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No. IX.

Fairbairn's noble letter, or in the presence of THE CASE OF HENRY CORT,

opinion, is it to be distinguished by any of these the great wealth which Henry Cort's inventions

circumstances whether or no the cold air has have created. The money value of the exported HIS INVENTIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE been used. The iron bottoms occasioned such iron, iron machinery, and other articles made

OF BRITISH IRON.

labour to the workmen that we could not confrom iron, which was nothing in 1783, was, for

tinue them ; but we found no advantage in the one year 1857, no less than £22,994,671 THOMAS WEBSTER, M.A., F.R.S., &c., Barrister-at-Law. doing, and P. Onions has been obliged to dissterling ; and the whole gain which this country

continue them, at least he covers them over has derived from the said inventions during It can create no surprise that Cort's works at with sand. Mr. Tait, some time ago, having the last seventy years, is estimated, in the Fontley should have so soon acquired great much commended Peter's iron, I asked permis"Encyclopædia Britannica," to amount to notoriety, and be visited by the representatives sion of Mr. Lewis to send down T. Cook. I £600,000,000 sterling, as was stated in a Me- or agents of most of the principal iron masters. had never seen bat one heat worked, and I morial signed by twenty-five of the most emi- Richard Crawshay and James Cockshutt had thought it probable they might have improved ; nent authorities, supported by sixty Members visited, in 1787, “ the little mill at Fontley," as but T. C. returned disappointed, and says they of Parliament, including two Cabinet Ministers, the former designated it in a letter to Lord do not work near so well as we do. In return presented in 1857 by Lord Stanley to Viscount Sheffield's secretary. At that time Crawshay for this liberty, one of Mr. Lewis's men (Daniel Palmerston. This enormous addition to the was not forging more than ten tons per week at Onions) was sent up immediately after to see wealth of the nation is quite independent of the his Welsh works ; he was too shrewd a charac- what we were doing. He first saw a heat 2! collateral advantages resulting from the joint ter not to appreciate the labours of Cort, or to cwt. weighed to Theodo. He attended the workdevelopment of engineering, mining, agricul- undervalue such a rival. He forthwith engaged ing; he saw one of the balls drawn out, and tural, manufacturing, and every other branch with Cort for the erection of puddling furnaces took a bit of the iron with him ; it was all of industry in which iron is largely employed. and grooved rollers at Cyfartha, which were tough, and I think of a brighter colour than any No ironmaster can therefore mention the £5 completed by his resident partner, James Cock- I had seen. The yield was 20 lbs. blooms from which he gave a year or two since as an excuse shutt, under Cort's superintendence. The Cy- 26 cwt. 1 gr. 21 lbs. He told me we beat them for not following up in a worthy spirit the lead fartha new mill (as stated upon the authority of much in every respect, but told James Burch which Mr. Fairbairn held out.

Mr. R. Thompson) turned out 200 tons weekly we made better dispatch and yield, but fell But the Cort family is even yet, we believe, of excellent bars with the same labour pre- short of them in quality; and this they continue destined to see brighter days. The whole of viously engaged in shingling and stamping out to give out. Our neighbour J. H. having deterthe facts of the case have been laid before Mr. with the hammer the (according to our present mined to work under your patent entitled him Cobden, whose clear and energetic mind was ideas) insignificant amount of 10 tons weekly. to our best assistance. We first gave him the at no loss to master its dark details, and whose Mr. Samuel Homfray, at the neighbouring dimensions for his furnace, and let him have a generous goodwill has not failed to manifest works of Pændarran, was equally alive to the man to built it ; and we also spared him itself on behalf of these aged people. He has importance of, and not slow to appreciate, Cort's Thomas Gates for work, as I would much rather promised, we learn, to aid their cause to the inventions ; and, according to the statement in see the general success of the scheme than aim full extent of his influence, and we entirely a letter from Mr. Cockshutt, borrowed of him at any little exultation over him. The iron he believe he will do so. We wish to cast the drawings of the puddling furnaces, the pat-makes draws and looks very well, and he allows no slur upon any parliamentary personage terns of the rolls, and Cort's workmen for himself that it draws sounder than their own, who has hitherto interested himself on the instruction in the operations; and contracts which is really true of so much as I have seen behalf of—we will not say the Cort family, but were signed for the payment to Cort of 10s. per of it. But he has lately received but an unthe national honour, which has been stained by ton of bar iron, as the licence due or royalty favourable account of a small quantity which the treatment of that family. But we do say under his two patents.

he sent into the north, of which his father comwe would rather hear that Richard Cobden had The following letters, or portions of letters, plains that it will not bear slitting, but falls to whispered one syllable in favour of the cavse, which have been preserved, will be read with pieces, and even that those rods which do not than learn that all the others whom we have interest as contemporaneous accounts of, or break he can shake it to pieces; yet he says the named had agreed to promote it together. throwing light on, the preceding :

iron works well under the nailors' hammer, and And this we say because we believe Mr. Cob

Kitley, 25th of 2nd month, Feb., 1789.

makes handsome nails. You have had abundant den is a man of sounder sense and purer integ

trials of our iron ; that which I saw slit at rity than most of our great politicians. We duly favoured with thine of the 19th inst., and in Fontley showed no inclination to fall to pieces

, say nothing here either in favour of or against reply we are not quite so forward with our rolls nor have I heard such a complaint from you. to be as sensible and reliable a man as there is in been. It is our intention to have only one pair, brother, I cannot say ; whether he will puisue the as we expected by this time we should have What S. Homfray may do now he has takea

him the management, in the place of his Parliament. He is consequently very influen- and we have eight grooves in them beginning and we doubt not he will find means of using a square. tial in those counties in which he is best known, with a 3-in. one nearly

round, and going less to plan, or whether if he does, he will submit to his

We have one welding furnace his influence for the furtherance of justice in nearly ready, and it will give us pleasure if you of your iron in which we find a good deal of

otherwise. We have lately drawn out a quantity the Cort case. friends of each of these gentlemen, as well as additional pleasure if thou soon recovers from to be acquired, and your iron is particularly honour of Mr. Cohden, Mr. Fairbairn, and the business to put ours in a way. It will give us vanity, though the blooms look equally well ; but to the honour of Lancashire and Yorkshire, if thy indisposition so as to be able to come up adapted for that purpose. the great manufacturers of those counties con- and see us make the first trial, and we are in the duct this case to an honourable conclusion. meantime,

“The substance of my information to Mr. They may well do so; for the inventions of

(Signed) “WILLIAM REYNOLDS & Co."

Gibbins respecting yield, &c., was that 30 lbs. Henry Cort, by giving us the iron of the steam

of pigs would produce 22 lbs. of blooms, upon engine, have benefited every branch of manu

" Cyfartha, April 5th, 1789. which I was inclined to believe something more facture in which machinery is employed-the "Dear Sir, ---I have delayed answering your than 20 lb. of bars would be made ; but we had cotton trade to the extent of many millions last favour of the 8th past longer than I in- had little experience in drawing out, and would sterling annually. We need not say what Cort tended that I might advise you of the cargo of not speak certainly upon that subject; we had did for Free Trade. He was really a promoter blooms and pig iron sent to Gosport, of which also made blooms with little more than the of that great modern movement; nay, he it was at foot you shall have an account. Since I weight of metal in coals used, taking a furnace who taught us the secret of our own iron-pro- have had any intercourse or exchange of letters ready for charging ; but this was with greater ducing power, and thus laid the basis on which with you we have made many careful trials care than could always be used, and, therefore, so much of our modern trade and manufacture with a stream of cold, after P. Onion's plan, in a larger quantity must be allowed. rests ; while by aid of his great inventions the all of which 'T. Gales has been the principal "Furnace building, ls. 9d., including bricks ; markets of Europe have been brought into in- workman. We have tried both Plymouth and making and slinging blooms, 20s. per 22 lbs. stantaneous communication with Great Britain. Cyfartha metal, also sand-iron bottoms, both This letter was dated January, '88, since then I All that Cort did was done, moreover, by means with and without blast, to which not only my- have not heard from them, but I believe Mr. of native materials which were useless up to sell but my two colleagues also attended, that Crawshay had, by whom you will have been this time, and by the exclusive exercise of na- their opinion might be added in a joint report informed what passed from our late experience tive labour.

upon the business to our friend Mr. Crawshay ; in drawing. We find it requires more than 22

and it is our opinion that no kind of change is lb. of blooms to a ton. of bars. I am desired It is stated that the design for the floating batteries produced from the use of cold air

, as used by P. to send a ton of our bars made after your prointended to be used by the French on the Lago di Onions. It does not bear the hammer better ; cess to Stourton, which I am inclined to do. Garda originated in England, it is not better in colour or texture ; nor, in our

(Signed) “JAMES CocksuUTT."

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Deadword.

“Plymouth blooms are marked with two strokes of white lead ; Cyfartha with one ; Ply- WHAT IS TO BE DONE WITH OUR SAILING SHIPS OF WAR! mouth pigs without any mark; the Cyfartha has one stroke of white lead ; other particulars you have heard from H. Charles.”

On the 11th of March, 1789, Messrs. J. Homfray and Co., of Pendarran, write as

b follows:

“DEAR SIR,—Am much obliged for yours of the 19th of February, and the other side send you an account of our performance.” The letter, which is mutilated and imperfect, contains the following passage :-“So satisfied myself about it that I shall provide no more blast than is necessary for a blowing a furnace in a new concern I am about establishing upon these moun

2 tains, supposing all blast in future as unnecessary in manufacturing bar iron. The new forge at Cyfartha, upon your plan, is a noble thing, and does great credit to those gentlemen there ; they are driving it forward with great spirit, and will constantly turn out about 30 tons a week of blooms; they are now drawing some for London. Your rolling mills, not only for these blooms, but for all *** makes them beautiful iron. I have been to Bristol since, but could not meet with M. Trueman Harford to hear his opinion, but found from the iron weigher that 15 cwt. of it had been sold ; and one smith had told him that it worked very well, and punched famously ; this we find to be the case in our own shops. The Port iron will be slit at Stourton, and worked under my father and brothers Sam. and Tom's own eye, who are both very anxious for its well-doing, and impatient for its trial. I have no doubt * * Mr. Cockshutt desires to join me in remembrance.”

“February 21, 1789. Pigs del patent furnace 3 tons 13 cwt. 3 qr. 71b produced blooms, 2 tons 8 cwt. 1 qr. 29 lb. ; bars, 2 tons. 1 cwt.

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." It is pretty generally acknowledged, that so long

London, August 17, 1859. as a screw steam-ship has the power of lying at “ Takes 1 ton 10 cwt. 1 qr. 23 lb. pigs to GENTLEMEN.—My mind has been occupied for pleasure across the bows or the stern of a sailing make 20 cwt. blooms, and 1 ton 15 cwt. some time with the consideration of a mode of ship, and sweeping the whole length of her decks 2 qr. 17 lb. pigs to 20 cwt. bars.

rendering our sailing ships effective as ships of with a broadside, the sailing ship must be over“Chaffery takes 1 ton 3 cwt. 1 qr. 19 lb. war; but as the subject involves questions which matched, although greatly superior in strength to blooms to make 20 cwt. bars.

can only be satisfactorily answered by seamen, I re- her adversary. And I do no doubt that in the “Coals used in the furnace, 6 tons 12 cwt.

quest the favour of the publication of the following event of war with a maritime power, all the sail.

thoughts concerning it, in the hope that some of ing ships now on Foreign Service would be on this The judgment of the most competent persons the many naval gentlemen who appear to take an account instantly recalled. was unanimous in favour of the merits of interest in a mechanical journal will endeavour to This disadvantage would be completely removed Cort's invention ; the trials in the public throw light upon it. Omitting those sailing ships if the sailing ships possessed the means of tarning Dockyards, the condition of the Navy Board now in process of conversion, those which have or changing their positions without the aid of the requiring the use of Cort's iron only, were con- been appropriated as depots of various kinds, and sails or rudder; and I do not see that in other reclusive as to the success of the process. The acts all whose age exceeds forty years, we have still a spects they would be much inferior to converted and opinions of the individual ironmasters, fleet of at least 80 line-of-battle ships and frigates ships. could leave no doubt as to the enormous value which have not yet reached the age of decrepitude. Let us suppose a 90-gun ship to be lengthened of the new processes ; they took or entered Their ages, reckoning from the dates of launching, to receive engines of 450 or 500 horse power at a into contracts for licences upon terms freely ten to twenty years ; three between twenty and ing from ships like the Algiers and Hannibal

, that are as follows:-Seven line-of-battle ships of from cost of £50,000 or £60,000. It would seem, judg. pended large amounts of capital for the erection thirty years, and twelve between thirty and forty we could not expect to get more than uine knots

Of frigates carrying between 40 and 50 per hour out of her. In the “Nile" engines of of works, which in a few years would have pro- guns, thirteen of from ten to twenty years, seven 500 horse power do not give seven knots.

Now, duced bar iron sufficient to yield ample remu- between twenty and thirty years, and twenty-two it is difficult to see what advantage such a ship neration to Cort, and a princely fortune for his between thirty and forty years, and of smaller would possess in a contest with the Shannon, say, thirteen children. Cort and his results stand frigates, nine of from ten to twenty years, and of 50 guns, and having a speed of nearly twelve unparalleled in the history of invention and in- eight between twenty and thirty years. How knots per hour, which she would not have posventions as a case in which the merit of the many of these may be the victims of premature sessed had she remained a sailing ship, and been invention should be universally conceded almost decay I know not, but that age alone has not in. fitted with the means of changing her position immediately after its announcement, and the capacitated them for service, supposing them to which I have suggested. Her conversion has only rights of the inventor should be so universally have undergone the ordinary periodical repairs, made her far more vulnerable ; her engines

, acquiesced in by the trade, some of whom were will appear from the consideration, that of the her screw, and her weak rudder-post are all vital the owners of or interested in prior inventions. ships whose soundness of constitution has justi- points, and are all exposed to fire. Her screw is, The sequel will disclose a casc unparalleled is 45 years of age; the Neptune 27; the Royal wreck of her own spars, or of those of an enemy.

fied their conversion into steam ships, the Nelson moreover, constantly liable to be fouled by the both as regards the character of the transac- William, the Waterloo, and the Rodney 26. Sup. It cannot be doubted that there are some circum. tions and the consequences to the individual posing, then, that the majority of these ships are stances, especially those connected with the evoluconcerned.

too old, as they certainly are, to justify the ex. tions of a fleet, under which the steam power

penditure of large sums in lengthening them to would be very valuable, but we cannot doubt, on The Mersey, 40, screw, Capt. Caldwell, C.B., will receive engines, and are yet in sufficiently good the other hand, that the vulnerability

have shortly make a trial of her altered screw, at the condition with moderate repair to take the sea as pointed out deserves serious consideration-far more each blade of the screw having been cut off, in con: sailing ships, I propose to inquire whether they serious consideration, I believe, than it is likely to sequence of the results obtained from the late experi- could, under the altered circumstances of naval receive until we have learned the bitter lessons of mental trials of the Doris, as affecting the ship's vibra- warfare, be made efficient fighting ships without experience. tion, the aid of steam power.

I am not desirous of proving that the sailing

TO THE EDITORS OF THE

1 qr. 20 lb.

ship may be made superior to the slow and

BOYDELL'S TRACTION ENGINE.

vessel, the evil complained of will be diminished t vulnerable screw ship for war purposes, but I am

some extent, provided all the engines are con most certainly of opinion that these sailing ships DURING last week the capabilities of this admir: nected. The screw and paddles would act tolerably of ours may be made available for service on foreign Park previous to the engine and its train of fly-wheels in stationary engines, and I imagine

as governors, somewhat on the same principle as with the constant use of anxiliary steam-power, waggons being despatched to Bombay, in accord. that principle might be adopted in vessels with and to augment the fleet for home defence by India. The engine is perfectly under control, even ance with the wish of the Secretary of State for engines of not less than 800 horse-power, provided

the screw shaft could be efficiently conn-cted 60 or 70 tons of coal per cay in doing

what could for the sharpest turnings of ordinary streets, and with the paddle engines. Probably the resut be as well done by sailing ships

. There would be easy both in ascent and descent of steep inclines. would be that a high speed could be maintained this

advantage, too, in the plan proposed, viz., This endless rail acted with the most perfect while sailing over a heavy sea, with a head wind, that nearly every ship fitted in this way would be satisfaction, quite bearing out what has been without having recourse to an increased conclear gain in comparing our strength with that of travel over the worst roads, but that the roadway in these surmises, probably some of your corres

before stated that the engine could not only sumption of fuel, as at present. If I am wrong France, as she has but few sailing ships left. I have stated all this with hesitation because I itself is actually improved by the equal and broad pondents will set me right.

The engine can with do not feel competent to decide upon the questions compression of the rails.

I remain, Gentlemen, very respectfully, involved; but this I say confidently, that if the ease draw from 60 to 70 tons along ordinary

JOHN DE LA HAYE. possession of the means of turning without the turnpike roads at the rate of four miles per hour.

Perth, August 16th, 1859. aid of rudder or sails would do what I have Attached to the machine were five powerful supposed, it may be cheaply and quickly obtained. waggons specially made for the purpose by Cres

IMPROVED RIFLE FIRE-BRAND. Nothing more is necessary than to cut a hole in kill, and all of which, by removing a pin or pivot the deadwood to receive a screw capable of motion from between the two leading wheels, are enabled TO THE EDITORS OP TIIE “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” in a vertical longitudinal plane by means of like movement, which gives the utmost freedom phosphorous dissolved in bisulphide of carbon, which

to follow every turn of the engine, with a serpent- GENTLEMEN,—The rifle-brand, charged with manual or other power on board. The amount of and flexibility to the whole convoy. More than i lately successfully tested at Chatham, with the power required may be readily ascertained by

once the whole train turned in less than half its sanction of his Royal Highness the Commandercomparison with the rudder. A ship would have good steerage way with a speed of six knots; in length, and that, too, in passing over grass and in-Chief and the late Secretary for War, was so other words, a rudder moving through the water

uneven ground. The indentation made by the constructed that its neck was broken on striking at this speed would certainly encounter suficient passage of the wheels was certainly no more than loose hanging canvas, when the liquid spread on resistance to turn the ship. But as the rudder is would have been made by an ordinary coal the canvas and immediately set it on fire. My never inclined at a greater angle than 30° to the waggon. 160 soldiers of the Guards were in present improved brand has a tube of glass line of the keel, the normal or effective velo- attendance and rode in the waggons, and with charged with the liquid placed within. It is then city of the water on the rudder would only be the level parts of the Park at the rate of six miles the rifle the glass tube breaks by the jar of the

this load the whole train was taken easily across closed in front with a plug of lead. On firing three knots. If, therefore, a screw of sufficient size is made to revolve fast enough to give a velo

an hour. The result of the trials were in the exploded charge. The liquid is diffused in the city in advance of three knots, it is likely to do luighest degree satisfactory, and seems to leave no interior of the brand, and cannot immediately more towards turning the ship than a rudder hard doubt whatever that over the rough roads of India escape from it ; but after a few minutes it wiù over, because the thrust is more direct. Now, a

during the summer season, when the rivers are percolate through the sap pores of the wood, and screw ten feet in diameter, two feet long, and with dry, the engines will be of the utmost service in burst into flame. This brand is therefore well twelve feet pitch, could be easily fitted in a frigate military purposes, such as getting up guns and weeds, &c., that cause no shock to the fall of the

facilitating the transmission of merchandise. For adapted for setting fire to long grass, bushes, without weakening her or diminishing her stowage. siege stores, an engine of the kind would prove an brand, and will set fire to the vegetation all per minute, move through the water in ad- invaluable auxiliary. Two have been ordered for around a hostile battery of artillery whenever it vance with a velocity of three knots per hour. the deserts with caravans, and before long doubt

the Pasha of Egypt for the purpose of traversing moves. The indicated horse-power corresponding to this less many more will be sent to India.

I am thus particular in describing its useful. would be, if the screw were under the same cir

ness, because I sometime ago read a speech in the cüinstances as the propelling screws, about 71. It

public papers by his Royal Highness the Commay, therefore, be fairly assumed that nine or ten

mander-in-chief, wherein he stated that he should

JENSEN'S MARINE ENGINE GOVERNOR. horse-power, applied by means of capstans, or if

be glad to receive information on military matters TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." from all persons qualified to give it; and als ) it were thought desirable, by a small donkey. engine, would be sufficient to turn a 50-gun remarks on an invention of Mr. P. Jenson, as

GENTLEMEN,—Will you allow me to offer a few because when I had the honour to attend a Leve frigate as rapidly as she would be turned by her described in your columns, for regulating the Royal Highness was pleased to say, “We ought

at the Horse Guards more than a year ago, lis rudder with a steerage way of six knots. Such a screw would be ten or twelve feet below the water, speed of marine engines during severe gales. The to be much obliged to you." and entirely within the ship, so as to offer little chinery, to shut off the steam at the moment the charged with the liquid, when all the liquid

inventor proposes, by means of self-acting ma- I have found that after using a leaden shell companies this letter the screw is shown in the water descends from under the paddles ; then to appeared to have burned out, on melting the used liorizontal position, which, being that of least admit it into the engines as soon as the waves shell in an iron ladle, a portion of the phosphorous, resistance, would always be assumed when the arise to their ordinary level. The arrangements, which remain on the lead in a state of inerustaVesiel was in motion, supposing the screw to be it must be admitted, are very simple, and the tion, continued to burn for some minutes. This allowed to move freely. The only resistance of principle will probably appear very plausible to proves the extraordinary “vitality of the liquid But there is no difficulty in fire."

J. Nonton. any consequence caused by the introduction of many persons. the apparatus would then be the negative and would fail to accomplish the object in view. Mr. demonstrating that the arrangements proposed

Rosherville, July 30.

P.S. --Colonel Sandham, R.E., commanding at positive pressures at the

fore and aftere ends of Jensen has evidently lost sight of the fact that, Brompton, Chatham, informed me that a report found desirable by hanging slight metal shutters when engines have attained their full speed, each would be made to the War Department on the over the upper portion of the aperture. Some of stroke of the piston becomes independent of the result of my practical experiments at Chatham. your readers may remember that a proposition was

action of the steam; and, consequently, that the Several months have now passed, but I have not made some fifteen years ago by a Mr. Foulerton, shutting off of the steam would not instantaneously yet heard of the nature of that report. I am, master mariner, to fit all kinds of sailing and diminish the speed of the screw or paddles. The however, ready to repeat the experiments at any

J. N. screw ships with an apparatus of this kind to assist only, result that would be obtained by adopting time or place required. the vessel in stays, and to enable her to ma.

this invention, would be to check the speed of the næuvre after the loss of the rudder. It was enter; be required; that is, when the waves would strike Stevenage, published some observations in anticipa.

engines at the moment when great power would Some months back Mr. J. Bailey Denton, of by Mr. Foulerton in the St. Lawrence frigate. As against the paddles, causing a deeper immersion. tion of the effects of the drought of last winter in reit was only 3 feet 6 in. in diameter it failed, as

The steam, it is true, would be admitted at that ducing the water supply of the present summer and might have been expected. All the reasons for its moment, but this would not increase the speed of coming autumn. His anticipations are now, he says, adoption urged by him upon the Admiralty still the engines until the

moment when greater speed are the districts in which th> inhabitar ts are suffering exist, and with the special one I have here en

would be more than useless; for, by the time the from the want of the first essential of health and deavoured to point out.

steam would have given a full impetus to the comfort, and he again calls the attention of our legis. I am, Gentlemen, your obedient servant,

engines, the paddles would, probably, be again lators and the larger landed proprietors, who are reA NAVAL ARCHITECT.

whirling in the air. Every engineer who has turning to their estates in the country, tɔ the impor.

watched the working of marine engines when tance of providing water in the villages of the rural Elevation and Section of the after part of the 81-gun sailing over a heavy sea, well knows the inconve. poor. He suggests that means be found to concen

trate and preserve the drainage and surface water Bailing ships, showing the proposed mode of fitting a 10- niences and dangers of the present arrangements; which runs a, Load water-line; 1, Orlop deck ; but it is far easier to see the extent of the evil, months of winter and spring for use in the summer

to waste during the non-evaporating c, Inner stern-post; d, Watertight trunk ; : An endless than it is to provide an efficient remedy. When and autumn in those localities where from soil and kund passing up the trunk to au axle,

f, which is turned the

screw and paddles are combined in the same height there is no constant supply, by manual or other power,

REFERENCES TO ENGRAVING ON OPPOSITE PAGE.

А

FREE DRINKING FOUNTAINS.

Fig. 1.- INTERNAL VIEW.

FIG. 2.-CRYSTAL PALACE FOUNTAIN. In our leading columns we have drawn attention to the beneficent work of the Free Drinking Fountains Association. We here propose to show what mechanical arrangements the Association has adopted for the efficient and economical carrying out of its plans. The simplicity of these arrangements (which are shown in the sectional view Fig. 1 of the annexed engravings) are obvious, and call for little remark, if we except the appli. cation of a filtering medium in an air-tight cylinder in connexion with the main supply pipes of the water companies, by means of which a large amount of pressure will be obtained to force the water through the filtering medium.

The con struction of this cylinder with a convex bottom permits most of the organic impurities to fall by their own specific gravity, thus reserving for the filtering medium only the action of stopping the more minute organic impurities, with those held

20 in solution. The flushing pipe is always a ready means of cleansing the cylinder cistern. The ballcock cistern shown is rendered necessary by the requirements of the Water Companies, and will in some measure regulate the pressure. The filter ing medium has been prepared upon principles approved by the Association. It will be inclosed in, or will itself form, a second cylinder containing animal charcoal, through which the water must pass, previously passing in the one case first through a porous and charcoal stone imported from abroad, and suggested by Mr. Jackson, the Secre. tary of the Association, and in the other case, first through a filtering substance manufactured expressly for Messrs. Wills, of 12 Euston Road. These filters for the present will be applied inside the air-tight cylinders, and the result it is hoped will support the strong opinions expressed of their efficiency. The cylinder-cistern may be applied to either Standard or Mural Fountains, or in case their structure will not admit of inser. tion, the same arrangements can be made underground.

The Association having engaged to erect a drinking fountain in the Crystal Palace grounds, the company selected the design. This fountain, shown at Fig. 2 (by Messrs. Wills, Bros.), which we have had carefully engraved, can be constructed of bronze or bronzed iron, and the vase may either be of the same materials or of marble. This

WILLS BROS: design, although occupying but the smallest space with the greatest strength, will allow of nine REFERENCES TO FIGURE 1.-A, Ball cock cistern, inflexibly required by the London Water Companies ; B, The supply persons drinking at one time.

pipe; C, The pipe conducting filtered water to the ball cock cistern; D, The waste pipe conveying the water to a The water supply for drinking fountains will, it does through the ensecinto a sewer ; E, Pipe for flushing and cleansing cistern ; F, Cistern containing the filtering medium ;

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is hoped, be provided by the liberality of the 7. Islington-green,

8. Holloway-road, water companies, as three have already consented

9. Lower-road,

Five with St. Mary's, Islington to do; but until a memorial, which the Associa 10. Liverpool-road,

(one opened last week). tion has now prepared to be sent to the general 11. Caledonian-road, companies be answered, no exact statement as to

12. Regent's-circus, Oxford-street, Mr. Gurney.

13, Bethnal-green, in front of St. John's Church, with Mr. terms can be made.

Link (now opened). The following list of sites may be acceptable as

14. Marylebone Workhouse wall, with a lady (ready for

opening); showing the number of fountains which the

15. Stepney, with Rev. J. Kennedy. Association has erected, or is now under engage- 16. Bermondsey, Mill-lane, with vestry (nearly ready).

17. Victoria-gate, ments to erect, having in four months from the

18. Pickering-place,

With Paddington inanguration received through the donations of 19. Alelaide-place, Regent's-canal, Vestry. private persons and contributions from the local 20. Paddington-green, authorities, the funds and the control over sites

21. Sloane-square with Chelsea Vestry.

22. Near Pier } necessary for this encouraging commencement of 23. Peter-street, the great work proposed, viz., to erect not less 24. Broad-street,

With St. James's, Westthan four hundred fountains in the metropolis :

25. Great Marlborough-street, minster.

26, 1. Fountain at Suow-hill, Mr. Gurney.

27. Tower-hill, opposite Mint, with Whitechapel Board of 2. Emerson-street, Bankside,

Works. 2. L'pper Ground-street,

Five in connection 29. Newington-causeway, with Mr. Dunn. 4. Triangle, Union-street, Borough, with St. Saviour's, 29. Adelaide-place, London-bridge, with Provident Insti4. Bowlund Hil'e Chapel,

31. Victoria-road, near Palace-gardens.
32. Strand, with Mr. Hanbury, M.P.
33. Mother Red Cap,
34. Junction-road, Kentish-town,
35. Southampton-arms,
36. Brighton-street, corner of Cromer-street,
37. Euston-square,

With 38. Tottenham-court-road,

St. Pancras 39. The Brill, Somers-town,

Vestry 40. York and Albany,

and 41. Pancras-vale,

private 42. Brecknock-arms, Camden-town,

persons. 43. Goldington-crescent, 44. Gray's-inn Hospital, 45. Hampstead-road. 46. Cumberland-market, 47. Horseferry-road, Westminster, Mr. Stafford. 49. Westminster-bridge-road. 49. 50.

With Mile-end, Old-town, Vestry. 51. 52. 53. Cannon-street-road, With St. George-in-the-East. 54. Chigwell-hill, 55. Highgate-hill, 56.

Southwark.

tution. 6.

30. Endell-street, with Mr, Langdale (now open),

With Committee at Ilighgate. 57.

}

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