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ments in the manufacture of frames for mirrors, pic. 862. W. Owen. Wheels and tyres. Partly a com

LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS TENDERS IN. tures, and other articles.

munication. 1713. I. Robson. Improvements in means or ap- 863. J. Rogers and E. J. Tweed. Coating con

VITED, AND ENGAGEMENTS OPEN. paratus for drying and cuttling cotton warps after ducting wires.

The tenders and vacancies which appear in this weekly liet being dyed or sized, or after any other process of wet- 871. J. Garrett. Goblets, jugs, &c.

are not repeated in succeeding numbers. ting, and when quick drying is required.

872. J. Rawlings. Boot tree.

ENGINE, BOILER, AND FORCE PUMP, Ireland.--For throwing 1715. M. Henry. Improvements in apparatus or 873. J. T. Pitman. Fireworks. A communication.

up a supply of water to the Constabulary Barracks, in

the Pharnix Park, Dublin, from a point ss ft. in level machinery for the manufacture of corks and bungs. 878. M. A. F. Mennons. Articulated joint. A and 2,850 feet in distance below. The engine to be 6A communication. communication.

horse high pressure. Tracings and information of the 1716. E. J. and S. F. Scott. Improvements in the 879. M. A. F. Mennons. Phosphates of lime. A Secretary, Office of Public Works, Dublin. Sketches of manufactu of boots and shoes. communication.

engine and proposed arrangements to accompany the 1717. H. Healey. Improvements in machinery 890. J. Hawkins. Stirrups, bits, &c.

tenders up to August 27. E. Hornsby, Secretary. for destroying flies and other insects on growing 912. P. Aitchison. Taps.


918. M. Castay. Metallic bridges.

way.--Specifications, drawings, and bills of quantities,

at the Office, East India Railway House, Alderman's Dated July 22, 1859. 933. J. Hughes, W. Williams, and G. Leyshon.

Walk, London. Tenders August 16. 1718. J. Hartley.. Improvements in machinery for | Tin and terne plates.

Wrought Iron PLATFORM, Berks.-At Able Bridge. regulating the velocity of steam and other engines. 982. W. Parsons. Preparing metal sheets.

Plans, &c., with bills of quantities and forms, Mr. J. B. 1719. J. G. Ishain and S. D. Albertson, Improved 1010. T. S. Truss. Pipes.

Carey, County Surveyor, 90 Broad-street, Reading. machine for cutting and shaping bottle and other 1028. W. Stevenson. Spinning, doubling, &c.

Tenders, August 24. corks. A communication.

1038. W. E. Newton. Sewing machines. A com

Inox Piping, Bolton.-1,150 lineal yards of iron pipes of

12 inches diameter, and a further quantity of 2,400 yards 1720. S. A. Bell and J. Black. An improved manu-munication.

of 6 inches diameter. Particulars, Borough Surveyor, facture of fusee.

1084. J Darlington. Zinc retort furnaces.

Corporation Offices, Acres-field. 1721. W. E. Newton. Improvements in sewing 1120. J. G. Willans. Utilizing peat.

IROX ENTRANCE GATES, llanley.-And fencing to the machines. A communication.

1162. A V. Newton. Lamp. A communication.

Borough Cemetery. Particulars, Surveyor's Office. Dated July 23, 1859. 1180. T. P. Bennett. Carding engines.

Tenders, August 17, to the Town Clerk. 1297. C. E. Amos. Raising vessels. 1722. J. B. Whitehall and S. Whcatcroft. Im

CHAPEL, Morley, near Leeds. For the ferection. Plans, 1308. J. C. Bent. Gas-meters.

&c., by applying to the Chapel Keeper. provements in the construction of certain parts of the

1313. P. Aitchison. Water closets.

CEMETERY CHAPEL, ENTRANCE LODGE, BOUNDARY WALL, apparatus or machinery made use of for manufactur

1538. G. Dawes and C. J. Carr. Hammers and

&c., Farnley.--Drawings, office of Mr. Hill, Architect, ing bonnet and cap fronts, rouches, and such like arstamps.

71 Albion-street, Leeds. Tenders to Chairman of Board ticles of millinery.

1618. J. Dible and W. H. Graveley. Ventilating to August 23rd. 1723. H. N. Harrop, jun. Certain improvements and lighting


PaRSONAGE, Pitcombe, Somersetshire.- Plans, Rev. Vernon in a cigar lighter and fusce box.

1668. J. Morgan. Candles.

Taylor, Wyke, near Bruton. Tenders to August 20th. 1724. J. Broadley. Improvements in means or ap- 1724. J. Broadley. Weaving.

Schools, Little Hodham, near Bishop's Stort ford, Herts. paratus used in weaving. 1725. J. Tenwick. Improved steering apparatus 1727. H. Ambler. Explosive projectiles.

-Plans, &c., Mr. G. E. Pritchett, 12 Bishopsgate-street

Without, and Bishop's Stortford. Tenders to August 19th. for ships.

The full titles of the patents in the above list can be as, Schools, Epping, Esser.-For the erection of 3 large 1726. W. H. Harlield. Improvements in capstans, provisional protections previously published. certained by referring back to their numbers in the list of

schools and double residence Plans at offices of the

Architect, Mr. G. E. Pritchett, 12 Dishopsgate-street riding bits, and stoppers for working with chains.

Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to Without, and Bishop's Stortford. Tenders to August 19th. Dated July 25, 1859. any of the parties in the above list who have

given notice of

SEWERAGE Works, Nanchester, Township of Cheetham.1727. H. Ambler. Improvements in explosive pro- date of the Gazette in which the notice appears, by leaving their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the

For sewering, paving, &c. Plans, Mr. William Frances, jectiles. at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing of the

Surveyor, Town Hall. Tenders to August 20th. 1728. J. Rowland, jun. Improvements in ma. objection to the application.

REMOVING ASHES, &c., Bradford.-Emptying and carting

away the contents of all ash-pits and cesspools within chinery or apparatus for sizeing yarns or threads,

the district of the Local Board of Health for one or three which said improvements are also applicable to dress.


years, from the 1st of September next. Tenders to the ing machines, or other similar apparatus.

Chairman, the Office, Mill-lane, Bradford, (where any 1729. G. Davies. Improvements in dyeing yarns,

Sealed August 5, 1859.

further information) August 22. threads, or woven fabrics, of wool, silk, cotton, linen,

154. J. Fawcett.
376. W.A. Covert.

NEW MARKET OR SHAMBLES, Pontefract.-Plans and specior other fibrous or filamentous material. A com

fications at the Town Hall. Tenders to H. J. Coleman,

218. J. G. Proger and 377. R. J. Ellis. munication.

Esq., Town Clerk, before the 28th instant.
D. Davies.

420. R. J. S. Pearce. 1730. E. Hunt. Improvements in apparatus for

For Tan.-Tenders for the tar which shall be produced at 338. G. F. Chantrell. 456. W. Clark.

the Surrey Gas Works, Rotherhithe, S. E., during the indicating and regulating eed.

316. J. Smith.
469. G. Paul.

12 months commencing 1st Oct. next, will be received 1731. W. E. Newton. Improvements in extract- 350. J. Hosking.

505.J. H.G.D.Wagner.

there until the 18th instant. ing oil from coal, and other substances yielding pyro- 356. J. B. Redman. 512. C. W. Siemens. ATLANTIC CABLE.-The Atlantic Telegraph Company invite genous oits. A communication.

361. E. Wilkins.

525. A. Martin and A. inventors, patentees, and manufacturers of submarine 1732. C. F. Vasserot. Preventing and removing 362. J. S. Joseph. Chrichton.

cables calculated for laying across the Atlantic, to send incrustations in steam boilers. A communication.

the same to the Secretary of the Company, (Mr. George 368. G. Bower. 618. W. E. Newton.

Saward, 22 Old Broad-street) together with any descripDated July 26, 1859. 369. J. E. McConnell. 680. A. Mein.

tion they may desire to append to them, in order to their 1733. J. King. Improvements in the treatment

371. E. Herring:
741. J. H. Johnson. being submitted to the officers of the Company, and by

them to the Consulting Committee for the purpose of exof materials used in, or resulting from, the distillation

Sealed August 9, 1859.

amination, testing, and experiment. of spirits. 1735. J. H. Johnson. Improvements in slide

386. H. Bruce.

PLANS FOR MARKET-HALL Roof, Wolverhampton.-De309. T. White and G. 405. R. Bell.

signs to be forwarded to the Borough Surveyor to 27th of valves for steam-engines. A communication.


411. J. Wright.

August. Plan and particulars at the offices of the Dated July 27, 1859.

Borough Surveyor. 400. J. and J. Bennett. 500. R. Mushet. 1741. E. Winstanley. Improvements in indicators

Town SURVEYOR, Bilston.-- To take charge of the roads, 401. G., G. W., and J. 501. R. Mushet.

make plans, superintend all contracts connected with the for registering the quantity produced by spinning Betjemann.

sewerage, water supply, and all other works, from time machinery.

to time carried on by the Commissioners of the Town1713. T. Dickins. Improvements in dyeing and PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP

ship. Salary £100. Applications to Mr. Viles, Clerk, discharging warps or other yarns or threarls, and

August 15.

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. woven fabrics of silk, wool, cotton, and other fibrous

SURVEYOR.-Accustomed to town work, the use of the materials.

1840. H. W. Wood. 1885. J. Cartland.

theodolite, able to plot his own work, and make a

finished plan. Applications stating real name and address, 1745. C. L. Blum. A mechanical apparatus for 1818. J. Keith.

1913. W. Tranter.

age, previous employment, and salary required, Box smoking and colouring pipes.

1854. J. Y. Borland. 1939. J. Brouard and J.

64, Post-office, Manchester. 1876. T. Whittaker. Hubert.


chester.-To undertake the entire duties, and to devote WITH PATENTS. LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, &c.,

the whole of his time as Surveyor and Inspector of

Nuisances. Salary not exceeding £100 per annum. Ap(From the London Gazette, Aug. 9, 1859.) Published during the week ending Aug. 6, 1859.

plication in writing to the Clerk, (Mr. J. 11. Hampson) 756. R. Baker. Timekeepers.

August 31. 767. J. C. Evans and P. Soames. Superheating:

Inspectors Or Gas FITTINGS, Manchester Corporation.No. Pr. No. Pr. No. No. Pr. No. . No. Pr. 771. J. Buckley, 0. Greenhalgh, and R. Hutchin.

Two. Must be practically acquainted with the business.

Salary £90 each. Applications, with testimonials, to the son. Printing fabrics.

s dl16595 đ

S d 773. C. F. Vasserot. Diving apparatus. A com

S d

Chairman of the Gas Company, York Chambers, King29360 6 3000 0 10 10 6 10 10 3 190 91 28 10 6 street, August 24. munication.

2991 0 10300110 2 0 31 11 0 3 20 0 3 29 0 Gas MANAGER.-A steady active man to undertako the 781. J. W. Kelly. Gas burners. 29920 10 30020 30 31 12 71 21 0 11 30

management of a small gas work, and make the gas. One 801. W. and E. Smith. Regulating: 29940 83003 0 10 4 0 9 13 10 3 22 0 7

who understands fitting will be preferred. Applications, 802. J. Lacy, S. Simpson, and II. Smith. Spinning. 2995 30010 3 5 0 3 14 0 81 23 0 6 41 0 3 with references, Mr. Munday, Madeley, Salop.

2996 0 10 30050 3 6 0 3 804. R. C. Ross. Cultivating land.

15 10 3 21 0 8 45 0 3

WORKING GAS MANAGER.-For the Uttoxeter Company, to 29971 13006 0 7 0 101 16 0 31 25 0 C 808. D. B. White. Gauge-lead or plummet.

attend to the making of the gas, laying the services, 29980 1080070 6

3 17 0 10 26 0 € 834. T. Williams and J. H. Fuller. Screw stocks

fittings, &c. Wages, 30s. a week, with house, coal, gas, 29991 6 9 0 51 18 2 4 27 0 10

and allowance of £1 a year, in lieu of garden. The and dies.

manager to pay his own stoker out of the above wages! 836. J. Eccles. Bricks, tiles, &c.

Applications in writing to Mr. Fradgley, Architect

and 810. J. H. Burton Barrels for fire-arms.

NOTE.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from the Surveyor, Uttoxeter. 843. C. Russell. Marine engines.

Great Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on re- FOREMAN MOULDER.--Accustomed to first-class engine and 846. E. Morewood. Coating metals.

ceipt of the amount of price and postage. Sums exceeding tool work. Box 32, Post-office, Manchester. 847. D. Sowden. Jacquard machines.

58. must be remitted by Post Office Order, inade payable BLEACH WORKS MANAGER.-One who can take the whole

at the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr. Bennet Wood- management will be respectably treated with. References 857. N. Libotte. Cages for drawing coals. croft, Great Seal Patcat Office.

required. X, 99, Guardian ottice, Manchester,





9 31 0 3

8 10


the case.



The one question which remains open seems to are at a loss to know how it is that further exMECHANICS MAGAZINE.

be whether or not wooden ships coated with periments have not already been instituted. iron slabs of only one or two inches in thick- Sir Howard has made application, we believe,

ness would not meet most of the difficulties of for permission to have his plan carefully tested LONDON, FRIDAY, AUGUST 19, 1859.

If so, we could in a short time con- under his own superintendence on board a ship

vert some of our wooden „walls into efficient of war; and when the eminent services already OUR NATIONAL DEFENCES. vessels of this class; but it is nearly certain rendered by him to the navy are considered It is a comforting thing to know that while so

that if any other nation should possess shell- and to these are added the promise of success many are deploring our want of national de proof fleets, while we do not, they may be able which the experiments just referred to afford, fences, so many are also telling us of innumer- to wrest the dominion of the seas from us by there can be, we think, no reasonable, or even able methods by which we may readily secure

the employment of this expedient alone. The justifiable, grounds for a refusal to his request. ourselves from attack. One informs us that cost of providing such ships must, of course, be The Quarterly Reviewer considers the defect in we may do this by building twice as many line very considerable. The danger, however, is so question—the fouling of the screw-would be of-battle ships as we now have ; another advises imminent that the outlay is indispensable to cured by adopting an arrangement which, ho us that half-a-dozen steam rams will make us

our safety, and not one hour should be lost in says, “ has been used in the mercantile marine safe ; another, that five hundred gunboats will attempting to overtake our rivals. The money " with perfect success for the last five or six answer the purpose ; another, that fifty thousand spent in providing a squadron of six or seven years." This consists in placing the screw additional seamen are all that we need ;

of these ships would probably do more to ensure quite free of, and entirely behind the sternpost, another, that a marine militia manning gun

our supremacy on the ocean than any other instead of in an aperture in the deadwood of rafts is the thing; another, that martello towers outlay which can at present be suggested. It the vessel, and then, by making a joint or hinge and land batteries alone need multiplication ; is true that the French vessels may not-indeed, in the screw shast, it can be easily raised outanother, that railway batteries from point to cannot-turn out to be first-rate sea-boats, nor side the vessel without being disconnected. In point of the coast would make us invulnerable; capable of being used on long voyages ; but this position it is almost as little liable to be another, that a large increase in our militia they certainly will be equal to a cruise across fouled as a paddle-wheel ; but if the accident force would be an ample safeguard ; another, the Channel, and for covering a disembarkation should happen, it can be cleared and lowered that a triplication of our standing army is alone of troops, and employed against shore batteries again in a few minutes. “It is merely necesdesirable; and so on.

would prove of the utmost importance. The sary,” says the Reviewer," that there should It would be mere pedantry in us to pretend French therefore possess an arm which we do be two sternposts instead of one, placed side that the question of our defences is a simple not, and which we cannot have by any exertion" by side, with a slit between them, up and

It is far from it ; and he is a wise man within twelve months. If it proves as important “ down which the shaft can be moved with who keeps his mind ready for the free reception in practice as the best informed assume it to be facility. The rudder is placed wholly below of any new light that may break upon the sub- in theory, its absence may suffice to turn the “the screw-shaft, and entirely out of danger. ject. Such a man will ħave his eyes open to tide of battle against us. All this we have such an arrangement of the screw seems to all that transpires in reference to our naval and often said before, and we only say it again be- “get over all the known difficulties without any military forces, and especially to the matériel of cause of the new interest which the Quarterly counteracting disadvantages, and why it is our army and navy. We have ourselves looked has given the subject by reviving our statements, not adopted is one of those mysteries only through very many of the numerous disquisi- and because the subject itself is of vital im-known to Admiralty Boards.” If the Reviewer tions which writers who know something and portance to the nation.

is right, and this plan-which was originated, others who know nothing of the subject have In discussing the probable effect of steam we believe, by Mr. Scott Russell, and is in use written, and it may be of service to many of propulsion in favour of the attack or defence of in some of his vessels—can be adapted to ships our readers if we say that the best of them is, our shores, the Reviewer adduces considerations of war of all classes, its adoption would unin our judgment, that which appears in the which well deserve attention. He notices par

doubtedly add enormously to their safety. July number of the Quarterly Review. This ticularly the difficulty of blockading an enemy's Gunboats are a class of vessels upon which article is from the pen of a gentleman who has port by a steam fleet. As it is manifestly im- careful attention is bestowed in the article bepod grounds for speaking confidently on some possible that a fleet can carry a sufficient quan- fore us. For defensive purposes they are of the of the important topics embraced by his remarks, tity of coal to blockade under steam alone, the utmost importance, and are by no means an exand who has taken pains to acquire reliable in- squadron keeping the sea must be fully rigged ; pensive expedient. In the good old times it formation on others of which he may properly while the enemy issuing from their cover under used to be estimated that every gun on board a be supposed to have known less.

steam, and if they please without masts and man-of-war cost £1,000. Owing to the changes We observe with pleasure that the author of spars, would have an immense advantage. This which steam has introduced this is now nearer this able paper, while exceeding on some points last condition, of the issuing enemy being with £2,500 in a line-of-battle ship, £3,000 in a firstthe statements which we have made, on others out masts and spars, is a most important one. class frigate, and £3,500 in a corvette. The most strongly enforces what we have frequently All will, as the Reviewer says, recollect the iron-coated ship building at Blackwall will cost urged during the last six months. On the sub- dreadful fate of the steam-ship Prince in the not less than about £8,000 per gun! Whereas ject of iron-coated ships of war, for example, he storm off Balaclava. She was a screw vessel a single-gun gun-boat can be built for £2,500, writes much to the purpose. After alluding to steaming successfully to windward, and in a and, if protected with iron, for at least as small the experiments which have been made in con- few minutes would have been safe, when the a sum per gun as the large vessel of the same nection with this subject, and remarking that, order was given to cut away the mizen for the kind. As the “light infantry of a fleet” to as we have often said, we cannot hope to make purpose of easing her. It fell overboard and protect harbours and prevent a landing, they our ships proof to solid wrought-iron shot, but fouled the screw, when she at once became an would be invaluable, and, what is very imporhave the means of making them shell-proof, he unmanageable wreck, and perished with all on tant, they can easily be built in private yards suys when this conviction was forced upon the board. And why may it not be so in future in any number and in very much less time than Admiralty they began to stir themselves ; " and, naval actions? One shell in a mast will suffice would be required for a proportionate increase * after having obtained designs and tenders to send it by the board, and the screw will cer- of the regular navy. A thousand of them would " from the six most eminent iron-shipbuilding tainly draw in some part of the wreck. If once certainly, as a subsidiary force, go further to " firms in England, they have given orders to a the ropes become entangled with the screw, it render our shores free from insult than ten line"newly-formed 'Limited Liability Company,' must either be disconnected, raised upon deck of-battle ships. They would also be far more “who, whatever their other qualifications, can and freed, or the vessel will become helpless, easily manned, being a class of vessel which " by no possibility have the necessary experi- and altogether incapable of moving or steering our fishermen and coasting sailors would gladly " ence.” If, however, he continues, they do So apparent is this danger, that many officers volunteer to serve in. Å fleet of gunboats execute their contract, this one vessel may be are inclined to recommend a recurrence to the would also be far less liable to disaster, for the ready for sea in June next. It is said the Ad-old paddle-wheel instead of the screw—at least destruction of one or two would hardly be felt iniralty will then consider whether or not they for small vessels, not requiring many guns. in a squadron. If overpowered, they could esought to proceed further. In the meantime Sir Howard Douglas, as our readers know, pro-cape into creeks and shallows, where they could says our Reviewer-it would be difficult to find poses to greatly diminish the chances of evil in not be followed ; and there is no class of wara single naval officer of ordinary intelligence this respect by altering the form of the leading fare, as the Reviewer says, which would tend so who is not aware that the day of wooden edges of the screw blades, shaping them so that much to bring out the best points of an Englishvessels of war is past, and that when two ships they may act like knife-edges, and clear them- man's character and seamanship as a gueriila approach within fighting distance, one at least selves of ropes or other encumbrances. The warfare of this sort. A fleet of gunboats of our will be disabled, probably sunk or burnt, in a results of late experiments on the Doris pointed own would also enable us to defend Woolwich very few minutes. “In fact, nothing can keep so strongly to other advantages associated with and London from an attack of foreign gunboats " the seas but incombustible shell-proof vessels." the changes proposed by Sir Howard, that we ascending the Thames. This we have no present means of doing. Tilbury and other land almost say sin-of connecting these two build- stood up on end upon a shallow layer of conforts would be useless for such a purpose, for ings by blank brick walls has been perpetrated ;crete ! The consequence is, as the carriage vessels under steam cannot be hit with any de- and thus on three sides the beauty of a large wheels roll along, little block' after little block gree of certainty from the shore. We have it and costly edifice has been not only marred, but sinks beneath them, and every succeeding block on the authority of Captain Coles, the designer destroyed altogether. Again ; until recently of course becomes an obstacle to the carriage's of the Lady Nancy raft, that our gunboats were the entire harbour-face of the same dockyard progress. Three times the power which would frequently attacked by Russian artillery from consisted of a continuous line of granite wall, be sufficient to move it over a hard and firm the shore during their expedition in the Sea of straight and uniform from end to end, and re- road is consequently required, and the road-way Azoff, but always with little or no effect. And lieved by breaks at the basin entrances. Lately, itself, although new in many parts, is already so no doubt French or other gunboats might tra- however, a black wooden structure has been rugged as to be little or no better, or more suitverse our rivers at high speed with the same built out into the harbour near the middle, and able for the purpose, than the stone road-way impunity. A fleet of gunboats of our own now stands there an annoying and enduring before us here in Fleet-street! No one, if he would not only remedy this defect in our de- defacement of what was before pleasant to should think our statement of facts too bad to fences, but would also give us the power of behold.

believe, need receive it simply upon our allegacarrying successful war into the hearts of hostile

But let it not be supposed for a moment that tion. He can go to the dockyard, and walk cities.

egregiously bad taste is the only, or the worst, over the ground himself, and gradually-for it

thing we have to charge the Department of the takes time to do it-gradually, we say, persuade THE NEW WORKS DEPARTMENT OF Director of Works with. A man may have no

himself that what he sees is real and true. THE ADMIRALTY. soul for art, even in its most manifest forms,

So bad is the management of this department THERE are many men who possess, or affect, an

and yet know how to dispose of space judi- of new works now under notice, that even Mr. imperial tone who have nothing imperial in ciously, to build a workshop efficiently, or to Murray, although he had so much that was their faculties. While too haughty to take lay a roadway securely. These things, however, strange of his own to discourse upon, could counsel of others, they have not the ability to or at least some of them, seem to be beyond not help going out of his way to attack it in his do wisely of themselves. There are many small the ability of the Director of Works and his late manifesto. He says : -"With respect to administrators of this kind in office, and we pay people. If any man with two eyes in his head,

new works, the Committee found a general very dearly for them. Indeed such men are in

-or indeed a man with one eye, or even

“ half

"expression of dissatisfaction on the part of the every department of the Government putting an-eye”—will take the trouble to walk through practical officers, both as to the opportunities terrible burdens upon our shoulders, even if Sheerness Dockyard just now, he will see "afforded to them for expressing their opinions they are not, as some suppose, jeopardising the plainly enough that the laying down of a road on works intended for their use, and the very power and honour of the nation. There is for a wheeled truck to run upon is an under- "little attention paid to their representations not a man of any observation among our taking that Colonel Green and Mr. Scamp, or “when made ; and the Committee feel obliged readers who has not been more or less pained their subordinates, are not yet in a position to “ to express their opinion that much loss has reand chagrined by the acts or the no-acts, the accomplish satisfactorily. In that yard a very "sulted to the service from this cause. At the folly or the supineness, of such officials. excellent and economical system of transporting

same time, opportunities appear to have been Now, we do not wish to bear hardly upon and storing boilers has been devised and intro- given to the practical officers occasionally to any man or men, but the time has come for us duced by Mr. Blaxland, the Chief Engineer of the

state their views ; but from this having been to say that the New Works Department of the establishment. The boilers of many of the steam

"done generally in a cursory manner in converAdmiralty seems to be managed with too much ships now continually lying in the dockyard or

“sation, and the opinions having been given hauteur and too little knowledge. From many harbour at that port have in many instances to" hastily, and sometimes, perhaps, not underquarters, and for a long period, we have received be transported to and from the factory for repair, stood, or not appreciated, the result has been complaints of the manner in which the build- and when their repairs are completed have to

very unsatisfactory. Perfection in arrangeings, roads, and other like constructions have be stood aside, often in considerable numbers,

ments, and consequent economy in manufacbeen carried out in our dockyards, under the until they are again required for use on board

turing, depends much upon the details of the management of Colonel Green and his assistant, ship. The transport of these boilers by means

“buildings in which the work is to be carried Mr. Scamp. It would really appear — monof the ordinary appliances of the dockyard was

on ; but the Committee have found that many strous as the statement may seem—that it is found to cost so much for labour, and to be at

buildings have been far advanced before tho the habit of these gentlemen to conduct their tended by so much delay, that Mr. Blaxland

“details were determined upon, and inconveworks with little or no reference to the desires, set about proposing a remedy: He has accord

“nience in the position of the necessary adjunct or even to the necessities, of the officers for ingly devised a pair of trucks or carriages, of

buildings and other evils have resulted. The whose uses they are intended. For example, a

which the lighter runs off and on the heavier," practice prevails of the clerk of the works man of plain sense would suppose that if a upon rails. When a boiler is to be removed the building, or set of buildings, is to be erected upper carriage is run in beneath it upon rails, officers and make out plans, and these plans for the use of the factory in a dockyard, the and the weight of the boiler is received upon


“have then been forwarded and final plans chief engineer of that factory would be con- This upper carriage, with the boiler upon it

, “have been sent down from London, and the sulted upon all the main and most of the minor then retraverses the rails, and is received upon

“contract taken and the work begun, without features of the work, since it is he who has exthe main carriage which bears it away to the

“any of the officers, for whose use the works perienced the necessity of what is wanted, and storing ground. There are many and great ad

were intended, having seen them.” it is he also who will have to put it in operation vantages attending this system, one of the chief

This is not a very luminous statement, but it when it is constructed. But not so: the two being the extreme facility with which the gentlemen at Somerset House, being men of boilers when stored could be got at and hurried reaches, however indirectly, the point we are uncommon sense, consider themselves the pro- away to the ship in case of an emergency, every aiming at; and for the sake of backing up per, and too often the only, persons whose thing which facilitates operations of this kind facts which we have seen with our own eyes, knowledge is to be made available, and whose being of great value in these times. Another we do not mind raising even Mr. Murray's rewills are to be consulted. The fruit of all this similar and equally important advantage attend- port to momentary importance. There need be

no fear of its speedily sinking again to its due is, that of late years our great and costly docking the plan is, that pairs or sets of boilers can

obscurity. yards have been cut about and blocked up in be readily placed in their proper relative posià most remarkable manner. In Sheerness tions on the storing ground, and there have all

THE BUILDERS' STRIKE. Dockyard, for example, of which we know per- their pipes and other appliances fitted to them, haps more than any other, some truly abomin- so as to be fully ready in all respects to be put Both men and masters have an undoubted able changes have been made, especially in the together for service at the shortest notice.

right to combine for the management of their architecture of the place. A few years since Now this arrangement, which reflects great own affairs; but union is strength, and when the centre of the yard was occupied by a large credit upon its author, and is calculated to save men are very strong, they are exceedingly and noble four-sided brick building, used as a the country much expense, requires, manifestly, I likely to abuse their influence. Workmen, who storehouse. This building stood quite alone, that a road suitable for the main carriage to run have been very fond of combining of late years, and at a sufficient distance from all others to upon from place to place should be laid down. have undoubtedly gone very wrong in this reproduce its full architectural effect, which was The construction of such a road was accordingly spect. Without discussing doubtful details, very imposing. At a short distance from it undertaken by the Director of Works; and how we may mention one great instance of their stood the blacksmiths' forge—a building, of does the reader suppose this gentleman and tyranny: they constantly refuse to work with course, of a totally different style and character, his colleagues have formed it? With an men who have not joined their trade societies, but not sufficiently near to break the unity of amount of wisdom which it requires a great In many instances they have struck work effect which the larger structure produced. Of stretch of faculty to duly appreciate, they have simply because a non-society workman has late years, however, the gross folly-one might constructed it of small detached blocks of wood had employment given him by the master.


Although this has not yet been made a legal " he please—always providing that if he make that it will be too long about. Of the task of offence, it is a moral one; for it practically a contract to work he shall not violate that producing the large number of tons necessary deprives the master of his fair degree of liberty, engagement by remaining idle ; that no labour for effecting a simultaneous exchange of old. and imposes a heavy penalty upon every man “shall be forced from him, and no rate of pay-coins for new ones, it may be said in the lanwho conscientiously objects to share the pro- ment for that labour be proscribed by statutes guage of Shakspeare :-“If 'twere done, when ceedings of the societies.

or ordinances; that he shall be free to obtain 'twere done, then 'twere well 'twere done To resist such mischievous and tyrannical " as high wages as he can possibly get, and quickly.” We have before had occasion to proceedings as these the masters would do well unite with others to obtain them, always pro- speak of what was accomplished in 1816-17 to combine, and it would be a blessing to “ viding, that in his union he does not violate with regard to the exchange of the worn and thousands of workmen, as well as to society at "that freedom of industry in others which is the torn silver coins of previous dates, and it would large, if they became triumphant in their re- "foundation of his own attempts to improve his be idle to suppose that the Mint could not sistance, and put an end to the despotism of "condition ; that he may go from place to place effect very much more now than it did then, trades unions. For success on this one point "to exchange his labour without being interfered Nevertheless, increased facilities, mechanical would destroy the “despotism" of such bodies. " with by corporate rights or monopolies of any and otherwise, would doubtless be required. If working men were free either to join or to sort, whether of masters or workmen ; and The vote of £10,000 does not seem large enough stand aloof from such societies, without suffer- " that he may turn from one employment to the to commence so gigantic a work as the creation ing personal loss, all the oppressive powers of "other, if he so think fit, without being con- of 6,000 tons of new coins ; but judiciously laid the societies would at once cease. It is only "fined to the trade he originally learnt, or may out it is certain that much may be done with it. because they have contrived to impose a penalty “strike into any line of employment without Converted into pence, halfpence, and farthings, upon the working man who dissents from them “having regularly leart it at all."

of something like the dimensions adumbrated that they have become so strong and overbear- These are the conditions on which working in our last article, and bought up by the pubing. If, therefore, the Metropolitan master men exercise their labour and skill' in this lic, the £10,000 would soon be quadrupled, and builders had been well-advised, they would not country. If the conditions are wrong, or can

Government would thus have increased capital have insisted upon the men promising not to be improved, let us have the subject amicably in hand wherewith to go again into the metal combine at all on the labour question, because discussed, and a public understanding arrived market. Perhaps, indeed, this is the thrifty the men have an undoubted right so to combine at. It is mere folly for the builders or any and economical design of the Chancellor of the if they please. What they should have in- other class of men to attempt to set them per- Exchequer. The hon. gentleman, aware of the sisted upon is, that the men whom they em- manently aside by the coarse coercion of strikes ; "ignorant impatience of taxation", existing ployed should pledge themselves to abstain and it is also mere folly for masters to meet the among Her Majesty's lieges, thought that he froin that particular act of tyranny which we coercive measures of the men by any mode of had better tone down his demands, and whilst have pointed out, and from such other specific action which is opposed to these conditions. exhibiting his own knowledge of commercial acts of a tyrannous character as they, the

economy quiet the grumblers inside and outside masters, may be able to mention. This would

the House. At any rate, this is a much more have commanded the unanimous approval of


rational theory for reducing the estimate to onethe press, and would have left the society men From the evidence of Doctor Graham, Master fifth of the sum originally considered necessary, without any plausible pretext for resistance. of the Mint, as given before the late Decimal than the notable one of buying the plant for a At any rate it would have brought the real and Coinage Commission--that is, before Lord contractor's mint at Birmingham or elsewhere

. not an imaginary case forward for decision, Overstone-we gather that gentleman's opinion We shall be glad to hear that the authorities and would have given the men no chance of as to the value of bronze as a material for coins, of the Mint are looking the important duty selecting false ground for their battle-field. As which opinion, on the eve of a new coinage fully in the face, and taking effectual means to it is, we have the men on the one side contend- of mixed metal, becomes especially valuable

. accomplish it. Speedily, we learn, the steam ing for an arbitrary limitation of working hours, In July, 1857, the present Master of the Mint power of the establishment will be equal to and the masters on the other enforcing an stated that the French Government had mate-100 horses, and surely no paucity of mechaequally arbitrary arrangement of their own. rially diminished the size of the inferior coins nical appliances should prevent the production

That the men's demand for the enforced re- of the French empire, and that the change had of as great a quantity of coins as this power duction of the working hours from ten to nine been a very popular measure. He also believed properly employed would effect. Nothing is an arbitrary and unfair demand is shown by that a similar alteration might be beneficially less than two millions per week ought to be the the fact that it is only by the tyrannous acts of made on this side of the Channel. As in rate at which Her Majesty's benign features the societies that it can be maintained. If non- France bronze had been used in place of copper should be impressed upon the new bronze discs society men were permitted to exercise free for the new currency, so would he have it used at the Mint, and this is a speed which, without trade in their labour, we should hear nothing here. When questioned as to the proportions contractor's aid, might, we think, be easily atof the nine hours' movement. And that they of the various metals necessary to form a mix- tained there. ought to be permitted to do this there can be ture at once hard and attractive in appearance, As to the designs for the coming coinage, wo no doubt. Lord Brougham, in his “Rights of Dr. Graham replied that the bronze of the have already suggested the advisability of open “ Industry,” has stated the terms of the work- ancients could scarcely be improved upon, and competition among engravers—with the offer of man's freedom most clearly, and these terms that the French bronze was analogous to it. a prize or prizes—and we now propose, in addiare all that a reasonable man can require. Bronze, said this eminent authority, has nume- tion, the nomination of a mixed jury to decide "There can be no doubt,” he says, “that the rous advantages over copper, of which the pre- as to the merits of the various works. We say "labourer has rights over his labour which no servation of the coin in a better condition is a mixed jury advisedly, for a purely artistic one " government and no individual should pre-one ; among its other advantages may be men- would not do. You must have something more sume to interfere with. There can be no tioned that in consequence of its being much than a beautiful and appropriate creation of the "doubt that, as an exchanger of labour for harder than copper, the pieces of money struck mind and the pencil; you must have that which "capital, the labourer ought to be assured that from it may be considerably thinner, so that will not only show well on paper, but which " the exchange shall in all respects be as free lightness might be obtained without an incon- may be easily and rapidly transferred after en" as the exchanges of any other description of venient sacrifice of size. One remarkable ad- graving from the die to the disc of metal to property. His rights as an exchanger are, vantage, too, it possessed, which was that coun- be impressed. In short, the accepted design " that he shall not be compelled to part with terfeit coins could not be made to resemble in must be one which will look well, coin well,

his property, by any arbitrary enactments, colour coins of mixed metal. It was possible, and wear well. Hence the necessity for a mixed " without having as ample an equivalent as the and, indeed, easy to coat metals by the electro-jury-half practical, half artistic. "general laws of exchange will afford him; that type with pure copper, but it was impossible to The Mint engraver might, of course, compete "he shall be free to use every just means, either coat them with a composition like that of with out-door artists, and the award would, no by himself or by union with others, to obtain bronze. Further testimony of a similar kind or doubt, be given to the most meritorious and "such an equivalent ; that he shall be at full tending in the same direction was given on this practicable design. It will be, in this instance, "liberty to offer that property in the best market occasion by the Master of the Mint, and it too late to retreat when once the “die is cast," " that he can find, without being limited to any must be very satisfactory to the public to know and hence our urgent desire to make sure of

particular market; that he may give to that that in the new bronze they are likely to get, winning. To stamp into existence in England, “ property every modification which it is capa- in all respects, a better article, and one which in 1859, a new coinage which would not in all " ble of receiving from his own natural or ac- will be much cheaper, than the pure copper respects--artistical, mechanical, proportionate, "quired skill, without being narrowed to any coinage of which the Mint, we may suppose, and durable — bear a favourable comparison "one form of producing it. In other words, has now struck its last piece.

with any coinage in use abroad, would be to "natural justice demands that the working man The chief misgiving we now have upon the stamp ourselves with indelible disgrace. Na"shall work when he please and be idle when subject of the new issue of bronze monies is, tional works have, however, so often proved

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national failures, that there is some reason for i with gratitude- that most of those who do “ improvement in their habits, and regularity anxiety even in the introduction of a new coin. drink at them will imbibe a healthier fluid " of attendance ; attributable to their decreased Whilst, therefore, all proper haste in effecting than the poor are commonly supplied with (the use of beer, in consequence of the facility of the reform is counselled, and red tapery is de- whole of the fountain water being carefully "obtaining pure water which the fountains nounced in toto, it may be hoped that sufficient filtered)—that in times of prevalent disease "afford.” It would be difficult, he adds, to care will be taken to guard against an error these fountains will supply a most valuable and exaggerate the gratitude of the poor for these which would be irretrievable. Doctor Graham unstinted antidote—that the temptations and fountains, testified not only by the great numis, no doubt, sensitively alive to the responsi- risks to which the poor are exposed in beer-bers who fock to them, but by their many bility of his office, and in his hands the public shops and other like places will no longer be grateful acknowledgments in words and looks, interests so far are in safe keeping.

forced upon them—and that, as a consequence as they quaff the pure cold water to allay their of all this

, we may fairly anticipate a great re-thirst. FREE DRINKING FOUNTAINS. duction in the vices and crimes of the lower

We commend this subject to the regards not Not until this year of grace 1859 have we orders.

of London readers only, but also to those emEnglish people had the good sense to give the Experience has already gone a long way in ployers of labour throughout the country whom poor men, women, and children of our streets confirmation of these statements. Let us quote it is our privilege to address. Let us distribute a free cup of cold water in the name of Chris- a remark or two on this point from Mr. freely to our mechanics and to our poor people tion charity. In this metropolis and other large Wakefield's able pamphlet, “A Plea for Drinking that healthful and cheering fluid which Heaven towns we have, by our neglect, driven our poor Fountains," which we would strongly commend has bestowed upon us so copiously, and we street population incontinently into the beer-) to the notice of our readers. The author says : shall thus remove from them both the excuse house and dram-shop. We have been very

" The fountains in Liverpool have been used to for, and the occasion of, their worst sin. loud and very active in our zeal for the work- an extent exceeding the most sanguine expecing classes. We have exclaimed against their "tations of their founder. The results are

THE CORT FAMILY. drunkenness and sighed over their depravity; "given in a tabular statement of the working established huge societies for their reform and “of thirteen of the fountains erected by Mr. PARLIAMENT has just voted £5,000 as a combuilt churches for their salvation. And we Melly. They may be generally stated thus : pensation to Mr. Barber for the mistake which have doubtless in these ways done much for "in one day, of about 13 hours 8 minutes, was made in transporting him, and no one can their good. But the simple expedient of putting " 24,702 persons drank at 13 fountains ; or, in possibly object to the arrangement. But it cerup a water fountain in competition with the "other words, one person drank at each of the tainly seems strange that a Parliament which gin-shop-of offering a free cup of pure water " 13 fountains every 25 seconds for 13 consecu- can show itself so just in a case of purely indiinstead of an expensive glass of fiery poison, " tive hours ; at one fountain as many as 3,340 vidual importance, can do nothing to cancel the has not until now occurred to us. All honour persons drank in 12 hours, being an average effects of that great act-of villainy, one is to Mr. Melly, who, a year or two since, began of one drinker every 11 seconds; there were tempted to say—by which the family of the the humane work ! All honour to Mr. Smithies,

“five other fountains at each of which above great Cort was impoverished. Hear, reader, to Mr. Wakefield, the Earl of Carlisle, the Earl “2,000 persons drank ; or, taking all the foun- once more the simple tale:-“In bringing his of Shaftesbury, and others, who have followed "tains, there was one drinker for every two "inventions to perfection, Henry Cort expended his noble lead!

“seconds throughout a day of 13 hours." These a considerable private fortune, and even saWe are not very much enamoured of what registries were not all made, we are told, in crificed one half of his patent rights, after are called philanthropic movements in general. summer ; fewer persons, but still a considerable " which the remaining half, together with all The good spirit which prompts them often number, drink in winter. Allowing, however, his other property, works, trade, and conperishes in the mere act of forming an organi- for this Mr. Melly observes that "a calculation tracts, were confiscated by the naval authozation for itself to work with, and the organiza-based upon a series of observations taken at rities, in 1788, for the debt of a partner (a tion itself becomes what Mr. Carlyle would call “different seasons, and in different parts of Government servant who became a defaulter), a "galvanized corpse,” in which we see no the town, by persons of perfect reliability, not equal in amount to one-tenth of the sum beauty. But we believe in the work which the "employed for the purpose, gives an average “afterwards produced from them. The family Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association has “number of upwards of 1,000 drinking every “ of this man, who thus nobly enriched his undertaken. There is nothing questionable inday throughout the year at each of the 40 "country to the ruin of himself, have, we most its objects ; nothing doubtful in its agency.

“ fountains scattered throughout the town and respectfully submit, higher claims upon the Already the poorer population of London are “its outskirts." This would give 15 millions “nation than any Government has ever yet redrinking with delight of its bounty. On another of persons who annually drink at the Liverpool “cognised, although several Ministers of the page we give a list of no less than about fountains. And subsequently, in March, 1859, “Crown have, from time to time, aided them, SEVENTY sites on which the crystal cup is Mr. Melly writes that he is quite sure that if"none more promptly or more liberally than already sparkling, or is about to sparkle. And “20 more fountains were judiciously placed your lordship (Lord Derby) and Lord Palmeryet the Association has been at work for four “here (Liverpool) both the new and old fountains “ston ; some, it is true, have received small months only!

“would average 1,000 each the year round ;" "pensions, and all have been participants of the In this day, when “ bitter beer” is the con- that is, if Liverpool were adequately supplied very limited funds dispensed by the Royal tinual cry of so many pompous mouths—when with fountains they would be used 22 millions “bounty ; but not one has been raised a single claret is giving its colour in so many cups

of times in the year ! In other provincial towns," step from indigence, nor is one at this mowhen champagne is " moving itself aright" in the experiment has been attended with like ment above want.” This is the language of a so many glasses--when Catawba wine with its results.

memorial which has been signed by one hundred taste divine, “dulcet, delicious, and dreamy,” If such have been the results in the provinces, and thirty of the foremost manufacturers and is filling so many rooms with its “sweet per- it will be conceded, says Mr. Wakefield, that men of science of this age and nation, addressed "fume " -- in this day, we say, it may seem drinking fountains would be even more used in to two Prime Ministers in succession ; yet old-fashioned to put in a good word for mere the Metropolis. The greater radiation of heat nothing but donations from the Bounty Fund, water; and yet we do not hesitate to say that from a larger surface of buildings, less shade, infinitesimal pensions, and promises of suitable clear, pure, bright water still appears to us as more smoke and dust, and longer street dis- recompense hereafter, can be elicited from those sacred a thing as it did to Him who eighteen tances, combine to make London a more thirst- noble-blooded personages. centuries since chose it as the best symbol of exciting place than any provincial town. It is But we must not be severe upon Ministers of life which this world afforded. It is, indeed, gratifying to state that the result of the experi- the Crown when we find that those men of the greatest physical gift of God to man. There ment of the first drinking fountain erected by princely fortunes, the great ironmasters, who is nothing we have which we would not sooner the Association in St. Sepulchre's church, on have been made princes by Henry Cort's invenforego than water. How desirable, then, is it Snow-hill, fully confirms the above. This foun- tions, and by them alone, show no gratitude to that a thing so excellent, and so abundant tain is used about 7,000 times daily. It will the man who made them. Not long since Mr. withal, should be placed within the reach even be observed that this is more than double the Fairbairn, moved by the long neglect which of the poorest poor.

number that drank at any one of the forty- Henry Cort's children have had to suffer, We cannot undertake here to mention all three fountains erected in Liverpool. “As one offered £100 in the columns of the Times as the advantages which the new drinking foun- of the many gratifying evidences of the prac- the commencement of a subscription for the tains will offer to the labouring classes. We tical usefulness of these fountains, it may be family, That generous and disinterested offer may say, however, that they will afford most “ stated,” says Mr. Wakefield, "that a gentle elicited, we are ashamed to say, not a single welcome refreshment to the thousands of work- man who largely employs workmen in iron- response. It is true that small subscriptions ing people who are employed far from home-works, in the town of Wednesbury, having have of late years been given by a few ironthat thousands who even at home have no pure recently erected fountains for his workpeople, masters towards a Cort Testimonial Fund ; but or sufficient water supply will drink at them says, that his manager has since observed an | these deserve no mention side by side with Mr.

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