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THE STEERING OF SCREW STEAM tudinal plane passing through the centre of the FREE DRINKING FOUNTAINS. SHIPS.

ship—and the screw is set revolving, the vessel TO THE EDITORS OF THE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." The difficulty of steering long ships has always is turned round very rapidly. If, when the vessel GENTLEMEN,–In an article on free drinking been a great impediment to the lengthening of is going at a considerable speed, in the usual way, fountains in your excellent Magazine of the 19th screw steam-ships, particularly in the case of war the blades are rapidly brought into the position instant, you describe certain arrangements which vessels, which should be capable of performing before stated, she also turns very quickly.

it is stated the Metropolitan Free Drinking

Fountains Association has adopted for the filtrarapid evolutions. During somo recent experi We content ourselves, for the present, with tion of water at their fountains. As this account ments on board his steam-yacht, the Dragon-fly, placing this fact on record, only remarking that, is not altogether correct, we beg to be allowed to Mr. Joseph Maudslay discovered a fact which while it is not difficult to see how it is to be ac state that the only means hitherto used for the appears to us to have a very important bearing counted for, it is impossible not to view it as very filtration of water at the fountains of the Assoupon this subject. The screw-propeller of the important.

ciation, as well as at various others in the metroDragon-fly is fitted with feathering-blades, which We subjoin an engraving of Mr. Maudslay's polis

, are the filters of the Moulded Carbon Com.

pany, designed and supplied by us. The annexed are capable of having their pitch varied with the feathering screw (which was published in our figure will probably afford a better explanation of utmost ease from the deck, either when the screw Magazine for 1856) in order that the nature of the arrangement adopted, than that which is conis at rest or when it is revolving at any speed. the feathering propeller may be apparent to our veyed by your representation. The remarkable fact which Mr. Maudslay has ob- readers. A glance at the several figures will A is an iron cistern containing a hollow cylinder served is, that when both blades are set in the make its construction evident to practical of moulded carbon B, which is suspended to the line of the keel- or, in other words, in the longi- | men.

lid by a nut F, through which the pipe E is passed into the carbon. The unfiltered water enters by the pipe C, which is perforated on its underside within the cistern, and made to surround the cylinder ; by this means the water flows continually over the whole surface of the carbon, and prevents the deposition of insoluble matter upon it, which is carried down to the bottom of the cistern, from where it may occasionally be drawn, and the whole cleaned out by opening the tap G. D, tap to regulate the supply. EE are muion joints, by which the apparatus can be fixed

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or removed in a few minutes. This filter may also be conveniently attached to the main or supply pipe in dwellings.

As the names of others have been introduced in your article, by which it will be understood that the filtering medium has been prepared and supplied by them, we trust you will favour us by giving insertion to this letter in your next number,

HARRISON AND Co. 62 Fleet Street.

ADMIRALTY EXPERIMENTS ON IRON

SIDED SHIPS. A SERIES of experimental trials have been carried on during the past fortnight at Portsmouth, with a view of ascertaining the amount of resistance offered by iron and steel plates of various manufactures when opposed to heavy ordnance at a short range. The trials are understood to have reference to the future coating of the steam ram now in progress of construction. The practice has been carried on from the Stork gunboat, tender to Her Majesty's ship Excellent, gunnery ship in Portsmouth harbour, both from a 32pounder and a 95 cwt. gun, the latter throwing a solid 681b. shot, with 16lb, charge of powder ; the distance of range 200 yards. At this distance the results of the experiments have demonstrated in the clearest possible manner that no iron or steel

plate that has yet been manufactured can with-turing towns, and in the rural districts; with | altered character of naval evolutions rendered stand the solid shot from the 95 cwt. gun at a officers of both services, landed proprietors, mer

necessary by these changes. He has, moreover, short range. The first shot would not penetrate chants, lawyers, and also with peasants and felt called upon to express his opinions upon the through the iron plate, but it would fracture it, artisans, sailors and fishermen. He had thus the apparent inefficiency of the old Admiralty Board and on three or four striking the plate in the best opportunities of acquiring information, and in coping with the urgent requirements of the same place, or in the immediate neighbourhood, of learning the feelings entertained towards this present critical juncture. And, though last, not it would be smashed to pieces. As the results of country by a great number of Frenchmen. least in importance, our coast and land defences the trial affected the steel plates it proved that a Although he cannot but admit that he experi. will be found discussed, if not with adequate steel-clothed ship could be far more easily de-enced on no occasion any lack of personal courtesy, ability, at least in a sincere and earnest spirit

. In stroyed than a wooden-sided one, and that on the it must still be allowed that if some of the connexion with this latter topic, the author has smashing-in of one of the steel-plates the de opinions he heard were reproduced at home, in ventured to call public attention to the great struction of life on the armed ship's decks, sup- the precise terms in which they were originally advantage of training a portion of the civilian posing the broken plate to be driven through the expressed, our national vanity would scarcely feel population to the use of arms, through the ship's side, would be something dreadful to con. flattered by the sentiments towards us so frankly medium of volunteer associations, organised under template, from the spread of the splintered avowed. With the view, moreover, of fully the sanction of Government, so as to be available material. At from 600 to 800 yards iron-clothed ascertaining the real capabilities and present on an emergency as a valuable reserve." ships would be in comparative safety from the condition of the navy and arsenals of France, effects of an enemy's broadside, but it must be he passed some time at Toulon, at Rochefort, Busk’s volume with the gravity which a profound

Although we are not disposed to treat Mr. borne in mind that the effects of concentrated at Lorient, at Brest, and at Cherbourg, carefiring have yet to be ascertained on the sides of an fully investigating all that had been done of and well-studied work on the “Navies of the iron-clothed ship, and account also must be taken late years at those several ports, inspecting World” would deserve, we would have it underof the damage the woodwork forming the inner the works in progress at each. He was, besides, stood that the author has not bestowed his labours sides of such a ship would receive from the fortunate enough to obtain access to important grudgingly upon it. He has amassed an unex. driving-in of the broken plates ; and which, as far and unpublished official documents, so as to check ampled amount of information relative to the as the present experiments have illustrated, would the accuracy of oral information. By this means appear to prove that an iron or steel-clad ship, on he was enabled to ascertain precisely the present French navies and naval ports, and to this he has receiving a concentrated broadside from a frigate, strength of the French marine, the age of every added useful descriptions of other foreign navies. armed in a similar manner to the Mersey, and ship, the port at which she was built, the number His detailed lists of our own navy are also very struck near her waterline, must sink then and of her guns, and in the case of steamers the copious and complete, and, so far as we have ob. there, with her armour on her back.-Times. horse-power of each. This information, collected

as it is from trustworthy sources, cannot but be served, very accurate also. The volume also comLiterature.

deemed, at the present juncture of considerable prises a reprint of the “Conversations-Lexicon"

value; and if the jealous care of the French article on the English and French navies, together The Navies of the World; their Present State and Government, in withholding such knowledge, be with a spirited review of the same. Future Capabilities. By Hans Busk, M.A., of taken into account, and consequently the extreme

But we cannot, in justice to our numerous Trinity College, Cambridge. With Illustrations. difficulty of procuring statistical facts of the London: Routledge, Warnes, and Routledge, Far- kind, in a country where not only no official navy naval readers, fail to say that the volume is not ringdon-street. 1859.

list is published, but where no catalogue of the without serious errors--errors into which none Wuen report on report and parliamentary return sort is allowed to be publically circulated under but a purely amateur writer could have fallen. on parliamentary return, all abounding in informa- any pretence, some estimate may be formed of For example, in the detailed statement of the tion relating to the navy, came pouring forth at the the toil necessary to succeed in an enterprise strength of our own navy, we are gravely in. commencement of the present year, we felt perfectly the author.

apparently so hopeless as the one undertaken by

Patient perseverence, however, formed, in a special note, that our three-deck sure that some one or other would hash them up overcame all difficulties, and the result of his screw ships draw from 35 to 36 feet of water! into the form of a volume, with a loud-sounding labours will be found incorporated in the following And, that there may be no doubt as to the delibetitle, and have it advertised from one end of the pages. The summary there farnished will cer ration with which these figures are given, we are world to the other. As Mr. Hans Busk, Master tainly afford matter for reflection. That very further told that twenty-two of the two-deck of Arts, Barrister-at-Law, Lieutenant of the Vic. accustomed, from the many disastrous defeats sus

screw ships draw about 34 feet; and the rest toria Volunteer Rifles, author of “The Rifle, and tained at sea by France, during former wars, about 32 feet. Now, no naval man need be told How to Use It," &c., is rather fond of getting up to regard her maritime resources as immen that these are most absurd statements. The ship books apparently, there seems to us no reason why surably inferior to our own, will learn with some which draws more water than any other in our he should not have been the man to undertake the getic exercise of her indomitable will

, she has navy is the Duke of Wellington, and her draught business ; and Mr. Busk himself appears to have been for some time past steadily gathering is about 27 ft. 6 in. aft., and 25 ft. 6 in. forward ; thought the same. We are glad he has done so, together her giant strength, and could at a her mean draught being, therefore, 26 ft. 6 ins. because, he failing, the undertaking might have very brief notice, if need were, equip for sen -nearly 10 feet less than Mr. Busk says! After fallen into the hands of some idle person, who a fleet of more than four hundred vessels, of making all dae allowances for Mr. Busk's circumwould have performed it far less satisfactorily than which nearly threescore would be ships of the stances, as the author of a work on a subject lying he. Considering who Mr. Busk is, and how very strength of England's bulwarks, numerically

so very remote from his professional calling, we little he could be expected to know of the world's reckoned, cannot be considered very materially to really are still astonished to find him falling into navies, he has really done his work astonishingly exceed that of France, and this is especially the such an error as this. Ships drawing 36 feet of well. In order to acquaint our readers with

case as regards effective line of-battle ships and water may, perhaps, be built by coming generathe spirited manner in which he has gone also, has been to collect authentic information on

frigates. One of the author's chief objects, tions, but if they should be, they will certainly about it, we quote the following extract from the present condition and future prospects of our

find entrance into very few of our ports. the author's preface. In perusing it, let no own navy; in detailing which, in its proper place, There are other portions of this volume which reader object to the frank testimony which Mr. he has ventured briefly to introduce such views have but little interest for us, but which may be Busk bears to the zeal and the successes of Mr.

and suggestions for its improvement as may have very useful nevertheless to many others, especially Busk. A little fluent freedom of that kind on

occurred to himself, or have been derived from a the part of an author will not do us any harm careful examination of the opinions expressed by to those who are not readers of the Mechanics unless it should become common !

experienced naval men and other competent MAGAZINE. We meet with a good deal that has

Mr. Busk authorities. A slight sketch of the actual state appeared from time to time, and in various forms, says:

of the navies of other maritime powers -- as in our columns; such as descriptions of the “An earnest desire to obtain authentic Russia, the United States, Holland, Austria, Den- Armstrong gun, the Whitworth gun, Captain intelligence on these matters-stimulated the au-mark, Sweden, &c.—has also been appended, so as thor, during the latter part of the past year, to to present, in a compact form, a comparative view Norton's and Captain Blakely's inventions, Mr. visit the several French naval stations, at some of of the existing 'navies of the world.' Besides the Macintosh's system of warfare, and so forth. We which he encountered a variety of obstacles, al- above topics, the author has thought it essential to a also, we regret to say, meet with not a little loose though he finally succeeded in his object beyond full elucidation of the subject to devote separate writing about "Admiralty jobbery,” the "short. his most sanguine expectations. In the prosecu- chapters to the consideration of other matters comings of that department,” &c. tion of his inquiries, the writer travelled several intimately connected with the whole question ; believe that such writing can do any good. We

We do not thousand miles in France, associated and conversed such as the application of steam to ships-ofwar

, have already plenty of men

who are fluent enough with people of various grades and professions, as well at the military and naval stations, arsenals, screw; naval gunnery, as based upon the vastly in quoting epithets; we want no more of them; and seaports, as in the large cities and manufac- improved ordnance now in use, as well as the what we do want are men who can take up facts

Height of
cylinder in
inches.

sq. in.

sq. in.

5s.

ON

THE

OF

AND

1.5

9.274

12.313

1

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sure:

$9. in.

with fairness and impartiality, weigh and balance and then annealed, in this way retaining the ex- rupture or line of minimum strength; A=the them with intelligence, and then give us the re

terior and first cooled skin of glass. The cubes longitudinal sectional area of the globe in square

were cut from much larger portions, and were in inches; and T=the tenacity of the glass in pounds sult of their deliberations calmly, nothing extenuat- consequence probably in a less perfect condition per square inch. Hence, from the above experiing nor setting down aught in malice. as regards annealing. Hence, as might have been ments we deduce :

Pounds. On the whole Mr. Busk’s book may be taken as anticipated the results upon the two classes of specia useful and timely compilation, and while no one mens, although consistent in each case, differ

T=4200 for flint.glass, must believe all that it says, many may read it

=4800 for green glass,
widely from one another,
The mean compressive resistance of the

=6000 for crown-glass, with profit.

cylinders, varying in height from 1 to 2 inches,
and about 0.75 inch in diameter, is giving on the

5000= mean tenacity of glass.
LIST OF NEW BOOKS.
following table

Here the mean tenacity is nearly twice that obArcher's Universal Yacht Signals, 3rd edition, 103.

tained in the experiments upon thick bars; a Catechism of Photography, Is.

Mean crushing

Mean crushing Easton's Examples in Arithmetic and Mensuration, ls.

result which, perhaps, corresponds with the weight per

weight per Eley's Geology in the Garden, 6s. Description

difference between the crushing strength of cy. Galbraith and Haughton's Arithmetic, Key to, 5s.

of glass.

linders and cubes, and is largely attributable to Galbraith and Haughton's Mechanics, Key to, by M'Dowell

in lbs. in tons. in lbs. in tons.

the condition of annealing. Galbraith and Haughton's Plane Trigonometry, Koy to, 5s.

29,168 13.021

RESISTANCE GLASS Griffith's Artillerist's Manual, 8th edition, 7s. Od.

GLOBES Flint-glass

20,775

27,582 llartley's Handy Book for Rifle Volunteers, 78.

(2.0

CYLINDERS TO AN EXTERNAL PRESSURE,

32,803 14.644 How to Colour a Photograph, ls. Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea, new edition, 58.

The manner of conducting these experiments did

22,583 10-081 Quested's Act of Land Surveying, 5th edition, 3s. 6d.

not differ in any essential detail from that pursued Green glass 1.5 35,029 15.628 Smith's National Defence in Practice, ls.

31,876 14.227

38,105 16.971 Stevenson's Civil Engineering of North America, 2nd edit.,

in the experiments upon wrought iron. The globes 3s. (Weale.)

and cylinders, after having been hermetically V1.0

10.318 Thomas's Practical Treatise on Rifled Ordnance, 128. 60.

23,181 Crown-glass 11:5

13.810

|| 31,003 sealed in the blowpipe flame, were fixed in a

38,825 17-332 Thomson's System of Interest Tables, new edition, 3s. 6d.

wrought-iron boiler communicating with a hyWhite's Catechism of the Marine Steam-Engine, 2s.

The specimens were crushed almost to powder draulic pump. In this position an increasing

by the violence of the concussion; it appeared, pressure was applied until the globes broke, the THE STRENGTH OF GLASS GLOBES AND however, that the fracture occurred in vertical amount of pressure at the time being noted by CYLINDERS.

planes, splitting up the specimen in all directions. means of a Schäffer pressure-gauge. During the By W. FAIRBAIRX and T. Tate.

Cracks were noticed to form some time before the collapse the globes were reduced to the sinallest The following communication was read to the specimen finally gave way; then these rapidly in. fraginents, so that no indication of the direction Royal Society : _“On the resistance of glass globes creased in number, splitting the glass into innu- of the primary lines of fracture could be discovered. and cylinders to collapse from external pressure. ierable prisms, which finally bent or broke, and The following table contains a summary of the and on the tensile and compressive strength of the specimen was destroyed.

results on globes subjected to an external pres. various kinds of glass." By William Fairbairn, The following table gives the results of the ex. Esq., C.E., F.R.S., and T. Tate, Esq., F.R.A.S. periments upon the cut cubes of glass :Received May 3, 1859. We have since obtained

Mean resistance to crushing. Description of

Collapsing in pounds.

Diameters. the following official abstract of the paper :

Thickness. pressure per in tons.

glass. The researches contained in this paper are in

Flint-glass.

13,130 6.861 Green glass

20,206 continuance of those upon the resistance of

9.010

Inches. Inches. Pounds.

0.014 Crown-glass

9.762 wrought-iron tubes to collapse, which have been

5:05 by 4:76 21,867

5:08 by 4.7 published in the “ Philosophical Transactions" for Hence, comparing the results on cylinders with

4:05 by 1:72

0.020 1858. The results arrived at in those experiments those on cubes, we find a mean superiority in the

0.010

8:22 by 7-45 were so important as to suggest further inquiry Former case in the ratio of 1:6:1, due to the more Flint-glass ...

8.2 by 7.2 0.012 under the same conditions rupture with other perfect annealing of the glass.

8.2 by 7.4 0-015 materials; and glass was selected, not only as

4.0 by 3.98 0.02

(900*) ON THE RESISTANCE OF GLASS GLOBES TO INTERNAL

4.0
0.025

(900° differing widely in its physical properties from

(10000) wrought-iron, and hence well fitted to extend our In these experiments the tenacity of glass is

5.0) by 5.02 knowledge of the laws of collapse, but because obtained by a method free from the objections to our acquaintance with its strength in the various that before detailed. Glass globes, easily obtained The following table contains a similar summary forms in which it is employed in the arts and in of the requisite sizes, in a nearly sperical form, of the results upon cylindrical vessels :scientific research is very limited. To arrive at were subjected to an internal pressure obtained by satisfactory conclusions, the experiments on this means of a hydraulic pump, uniformly and steadily

Description of

Thick

Collapsing material were extended so as to embrace the increased till the globe gave way. The liures of

Diam. Length.

pressure per

glass. direct tenacity, the resistance to compression, and fracture radiated in every direction from the the resistance to bursting, as well as the resistance weakest part, passing round the globe as meridians

Inches. Inches. Inches. Pounds. to collapse.

3.09 14.0 0.024 of longitude and splitting it up into thin bands, The glass experimented upon was of three varying from oth to sth of an inch in breadth. kinds ,

0.031 202 The following table gives the results of the exSpecific gravity.

Flint-glass...

7.0 0.046

380 periments on the resistance of glass globes to in

4.00

0.013 Best flint-glass

3:0782

ternal pressure : Common green glass 2.5284

382 Extra white crown-glass . 2:4506

Bursting

(500+) Description of TENACITY OF GLASS.

Diameters. Thickucss. pressure per glass.

The paper includes an investigation of the laws For reasons detailed by the authors, the ex

of collapse in these results, and the following periments upon the direct tenacity of glass

Inches. Inches. Pounds,

general formulæ are obtained :

4.0 bv 3.98 made by tearing specimens asunder are less

4.0 by 3.98 0.025 satisfactory than those in the rest of the paper ;

For glass globes P=28,300,000 x and it is argued that more reliance is to be

Flint-glass..... { / 4.5 by 4:55
5.1 by 5.12 0.058

18+
placed upon the tenacity deduced from the
experiments on the resistance of globes to bursting

For glass cylinders... P- 7 10,000 x

D. in which water-pressure was employed, than upon

4.95 by 5:0

0.020 the tenacity obtained directly by tearing speci

4:95 by 5:0

83 Green glass....

where P=the collapsing pressure in pounds per

4.0 by 4:05 mens asunder. The results obtained by the latter

square inch; k = thickness in inches; i) and 1=

4.0 by 4:03 method give the following mean results :

diameter and length respectively in inches. 4.2 by 4:35

r Tenacity per square inch

These are the general formulæ for glass vessels in pounds.

Crown-glass...
4:05 by 4:2

subjected to an external pressure, and the latter

5.9 by 5.8 0.016 Flint-glass 2413 6:0 by 6.3 0.020

is precisely similar to that found for sheet-iron Green glass 2896

cylinders. The formula which expresses the relation of the Crown-glass 2346

TRAXVERSE STRENGTH OF GLASS. bursting pressure to the thickness and diameter of

The authors derive the general formula
RESISTANCE OF GLASS TO CRUSHING. the globe, is :
The experiments in this section were made upon

K.D
AT

W=3140 x

1 small cylinders and cubes of glass crushed between

P=-; parallel steel surfaces by means of a lever. The

A

where W=breaking weight in pounds, K =area of cylinders were cut of the required length from where a=the longitudinal sectional area of the

• These globes remained unbroken, rods drawn to the required diameter, when molten, material in square inches, that is, in the line of

+ Remained unbroken.

0.018
0.022

292 410 470 472

5.6

35

60

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transverse section, D=depth of section, 1=length description of ship-of-war.” In a former number of

NOTICES. between supports; to express the transverse the Mechanics' MAGAZINE the following memoranda strength of a rectangular bar of glass supported respecting this vessel (which was built at the yard of

M., of Preston.-Do not be angry with us: answering at the ends and loaded in the middle.

Mr. Webb, of New York), was copied from the Scion questions is really no part of our business, and if it were it tific American :-"Her model is what is called the would be a part to which we could not afford to devote long dat floor, full bilge, sharp end, round stern, no

time. Nine out of ton of the requests made to us in this Our WXcekly Gossip. poop or cut-water, and short forecastle deck. She is ex respect are cither absurd or inconsiderate, and we there

fore attach but little importance to them. You, being a pected to attain a speed of fourteen knots under sail, sensible man and a man of business, we hope, would, we

and her draft of water will not exceed 25 feet. Her dare say, become as guilty as ourselves were you in our Charles Barry sends us the following letter, in dimensions are:-Length on spar deck, 307 feet; position. The screw propeller to which you refer is Mr. ence to that of Mr. Loseby which appeared a breadth, 55 feet; length over all

, about 325 feet; Joseph Maudslay's patent feathering screw, and the yacht

in question is the Dragon Fly. The screw was 'described fortnight since in this Magazine, and in the Society depth to spar deck, 34 feet. She is pierced with 41

and illustrated in the MECHAN CS' MAGAZINE, No. 1794, for side ports and two stern ports on the lower deck, and

Aug. 23, 1856; it has not, we think, been altered from the of Arts' Journal the succeeding week :

30 side ports and 4 large ports forward, and 4 large form there described. (See p. 137.) We cannot undertake TO THE EDITORS OF TIE MECITANICS' MAGAZINE.” | ports on the spar deck. Ier armament will consist to prescribe for the pitch of your new screw. “Gentlemen,-My attention has been called to a of 10 shell guns of large calibro on the gun deck, and

The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to letter in the last number of the Journal of the Society

20 long guns and 2 pivot guns of largest size on her subscribers of £1 ls. 8d., annunlly, payable in adeance, of Arts, from

Mr. Loseby, respecting the Westmin. spar deck. She is built of white oak, and will be pro- the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.c. ster clock, in which he alludes to a statement recently at the Novelty Works, this city, each cylinder of made in the House of Commons by Mr. Fitzroy which will be 81 inches in diameter, and 3 feet 9 inches

TO ADVERTISERS. respecting the minute hands made by my authority; stroke, with a nominal power of 2,000. The pro

All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-column the weight of each of which he reported to be above peller is 19feet in diameter, and is ono of Griffith’s insertions less than 13 ; for 13 insertions, 41. per line; and

are charged at the rate of 5d. per line for any number of 3 cwt. patent."

for 52 insertions, 3d. per line. “ That statement was made, I find, upon the authority of Mr. Denison alone, and, as it has

“Sir William Armstrong, Superintendent of the Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as

two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for already misled Mr. Loseby, and possibly the public Rifled Ordnance Department at Woolwich, has sue

the space occupied. also, I think it right to put you in possession of the ceeded,” we are told by the Times' correspondent,“ in

Special Arrangements for larger or Serial Advertisements facts of the caso.

accomplishing the method of rifling the whole or any To ensure insertion, Advertisements must reach the Office

requisite number of the guns employed in the service by 5 o'clock on Thursday evening each week. None can “These hands, which are now condemned by Mr. which present a surface at the bore fit to receive and be received after that time for the ensuing number. Denison, were prepared under his own control; one

maintain the grooves, and which possess a body of of them was submitted to him as a specimen before sufficient tensile strength to resist the explosive power The demand for Mr. E. J. Rexd's paperthe remaining three were made, and mot with his cor

ON THE MODIFICATIONS WHICII TIE SHIPS OP TIE ROYAL dial approval; the others were made by his orders, in required to expel, withi safety, the heavy shot now in strict accordance with the specimen which ho had Shoeburyness in the most successful manner with usc. Some experiments have been carried out at NAVY HAVE T'NDERGONE DURING THE PRESENT CEx.

TURY, IN RESPECT OF DIMENSIONS, Foru, MEANS OF approved; and he fixed the whole of them when

PROPULSION, AND POWER OF ATTACK AND DEFENCE," finished, and inade himself responsible for the cost of morphosis, or transformation from the smooth to the Arts, the Mechanics' Magazine, and all other Scientific some of the guns which havo undergone the mota

has been so great that the Journal of the Society of so doing. The weight of each hand, exclusive of tho

rifled bore, hitherto considered impracticable. The Journals in which it appeared in December last, are now external counterpoise, is 1 cwt. and 2511%

first gun submitted to trial was an 80-pounder on Sir out of print. The demand still continuing, it has “It is obvious, therefore, that Mr. Denison, and William's original plan; the second, an ordinary 32

been deemed desirable to reprint it in a separate form. he alono, is as fully responsible for those funds as he pounder service

gun rifled on a plan of Sir William herefore, been prepared, and may now be had at the Office

An 8vo. edition of it, in large type, and on fine paper, has, is for all the other going parts of the clock. Armstrong's, adapted for elongated cast-iron shot or

of this Magazine, price Is. “I am, Sir, yours faithfully,

shell. They were transported from the department “ CHARLES BARRY."

in Woolwich Arsenal without preliminary proof or "Old Palace-yard, A'lg. 23." test, as the most implicit confidence is placed in the

Patents for Inventions. A correspondent--an experienced naval oficer- judgment of Sir William Armstrong, and were fired

over a range of 3,400 yards. The result exceeded the politely favours us with the following remarks upon the Russian frigate General Admiral, now lying at peneral anticipation. The target was six feet square, ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. to the Russian frigate General Admiral, and I will gun-penetrated with terrific and certain aim (sic.). classified, according to the subjects to which the respective have ust on shore from a

into which every shot-namely, six rounds from each give you some rough notes of my observations. She is / The energy and diligence displayed in the present inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of plan, with fine lines forward and aft, much spring, no

evidence of Sir W. Armstrong's stipulation to furnish order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with head knee, and altogether resembling a large cotton

100 guns for service during the present year being all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be ship with guns in her. We were certainly much dis- fully and faithfully performed. The whole

of that understood that these abridgements are prepared ceketli nppointed with her main deck: the guns are very and delivered under ordinary circumstances long benumber are already in form, and will be completed sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the

Government, and are therefore the property of the proprieclose together, ports only seven feet from each other, fore the prescribed period.” We quote this not very

tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not and the beam of the ship not in proportion to her lucid statement that it may be taken for what it is

to produce them without acknowledgement:

STEAM &c., 9798, , . that it could not be expected that she should be in worth ; but we warn our readers against attaching Boilers AND

THEN FURNACES, '&c.

, 69

, 86, 89. too great importance to it. If the writer is not care. ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car. perfect order; but still she was very fair, and every endeavour was evidently being made to fit her well rifled is of more value than the costly and dolicate, SHIPS AND Boars, including their fittings, 66, 92, 107

. ful he will be making us believe that a common gun riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 81, 112. up. The guns were being polished, and the crew

CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural and horwere otherwise actively engaged in bringing her into though famous, Armstrong gun.

tieultural implements and machines, 11 order. She has guns on her gangways, and the objec

“ Sidmouth, August 21, 1859.-Gentlemen,-I feel Food AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing tion which has hitherto existod towards this by the much indebted to Mr. Hearder for the very kind food for men and animals. None. want of room has been met by stowing the boom on manner in which he replied to my question with respect FIBROUS Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibres,

pulp, paper, &c., 49, 52, 53, 54, 59, 78, 88, 105, 118. gallows, leaving the whole deck clear. A very large to the magnetic coil and battery, which appeared to bridge nearly covers the quarter deck, under which me very much to the purpose,—that by adding another

BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers,

drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 99. is a cabin, which we understood was the captain's. pair of plates to the battery and connecting similar LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATINO, 55, 77. The armament consists of thirty 77 inch. guns and two poles you simply double the surface. I have tried the

FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, 5 inch guns on main deck, and twenty-eight 8 inch experiment in tho manner Mr. Hearder proposed, time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 57, and two 10 inch on upper deck, making in all sixty- viz., dividing my battery of twelve into two of six, METALS, including apparatus for their manufacture, 100,

, 76, 83, 90, 111, 116. two guns mounted, although she is pierced for and connect their similar poles; they give about the

same result as before, that is, with the eleven in series CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 51, 67. seventy-two guns. The carriages of the broadside guns are on the French plan-no after trucks--each and ono extra. I find when operating with the two

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 56, 84, 87, 96, 119, carriage being provided with a roller handspike for sixes if I take an extra pair of plates and connect WARFARE, 114. training, &c. The knees of the ship are wood, with similar poles the effect is again doubled or trebled, LETTER Press Printing &c. None.

MISCELLANEOUS, 50, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 71, 72, 73, 75, 79, a thin broad iron plate on the outside. Large bins and I think it cannot be attributed to extra surface, extend the whole length of the lower deck for the as proposed by Mr. Hearder, inasmuch as if I only

80, 82, 85, 87, 94, 95, 102, 103, 104, 106, 113, 115. men's clothes. We understood that she has not all dip the tip of the plates in, it has all the effect the her coals on board; the midship, main deck ports is battery

would be quito sutricient for the extra pair. applicable to the manufacture of varnished cloths, and

same as immersing the whole. I believe a thimble 40. J. II. JONSON. “An improved textile fabric, great height. One of tho officers informed us that If Mr. Hearder would try the experiment and give to other purposes." (A communication.) she was 325 feet between perpendiculars. The main the result through the Mechanics' MAGAZINE, he Jan. 6, 1859. deck is 7 ft. 6 in. high between the beams; the will confer a great favour on yours very truly, This fabric presents two different appearances in engines were stated to be 800-horse, and the S. Chick.”

composed of a greatest speed they have got out of her 12. Just On Tuesday and Wednesday the Great Eastern was fino warp and weft, and the other of a considerably after we had left, the Mersey ranged up close along. densely crowded with visitors, the grand saloon, coarser warp and weft ; and the two surfaces are conside; and the comparative sizes, &c., of the two which had been closed in consequence of damage done nected together by occasional tireads of the finer frigates were admirably seen. The impression left to the furniture by some ill-disposed persons, being warp being interwoven with the coarser warp and on our minds was that the Mersey was much the re-opened for inspection on those days only, and the weft. Patent abandoned. finest frigate of the two. Yet I must repeat that price of admission being raised to 58. It is stated 50. J.H. Johnson. “ Improvements in machinero His Imperial Majesty's ship General Admiral is un. that no public intimation will be given as to the or apparatus for boring or piercing rocks, applicably questionably a fine frigate, and suggests the necessity exact time of her departure from the Thames, in also to the dressing or working of stone, and as a of our keeping a vigorous eye upon a country which order to avoid the inconvenience which might arise power hammer generally,” A communication.) is evidently endeavouring to excel in this important from a crowded state of the river.

its face and back; the one surface

Dated Jan, 6 1859.

101.

This machine is composed of two principal and dis- tion to the power to be employed for working the and economy of fuel is effected. The details are tinct parts, the first portion, and the moveable por apparatus. Patent abanılonel.

voluminous. Patent completed. tion. The power consists, 1, of a steam-engine driving 62. D. FRIEDLAUDEE. “ An improved smoking. 71. W. A. LYTTLE.“ Taking the place of springs a shaft in the ordinary manner; 2, of two parallel pipe.” Dated Jan. 8, 1859.

in many, if not all, of the combinations into which beams upon which the moving parts slide, and which This consists in connecting the bowl of the pipe they enter, and also for equilibrating a varying force are formed with portions of screw threads or racks on with its stem or tube, by inserting cach into the sides or weight." Dated Jan. 8, 1859. their inner faces; 3, of a square sectioned second of an india-rubber ball. Patent aban-loned.

This invention is not described apart from the motion driving shaft for transmitting all the requisite 63. T. B. IIUBBELL. " An improved trap for drawings. Patent abandoned. movements. The details are voluminous. Patent rabbits, rats, mice, and other like animals and vermin." 72. R. D. CLEGG. "Improvements in signalling apcompleted. (A communication.) Dated Jan. 8, 1859.

paratuz.” Dated Jan. 10, 1859. 51. W. SPENCE." Improvements in the modo of This trap is composed of a ring or frame, having This invention is not describod apart from the taking photographic pictures on wood.” (A com- connected with it a barb or spear, or barbs or spears drawings. l'atent completed. munication) Dated Jan. 7, 1859.

attached to a cross piece, and acted upon by a spiral 73. L. A. NORMANDY, jun. "Improvements in This consists in the application of the albumen so or other spring, so that when the trap is set the barbs the process of distilling and clarifying, resinous as to form an insoluble base within the pores of the or spears fly across the same, and penetrate and hold substances.” (A communication.) Dated Jan. 10, wood, and the taking of the photographic pictures on the animal. The trap is set by a jointed rod or lever 1859. wood, the pores of which have been filled with gela- which keeps it set while the parts of the rod or lever This comprises, 1, an agitator which being placed tinous matter, and subsequently removing the gela. are kept in a line, but lets it off under the action of in the still, prevents the burning of the substance, and tine from the block without injury to the picture, by the spring as soon as the parts are put out of line by by rakes continually stirring up the bottom, the inthe application of a warm solvent. Patent completel. the animal touching one of them. Patent aban lonel. crustation of the substance is prevented. The agi

52. I. and A. HOLDEN. “Improvements in means 64. F. VERSIANX and A. OPPENHEIM.“ · Improve- tator at the end of each heating drives away also all or apparatus employed in preparing and combing ments in the treatment of various substances by which foreign bodies. 2. Of a reservoir into which the resin wool and other fibres.” Dated Jan. 7, 1859.

to render the same uninflammable.” Dated January is lel as it leaves the still, and by reason of the This comprises various improvements in preparing 8, 1859.

different specific gravities of the substances the earthy wool and other fibres, and relates more especially to This relates to the adaptation of salt of tin, anti. matters are in a short time deposited therein. 3. Of that method of combing where the fibre is passed mony, and zinc, excepting the chloride of zinc, to the rotary filters provided with fine metallic cloths or through two sets of gill combs. Patent completed. articles to be rendered unin lammable. Patent wire gauze, by which all the foreign substances held 53. E. HEYWOOD. “Improvements in weaving." abandoned.

in suspension in the resin are retained. After these Dated Jan. 7, 1839.

65. A. W. WILLIAMSON. "Improvements in con operations the products will be found perfectly puri. This consists in the production of double fabrics densers for steam-engines and other purposes.” Dated fied. Patent abandoned. united in the weaving at parts, and enclosing between Jan. 8, 1859.

74. T. J. Claxtox. “Improvements in the manu. them thread or yarn as stuffing, such fabric being

These improved condensers consist of a metal caso facture of boots and shocs." (4 communication.) adapted for various purposes. Patent completed.

to which a number of tubes are connected at one end. Dated Jan. 10, 1839. 51. J.J. FLORENCE. Improvements in reels or

These tubes are closed at their other ends, and con- This consists in applying to the toes of boots and spooling-wheels.” Dated Jan. 7, 1859.

tain cach of them a smaller tubo passing from the shocs a guard or cap of metal, gutta-percha, or indiaThis invention is not described apart from the

closed end of the exterior tubes to a smaller case con. rubber, Patent completed. drawings. Patent completed.

tained within the case before mentioned. Patent 75. F. LEIR. “Improvements in machinery for

abandoned. 55. G. K. GEYELIN, “Rrçulating pus-burners,

manufacturing metallic ribs for umbrellas, parasols, which ke calls the Universal Gas Burner Regulator.'

66. W. DELANY. Improvements in submarine and other articles.” Dated Jan. 10, 1859. Dated Jan. 7, 1859.

boats or vessels, and in apparatus used for working This comprises, 1, a reciprocating jaw or pincer, for The difference between the ordinary gas regulators in der water.” (A communication.) Dated Jan. 8, feeding and drawing the wiro. 2. A shear having a with valves and this consists in that the inventor in

compound motion to cut off the wire. 3. Clumps for

Here a vessel is constructed of an egg-shaped form holding the wire. 4. Mandrils and turning slubs to terposes between the valve and the burner an inner in transverse section, and running off to a point at bend or coil up the wire to form loops or eyes as reperforated charnber, the whole of which will not pass both ends, and fitted with one or more keels to keep quired. 5. Amandril and turning glub which takes inore gas under low pressure than is necessary for tho

the vessel steady in the water. The sinking and the end of the wire and turns thereon a loop or eyo consumption of the various kinds of burners. Patent Hoating of the vessel are affected by means of tanks for the joint by which the end of the rib is attached. completed. 5. A. BARCLAT. “Improvements in electric and

for the reception of air or water. The vessel is fitted Patent completed.

with magnoetic telegraphs.” Dated Jan. 7, 1859.

screw propeller for shifting her position. In 76. J. S. MARGETSON. “An improved box or case,

suitable for hats, collars, and other useful purposes." This inrention relates to some extent to two inven. conjunction with this vessel a diving armour is emSites of improvements in electric magnetic telegraph ploved so that a diver may leave the vessel to do Dated Jan. 10, 1859. whatever may be required. 'Patent abandoned.

Here a picce of card board or other suitable mato. ropes or conductors, also improvements in obtaining

67. W. CLAIK. "Improvements in purifying na- rial is cut into a strip and bent into a cylindrical form, and in obtaining motive power therefrom, for which Datod Jan. 8, 1850. ank distributing or applying electricity and magnetism tural phosphates of lime.” (A communication.) after which it is placed into a bag or reticule made in

a like form, having a bottom inserted. The upper the present inventor obtained provisional protection, and it consists of certain arrangements whereby

This invention consists of various processes for the part of this bag projocts above the top edge of the electric and magnetic telegraphs may be rendered of purification of natural phosphates of lime to render card board, &c., and has eyelet holes through which

them more soluble and easier of transportation, which cords are passod. Upon drawing these cords in superior efficiency in working Patent abandoned.

processes are severally applicable according to the opposite directions the mouth of the box is closed. 57. J. PATERSON. “An improvement in bands variable composition of the phosphates of lime. Patent Patent abandoned. wed belts for the waist.” Dated Jan. 7, 1859. abandoned.

77. J. Wute. " Improvements in cleansing or This consists in rendering leather belts and bands 65. E. COBBOLD. “Improvements in instruments purifying air, and in increasing or reducing the temof the waist elastic by introducing one or more pieces for writing and marking, and for the preparation of perature thereof, and in tha application of air so of clastic web under one or more covering pieces of certain substances for conversion into instruments for treated to sanatory and other uses.” Dated Jan. 10, leather, and connecting the clastic web to the ends of writing and marking, and for the application to use- 1859. the leather forming the belt. Patent abandoned. ful purposes of certain products arising from prepara- IIero the air is caused to pass through channels, 53. H. REYNOLDS.“ Improvements in refining tion aforesaid.” Dated Jan. 8, 1859.

into which, and in contact with such air, water is and decolorizing saccharine substances.” Datei In order to render reed or cane, or other similar caused to flow in jets or streams; or the air is forced Jan. 7, 1859.

stalks, suitable for conversion into an instrument for into water in suitable vessels. By impregnating the For bleaching and decolourizing saccharino sub- writing, the inventor divests the same, or strips water thus used with suitable purifying agents adapted stances the inventor uses stannato of alumina, the thereof, by means of a sharp gauge-like instrument, to absorb or neutralize impurities combined with the stannate and meta stannate of limo, as well as the freo of all, or of a sufficient portion, of the internal soft, air, putrifaction thereof will be effected, whilst by meta stannate, and stannic acids, and several other cellular, spongy material, to render such reed or strips, heating or cooling the fluid thus uscul, the temperachemical compounds of tin. Patent abandoned. or portions of reed or cane, when made into pens, ture of the air may be increased or reduced to the ex

59. W. E. NEWTON. "Improvements in machinery either by means of a penknife or other suitable in- tent desired. Patent completed. for winding, twisting, and doubling fibrous materials.” strument, capable of performing clear and fine writing 78. T. II. Toms. The employment of certain (A communication.) Dated Jan. 7, 1859.

equal in every respect to the writing produced by tho materials for the production of raised ornamental This invention cannot be described without refer- quill and metal pens of commerce. "Patent completed. figures or devices upon textile fabrics.” Dated Jan. ence to the drawings. Patent completed.

69, J. T. FORSTER. Improvements in bed births 10, 1859. 60. H. HARDEX. “Improvements in fire-bars for applicable for bunks, hammocks, cots, and other fixed This consists in employing braid, manufactured steam-boiler and other furnacos.” Dated Jan. 8, and moveable sleeping places.” Dated Jan. 8, 1859. from mohair coiled round a central core or cord in

These improvements in bed berthis consist in the undulating thicknesses, so as to produce the same This consists in forming and arranging fire or grato application of canvas or sacking bottoms, which the form and character as the well-known “coronation bars so that the space between them for the adınis. inventor nails or otherwise fixes at each end, or at the braid,” and admit of being readily sewn in the resion of air will pass in a zig-zag line, thus breaking sides, to forms or pieces of wood or other material, quisite figure or design to crapo, areophane, cloth, up the grate surface into a series of short parallelo shaped and of an extent suitablo to keep the canvas silk, &c. Patent completed. gramg, and each of which is nearly surrounded by an distended and in the form required. When used for 79. E. AGNENI. "Increasing the effect of decoraair space, so that there are no considerable lengths bed places or bunks on board ship ho lashes or other tive pictures, landscapes, drawings, and prints, that are unbroken by air spaces as in ordinary bars. wise fixes them up at each end to stancheons or other through looking glasses." Dated Jan. 11, 1859. Patent completed.

fixtures by which they aro stretched. Patont com- Here the inventor engraves the outline of a paint61. C. F. VASSEROT. “An improved chain and pleted.

ing, &c., upon the quicksilver, of looking-glasses, or haeket pumap." (A communication.) Dated Jan. 8, 70. W. E. NEWTON. “ Improvements in steam- upon any other substance employed in manufacturing 1859.

engines and steam generators." (A communication.) the same. Ho scratches out the quicksilver and This invention consists of an iron endless chain Dated Jan. 8, 1859.

applies upon the cleared part the artistic production. formed of long links having double articulation. This comprises various improvements in marine and Patent completed. Each point is rivetted by means of a steel bolt. Each stationary engines, and also in boilers by which 80. C. M. KERNOT. “ Improvements in purifying link passes through the centre of a bucket to which it greater power is obtained from the elastic force of the and decolorising paraffine, and rendering the same is fixed, the capacity of the buckets being in propor- steam than in engines of the ordinary constructon, white, bard and sweet,” Dated Jan. 11, 1859

1859.

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