then work all the four dials | the bells in my second letter. The easiest way of arriving at the difference be in a satisfactory manner. But this anticipation, like

Yours, &c., E. T. LOSELY. tween what the clock was to have been and what it others of the past, will certainly be disappointed, for, 30th July, 1858. really is, will perhaps be to go through the excellent after computing the weight which suitable hands, conditions originally laid down by the Astronomer counterpoises, motion work, &c., must necessarily THE NEWCASTLE PUMPING ENGINE. Royal for the construction of the clock, and select the amount to for four dials of this size, and allowing for chief of those which have not been fulfilled. The the additional influence of high wind, frost, and snow, the beautiful simplicity of this engine, as described

GENTLEMEN,—It is impossible to help admiring first condition not fulfilled is the one which required the force required to overcome the whole will be so the wheels to be made of hard gun-metal, with the great compared with the weight of the pendulum, in your last Number, but I cannot imagine why the teeth cut to the epicycloidal form. Instead of this and the small force which will be capable of disturb- double-acting pump was not placed behind the the wheels have been made of cast-iron, which is the ing its time, that there does not appear to me any steam cylinder, instead of in front of it. An ordicheapest material that could be used, and the teeth possibility of the clock maintaining a constant rate nary horizontal high pressure expansive and nonhave been cast in, instead of being cut, wbilst a large within several seconds a day, even though a dead condensing engine inight have been used with some sum has been added in the contract for the change, escapement should be substituted for the gravity advantage, the piston rod being carried through under the plea of the extra labour required in cutting escapement to prevent tripping, and supposing the both ends of the cylinder, and connected by some and working cast-iron: whereas it now appears that clock can be made to go continually thereby. And tolerably good non-conductor of heat to the end the wheels are destitute of the promised workman- considering further that other sources of error will of the pump rod of the double-acting pump ship, and that they are merely left from the casting prevent the pendulum being increased so as to These devintions have been effected at Mr. Denison's meet the difficulty, I am quite convinced that a clock placed behind the cylinder. By this means the instigation, and he is the person responsible for them. with four dials this size can only be made to keep a present difficulty of the connecting would be ob. A second condition required the escapement to be rate within a second a day, by a similar plan to the viated, and the usual tendency of an horizontal the dead beat or something equally accurate. Instead one patented by myself, which I submitted to the cylinder to wear oval would be greatly diminished of this the escapement employed is a modification of Astronomer Royal for adoption in the Westminster by the stuffing-box at each end of the cylinder the gravity escapement, which in its most perfect clock several years ago; but Mr. Denison had then so being bushed with brass, and receiving a good form has occasionally been

proved to fail even for far usurped the control over the clock as to prevent part of the weight of the piston. W. H. C. sinall astronomical clocks; and as the power in the any plans being adopted besides his own. In this Westerminster clock must of necessity be some hun. plan the power employed to drive the hands is com.

London, August 10th, 1859. dreds of times greater, its employment there is pletely cut off from the escapement and pendulum certain to result in failure. For this deviation Mr. which regulate the time, and a small astronomical ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN ENGINEERS. Denison is responsible. A third condition required clock, with all its accuracy and durability, is employed On Saturday night last this Association met at that the minute hands should move over the half for the time-keeping part, whilst the power available their rooms in St. Swithin's-lane, City, Mr. Joseph minute or minute spaco at once, so as to enable the in the large clock for driving the hands may fluctuate Newton filling the chair. had been announced time to be observed outside within a second. The even to the extent of 100 lbs. at the diameter of the that a member would read a paper on “Superheated plan for carrying out this condition has so completely centre wheel without affecting the time half a second Steam," and as this happens to be a subject of failed that the condition itself has been abandoned. a day. The plan, moreover, allows the Astronomer peculiar interest to the gentlemen who comprise the Mr. Denison designed the plan and is responsible for Royal's condition to be easily fulfilled for enabling the Association, a very numerous body assembled on the its failure. The forfeiture of this condition is remark-time to be observed to a second by the exterior minute occasion. A dissapointment, however, was in store able, for it is the one concerning which Mr. Denison hands moving quickly over the space of 14 inches once for them, for after the ordinary business had been ridiculed Mr. Vulliamy for hesitating to carry it out. a minute.

gone through, the Chairman announced that a letter A fourth condition required that the first blow of The difficulty that was likely to occur from Mr. had been received a day or two previously from the each hour should be accurate to a second of time. To Denison's plan of regulating the going part by a gra promiser of the paper, stating his inability-from fulfil this condition the going part should be capable vity escapement in direct communication with the illness-to redeem his promise. Mr. Newton, how. of keeping time within a second for 24 hours at least; hand train, was pointed out to the late Commissioner ever, further announced, much to the satisfaction of but the pendulum is only compensated with zinc; and of Works last February, and in the same letter I of his auditors, that under pressure of the emergency he the enormous surplus force required to drive the fered to undertake the superintendence of the clock, had summoned to his aid the services of a friend, a hands in all weathers will occasionally reach the eg. in order to introduce the improvement just mentioned fellow-member, who at the eleventh hour had nobly çapement and cause it to trip or run forward, and the and carry it to successful completion, but the reply come forward and written a paper on a totally different hands to be in error, to the extent of either seconds, seemed to indicate that the Board had not then power matter, the “ Manufacture of Rifles, with a descripminutes, or hours, as the case may be ; thus intro- to change the superintendence. In fact, Mr. Denison tion of those death-dealing weapons," which he was ducing a source of inaccuracy to which gravity boasted in his book, nearly two years ago, that the prepared, if acceptable, to read. "Consent was readily escapements are especially liable, and one from which Board had taken no less than five opinions from the given, and the gentleman, whose maiden attempt it the dead escapement is entirely free. Mr. Denison Attorney General, the Solicitor-General

, and the other was, and whose modestly declined to have his name is responsible for the plan adopted. A fifth condition law officers of the Crown, to try and“ get rid" of his published, read his very elaborate paper on this required the clock to go and strike eight days with superintendence without being able to do so, and the subject. It was at once a clear, practical, and tersely onee winding up. Instead of this the arrangement parliamentary papers show that the law officers were written essay, and conveyed much information of a had failed to the extent of reducing it to a four day consulted with that object in view.

novel character to the bulk of the members. At its clock some time since, with the probability of its re- Concerning the cost of the clock, a great deal of conclusion the applause was general, and after a very quiring to be wound up still oftener. For this failure credit has been claimed for the lowness of Mr. Dent's enlivening discussion, in which Messrs. Keyte, Ives, Dr. Denison is responsible.

tender as compared with those of Vullianny and Stabler, M. Jones, the Chairman, and others joined, Another condition appeared in the agreement with Whitehurst, and the difference between them has a vote of thanks was given by acclamation to the exMr. Dent which required that the clock should be formed one of the principal reasons for giving the pounder of the rifle. "Mr. Newton, in proposing this completed and going 19 months in its place to the contract to Mr. Dent; but we now see that the clock | vote, took occasion to eulogise the writer of the paper, satisfaction of the Astronomer Royal and Mr. Denison once secured, with Mr. Denison as referee,

all idea and to incite other members to emulate his zeal. An before being paid for; and by finished and going it appears to have coased of its being carried out accord. adjournment to the first Saturday in September was of course understood that all the parts of the ing to its original conditions, upon which the others followed, and the meeting was at an end.

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JENSEN'S MARINE ENGINE GOVERNOR. that the principal desideratum in a good marine this apparatus will then act as a governor for the By Mr. PETER JENSEN, of Copenhagen.

engine governor is an instantaneous action, so that engines : for when the propeller is revolving in a The eagines in very large screw steamers with whenever the screw or the paddle wheels are going light draught of water, the supply of steam to the deep draught are considered to work with sufficient down in the water more steam may be admitted engines is proportionately diminished ; and when regularity even in a gale, as the size and weight to the engines as quickly as possible

, and in the revolving in deep water, the supply of steam is pro

opposite case the admission of steam may be as portionately increased. The whole arrangement of the ship to a great extent prevent it from quickly as possible checked, before the speed of is simple, as shown by the drawing, and the cost pitching; and for this reason no great difference the engines has been sensibly affected. For attain smali, probably not exceeding four or five shilling in the depth of immersion of the screw takes place: ing this object it seems more natural to make use per horse power. but, except in the above case, serious irregularity of the cause of the evil as a remedy against it, or is experienced in the working of marine engines to employ the irregular motion of the vessel as a in a heavy sea, when the screw or the paddle wheels

THE SCIENCE AND ART DEPARTMENT. means of regulating the engines, than to let the are one moment deeply immersed and the next engines regulate themselves. By this means an The sixth Report of the Science and Art Departmoment revolving half or more in the air. . A waste intermediate step is dispensed with : and by mak- ment of the Committee of Council of Education the same amount of power is supplied from the ing use of the non-elastic water as the motive was printed on Friday in the form of a blue book boiler, whatever the speed of the engines may be power of the governor, the action will be exerted of some 150 pages, compact and portable. The

quickly enough upon the engines to regulate the geological survey of the kingdom is first noticed. at any moment, still the power is not exerted in supply of steam before the depth of immersion of The number of square miles surveyed in the past an advantageous manner whenever the propeller the propeller has been materially altered by the year, in Great Britain, has been 2,326, while in is only partially immersed, as it then presents too pitching of the vessel.

1857 the area was 2,605. In Ireland the work of little surface of resistance to the water, and is

The construction of the new Marine Engine survey has been chiefly directed to preparing for consequently not able to propel the vessel so effi. Governor is shown in the engravings. Fig. 1 is a publication the 1-inch maps of that conntry. Pro; ciently as when immersed to the proper depth. In transverse section of the vessel showing the gov- fessor Huxley and Mr. Salter have worked most marine engines, therefore, instead of the con:

ernor in position ; and Figs. 2 and 3 are a longi- diligently in the “Natural History” and “ Palæsumption of steam being reduced by saving the tudinal section and elevation of the governor en ontological” departments of the survey. The steam when it cannot be used to advantage in larged. A cylinder A is placed at each inner side Museum of Geology was visited by 24,877 consequence of the propeller being only partially of the vessel below the water line, the bo:tom of persons last year. The Mining Record-otice conimmersed, it is at that time wasted in driving the the cylinders communicating with the water out- tinues to increase in importance and usefulness. screw or the paddle wheels with great speed in a

side by means of the Kingston valves B. Each The Government School of Mines is prospering, light dranght of water, and a great amount of slip cylinder is fitted with a piston C, which is loaded and several kinds of assistance have been afforded or loss in effective speed of the vessel consequently with a spring D either of steel, compressed air, or to other departments of Government by Dr.

In applying a governor to marine engines india-rubber. The piston rods E act upon bell Hofman (the lecturer on chemistry) and Dr. economy of power must result, as in the case of crank levers FF, and by means of connecting rods | Percy (the metallurgical professor). One of the stationary engines. Moreover, most of the accidents occurring to marine engines are due to the which the throttle

valves of the engines are worked appointed to the office of Geological Surveyor of

G G motion is given to a common spindle H, from pupils of the school, a Mr. Charles Gould, has been sudden shocks that will happen during a gale in such a manner that when the pistons Cgo Tasmanin. The Museum of Irish Industry was even in well-balanced engines. The lubrication down the throttle valves are closing, and when visited by 23,638 persons. The number of visitors is also often rendered difficult

, because the oil is the pistons go up the valves are opening. Now at the gardens of the Royal Zoological Society thrown out of the cups; and the great amount of

as the pressure of the external water increases in exhibits a large increase, a result attributed by wear and tear in marine engines may be attributed proportion to the depth when the openings of the the hon. council to "the increased attraction partly to the shocks and the irregular motion, valves B come into different depths in consequence which a large addition to their stock of animals and partly to the more imperfect lubrication.

of the pitching or rolling of the vessel, the pressure has enabled them to bring before the public.” The Marine engine governors have been attempted on keveral occasions, but only very few are yet and to each pressure will correspond a certain to be flourishing, and the Metropolitan Public

on the pistons C will be changed proportionately; various local schools of art, drawing, &c., appear applied. An ingenious modification of the ordi- position of the pistons and of the throttle valves Schools for the Poor are growing rapidly. The nary Watt's centrifugal governor has been em

connected with them. Omitting the pitching of Circulating Art Library of the South Kensington ployed for this purpose, Silver's four-ball governor, the vessel in a paddle-wheel steamer, and consider- Museum was open for 289 days last year, and is in which the action of a spiral spring is substituted ing only the rolling motion, it is obvious that very extensively used ; 500 volumes have been for that of gravity, and the whole apparatus is when one paddle wheel is deeply immersed and added to the collection, and upwards of 1,300 balanced so as to remain undisturbed in action the other nearly or entirely out of the water, prints and 600 photographs acquired. The Circu: during the pitching of the vessel. But the mode the pressure on the two pistons will be different ; lating Museum Collection visited six towns last of action of all such governors is by checking the but supposing them connected together, the posi- year, and proved very attractive. The Museum supply of steam to control the speed of the engine tion of both and of the throttle valves will be then at Kensington is replete with objects of interest

, after it has begun to change either to quicker or corresponding to the difference of resistance on slower: and it has appeared to the inventor of the the two paddle wheels.

almost too numerous even to be glanced at in pas

sing. The high rate of attendance at this Museum governor forming the subject of the present paper,

If these cylinders are placed as near to the pro- was fully maintained in 1858. A monthly average Read at a late meeting of the Institution of peller as convenient, so as to ensure pretty nearly of 38,000 was maintained, and the total number Mechanical Engineers,

the same depth of immersion, it will be seen that for the year are npwards of 456,288, of whom

ensues.

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47,082 attended on what was called "students » less risk of losing boats from the davit-head sud- Green's ship, the Orwell, that " the fore pendant (not free) days; 237,272 attended in the day, and denly altogether.”

hung when the boat was at the water's edge, and 219,016 in the evening. The public lectures It can hardly be necessary for us here to discuss the whole of the crew were drowned in conseappear to be useful and instructive. The results the relative merits of the two methods of releasing quence." On the authority of Messrs. Green of the working of the Department of Science and by the lowering fall, as in Mr. Clifford's plan, (after they had themselves instituted inquiry into Art in all its divisions, for 1858, exhibit a great or by an independent apparatus as in Captain the circumstances), and also on the captain's, I increase on the previous year in the attendance of Kynaston's, and the new plan now before us. showed that this statement was not true, and the public at the museums, schools, and lectures. For some time to come, officers will doubtless be that the accident to the boat's crew was "not in The visitors to the various museums, &c., in the found to prefer each of them.

any way attributable to my lowering gear.Any three capitals of the United Kingdom, under the The engravings show the new plan very com- further particulars would have been merely super. superintendence of the Department, amounted to pletely.

fluous, but it appears to have answered the pur875,898, equivalent to an increase of 117,923 on A is the norman or lock bolt to be withdrawn pose of "Nauticus” to relate the details of the the previous year. The committee can state with whilst lowering from the davits. B is the lever catastrophe over again, and still to labour to atconfidence that at no period since the Department handle for heaving round the barrel, by which tribute the cause to my lowering gear. has been founded have its condition and working action simultaneously four rods or bolts are with- It certainly is a fact that ought not to be lost been so sound, or the public appreciation of the drawn from either end, setting free the slings by sight of, that the entire exculpation of my plan on advantages which it offers in aid of private efforts which the boat is suspended. CC are the long the occasion in question proceeds from a firm that to promote science and art among all classes so rods or bolts that are worked by the barrel, never used it through any feelings of friendship to parked as in 1858.

secured to the sides by staples or cleets as re- me, or interest in the invention itself, but under

quired. D D are the slings; they can be made the compulsion of Government. I may therefore WOOD AND ROGERS' BOAT-RELEASING end to receive the bolts. In lowering the boat, if behair. Evidence from such a source cannot be

of rope-wire, rope, or bar-iron, with eyes in each justly claim the full value of all they state in my APPARATUS.

the ship is under way, the after-tackle should be summarily set aside by mere assertions, even if The accompanying engravings illustrate a new lowered slightly more than the bow-tackle, so advanced by “ an original informant of rank and arrangement of apparatus for disconnecting both that the rudder may have all power over the boat position" (but whose name, like that of “ Nauends of a ship's boat simultaneously from the to sheer her off iminediately from the ship's side, ticus,” is withheld), and who, by the showing of the lowering tackle, invented by Mr. Wood, an officer and clear her if the ship is propelled by a screw; latter, stated one untruth at least when he de. of the Peninsular and Oriental Company's ship if the screw enters the water on the side the boat clared “the whole of the crew were drowned.China, and Mr. Rogers, of Green's Dockyard, is hung, it is more liable to suck the boat towards One of the two men who were not drowned, and who Blackwall. In the opinion of Mr. Wood, as he the propeller, and vice versâ if the ship is going were in the boat at the time it was lowered, stated informs us by letter, the manæuvre of disconnect- astern or reversing with the engines. The boat positively in evidence that “the patent did not ing the boats when lowered by the tackles within should be let free from the tackles when about foul.I may further add that the attention of a safe distance from the water should be left to one foot or nine inches clear of the water.

Captain Lean, R.N., the chief emigration officer the judgment of the boat's crew, according to the

of the city of London, having been directed to this rolling of the ship and the prevailing state of the BOAT LOWERING APPARATUS.*

case (not by Messrs. Green, the parties interested), weather. “My method,” he says, "does not embrace the lowering of the boat, presuming that

I have been given to understand the result of his
TO THE EDITORS OF TIE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.”
GENTLEMEN,— Having candidly admitted the whatever was to be attributed to the apparatus."

inquiry was, that in this misfortune “no blame to be under control of careful hanıls on the ship's deck. I will, if required by any patrons of this unfairness of continuing to publish correspondence

My plan or any other can do no more than method, so arrange the boat tackle falls inboard / attacking me when unauthenticated by the name of safely lower a boat on to the water, and this it did the ship, by connecting them on one roller or

the writer, and having stated your intention to leading through a block, as to insure the falls decline doing so again, I shall of course contine in the instance referred to, in a heavy snoweasing off equally and together, thereby commyself, as far as this subject is concerned, to an

storm, with such a sea running that it was a

source of wonder to those on board that the boat pelling the boat to lower on an even keel; and, by swering once more, and for the last time, what shortening the stern rods of the after end of the “Nauticus” advanced in his last letter to you.

ever lived through it at all even when on the boat, cause the after slings to be thrown off

When he first alleged the loss of a boat's crew admitted that any attempt to lower a boat ought

water, and when the officers of the ship generally slightly in advance of the bow slings, and allow through the use of my lowering gear, I challenged not to have been made ; and it is a sufficient testhe boat to enter the water a little by the stern.” him to name the instance to which he referred. timony to the soundness of my system that after I have brought this out,” he adds," as a prac. He replied by stating that it occurred to Messrs. having been fitted in at least a thousand boats tical nautical man, and from experience of other methods in use have adopted this for security and Number, or it would have appeared there.—Eps. M. M.

• Space could not be found for this letter in our last during the last four years, the only case of fail.

ure with a fatal result that can be set up against

or canvas.

it by opponents having other interests to serve is Boat-lowering safely in heavy weather is no manufacture cables upon my plan without the this miserable one of the Orwell.

theory; it is a hard matter of fact, and the diffi. slightest difficulty; and if Nessrs. H. and W. That my plan stands alone in the proofs of culties to be surmounted purely mechanical, and should ever think of carrying out my process to practical utility it has shown by the number of he must evidently deserve the first place who can the extent contemplated by me, adopting india. lives saved I now repeat. Take, for instance, Her give the most practical proof of efficiency. While rubber as the medium of insulation, I shall be very Majesty's Ships, Shannon (on two occasions), Ra- the fleet is in the Channel or off Spithead, let the happy, with a proper understanding, to put them coon, Chesapeake, and Perseverance; from steamers Admiralty order a series of public trials to be in the way of doing so, as there is not the slightest of the largest class, Australasian (on two occasions), instituted; not a casual lowering or two now difficulty in the matter. Messrs. H. and W. proQueen of the South, and Indiana ; from sailing and then under particular officers, who may fess to be practical men ; I will not dispute this; ships and other steamers, the Commodore Perry happen to be relatives or personal friends of one but I am afraid that they are not equally good and Champion of the Seas (ships of nearly 2,000 of the competitors, but such a series as will afford electricians; hence perhaps their reason for the tons cach); the Washington Irving, Blundell, a sure and certain proof of the relative qualities expression, “we cannot follow Mr. Hearder Black Eagle, Ebba Brahe, Omega, Medway, of any improved system, and let those be visible to through such a multiplicity of ideas as to the Queen, Transatlantic, Admiral Boxer, Grand the profession and the public.

construction of a cable under his patent, as it Trianon, Lady Mc Naghten, Rodney, Duke of In the heavy sea-way, and from the rolling or would be simply a waste of time.” I may inform Rothsay, and several others I cannot now call to pitching ship, whether at anchor or under way, Messrs. H. and W. that other manufacturers mind. From all these ships have lives been saved, such things are most wanted, and it is under such differ from them in opinion, and certain electri. and nearly always under circumstances of con positions they should be tried. If the Admiralty cians and telegraph engineers whom 'I might siderable difficulty, often in the severest gales, or “ Nauticus” will endeavour to bring about this mention, of the very highest authority, are un. and almost universally from vessels under steam end, more national good will result than from measured in their terms of approbation of the

In two of these cases the entire crews columns on columns of argument; and when such plan. Lastly, I may mention for Messrs. H. and of the ships have been preserved by its instrumen- an occasion is afforded, results will prove whose W.'s information, that being myself a mechanical tality, and on several occasions more than one theories are mere theories, and whose deserve a engineer as well as an electrician, I have appliances human being at the time. All these cases are higher appellation.

for constructing any description of machinery revouched for by the officers of the different ships.

The way in which your pages have always been quired for the purpose, or, if necessary, of conAt the memorable preservation of the steam troop open to discussion on this important subject merits structing the cable itself, and I can show them maship “Sarah Sands” (when half consumed by fire) the warmest thanks of the seaman, and I trust chinery much on the same principle as that Captain Castle has publicly recorded its “ perfect that in your desire to steer clear of purely personal described in their specification, which I have had efficiency" in lowering the life-boats filled with controversy which can never benefit a public in operation for covering and counter-covering the women and children, when he says that by cause, you will not hesitate to find space for any wire nearly 20 years. “the ordinary method he would not have at. who strive to fix public attention on the present I cannot imagine that Messrs. H. and W. can teinpted such a thing:" and the captains of the neglected state of boat lowering, but will yourself have read my, specification attentively, or they Eastern City and Merchantman also bear their urge as you have heretofore the imperative certainly would not have ventured to dispute the written testimony to a like result, when the necessity of the Admiralty's taking the lead (as it novelty of every part of my process in its applicaformer ship was entirely burnt. Only during the should do,) in the movement now happily going tion to the intended purpose, viz., that of lessenlast few days two other cases have reached me, on, for benefitting the hard fate of those “ whose ing the mischievous effects of induction. one from Her Majesty's ship “Archer," on the lot is cast upon the waters,” by ensuring for them I hope that my remarks will not be received as coast of Africa, about which an officer on board the advantages of an efficient means of lowering uncourteous; I have not the slightest desire to writes, a “ few days since a man who fell over- the boats in every ship that puts to sea, and visit take any hostile position with regard to Messrs. board was saved from the sharks, thanks to Mr. ing with deserved punishment all who, having such H. and W., because from the samples of their Clifford's apparatus ;" and the other from a Scotch means on board, neglect to keep it in proper work cable with which they have favoured me, I can steamer, in which the same gear has been in use ing order, and available at the required moment. see plainly that much greater advantages would for two years. The carpenter fell overboard from Whilst their lordships give every encouragement accrue from our co-operation, as my process can the sponson in the night, vessel under full to any new means for the destruction of human be carried out quite as efficiently with india-rubber steam, but was instantly picked up. The last life, surely they will make some effort to help its as an insulator as with gutta-percha. The object case proves that time, as “Nauticus” states, has preservation, and let the seaman see that the better which I have had in view has been to apply well not been such an enemy to my system. Captain feelings of human nature find a place for him in recognised electrical principles to the improveMorris, of the late “ Eastern Monarch,” only this the breasts of his superiors and officers, and that ment of telegraph cables, principally with a view week writes me also of a boat lowered for a like in the hour of need he will not now be left as of lessening the effects of inductive action, still purpose under most trying circumstances with heretofore to struggle and sink into eternity also keeping in sight the attainment of desiderata perfect success. It is not from arrogance I have because official lethargy and indifference withheld which experience has shown to be necessary in mentioned these instances, but only in reply to one the means that might have saved him.

the construction of new cables. One of my who uses that term for no other purpose than to

Yours, &c., CHARLES CLIFFORD. processes for accomplishing this object, is by eminjure me; and I have a right to ask if any equal August 2, 1859.

bodying with the layers of insulating materials list can be shown by any other invertor ?

strands of suitable substances, twisted or braided, The imaginary parallel that “Nauticus” fabri

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CABLES.

or laid on in any convenient and efficient way, cates about the patent safety lamp for the purpose TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." and, if necessary, 1 braid or twist string over the of detracting from the value of positive evidence

whole cable, and render it waterproof.

GENTLEMEN,--May I beg the insertion of a that he cannot disprove, needs no answer from me. few remarks on a letter which appeared in your sions suitable for affording the least resistance to

My internal conductor, also, is made of dimenIt is not a fact, moreover, as he states, that journal of last week, from Messrs. Hall and Wells, the transmission of the current. I believe that “my desire for competitive trials was forestalled," on the subject of my telegraph cable. for since I first turned my attention to this sub. It appears that my letters to them respecting will be prepared to deny that a cable carefully

no one acquainted with telegraph engineering ject, eight years ago, I have urged upon the their infringement of my patent, which were es. Government the public good that must result sentially of a private character, have induced every quality that could be desired. It would be

constructed upon this principle, would possess from such a course being taken by the them to adopt the strange course of attempting light, amazingly strong, as perfectly insulating as proper authorities, and the right that every publicly to disparage my invention, and repudiate the best that have been made, and infinitely more inventor bad to a like opportunity of proving my claim. I hardly know whether Messrs. H. and free from the effects of induced residual disthe efficiency of his system. I felt this the w. are fishing for information upon the subject charges than any cable that has been, or can be more strongly as for some time I was refused about which they confess they are “ puzzled,” or made, upon any plan existing prior to iny own. I a trial by the Admiralty at my own expense; but whether they have fallen into the error of imagi; am quite aware that the complete apprehension which, like other inventors, I might have obtained ning that I am not myself a practical man, and of the principles upon which my plan is founded, if I had courted interest or patronage. But I that I had not fully provided for all the little diffi- involves a rather more intimate acquaintance have never sought advancement by such means, culties which to them at present appear insur- with electrical laws and phenomena than is posand I will not begin now. I have had no friend mountable. I admit the fact, in my specification, sessed even by many “ practical men;" but the high in the service to open the door for me, or to that wires have been sometimes covered with careful consideration of them, however, by those sue in Parliament for a dignity or a recompense fibrous substances previously to coating, with the competent to form an opinion, has resulted in the when the first life was saved by my gear. No insulating material, but I deny that this process full recognition of the value and efficiency of my one knows better than I do how seriously the has ever been employed for the object patented plan. want of professional standing adds to the uphill by me. As for the portion of my patent, viz., the work of prosecuting such a cause as I have had in employment of porous or fibrous substances in little greater than that of water, the simplest

The specific gravity of this cable being very hand; and, however gratifying it may be to one conjunction with the insulating material, for possible form of break would be sufficient to lay of “Nauticus”” position to refer to " a person of which Messrs. H. and W. gave me credit, but of it, small weights being only necessary at intervals an opposite calling,” it is some testimony to the the practicability of which they seem to express to facilitate its sinking when in deep water. intrinsie value of my invention that, with this doubts, although they are themselves actually in. dead weight, it bas reached its present position in fringing my patent by adopting a modification of

I remain, Gentlemen, the public estimation, and the different depart. the process, I can only tell them that the Gutta

Your obedient servant, ments of the Government.

J. N. HEARDER. percha Company will be ready when required to Plymouth, August 8, 1859.

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