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the working classes. The sympathies of such dence of Colonel Wilmot. The specimens have with large masses of iron of several tons, the men must ever be adverse to the cause of all been tested by Mr. M-Kinlay the proof- effect produced is not so marked. It would labour, and their opinion is worthy of little master) and his assistants, who conducted the appear, we are told, that without any considerrespect or consideration. If sympathy, instead trials. They were roughly prepared in the fac-able diminution of the impurities in the metal, of calm and practical discrimination, were tory, and accurately finished by Robert as silicon, sulphur, and phosphorus, à consicalled for, it should be due to those men who M'Kenzie ; the specific gravities were taken by derable increase of tenacity and specific gravity are engaged in an unequal struggle to maintain George Simm; and the necessary computations can be obtained. The graphite is partially their convictions, rather than to the possessors were by Robert Smith, computer. The subject expelled, and some of it is converted into comof that capital which has been accumulated by is one of considerable interest and difficulty ; bined carbon, and the contraction and crystalmeans of their toil, and which, intrenched in and the publication of the results will, it is lisation is more energetic and complete. This the “ Three per cents.," can cry-Vae victis, — justly hoped, be followed by the careful ex- combined carbon can, it is thought by some, on starved be the vanquished !

amination of them “by many of those able men again re-melting the mass and very slowly coolThe above considerations have, we think, been

"whose writings on subjects of cast iron, and ing it, be re-converted to graphite, rendering too much neglected in the discussions which the

“the strength of materials generally, are well the iron soft and fusible. This is undoubtedly press has set up respecting the present labour “known.”

the case with the product of the refinery prodispute. A former article of ours will have The term “cast iron,” as describing any spe

cess known as "metal,” the use of which, on been sufficient to show that we are far from cific material, does not (we are told in the re- this principle, formed the subject of a patent, sympathizing with the despotic tendencies of port) convey to the mind of those connected by Dr. Price, in 1856. trades' unions, and other like associations. At with such experiments any more positive There is a point not, probably, accurately the same time we should grieve to have it quality than what may be gathered from the determined, at which the maximum hardness thought that we are insensible to facts of an use of the term “wood” in speaking of that corresponding to the maximum tenacity may be opposite complexion ; for we are fairly per- material. The remarkable range of the various found. In an iron cannon there is, however, suaded that no good can come from any advo- qualities of different samples is scarcely more required an elasticity in addition to other quacacy in which either master or man is denied marked in the latter than in the former ; and, lities, when these qualities are not in excess to what is due to him.

in addition, the same iron treated in a different such an extraordinary degree as to render the

manner, as regards the apparently simple pro- mass so strong and rigid as to obviate any THE WOOLWICH EXPERIMENTS ON character. The general result of a considerable various experiments made at Woolwich, that

cess of melting or cooling, assuines a different danger of disruption. It has been found in the CAST IRON.

number of experiments made on this point is in most cases where the specific gravity is 73 A" BLUE BOOK” nearly two inches thick, con- shown in the Table given in the foot-note or upwards, the metal is unsuited to gun pursisting mainly of complicated tables, is not a below.* In the Woolwich experiments there poses, on account of its hardness and want of pleasant thing to write upon; but such a book has been no intention of ascertaining any data elasticity; while the same iron, treated in the is the topic of the present article. We cannot relative to the most suitable mixtures of various furnace for a shorter time, and being when cast hope, therefore, to make ourselves particularly brands of iron, or of making experiments as to of a lower specific gravity and less tenacity, agreeable in what we are about to say; at the the treatment of any particular iron with re-would have resisted more satisfactorily the exsame time we hope, by aid of the Report before ference to improving its quality ; the object has plosion of the powder. " In the case of a cylinus, to make ourselves instructive.

been simply to ascertain which quality as pur- drical round bar 26 feet long and 7 inches On the 5th of June, 1856, Lieut.-Colonel F. chasable in the market, or when specially sup- diameter, cast vertically, the following speciEardley-Wilmot, superintendent of our Royal plied, is suitable for the particular purpose of mens were taken. The mixture is similar to gun factories, wrote to the Right Hon. W. making cannon. The iron has all, therefore, “that used at the time for making guns, and Monsell

, M.P., Under Secretary of State for been treated in a precisely similar manner, and was melted in a single furnace charged with War, as follows :-“I beg,” he said, “to call with few exceptions in the same furnace, which“ “33 cwt. 2 qrs., and occupied 2 hours 15 “ attention to the desirableness of enlarging the was kept free for the purpose. The pigs were "minutes in melting. Two discs in immediate “series of experiments as to the best quality of broken, and where a variety of appearance was " contact with one another, each furnishing two iron for cannon. The question is one of great found turnings of each were mingled together" tensile specimens, were cut off from the top, "importance as regards the public service, and and examined as a mean sample for analysis. " the bottom, and the centre, i.e., at intervals of “the improvement of an important branch of And here we are at once met, as the Report '11 feet 11 inches asunder." “ British industry. A true and valuable result very properly says, by questions which indicate can only be arrived at by the possession of the magnitude of this inquiry, if carried to its

Specific

Tensile.

Specific gravity.

gravity. satisfactory data ; we are now in a position to full extent. Does not almost every variety of " make the necessary experiments. The cost of iron require some treatment peculiar to itself ? Top 29,382

7.251

26,594

7-325

27,872 "procuring the sample of iron as proposed in and, to effect an object with any particular iron,

27,122 31,266

29,985 " the accompanying advertisement, will be must there not be a definite dimension suitable

30,587

30,889 “small compared with the magnitude and value to that iron? It is thought that it is so; and

Centre .. 29,231 “of the results, in a national point of view. Ithat in a gun, for instance, the form and dimen

26,218

29,778 beg to suggest that the enclosed advertisement sions offering the greatest strength with one

27,499

27,650 “be put in the public papers herein detailed, iron, are not those best suited to another.

27,649

28,648 "and that the replies and communications be

The results already obtained by various ex

The effect of the fluid pressure as regards forwarded to me when received. By this periments on the subject of re-mesting cast iron the density of the metal is here sufficiently means Her Majesty's Government will furnish are well known, and have been repeated at well marked ; but the tenacity is not in“ for their own use, and for the nation, a series various times in the works of the War Depart- creased.

of data of the highest value and importance.” ment; when, however, the experiment is made It would require a longer series of experiThe "advertisement" alluded to in this letter

ments than the Woolwich anthorities have had was published in the public prints on the 9th of June, 1856, and announced that the inquiries also the ratio of their strength (deduced from the general relation between the amount of Auid pressure

• Table showing the comparative qualities of Cast Iron; time to institute, to establish accurately the would comprise chemical analyses, specific gra- mean) as shown by the different tests.

and the resulting tenacity and density. The vity, tenacity, torsion, transverse strain, com

result here given would appear to be in conforpressibility, impact, rending, and elasticity.

mity with the opinion that increasing the Samples of not less than five cwt. of pig iron,

length of the dead-head does not add to the with a small quantity of the fuel, flux, and ore

resisting power of the metal when used for a employed, were to be sent in. A statement was

gun, all that is required being to afford an also to accompany the samples, giving all par

ample allowance for feeding in shrinking, in ticulars, and specifying that the sample of iron

34,279 11,321 was of the first or second melting, as the case

140,056 consequence of the strength not being due to might be ; also that the samples had been taken

1

t

pressure or condensation, but to the contraction 무

and crystallisation of the mass. In bronze or at random, and that similar iron can be pro

brass gun metal, the material being of a comduced in quantity. None that had been melted

samples. samples. samples. samples. samples,

6,056 more than twice was to be received.

91,061

pressible character, a very decided result is ob

tained, as is shown in the following experiment A great number of ironmasters responded to

.260 the invitation thus given, and a series of experi

and the dead-head of a six-pounder brass gun, ments, of an extensive and laborious character,

15:053 having about 30 inches in vertical depth bewas at once commenced, under the superinten

tween each:

Tensile.

Bottom

7.183

7323

7.251

Combined

Mean:
Top
Centre
Bottom

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7.217 7.263 7324

7.325

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Specific Gravity

of 850 Specimens.

Tensile of 850

Specimens.

Transverse of
564 Specimens.

Torsion of 276

Crushing of 273

Specimens.

Maximum.

9,773

11

7.313
18
T
6.822
Of 51

Minimum

[blocks in formation]

44,563
Of 51

[blocks in formation]

Crushing

1.000

Tensile.

lbs. 35,600 38,704 49,401

8.539
8.545
8.814

Centre
Bottom

Specific gravity.

may not be taken as infallible guides to the true sheets. A Victoria penny weighing two-thirds

doctrines of political economy, are at least sug- of an ounce is, we doubt not, as acceptable in Top

gestive and valuable aids to the study of that exchange for a Telegraph as one of George III.'s science. As promoters of sound moral senti-“cart-wheel” pence, weighing one ounce.

ments--with, possibly, some occasional excep- What becomes, then, of the charges of “innoThe most decided features to be observed in tions, the results of inadvertency--the penny “vation” and “imposture," bandied freely in the results obtained in the recent experiments newspapers of London may be pronounced the article complained of? are the universal and very marked superiority faultless. As media, too, for introducing to Will it not be infinitely more convenient that of the bars in the cases where they have been classes of society who would never otherwise three thousand tons of metal should-in the cast horizontally over those cast vertically; and have the advantage conferred upon them, the form of, we trust, beautiful coins-represent the superiority, but in a less marked degree, of opinions and the deductions of men of science, the six thousand tons of the “ugliest coins in the bars cooled quickly over those cooled gradu- and with the records of discoveries and inven- existence,” which now circulate throughout ally or slowly. This is almost universally tions resulting from their theories and their the British Isles? Is there any reason why found to be the case in the experiments hitherto labours, there is much reason to be satisfied with “ slabs” of soft and nasty copper should be made with a portion of metal taken from the them. Their published extracts from expensive carried to and fro when neat, hard, and cleanly dead-head, close to the muzzle of the gun, as and first-class publications, and their reports of discs of bronze would answer every purpose and compared with the bar cast at the time of mak- the proceedings of learned societies, notes of be infinitely more convenient ? If in the one ing the gun. The contrast as regards appearance whose doings would never otherwise extend

case a ton of copper, costing in the market say is equally marked. In the bar, a close, grey, beyond the immediate circle of savans in which £100, is coined into £224 worth of pence, halfrigid appearance ; in the dead-head, a large they take place, are invaluable to the public; pence, or farthings, in the name of common grain with graphitic masses joined or cemented and on all these accounts and on many others sense we ask how will the public be losers by together with a whiter and harder material. we are pleased to be able to bear testimony to coining a ton of bronze whose value in the Certain supplies of iron ordered in conse- their value.

market is taken at £110, into £448 worth of quence of the results obtained in these experi

This general approval of the spirit and con- coins? The profit on the coinage will be ments have, on examination, unfortunately given duct of the penny press, which we unhesitat- greater, we admit, but the Mint is a public results differing much, both chemically and ingly and conscientiously give, will guard us institution, and the public must inevitably be mechanically, showing superiority in some cases from having imputed to us hostile motives when gainers by the operation. If we were dealing and inferiority of a marked character in others.

we take the liberty of criticising unfavourably with private manufacturers the case, of course, The demand for the manufacture of iron ord

a particular article in the Daily Telegraphwe would be widely different, and the strictures of nance, and the necessity for the supply of a believe the oldest journal in the category. As the the Daily Telegraph would be justified. As it " certain number to meet what is expected in MECHANICS MAGAZINE will be acknowledged to is, the inferior coinage of the realm is got up “this colintry of a new Government establish- have been the first mover for a reformation of the for public convenience at the public expense, "ment,” has, we are significantly told, prevented inferior coinage of the realm, and as prepara- and the problems to be solved in the renewal such various experiments being made as are tions are, according to Mr. Gladstone's recent of it are, the best metal, the most portable desirable. At a new Government foundry on statement in the House, being made to accom-forms, and the handsomest in appearance. The the Continent, established about the same time, plish that reformation, it will be accorded to us weight of the individual pieces is clearly a mattwo years were allowed for experiments before a

to speak out when what we think fallacious ter of indifference, and if they be made more “supply" was demanded. It would appear views respecting the principles upon which the economically and more durable than the “ cart that a great deal is still to be done on this sub

new coinage of bronze vice copper should be "wheel coinage" of George III., why so much ject, and that we are only now at the

commence based. In the Daily Telegraph of Saturday the more advantageous for the people who ment of vast improvements in the manufacture last there appeared a leading article upon the in the shape of Civil Service Estimates must sults have been obtained from cast material projected change, wherein the writer, with pen pay all the expenses attending their producmore trenchant than just, hurls indignant

tion. prepared by Mr. Bessemer, which promise well; epithets at the entire metallic currency of the Again, if our friend of the Telegraph were and, generally, the attention of those connected kingdom and those who created it, and de- to induce the Chancellor of the Exchequer to with the manufacture and use of iron is being nounces the coining improvement as a cheat! adopt his plan of giving equal weight and value directed to the subject.

"If the present idea be carried out”—that of in the new coinage, what would be the conseIt cannot be too strongly urged, says the issuing small coins of bronze—" the coinage' quence ? and that, probably, before the coinage Report, that the possession of a machine such “ will be simply worth nothing at all. In fact, was a month old. Why, that a rise of £10 per as that in use in the Royal gun factories would “it will be a mongrel metal, glittering and ton in the market price of copper—and fluctuagreatly assist inquiries. A drawing of it is worthless, like the civilisation it represents.” tions wider are of constant occurrence

ce-would given in the United States “Reports of Experi- These are harsh assertions. Are they borne out consign the whole of the newly-minted money "ments on Metals for Cannon," Trübner & Co., by reason or experience? We imagine by sans ceremonie into the furnace of the manuPaternoster-row; and the use of it, with several neither. We have explained before that ever facturer—and we should all become in the additions, can be seen at the Arsenal. The since the year 1799, when the last coinage of "twinkling of an eye” literally penniless. But manufacture of similar or improved machines, what are called the “ring pence" of George III. enough must have been said to convince our and the distribution of them through the were struck at Soho, the copper coinage of readers that this portion of the plan of the country, would be attended with great results. England has been completely on the token sys- Telegraph writer would never answer. It is

In the above remarks we have, as will be tem. Ever since that period—with the excep- painful to be obliged to dissent also from almost observed, had to draw largely upon the official tion of a coinage for Ireland of more reduced all his other propositions. Report, and even with the aid of this we must weight still—the pound avoirdupoise of copper For example, as touching the device to be still leave much unsaid respecting the results of has been coined into twenty-four pence, and imprinted on the forthcoming coins, we cannot these elaborate experiments. For the deduction the subordinate coins in the same proportions re- think that in imitation of the ancient of information from those results we, like the latively to their value, namely, half-pence 48 tothe Romans” we should give them impressions Woolwich authorities, look to those "able men

1 lb., and farthings 96. This makes a ton of coined illustrative of the progress of our arms and of before referred to. On another page, however, copper worth in round numbers £224. Does our great achievments in various quarters of the we have the satisfaction of printing a very able the Telegraph writer require to be told that the world. It would be difficult to convince us that and interesting paper on the chemical results of average market price of tile” copper, of which “symbols of captured Lucknow and Delhi”. the inquiry, from the pen of Mr. Abel, the those coins have hitherto been manufactured, places whose names are better forgotten-of the accomplished chemist of the War Depart- has not been over £100, and that consequently annihilation of Sebastopol, of the conquest of ment.

neither he nor any of his fellow-subjects, even Scinde and Pegu, of the colonisation of Aus

though they may have had the satisfaction of hav- “ tralasia, and a hundred other events," should THE PENNY PRESS AND THE NEW

ing their pockets weighed down by the clumsy figure on the new coins. We are rather disCOINAGE.

“slabs of copper” of a former generation, ever posed to think, on the contrary, that such a THERE can be no doubt that the penny press possessed copper coins whose intrinsic value proceeding would lead to inextricable confusion, of this country is effecting a vast amount of and weight were equal ? The whole of the cop- and open a door for the wholesale introduction good. It is adding-imperceptibly, perhaps, per coinages of the last three reigns were there of counterfeits. A uniform, chaste, and approbut not the less certainly—to the general intel- fore palpably tokens of value and nothing more ; priate device, characteristic of the insular posiligence of the community at large. Politically, and we certainly should not expect to find a tion and maritime greatness of the kingdom its articles—we refer more especially to the pair of scales and weights placed on the counter governed so well by our Queen, should, in our Metropolitan section of the cheap press—are of the Telegraph office to test the pennies opinion, decorate one side of each piece of the written in an enlightened spirit, and where they tendered in exchange for its valuable and broad new money, whilst the “image and superscrip“tion" of Her Majesty should enrich the and silver coin, and that from the fluctuations, we are aware of that; the manufacturers of Birother.

of the continental markets and other disturbing mingham especially are a go-a-head people, but As regards our friend's criticism of the pre- causes at home, much has frequently to be that is not quite the thing. A little of the sent gold and silver coinages, there again we struck off in a short time, it becomes obvious that “go-a-head” principle must be instilled into are at issue. We never saw something meant, the Mint would be as unable to accomplish the the Government mind. Thirty thousand pounds,

we believe, to be a cross flinging about its work required of it as would the stage coaches vide Civil Service Estimates, are voted annually “arms like the fans of a windmill on one side running five-and-twenty years ago to convey for the expenses of the Mint, including coinage, “of our silver pieces," although the writer of the passengers of the railway trains of to-day. and if, as we believe, without an augmentation the Telegraph may. As to what the mean and Doubtless this fact is patent to the Chancellor of any but the dead stock—the mechanical plant "pitiful” designs complained of may be we are of the Exchequer, who is no unworthy disciple -it can be made to do all the work of the equally in the dark. Of the engraving of the of "Cocker ;" but how does the right hon. country, there can be no use in calling in concoins generally, although others may think it gentleman mean to remedy it?

tractors' aid at all, and the reformation of the "abominably executed,” the Wyons, whose work it is, may rest assured that there are those, it the making of hats, or of

A private manufacturer, whose business-were coinage should begin with a reformation of the

Mint.

money,or both-had whose opinions are worth having, too, who say outgrown his premises, would inevitably increase,

In 1810 the establishment was as efficient, that on the whole it is excellent.

if he could, his facilities for doing work. Surely speaking of machines, as it is in 1860. HalfThe reckless remarks of the journal in the same course

will suggest itself to the Trea- a-century has not

added to its stature, whilst question on this particular subject are so ex- sury and the Mint people. Like other manu

all around it has grown to majestic proportions. displayed in its articles, that we are compelled its purpose and met all its demands for many them being of much improved construction, and ceptional to the general care and truthfulness factories, the Tower-hill establishment served Calcutta, we are told, will shortly be armed o notice the matter.

years, but, like them, it feels now the

of a new state of things, and it must be ex- each capable of stamping twice as many coins per WHERE WILL THE BRONZE BE panded so as to divide that pressure over a Indian outstrip and eclipse the Home Empire ?

minute as those at the Mint. Why should the COINED?

wider area. Upon further examination and reflection it seems gold discoveries have, as the Mint returns to Let our ministers look to this ; it is of importance, to us that one of the very first questions relative the House of Commons demonstrate, served to and the national credit is involved. Either no to the new coinage which should be considered by keep the stamping presses at work for a consider-contract work in coining, or all contract would the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is that of the able part of the past nine years; and although delicate a matter, and in the hands of concapabilities, mechanical and otherwise, of the the Sydney Mint relieves it to some extent now: trietors so likely to lead to serious irregularithe bronze coins would produce a mischievous are only two presses, we believe, at Sydney, and ties, it seems to us that it should be retained effect. Already there are innumerable repre- their production is small and exclusively colo- jealously in Government hands. sentatives of copper tokens floating in the nial. Advancing commerce, increasing trade, channels of circulation, and which pass current widening, speculation, and growing emigra

DECIMAL COINAGE. simply because they approach the size of the tion, make it certain that more and more We observe with much satisfaction that the orthodox pence, halfpence, and farthings. To of coin with the British stamp upon it will "International Association for obtaining a add to this “ variety, which is the reverse of be wanted. Why, then, is there any supine; |“ Uniform Decimal System of Measure, mingling with them another set of speci- or in preparing for the duty to be done? . Once general meeting at Bradford, on the 10th of mens, would be but to increase the exist- the “Great Western” steam-ship was considered October next. The noblemen and gentlemen ing confusion. The reform adopted and to be a marvel of ship-building and engineering comprising this society voted a resolution on carried out by the Government to be effectual skill, but what was she in comparison with the the 28th November

, 1855, to the effect that the must be rapid. Unlike political reforms, which “Great Eastern,” which will presently asare usually of very, very slow growth, this must tonish our Transatlantic cousins? Progress in art, adoption of a uniform decimal system of be sharply and suddenly matured. There should progress in science, progress in mechanical skill

measures, weights, and coins would be condu

“cive to the manufacturing and commercial be in the Mint stores a large accumulation of and mechanical devices, are the rule of the the miniature bronze pieces before any are issued day, and why should Her Majesty's Mint

"prosperity of the United Kingdom," and of to supplant the giant copper coins. A simul- an exception to the rule? Why should that many other benefits ; and it must be permitted taneous publication of the one and withdrawal numerous body of soldiers and policemen

whom the resolution to be based on truth. The inde of the other might then be made without diffi- one sees culty or annoyance. In London, and, by aid of money factory appear to shut out from it fatigability with which the members of the railways, in all large towns of the kingdom, the mechanical improvement, and to roll back the and abroad, to the investigation of this impor

Association have devoted themselves, at home exchange of bronze for copper might go on at tide of scientific invention ? once, and within a week millions of beautiful ground inclosed by its boundary walls insuffi- tant subject makes it certain that the Bradford light coins would be jingling in the pockets of cient for the increased plant of machinery re- have the opinion of scientific men of all countries the people in lieu of the absurd "slabs” of quisite to deal with the new coinage. If s metal which now weigh their pockets down and and the purchase of more property adjoining it upon the decimal system, whilst there can be wear them out. It is evident, indeed, that a is impossible, why then the sooner a migratory will receive some attention at the hands of inen quick transformation must be effected. Mr. movement of the whole concern” takes place well qualified to detect any sophistries or falGladstone cannot fail to perceive its necessity, the better. If the Mint as it stands is not lacious arguments it may contain. The names and probably is adopting means for its accom- capable of meeting the wants of the time, and of Richard Cobden, William Ewart, William plishment. But he must inquire primarily, one is not large enough to receive from the engineer- Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., and the Right Hon. Thos. should think, into the productive powers of the ing works of London or elsewhere the means Milner Gibson, figure amongst others as memMint. At all events, we have done so, and and appliances which would make it so, why bers of the Council of the International Decimal our conclusion is, that they are at present in the sooner its site is made over to the dock Association ; and with these sturdy champions adequate to the

great occasion.manipulation of all the gold, silver, and inferior machinery of improved character, and a build- to support the decimal plans of measurement, metal coins for England and many of the colonies ing of larger dimensions, might soon be found weight, and value, we think that some little the Mint possesses only six pairs of rolls

, a dozen for Her Majesty's coiners, and England might plans are abandoned. It will afford us sincere cutting-out or punching presses, thirteen of the boast a national Mint competent to coin all the Cotton-Napier weighing machines, and eight national monies. Seriously, it is not credit- pleasure to observe the progress made by the Soho stamping presses. Now, taking the maxi- able that the demand for money should have Association, and to endeavour to obtain for it mum rate of production of these latter, as given outstripped the Mint's producing power-as

a fair hearing, and for its propositions due con

sideration. in the Parliamentary blue-books by Mint au- our witness, the blue-book, proves it has-and thorities, at 240,000 coins per day, how long it is urgent that Mr. Gladstone takes steps to would it take to strike off five hundred millions? mitigate the evil. Of course, it will be said, new broak for railway trains has been invented by a

The Gazette des Chemins de Fer announces that a We need not stop to answer the question ; it is Well, there is private enterprise to fall back M. Rigolier. From trials made it appears that a clear that by devoting the whole resources of upon, and contractors at Birmingham or Man- carriage driven at the rate of 20 kilometres per hour the money factory to the creation of the new chester will be found ready, for a sufficient did not run more than 10 metres after the break hal money it would still be a work of many years. "consideration,” tə erect rollers, punches, and been applied; and that at a speed of 65 kilometres When it is known additionally, too, that the other machinery for carrying on the coiner's per hour it only ran 30 inetres. It was also found Bank of England is incessantly demanding gold art and producing money at any speed. Yes, I when his break was applied to the wheels.

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THE GREAT EASTERN. a trial of speed. The first thing is to get the

PADDLE.

Knots.
ship safely out of the Thames; the next will be to
Sept. 7, Noon.

0-41
The great ship having cast anchor off Parfleet that she will start upon her “trial trip," and then
get her comfortably round to Portland. After

0-82

0.86 1.23

1.30 (between Erith and Gravesend) we can do no will be the time for putting her to all necessary

1.61 better, we think, than gossip for a few minutes tests.

2.05

2:17

11 The experiment of to-day has sufficiently shown

2:13

2-60 with our readers (for one can only gossip on ship

1

2.87 board) respecting the event which has kept both that the practical handling of ships of this im

3:28

3:47 banks of the Thames thronged with cheering Careful observation has enabled us to assure our. mense size will present no great difficulties.

3.69

4:10 human creatures for several hours this morn-selves that, at low speeds, at any rate, the Great

4:51 10

4:34 ing. Eastern will steer well. Whether a high speed

4.92 11

4-77 It having been our good fortune to receive one will interfere with her excellence in this respect

5.33

5:20 of the very few invitations issued for this passage the communication of the captain's instructions can hardly be said ; let us liope not. Then, as to 31

5.74

5.64 3 6.15

6-07 of the Great Eastern down the river, we embarked along her great length, very little difficulty has

6.36 16 last night "by the light of the moon," and found been experienced, notwithstanding the intricacy

6.97

6-94 7.33 17

7:37 that the ship really was to undertake the passage, of the navigation in this instance; indeed, the

7.80 18

7.81 weather permitting, early to-day. In both en-only difficulty that occurred was that of getting

8.21

8.21 8.62

8.63 gine-rooms all was ready for the purpose ; the last the tugs a-head to do exactly what was required in all cases; no obstruction whatever interfered

9.03

9:11 few barge-loads of stores were alongside, and were

5 with the guidance of the helmsmen. Nor is this

9:46

9:51 being rapidly run on board by the steam cranes ; owing to the adoption of Mr. Lungley's admirable

9:35

9.93 the coaling was completed, as far, that is, as it steering-signal apparatus, for through an error in

64
10-26

10:41 was intended to coal at Deptford; the rain and the arrangement of one of the parts this will not

6
10-67

10.85

11:03 wind of the day had subsided; and the captain be placed at the captain's service until to-norrow.

11.23 7

11.09 announced that nothing short of a gale would The apparatus will, however, reduce this part of

11.90 27

11.71 defer the departure of the morning. the vessel's management to the simplest form

12:31

12.15 possible; for by it the captain will be able to speak

12.72

12:58 Occasion was thus afforded for speculation upon to the eye of the helmsman-no matter how far

13:13 the prospects we had of getting well down the off he may be—all but as quickly and distinctly

13:51 river to-day, and this speculation we quietly puras he could speak to his ear when at his side. We

13.95

13.88 14:37

14:32 sued while pacing the “great deck” (in a very hope to see the apparatus in operation on our way

14.78 31

14.75 pleasant mixture of moonlight and starlight) till to the Nore to-morrow.

15:19 35

15:19 the hours grew nearly to their largest. As We must not omit to mention the admirable

9.
15.60

15.62 grounds for apprehension we had, first, the fact precision with which Mr. Saffield's engine-room 92

10:01 37

16-05 that several very awkward bends and shallows telegraphs have worked to-day. We have made 10

16:43

16:49 would present themselves almost as soon as our them the objects of our special observation, and 10

16-83

16-92

105 moorings were slipt ; and secondly, we had the must say that their operation has been most

17.21

17.30 17.65 41

17.79 further fact that on the first trial of a stupendous satisfactory. In addition to our own testimony

11
18.06 42

19.22 experiment mischances and miscarriages of some we may also add that of Mr. Scott Russell, who,

111
18:17

18.63 kind may usually be looked for with confidence. we have already said, worked them himself

11}

18.83
44

19.09 We also knew that the engines of our ship were throughout, and who has subsequently assured

111

19.29 of an unprecedented size, and were really about Mr. Suffield that they have given him entire

12
19-70 45

19-53 to be put upon their trial for the first time. On satisfaction; have proved themselves, in a word, 123

20:11 the other hand we know that in Mr. Atkinson we “ reliable.”

12

20-52 47 were to possess the skilfullest of pilots-in To-morrow, the weather being moderate, we 12

20.93

20.83 21:35

21.26 Captain Harrison the ablest of captains—and in proceed to the Nore. We shall there, probably,

131
21.78

21.70 the engineers on board some of the cleverest prac-have another opportunity of reporting progress,

131
22:17

22:13 tical men of the day. We further had the satis. but not, we fear, in time for our next number.

131

22.58 faction of learning that the working of both the The ship, and all in whose hands she now is,

14
22.99

23.00 paddle and the screw engines were to be placed deserve success, and we sincerely wish it them. under the personal control of Mr. Scott Russell, and of him alone. This last arrangement was

Thursday Noon, Off Southend.

THE CHEMISTRY OF CAST-IRON. calculated to inspire great confidence, because no

We are now running down to the Nore under

By F. A. ABEL, Esq., Chemist of the War Department. one could possibly have a higher sense than Mr. engines at "half-speed,” the paddles making 8. The following paper on the “ Results of the chemi. Russell of the importance of handling the engines revolutions, and the screw The theoretical

cal examination of iron, and the materials emcarefully on this great occasion, and no one could speed of the ship (neglecting slips) is therefore ployed in its production,” is taken from the blue. have a warmer interest in their successful opera- about 13 knots; the real speed is 2 or 3 knots less book on cast-iron which has just been issued, and tion. On the whole, therefore, we “ turned in" contented with our anticipations of the morrow's probably, as the screw and wheels are insufficiently which is discussed in a leading article on another work.

immersed to produce any near approximation to page of this Number. The result, thus far, has amply justified our ex- the theoretical result. The crew and company sult of the analytical examinations of each set of

A special report has been drawn up on the repectations. By six o'clock this morning we were have saluted the ship, giving also three cheers, and samples received froin the various works. To faon deck, and found good reason to expect an early one cheer more for Mr. Scott Russell and also for cilitate a comparison between the composition of start. By half past seven the tugs had hold of us, Mr. Brunel. All on board are delighted with the the irons, ores, &c, tabulated statements have the moorings were slipt, and amid many cheers the monster moved off. Without the slightest mishap, complete success that has thus far attended the been prepared of the following description :and almost without a stoppage, this huge structure ship's progress.

Table I. embraces the numerical results obtained has been brought in three hours to this spot,

in the examination of the samples of iron. [We have at the last moment received another where she has room to swing with the tide, and communication from our colleague (dated from

Table II. exhibits the per-centages of the most make herself “at home,” for the first time. From Sheerness), stating that the ship ran down Long

important constituents of the various ores ; the moment of starting, all eyes have been turned Reach most handsomely after the tugs were cast

and, upon the pilot, the captain, and Mr. Russell, the off. There is scarcely any perceptible vibration

Table III. includes, similarly, the principal retwo former of whom have performed their duty produced in the ship, except near the stern,

sults obtained in the examination of the fuels from the paddle-boxes as usual, while Mr. Russell and even there it is but very slight. She will

and fluxes. has kept himself stationed at the engine-room have started for Portland before these lines

The following are a few remarks which have telegraphs, upon the paddle-bridge, working the appear.]

suggested themselves upon an inspection of these two engines conjointly or separately, jas seemed

tabulated results :best to him—always, of course, supplying the The following table, giving the theoretical The specimens of iron prepared from the ores speed required by the pilot. Neither engine has, speeds of both the paddles and the screw, gradu. of the Northern District and from the Forest of however, run beyond very low velocities. Twenty ated according to the number of revolutions made Dean are remarkably free from phosphorus. This revolutions per minute is, we believe, the greatest in each case, will be interesting. Experiments is readily explained by the very high quality of speed which the screw engine has been allowed to made this morning show that these theoretical these ores, which are almost perfectly free from attain, and the paddle engine has been limited to numbers may be taken as practically correct, phosphoric acid. The considerable per-centage of about seven or eight. It is no part of the pro- the slips in the two cases balancing each silicon contained in a great number of the speciprietors' present purpose to attempt anything like other :

mens of iron alluded to is perhaps less easy of

[blocks in formation]

explanation. A reference to the composition of the East End Iron Works) are, moreover, stated | may resist the application, for example, of a much the specimen of Ulverston (Hæmatite) iron, given to have been produced with cold blast.

more considerable tensile strain, than one which is in the appendix to this Report, which was smelted The North Staffordshire ore, used at the Golden of higher chemical quality (e. g., containing less with charcoal, and only contains 0:59 per cent. of dale Works, contains nearly 1.5 per cent. of phos. silicon or phosphorus), but of which the structure silicon, would appear, however, to indicate defi- phoric acid, and the proportion of phosphorus in is comparatively open and irregular. There is nitely that the high proportions of silicon must be the iron produced from it just exceeds one per little doubt, also, from the results of numerous ascribed to the employment of hot-blast in the cent.

experiments which have been made in this direcreduction of the iron at those works.

A general inspection of the results obtained in tion, that the effect of adding considerably to the The products of the ores from South Stafford the examination of the samples of ores and of the strength of some kinds of cast-iron, by repeatedly shire and South Wales which have been examined iron varieties produced from them appears to jus. re-melting them, is, within certain limits, due to are, with two or three exceptions, of excellent tify the following conclusions, upon which metal. no important chemical change effected in the chemical quality. Only three instances occur in lurgic chemists are now tolerably well agreed :- iron, but to the gradual production of a more these divisions of the series of iron samples (out 1. The proportion of silicon in iron is much thoroughly uniform mass, in which the graphite of twenty-six samples from eight different works), less influenced by the constitution or quality of carbon has gradually undergone a material change in which the amount of silicon reaches two per the ores employed than by the conditions of in its state of aggregation. cent. The samples from the Netherton and Old smelting. A reference to the composition of the Hill Works (South Staffordshire) and the Blae- Northamptonshire ores and iron samples (particu- CAPTAIN BLAKELY ON THE ARMSTRONG navon and Pontypool Works (South Wales), in the larly those from the Heyford Works), indicates

GUN. preparation of which cold blast is specified as that under certain circumstances, among which the following letter claiming a royalty on having been employed, the silicon, in only two in. may probably be included a deficiency in alumina every Armstrong Gun that is made has been stances (out of thirteen varieties of iron), slightly in the ore or the flux employed, an ore coutaining addressed to the Secretary of State for War by exceeds in amount 1:15 per cent.

much silica is very liable to furnish a highly Captain Blakely, H.P. Royal Artillery :The proportions of phosphorus and sulphur in siliceous iron.

SIR,- The late Secretary of State for War irons froin the ores of these districts are also in. 2. The proportion of sulphur existing even in having left undecided a case of great importance to considerable in the majority of the samples ex- light grey pig-iron is never so considerable as to me, and the correspondence on the subject being amined. In the case of three only (out of twenty- exert an appreciable influence on the properties of voluminous, I have the honour now to lay before six) does the amount of sulphur reach to 1-10th the metal; and none of the descriptions of you in a simple form the principal facts. per cent., aud the phosphorus amounts to less than British ores which have been examined in connec. In 1854 I discovered a method of constructing 0-5 per cent. in twenty instances; of the other tion with this report contain an amount of sulphur cannon (or other tubes) whereby greater strength six, three contain less than 0-6 per cent. ; one from compound sufficient to exert any prejudicial in. can be obtained from the same thickness of the the Old Hill Works contains 0.63 per cent., fluence on the quality of iron produced from them. same metal than by any other known method ; in and two samples from Brierly Hill Works 3. The proportion of phosphorus in iron is, in September I offered to the Duke of Newcastle to contain 0.63 and 0:72 per cent. The ores great measure, determined by the per-centage of communicate my plan to any person his Grace employed at the latter works contain some phosphoric acid in the ore employed, while, at the wished, who was capable of understanding the what high percentages of phosphoric acid, the same time, it is probably to some extent regulated subject, bat was referred to the Ordnance Select effects of which on the composition of the iron by the temperature at which the reduction is committee; in November I went, at considerable produced are, therefore, clearly traced. The effected (i. e., by the employment of hot or cold expense, to Constantinople and Balaclava, and tried per-centages of phosphoric acid in the ores blast).

in vain to persuade Lord Lyons to use my invenused at the Old Hill Works (particularly in the The various ores examined, if classed according tion for some heavy guns to destroy the sea-forts “ Balls,” Bilston), are also higher than those in to the per-centage of phosphorus in the iron re.

of Sevastopol, and for some huge howitzers to most of the ores used at the remaining South duced from them, would stand in the following shell that place from steamers at a distance of two Staffordshire Works; and its influence on the order :

or three miles. On my return to England in quality of the product is, to some extent, shown

January, 1855, you may recollect, Sir, that you by a reference to the composition of some of the No. 1: Northern District and Forest of Dean oras,

were good enough to give me a note of introducirons from those works.

used by the Whitehaven, Weardale, and tion to the Duke of Newcastle, who then imme.

Parkend Works. That the proportion of phosphorus in the iron No. 2. South Staffordshire ores, used at the Ne. with Colonel Lefroy on the subject. From this

diately received me, and put me in communication is not always determined by the proportion of

therton, Parkhead, Old Hill, Lays and Level scientific officer, however, I learnt with much rephosphoric acid existing in the ore employed

Works. need, however, be scarcely pointed out; the fact

gret, that he personally could do nothing to recom

South Wales ores, used at the Ystalyfera mend my plans or the reverse, but that they must may be exemplified by reference to some of the

Works.

be laid before the Ordnance Select Committee. samples of iron from the works last alluded to, and to the iron from the Lays Works, near Dudley, in

South Wales ores, smelted with cold blast Knowing the uselessness of approaching that body

at the Blaenavon and Pontypool Works. which the per-centage of phosphorus is small, No. 2 North Midland ores, used at the West utility rested on mathematical calculations, I at

with a novel invention, the only proof of whose while the phosphoric acid in the ore is compara

Hallam Works.

once set to work to get a sample gun made. tively high. The circumstance that the proportion of phosphorus in all the samples of iron from the No. 4. Northamptonshire ores, used at the East Having already been at expense in going to the Blaenavon Works is small, while several of the

End and Heyford Works.

East, and being about to enter on a course of ores employed .contain considerable quantities of North Staffordshire ore, used at the costly experiments, I now took out a patent (dated phosphoric acid, is probably to be ascribed to the Goldendale Works.

the 27th February, 1855). Before attempting employment of cold blast in the reduction of the

thus to ensure any profit to myself, you will per

North Midland ores, used at the Batterley ceive, Sir, that I had offered my invention to the iron at those works.

Works.

country as a free gift, and given myself much The Oolitic ores and the clay ironstones employed No. 5. Cleveland ores, used at the South Bank trouble to press its acceptance on it. I was exat the works in the North Midland and North and Stockton Works. Staffordshire districts, from which specimens were

tremely fortunate in my choice of a manufacturer,

It will scarcely be out of place to conclude and by the end of March the Butterley Company employed at the Northamptonshire Works, con examinations, with some notice of the very consubmitted, as also the ochrey brown ironstones these few remarks on the results of the analytical had completed for me an 18-pounder gun, which

was tested near their works in Derbyshire, and tain proportions of phosphoric acid, which are siderable difference observed in the structure of whose strength exceeded my expectations.

I more considerable than those existing in the greater number of the other ores examined. Thus, many of the samples of iron analysed, and par- applied to Lord Panmure for leave to have it the ore employed at the South Bank Furnaces ticularly in the physical condition of the so-called tested at Woolwich by the Ordnance Select Comcontains nearly two per cent. of phosphoric acid; metal. In some instances a grey iron containing Office and the Committee, through the Lieutenant

graphite, as exhibited by fresh fractures of the mittee, but as a communication between the War that used at the Stockton Works contains upwards

a per-centage of graphite similar to, or even General of Artillery, required six or seven weeks, of 1.5 per cent., and very nearly the same amount higher than that in a second example, exhibited a I had the gun altered for further private experiexists in one of the ores at the Butterley Works, dense compact structure, while that of the other ments. It was an excellent 18-pounder gun, fully and in that employed at the Goldendale Works sample was open-grained, and showed the exis- equal to the service gun, though little more than (North Staffordshire). The proportions of phos- tence of the graphite in large and distinct scales

. one-third its weight: I had the bore enlarged to phorus in the various samples of iron from these These modifications in the structure of pig.iron the size of a 24-pounder, reducing the thickness sources exceed one per cent., excepting in one sample from the Butterley Works, in which, how because it is to them that must undoubtedly be to 24 inches. As the thickness of an ordinary

are so well known, that they are only alluded to of metal where the greatest strength is requisite ever, it amounts to 0-72 per cent.

ascribed, in many instances, the apparent discre. 24-pounder is there 61 inches, I can have had no The samples of iron produced from Northamp. pancies (which may be noticed by a comparison of expectation that mine would be equally strong; tonshire ores also contain more than one per cent. the results included in this report) between the only wished to see how strong it was Having by of phosphorus, the proportions of phosphoric acid chemical quality of a sample of iron and the the middle of May obtained permission to send in the ores are, however, not quite as high as those results which it has furnished when submitted to the gun to Woolwich, I did so, and explained to last alluded to, amounting to 0·84 and 1:03 per mechanical tests. It is self-evident that a sample

The Committee of 1854 was differently constituted from çent. The samples of iron from one of the works of grey iron, compact and uniform iu structure, the present one.

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