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FREE DRINKING FOUNTAINS.

Fig. 1.-INTERNAL VIEW.

Fig. 2.-CRYSTAL PALACE FOUNTAIN. In our leading columns we have drawn attention to the beneficent work of the Free Drinking Fountains Association. We here propose to show what mechanical arrangements the Association has adopted for the efficient and economical carrying out of its plans. The simplicity of these arrangements (which are shown in the sectional view Fig. 1 of the annexed engravings) are obvious, and call for little remark, if we except the application of a filtering medium in an air-tight cy. linder in connexion with the main supply pipes of the water companies, by means of which a large amount of pressure will be obtained to force the water through the filtering medium.

The con struction of this cylinder with a convex bottom permits most of the organic impurities to fall by their own specific gravity, thus reserving for the filtering medium only the action of stopping the more minute organic impurities, with those held in solution. The flushing pipe is always a ready means of cleansing the cylinder cistern. The ballcock cistern shown is rendered necessary by the requirements of the Water Companies, and will in some measure regulate the pressure. The filtering medium has been prepared upon principles approved by the Association. It will be inclosed in, or will itself form, a second cylinder containing animal charcoal, through which the water must pass, previously passing in the one case first through a porous and charcoal stone imported from abroad, and suggested by Mr. Jackson, the Secretary of the Association, and in the other case, first through a filtering substance manufactured ex. pressly for Messrs. Wills, of 12 Euston Road. These filters for the present will be applied inside the air-tight cylinders, and the result it is hoped will support the strong opinions expressed of their efficiency. The cylinder-cistern may be applied to either Standard or Mural Fountains, or in case their structure will not admit of insertion, the same arrangements can be made underground.

The Association having engaged to erect a drinking fountain in the Crystal Palace grounds, the company selected the design. This fountain, shown at Fig. 2 (by Messrs. Wills, Bros.), which we have bad carefully engraved, can be constructed of bronze or bronzed iron, and the vase may either be of the same materials or of marble. This design, although occupying but the smallest space

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WILLS BROS: with the greatest strength, will allow of nine REFERENCES TO FIGURE 1.-A, Ball cock cistern, inflexibly required by the London Water Companies ; B, The supply persons drinking at one time.

pipe ; C, The pipe conducting filtered water to the ball cock cistern; D, The waste pipe conveying the water to a The water supply for drinking fountains will, it does time, thensecinto a sewer ; E, Pipe for flushing and cleansing cistern; F, Cistern containing the litering medium;

G, Outline of design.

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Fig. 1.-FREE DRINKING FOUNTAIN AND CATTLE TROUOR AT LIVERPOOL.

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is hoped, be provided by the liberality of the 7. Islington-green,

8. Holloway-road, water companies, as three have already consented

9. Lower-road,

Five with St. Mary's, Islington to do; but until a memorial, which the Associa 10. Liverpool-road,

(one opened last week). tion has now prepared to be sent to the general 11. Caledonian-road, companies be answered, no exact statement as to

12. Regent's-circus, Oxford-street, Mr. Gurney.

13, Bethnal-green, in front of St. John's Church, with Mr. terms can be made.

Link (now opened). The following list of sites may be acceptable as

14. Marylebone Workhouse wall, with a lady (ready for

opening); showing the number of fountains which the

15. Stepney, with Rev. J. Kennedy. Association has erected, or is now under engage- 16. Bermondsey, Mill-lane, with vestry (nearly ready).

17. Victoria-gate, ments to erect, having in four months from the

18. Pickering-place,

With Paddington inanguration received through the donations of 19. Alelaide-place, Regent's-canal, Vestry. private persons and contributions from the local 20. Paddington-green, authorities, the funds and the control over sites

21. Sloane-square with Chelsea Vestry.

22. Near Pier } necessary for this encouraging commencement of 23. Peter-street, the great work proposed, viz., to erect not less 24. Broad-street,

With St. James's, Westthan four hundred fountains in the metropolis :

25. Great Marlborough-street, minster.

26, 1. Fountain at Suow-hill, Mr. Gurney.

27. Tower-hill, opposite Mint, with Whitechapel Board of 2. Emerson-street, Bankside,

Works. 2. L'pper Ground-street,

Five in connection 29. Newington-causeway, with Mr. Dunn. 4. Triangle, Union-street, Borough, with St. Saviour's, 29. Adelaide-place, London-bridge, with Provident Insti4. Bowlund Hil'e Chapel,

31. Victoria-road, near Palace-gardens.
32. Strand, with Mr. Hanbury, M.P.
33. Mother Red Cap,
34. Junction-road, Kentish-town,
35. Southampton-arms,
36. Brighton-street, corner of Cromer-street,
37. Euston-square,

With 38. Tottenham-court-road,

St. Pancras 39. The Brill, Somers-town,

Vestry 40. York and Albany,

and 41. Pancras-vale,

private 42. Brecknock-arms, Camden-town,

persons. 43. Goldington-crescent, 44. Gray's-inn Hospital, 45. Hampstead-road. 46. Cumberland-market, 47. Horseferry-road, Westminster, Mr. Stafford. 49. Westminster-bridge-road. 49. 50.

With Mile-end, Old-town, Vestry. 51. 52. 53. Cannon-street-road, With St. George-in-the-East. 54. Chigwell-hill, 55. Highgate-hill, 56.

Southwark.

tution. 6.

30. Endell-street, with Mr, Langdale (now open),

With Committee at Ilighgate. 57.

}

69. East India Dock Gates, Poplar (opened last Thursday). modern one, and has not hitherto gained much that, under certain circumstances, such might pos.

58. At the Royal Exchange, Metropolitan Drinking every Calibre”-Mr. Thomas has added a full re. tile of three diameters in length) I should hardly

Fountain Association. 59. Waterloo-road.

print of the paper contributed by him in think that he had observed it in the case of 60. In railings of St. Saviour's Church, Southwark. Gl. In Tooley-street.

December last to the Royal Society, on a New elongated projectiles of smaller diameter, unless 62. Near Marble Arch, with Baron de Bliss.

Theory of the Initial Action and force of Fired they were fired with a lower velocity than usual. 63. Rosemary-lane, with Miss Barber.

In the chapter ‘On the Range of Elongated Pro64. Near railway station, Putney.

Gunpowder, a lengthy abstract of which was pub-jectiles,' the reader will observe that I have not 65. Near Arsenal gates, Woolwich.

lished in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE for June gone quite so far as to assert that long projectiles 06. Landing-pier, Lambeth, Rev, J. Lingham. 67. New-cut, Lainbeth, with Sir M. Peto. 3rd, page 360.

actually have their range prolonged when fired in 68. Crystal Palace, Sydenham,

The subject discussed in this volume is a

the air; I have merely hazarded the conjecture 70. Moor-street, St. (menl.

Several of these will now be opened cach week attention from authors conpetent to treat of it sibly be the case. It cannot be positively asserted to the public.

as a fact, until we know precisely what initial ve. accurately. The great merit of Mr. Thomas's locities these projectiles really acquire. I suppose The objects which a street drinking fountain treatise is due to the fact that he has not confined that it might be true, from the circumstance of should, in the opinion of the Associution, attain, himself to mere theoretical inquiries, but has taken finding that the ranges of long projectiles of a and the conditions of their attainment, are as follows:- They are

considerable pains, first to ascertain facts experi- certain size and form, varied in a greater degree pure and cool water, most easily accessible to the mathematical considerations. The order in which which the resistance of the air tends to lengthen

The full explanation of the manner in 1. To yield a sınall stream of continually flowing mentally, and then to elucidate them by reference to with the elevation) than they would do in a greatest number of people.

he proceeds is as follows:-1, general remarks on the flight of a long projectile, may be seen as 2. The Metropolitan Fountains Association has rifled cannon and projectiles; 2, the turn of the follows :-When a round projectile is passing decided, in accordance with the opinion of emi- rifling ; 3, the influence which the size of the through the air, the whole resistance to its tight* nent medical officers, to increase the purity of the projectile has upon the turn; 4, rifled projectiles; but when a long projectile is used, a different

is in the direction of the tangent to the curve; water by a process of re-filtration, and this must 3, the grooves and increasing spiral; 6, the combe done in the fountain itself; therefore, each

result is obtained." For, in consequence of the fountain must be so constructed as to contain a

parative advantages attending the employment well-known laws of hydrodynamics, that when a filter, which shall be easily accessible at all of rifled and smooth-bored guns ; 7, the range of solid body strikes obliquely on a Muid mass, the retimes. elongated projectiles ; 8, experiments in gunnery; solid, the resistance on the surface of an elon.

sistance will be perpendicular to the surface of the 3. In accordance with the inflexible require. 9, the nature and action of fired gunpowder. gated shot will no longer act in the direction of ments of water coinpanies, each fountain must be

As an original and valuable treatise on a very imalso provided with a ball and cock cistern, as this

the tangent to the curve of flight; but the operates to destroy the force of the water, conse, portant subject, we warmly recommend the resultant of the pressures on the fore end and the quently it must be placed above the point of the volume, although we cannot undertake to assent under side will act in a direction above the tanwater in the cun. to all the principles laid down in it.

gent to the curve, so that although the velocity 4. The pipes, filter, &c., must be insulated, so as

of the projectile is diminished, it will be made to

The following extract from the preface will describe a path rather less curved to the horizon to preserve the water from the extremes of heat in summer and cold in winter. serve to illustrate both the style and the capabilithan it would otherwise have done. Hence in cer

tain circumstances, as when the elevation of the 5. The fountain must occupy the least possible ties of the author :space. The necessity of this consideration is "My attention has recently been directed gun is not very great, the range may be prolonged. obvious, seeing that most of these fountains are to a statement made by Sir W. Armstrong siders that to be a properly formed shot of

It will be noticed that Sir W. Armstrong conintended to occupy space in the greatest thorough- at the United Service Institution, and reported which the axis remains parallel to itself during fares of the metropolis.

in the Mechanics’ MAGAZINE for June 3rd of its flight; but I am convinced it will be found that 6. The upper structure of the fountain should this year, to the effect that elongated pro. as little as possible intercept the street view. jectiles have a greater range when they are fired

a preferable form of shot will be one that bas the A number of designs have been submitted to in the air, than they would have if they were fired centre of gravity thrown forward, so that the shot the Association, and from thein several have been in a vacuum, or non-resisting medium. This state will remain approximately a tangent to its traselected. The best of them were engraved in the ment bears at first sight so much resemblance to jectory throughout its flight. In this case the Buildler for August 6, to which we would refer certain opinions which I have hazarded inyself, loss of velocity, will be much less than in the our readers.

that I take the opportunity afforded by a preface former, and at the same time the obliquity to the By the kindness of Mr. Smithies, the esteemed to make those observations with reference to it, trajectory will be sufficient to call into play the editor of the British Workman, we are ourselves from the circumstance of the sheets being already maintains its axis parallel to itself might have no enabled to present in Fig. 3, a new and splendid in the press. Sir W. Armstrong's remarks (as re

which I was precluded doing in the proper place, sustaining power of the air. A projectile which engraving of the fountain recently erected by the New River Company, prior to its appearance in ported) are as follows:- In a vacuum the trajec- elevation, because the obliquity to the curve of that publication; and by the favour of the same tory would be the same whether the projectile flight would not then be so prejudicial to the vegentleman, we are also enabled to illustrate the were elongated or spherical, so long as the angle locity of the projectile, and the whole of the Liverpool fountain, Fig. 4, in conjunction with of elevation and the initial velocity were con.

pressure upon its under surface would tend to sus. which a cattle trongh and dog trough have like- stant; but the presence of a resisting atmosphere tain its tight; but the time of flight, in this wise been erected as shown. These admirable makes this remarkable difference, that while it case (unless the gun were placed on an eminence), wood.cuts speak for themselves. greatly shortens the range of the round shot, it

would be too small to admit of any great advanFor a statement of the rapid progress which the actually prolongs that of the elongated projeetile, tage being thus obtained. When, however

, the

angle of elevation is high, the increasing oblidrinking fountain movement is making in the provided the angle of elevation do not exceed a provinces, we must refer to the various detailed found to be 6". This appears at first very para velocity more than to retard the descent of such a

certain limit, which in my experiments I have quity to the curve of fight tends to diminish the statistics that from time to time have been pub- doxical, but it may be casily explained. The elon projectile; and its curve of Might and range area lished. gated shot, if properly formed, and having a

in consequence, diminished. sufficient rotation, retains the same inclination to

which Sir W. Armstrong remarked in his experi. Literature.

the horizontal plane throughout its flight, and ments; that the prolongation of flight alluded to consequently acquires a continually-increasing ob

was only observable when the angle of elevation Rifled Ordnance. Fourth edition, revised and en liquity to the curve of its flight. Now the effect

was below 6'. Sir W. Armstrong's concluding

sentence, that 'its (the projectiles) descent is relarged. By LYNALL THOMAS, F.R.S.L. London: of this obliquity is, that the projectile is in a Published by J. Weale, 50 Holborn. 1859.

measure sustained upon the air, just as a kite is tarded, so that it has time to reach to a greater

supported by the current of air meeting the in- distance,' could hardly, I should ihink, have been This volume, in its former editions, in which it clined surface, and the result is, that its descent is carefully considered before it was uttered; for was published anonymously, was noticed with retarded, so that it has time to reach to a greater every person familiar with the theory of the

motion of projectiles will see that by diminishing some favour in our columus. Its authorship is distance. The above remark that the air · acnow acknowledged by Mr. Lynall Thomas, who tually prolongs the flight of elongated projectiles, the velocity of a projectile after it has passed the has of late years had several improved forms of requires to be considerably qualified. This effect apex of its curve, its time of tight is lengthened, ordnance and projectiles under trial at Shoebury-stances, as, for instance, when the weight or the Further experiments will be required for ascer. ness with very good results, and who has also length of the projectile is great in a certain pro: I centre of gravity conduces as much to precision as

taining whether the forward position of the carried out numerous experiments on gunnery portion to its diametral surface, when the velocity privately and at his own expense. To the work is limited, and other circumstances, which I shall doubt ; and I believe it will be found that, at the

to great range. Of the latter there can be no in its present form--the sub-title of which is allude to directly. Although Sir W. Armstrong “ A Practical Treatise on the Application of the lb. or 18 lb. elongated projectiles (in the same

may have remarked this peculiar effect in his 32 higher elevations, projectiles constructed in this Principle of the Rifle to Guns and Mortars of manner as I noticed it myself with a 32 lb. projec-opposite sides of the shot, caused by its rutary motion :

• This is independent of the unequal action of the air on

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manner will achieve both greater range and obstacle to their general employment. Their a range of a couple of thousand yards or so, cannot greater accuracy than any other. *"

general efficiency in action also has yet to be surely be of so much importance as to have a gun The author of this volume has been fortunate tested. An additional obstacle presents itself in of simple construction and easily worked.” enough to be present, with the consent of Sir W. cult to procure in a sufficient quantity on an the fact that these guns would

We should be doing very imperfect justice to Armstrong, at several trials of the Armstrong emergency. The constant improvenrents which the author if we failed to state that his work is gun at Shoeburyness. Like ourselves he is not

are likely to be made in breech-loading pieces much more than a medium for recommending a disposed to view that weapon with unqualified should also render us cautious about adopting any particular form of gun and projectile of his own approbation, or to consider it by any means a

one method in particular until its superiority invention. He does recommend improvements of

has been thoroughly established in actual his own, it is true; but these are by no means the tical success in the art of

gun manufacture.

service. Breech-loading guns, unless of the That it has excellent qualities neither he nor we simplest construction, must always be objection- staple material of the volume. It may with fairweny; but that it is better suited for the wear able in action. It may be an easy matter enoughness be described as an essay towards a discussion and tear of actual warfare than all others we are for well-trained men, under the immediate super- of the nature of rifled cannon generally, and the not by any teeans prepared to admit. As the intendence of a number of scientific officers at principles involved in their construction, together subject is of the utmost importance we extract but would this be so in action? A system of undertake a full and scientific inquiry into this

Shoeburyness, to fire so many rounds a minute; with an endeavour to urge the Government to the following remarks from Mr. Thomas's pages breech-loading, which a man of common capacity much neglected subject. In working out these on this weapon:

cannot learn and retain after ten minutes' teachTHE ARMSTRONG GIN.

ing, and one which canses the employment of great objects the author communicates much " The great merit of the Armstrong gun detached pieces of metal; any, in fact, which re- original and valuable information, but he never typ-ars to consist in an admirable combination of quires more than two simple movements, one to loses sight of the fact that no work can at present certain approved principles rather than in the open and one to close the chamber, is open to obou be more than an essay, or an attempt to approach a loptation (except, perhaps, with regard to the jection. If it is considered necessary to employ manufacture of the gun) of any positively new in- breech-loading pieces, they ought to be made to the truth of the matter. Viewed in this light, rentinu. So happy a combination, however, could act with a movement which a man can perform his work is a very praiseworthy and instructive only gavelt from numerous experiments conducted mechanically, as a soldier loads his inusket or a one, and no student of gunnery or gun-construcbra persen possessing great mechanical skill, and sportsman his gun, without having to think over

tion, whatever his knowledge or experience may a considerable knowledge of the science of it. Great care must be taken, with guns upon be, should think of leaving it unstudied. Tunnery. The chief noticeable points in which this principle, that no escape of gas is allowed ; this gun dilers from those in ordinary use, are otherwise, the men between decks in a ship, or in the metal of which it is constructed, and the a casemated battery, would be stifled in working Wool and Woollen Manufactures of Great Britain : breech-loading) principle upon which it acts. them; not to speak of the loss of power occa.

a Historical Sketch of Rise, Progress, and Present

Position. SAMUEL BROTHERS. 1859. London: With regard to the first of these points the sioned by it. Regarding the Armstrong gin as a

Piper, Stephenson, and Spence, 23 Paternoster. sucress of the Armstrong gun has placed beyond scientific engine or machine for the projection of 1 donbt the tact that wrought-iron and steel are

an elongated shot, it is a chef-d'ouvre; the accu This book is printed on such very superior paper, slrirably adapted for the construction of rifled racy obtained with it is remarkable.

This is

and in all but authorship has been got up with: seld-pieces and guns of a medium size. This, in partly due to the delicacy of the sights (which such disregard of expense, that it is a pity itself , is n'en portant fact. But as gun-metal is are so arranged as to allow for the lateral

“ Samuel Brothers,” of 29 Ludgate-hill, and of ale well adapted for field-pieces, the question deflection), and to the absence of all recoil.

"Sydenham Trousers ” notoriety, did not take whether it would be advisable to construct the If the maximum results attainable with the pains to have it edited with some little show smaller kind of guns of the above metals will rifled cannon depended entirely upon the

A little money spent in that manner lenend s ery much upon the time and expense combination employed in this case, we might would have helped to make it more valuable in its which must necessarily be employed in their con safely assume that no other nation could produce struction, but should the construction of guns a weapon to surpass it ; it would, however, be way than it can possibly prove in its present form.

This Historical Sketch is to be followed by other apable of throwing elongated shells, of a weight presumptuous to assert this—in fact, both at home

volunes on The Natural History of Wool," and zeynal to that of the heaviest shot now in use, and and abroad, results nearly approaching, if not

“ The Mechanical History of Woollen Manunuwards, be attended, as it probably will, with the equal to it, have been already obtained by much facture.” We hope these will be edited by some ame successful results, the employment of these simpler means; and if a hostile nation could pro

one who knows when he has written intelligible Detals -- at least for large risled cannon--will be duce half-a-dozen guns to our one, it would be a

English and when he has not--which is more rative. The breech-loading prineiple has, I matter for serious consideration whether it would than the editor of the volume before us knows. thiok, but few points to be remarked in its favour, be to our advantage to employ guns constructed It consists, nevertheless, ofan historical narrative. compared with what may be urged against it. In

on this principle or not. As it is, other nations the reading of which would add much to the this case, however, the combination by wkích the

are already fully equipped with rifled cannon, knowledge of many. eficiency of the projectile is obtained is depen- whilst we possess some dozen experimental guns dient entirely upon it. The great accuracy and only: Even allowing that the ritled cannon of range obtained with the Armstrong gun are foreign nations are not equal to the two or three

MAJOR RHODES' TENTS. startling from their novelty only; for as yet the specimens of the Armstrong gun which we possess, The board of medical officers appointed by the ritled cannon is but in its infancy ; and although we are by no means certain that they are not Duke of Cambridge to report on the hospital tent the greatest possible praise is due to Sir w. better adapted to the purposes of war. So much which has been invented by Major Rhodes-one Armstrong for the great ingenuity, as well as for has yet to be learned respecting rifled cannon that of which has been for some time in use in the the superior mechanical and scientific knowledge no one can assert, at present, that the Armstrong grounds attached to the garrison hospital at which be hes displayed in the construction both gun-untried as it is—is really the best suited in Chatham-having made a very favourable report of his gun and his projectiles, I am nevertheless every respect for actual warfare. Moreover, if of the invention, the Commander-in-Chief gave frlly persuaded that equally good results will be

we confine ourselves to guns coustructed upon this directions for another description of Major "taned with a combination of a much more principle, we can only have two hundred of them Rcodes' tent, called the “Field hospital tent,”" to simple and inexpensive character. The expendi- at the end of a year. But supposing that in six be pitched there. Major Rhodes accordingly ture of time and labour which would be neces.

months' time we are engaged in a great European arrived at Chatham on Saturday afternoon last, sary to keep a large number of breech-loading war; and supposing, further, that the Armstrong for the purpose of superintending the erection of Na coutinually in a fit state for service, both gan be found in actual service to fail in achieving this field tent, which, like the others invented by eden stored and in use, must prove a great all that has been anticipated from it, what are we him, is of simple construction. “The ground

then to do for rifled .cannon ? Surely some such having been accordingly selected, the tent was .* The re-ults obtained with the shells, noticed at page 9; method as that which I have suggested might be pitched,” says the Times' correspondent, “ by four ho entre of gravity being, in their casc, in a forward adopted, in order by utilizing the principle of the justing), che comparatively greater when the elevation

men in a comparatively short space of time, not42 much 33 10, than those obtained with Armstrong's.

rifle to place us at once on an equal footing with withstanding that three of the men who assisted And they would have been still greater if I could have had other nations, without prejudice to our finally knew nothing whatever of tents, and had proat any disproval (which wis far from being the case,) the adopting that description of gun which is found bably never seen a military tent pitched in their

meetanical means possessed by Sir W Arin trong by experience to be the most suitable for practical lives. In this, as in his other tents, Major Rhode: pater. These are the first, and I believe ihe only pro- purposes, whether it be the Armstrong or any entirely discards the use of the clumsy and incon. od strane proport deneth which have yet been successfully other. Perfect accuracy is, no doubt, highly de- venient tent-pole, the coverings being supported bh; andars, therefore, probably, with the exception of sirable; but there are so many circumstances on pliable ribs of ashwood, the bottoms of which

W. Armstrony's, the only projectiles with which the which must arise, in actual warfare, to preclude are fixed into the ground, the tops meeting in a Shu

to been remarking upon could have been oh- the possibility (except under very peculiar circum- wooden head, which also answers the purpose of a Thelma about 1,000 feet a second), it appears probable that stances) of its attainment, that it is extremely ventilator. The tent erected on Saturday is 20 ta bizh a valge has hitherto been assigned to the resist questionable whether it is worth while sacrificing feet in diameter, and affords ample accommoda*** of the air, the terminal velocity of these projectiles other important objects in attempting to acquire tion for 20 patients, giving each patient a space (Erding to the ordinary coinputation) not much exEerdung iw fect a second."

it. A difference of a few feet in the deflection, in of 3 feet by 7 feet, leaving a clear central space of

on

Patents for Inventions.

40.

6 feet diameter for the use of the medical officers opposite calling to what he ought to be," a “square and hospital attendants-an advantage which is, man in a round hole," and whenever he attempts to of course, out of the question in the present tents, obtain employment in a sphere in which his talents where the pole monopolises the most important

may be used, the answer is, “ Oh, you are of an op. ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. part of the interior. But perhaps the most posite calling.” Now, “Nauticus” maintains by the

above sentence that this square man ought not to be The abridged Specifications of Patents given below are valuable improvement in this tent is the excellent in a square hole. The majority of our great men aptly classified, according to the subjects to which the respectus system of ventilation adopted."

illustrate the subject, and what “ Nauticus” would inventions refer, in the following table. By the symtom of call the rule is clearly the exception—the fact being order of the specification is preserved, and combined with

classitication adopted, the numerical and chronolozine. that our most successful inventors have been “per all the advantages of a division into classes. It should Our Weekly Gossip. suns of an opposite calling.” A man is brought up as understood that these abridgements are preparrd esclon a herb-seller who is a profound mathematician. A boy sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied bred

Government, and are therefore the property of the prorirWir respect to the projected coinnge of bronze, is sent to mind a booksellers’ shop, who is destined to

tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warne inc! the thought has arisen in our mind as to whether become a great chemist; a miner becomes an eminent

to produce them without acknowledgement :Britannia as a design for the reverse of them ought not engineer; a mathematical instrument maker becomes

STEAN ENGINES, &c., 2996, 7, 9. to be sacrificed. For nearly 200) years has that very tall the greatest improver of the steam-engine; and even BOUERS AND THEIR FURNACES, &c. Non.. lady been doing duty as a device for the reverse of

* Nauticus” has ventured_into subjects that his ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and are the copper coinage of these realms, and the question father never dreamed of. I do hope, therefore, that riayes, sadillery and harness, &c., 2981, 2956, 299, 314,

6, 12, 20, 22, 36. comes whether it is not now time to reliere guard, I shall never see such a remark again in the Ne. and dismiss Britannia, her shield and her trident, to CHANICS' MAGAZINE, although every advertisement

Siups and Boats, including their fittings, 2982, 23.

CULTIVATION OF Tue Soil, including agricultural and hits the limbo of bygone things. The origin of the design states the necessity for a certificate of previous oe.

tieultural implements and machines, 2977, 2980, 30, was questionable enough, and it is not needful for us cupation in the same line," no one being deemed

16, 39. to perpetuate the memory of Charles II., or any of his capable of sucking eggs without a certificate from his Food and Beverages, including apparatus for preparing

food for men and animals, 21. beauties, one of whom sat for the original Britannia. grandmother! I am, gentlemen, your obedient

Fibrous FABRICS, including machinery for treating fibres, Britannia, in the literal sense, would doubtless remain servant, T. Mor. 1 Clifford's Inn, Aug. 13, 1859.

pulp, paper, &c., 2979, 2991, 10, 13, 25, 27, *), 33, 31, ruler of the sea, though her tall representative dis “ Another discovery which occupies the Emperor 40, 44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 53, 54, 59. appeared for ever from the coinage of the realm. At for the moment to the exclusion of all other dis. Building 3 AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, any rate she does not rule the wave the more safely coveries of the same nature,” says the Paris corres. drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 19, 15. because that person has sat so long in her helmet pondent of the Morning Star,“ is a new machine for LIGHTING, IIEATING, AND VENTILATING, 2987, 5, 24, 35, 55. looking wistfully out at—nothing. The omission ihe arming of ships of war, which is said to be the

FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils,

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., P), of Britannia and the ledge of rock upon which she, most terrible engine of destruction yet invented. This

2, 4, 43, 57. with all her stage properties, is so calmly resting machine consists in a combination of a whole broad METALs, including apparatus for their manufacture, 300), would make room for a totally new device for the side, being constructed so as to be fired at once, and neater pieces of money with which we are shortly to to be directed to any given point, so that no enemy's CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 2985, 58. be favoured, and would furnish a field for the trial of ship, however powerful, could resist the shock, which

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 2981, 2997, 31, 51, 56. skill invited in another colunn among engravers.

WARFARE, 2990. would sink a whole fleet if within range. The con.

LETTER Press PRINTING &c. None. The Science and Art Department of the Committee trivance is said to be an improvement on the infernal MISCELLANEOUS, 2978, 2995, 2988, 2989, 9992, 2993, 4, of Council on Education, have issued the following machine of Fieschi, which you must remember was 2995, 3000, 3002, 3003, 300, 3006, 1, 3, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17 circular :-“ Teachers wishing to attend the examina. a radius of small guns. So that you see even trenson 18, 28, 30, 32, 34, 42, 48, 50. tions of science and art department in--l practical and has its uses, and if the Fieschi artillery be but charged descriptive geometry, with mechanical and machine with the Orsini shell, why then destruction of human

2978. I. HUTCHINSON. “Improvements in the drawing, and building construction ; 2, physics; 3, life will be achieved upon the grandest scale! The manufacture of india-rubber goods.” Dated Dec. 29, chemistry; 4, geology and mineralogy (applied to machine, which as yet bears no name, is to be acted upon

1858. mining); 5, natural history,--for the purpose of by electricity, as no gunner could withstand the Here in coating sheets of cloth, leather, or other obtaining augmentation grants to their salaries (under recoil (?). As the reporter of the superb invention

material with india-rubber, when such sheets are to the science minute of the 2nd June, 1859), niust send naively exclaims," Here is an invention which will be cut up into shaped pieces, the patentee only coats ther names, addresses, and present occupation, to the care far behind it the famous formstrong

, gun, just pieces of the size and form required, and this be dus s'cretary of the department, South Kensington, on or b fore the 31st October, 1859. The examinations will be held in the Metropolis in the last week of November. signals, submitted for the approval of the Lorus of between rollers, on one of which a raised pattern is

Mr. Ward's newly invented arrangement of flag: sheet of india-rubber prepared in the usual manner.

by passing the sheets of cloth, &c., together with a Certificates of three (grades will be granted in each the Admiralty, was tested at Woolwich this week, on subject, giving the holder an augmentation grant of | board the Commodore's flagship Fisgard. The

fixed, and this raised pattern, by pressing the sheet of 101., 151., or 201. a year on cach certificate while following account of the invention was written by the india-rubber to combine with the sheet of cloth, & ..

cloth, &c., and the india-rubber toget'aer, causes the giving instruction to a class of operatives in that Times correspondent: The flags are half-a-yard wide subject. These payments will be in addition to the and three yarıs long, in pendant fashion, ani, accord.

at the parts touched by the pattern, whilst at the value of any certificates of competency for giving ing to the code of instructions for corresponding from duced between the cloth and the india-rubber. Patea!

parts which receive no pressure no adhesion is primary instruction, should the teacher have already ship to ship at sea, the blue flag was run up to the obtained any such from the Committee of Council on

completed. maintop, as a preparatory pendant, announcing the Education. desire to communicate, and is also hoisted between for stretching fabrics.” Dated Dec. 29. 1853,

2979. S. VORAND. "Improvements in apparatus The Atlantic Telegraph Company publish the each word so as to devide them into sentences. The following letter from Sir Charles Yorke, Military coloured fing appeared at the mizen and foretop

This consists in forming a series of blocks which are Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief:-" Horse masts, forming the message, which was clearly dis- other at their enils, without being linked or attachart

to move in suitable grooves, simply touching each Guards, Aug. 6, Sir, -With reference to my letter of tinguished and understood at the given distance. In the 8th ult., in answer to your inquiry as to any a dead calm, when the flags cannot float, a line is run

together, but in place of making the blocks with squar' messages having ever been transmitted to Newfound.

from the mainmast head the mizen mast

or flat ends, so that when in a straight line the hund by the Atlantic Telegraph during the time it head, or from one yardarm to another, so that the whole of the surfaces of the two ends of two neigh. was in operation last year, I am directed by the flags may hang down and be visible, as in a breeze. forins the ends of each block that when a series of

bouring blocks shall be in contact, the intentor ) General Commanding-in-Chief to acquaint you that Commodore the Hon. J. R. Drummond, for whose inreplies have been received from the general officers spection the trials of the new flags and also the ocean

them are in a straight line the neighbouring its commanding the troops in Canada and Nova Scotia marine telegraph, by the same inventor, have been shall only touch each other at a point. Each end of

each block is made to incline from the centre outwanis to the effect that a telegram dated London, England, performed at Woolwich, has ordered the construction August 31, 1858, respecting the 39th Regiment, was of full sized instruments of the last-named invention,

to the four angles, by which when a number are set in received at Montreal on the 3rd September and which will shortly be tested at Woolwich, preparatory passing in curved and inclined lines. Each block is

a straight line the neighbouring ones will admit of answered on the following day, and that a telegram to a trial at sea and on the coast. of the same date respecting the 62nd Regiment was It is stated that the design of the rifled cannon

male with a groove through which pins pass to sl.

mit of the endless rows of blocks being mored by received at Halifax on the day of its transmission- used by the French was offered to the British Governnamely, the 31st of August, 1858. I have the honour ment in 1855. A similar invention by Count Caralli, toothed or chain wheels. Patent aban-toned. to be, Sir, your Obedient servant, C. YORKE. A. T. of the Piedmontese service, was also offered to our

2980. A. V. NEWTON. Improvements in machinery Hamilton, Esq., Director of the Atlantic Telegraph Government, but his plans were referred backwards

for reaping and mowing." (A communication.) Datut

Dec. 29, 1858. Company. and forwards until they were lost sight of.

This consists, 1, in connecting the finger bar to the The following may serve a useful purpose, although

main frame by an intermediate frame, the said intero we cannot ourselves share all the sentiments of the

NOTICES

mediate frame being hinged to the main frame (frunt writer :- Gentlemen, - Having had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Clifford's boat-lowering apparatus The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to

and rear) in a line, or nearly so, with the crank-sha!.. long before it had obtained popularity, I have watched

2, in a peculiar mode of raising and lowering the all subscribers of £l Is. 8d., annually, payable in adrance. it with interest ever since, and can bear testimony to Post Office Orders to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at

main frame so as to adapt the machine to mowing an some of the uphill work of the inventor. Mr. C. has the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C.

reaping. 3, in the mounting of the cutter-bar in rest

of the front edge of, and over the finger bar, briefly and mildly answered the shabby allusion of

TO ADVERTISERS.

allow the cutting edge of the cutters to cross the edge “ Nauticus” to “a person of an opposite calling." The

All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-columu narrow-minded feeling from which it emanates, is un. are charged at the rate of 6d. per line for any number)

of the finger-bar, and clip the grass, &c., as near ** insertions lees than 13; for 13 insertions, 4d. per line; an

possible to the finger-bar.' 4, in a method of constru“. fortunately so prevalent that a protest should be oe. or 52 insertions, 3d, per line.

tion of the finger-bars and guard-lingers, and this casionally made against it. A father hears of an Each lire consists of 10 words, the first line counting as manner of securing the guardi-fingers to the finger opening which he thinks will suit his son, and, with two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for the very best intentions on his part, places his son in the space occupied.

bar, and of operating the cutters therein. Pati si a situation for which he is totally unfit. It soon ap

Special Arrangements for larger or Serial Advertisements

completel. pears that the son has talents which cannot possibly | by 5 o'clock on Thursday evening cach week. None can To ensure insertion, Advertisements must reich the Office

2481. T. W. Gowing. “An improved roughing

for the shoes of horses and other like animals." Dati be made use of in his calling; he is, in fact, " of an bé roeceived after that time for the ensuing number. Dec. 29, 1838.

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