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the Committee how I had altered and weakened contractors for the use of the Government, or else | royalty due to me. That wrought iron is inferior it. It was tried, and after being fired several to purchase my patent. The cannon on which I is acknowledged by Sir W. Armstrong himself. He rounds with 4 lbs., 5 lbs. and 6 lbs. of powder, a claim a royalty are now known as Armstrong tried it, Captain Younghusband says, and abansolid 24-pounder shot, and two wads, it absolutely guns, but their strength is obtained by the plan i doned it for steel. That he did not afterwards twice bore a charge of 8 lbs. of powder and the advocate, as you will at once perceive, Sir, by abandon steel, because it failed, is proved by his shot and wads, bursting at the third round. To comparing the published accounts of each. concluding words when writing to the Times my astonishment, the Committee reported that Provisional Specification Provisional Specification about his first gun, which was made with a steel "guns so constructed could never be considered

left by W. G. Arm- left by A. T. Blakely at safe."

strong at the Office of

the Office of the Com. "It now only remains to be stated, that Some scientific members having been added to the Commissioners of missioners of Patents, course of the long series of experiments made w the Committee by the Duke of Newcastle, and Patents, with his Peti- with his Petition, on this gun it has been fired nearly 1,300 times without having been invited by the President to sit (in tion, on the 11th Feb., the 27th of February, sustaining any permanent injury either in the breechconsequence of representations, which have secured 1857.

1855.

loading arrangement or otherwise. The only parts me the hostility of the Committee ever since), II, WILLIAM GEORGE “I, ALEXANDER THEO- exposed to wear (and none are seriously so) are early in June presented the calculations on which ARMSTRONG, of Newcas- PHILUS BLAKELY, of Lit- separable from the gun, and can with great facility be I formed my theory, and obtained leave to send tle - upon Tyne, in the tle Ryder Street, St. renewed.” another gun for trial. The calculations were re

County of Northumber. James's, in the County of On this point Captain Younghusband's evidence ported on by a mathematician, Mr. Heather, and hereby declare the nature Royal Artillery, do hereby experiments made at Shoeburyness with the gun,

land, Civil Engineer, do Middlesex, Captain of the is still more decisive. After describing numerous declared inapplicable to cannon. The gun, how- of the said Invention for declare the nature of the he tells us thatever, a 9-pounder, was most completely successful. Improvements in Ord said Invention for " Im. A cast iron service gun and a brass service gun nance,' to be as follows:- provements in Ordnance,' than necessary, suggested its being returned to him of the same calibre were fired round for round “The improvements re- to be as follows:

to have it re-bored for a heavier projectile.” with it, with the same charge of powder, so long late, firstly, to forming “ The improvements reas they stood. All three were fired :

guns with the internal late, first, to forming guns Why then did Mr. Armstrong in the later guns

tube or cylinder of with an internal tubo or use wrought iron ? Evidently to attempt to evade 2 rounds with 8 lbs. of powder, 2 shots and 1 wad. wrought iron or gun me- cylinder of cast iron or my patent. On the publication of his letter in 86 3 lbs.

1

1
tal in

one piece, sur- steel, enclosed with
28
4 lbs.
1

the Times of January 3rd, 1857, I sent it and my rounded by one or more casing of wrought iron or specification to a lawyer, and asked him if my 5 5 lbs.

cylindrical castings of steel. I prefer to form 5 5 lbs.

1

wrought iron or gun me. the outer surface of the patent included the method described in the letter. 110 6 lbs.

tal shrunk upon the in- inner tube somewhat His reply was that it did, and that, without my Here the cast-iron service gun burst. The other two ternal cylinder,” &c. conical, the greatest di- permission, Sir William could not continue to were then fired:

ameter being just in front manufacture his guns, I wrote to inform Sir W. 74 rounds with 6 lbs of powder, 2 shots and 1 wad.

of the trunnions and Armstrong, and obtained a reply promising to Here the brass gun became unserviceable from loss of

tapering both ways, and “negociate” with me before "using" the inven. shape, mine alone remaining, and being fired after.

to apply the outer casing tion commercially." This promise was written wards :

in the form of collars or

on the 21st of January, 1857, yet on the 11th of 134 rounds with 6 lbs. of powder, 2 shots and 1 wad.

rings driven thereon; and February, three weeks later only, Sir William

in some cases I apply two 1 6 lbs.

provisional specification substituting 1 6 lbs.

or more layers of such filed 1 6 lbs.

In the MECHANICS' rings, according to the wrought iron for the steel and cast iron mentioned 1 6 lbs.

MAGAZINE, of Feb. 25th, strength sought to be ob- in my patent! In November, 1856, I had the 1 6 lbs. 7

it is said that the Arm: tained, the trunnions be- pleasure of seeing Sir Wm. 'Armstrong at his 1 6 lbs.

ing of one piece with one Engine Works, near Newcastle. On that occasion 1 strong gun

of the rings. I also form he expressed views exactly coinciding with my 1 6 lbs.

1 “Is formed of an in. such outer casing of wire own, published nearly two years before, and dis158

6 lbs. „ and filled to the muzzle! ternal steel tube, bound or rod wound spirally in tinctly told me that the principle of the construcSo great was the endurance of this gun, that over with strips of rolled one or more layers around tion of his cannon was to have the exterior in a the experiment lasted nineteen months, conse

iron laid on spirally." the inner cylinder or quently was not officially reported till 1857.

state of permanent strain, and that it mattered

tube," &c. A

little which of several suitable metals were used. 65-pounder was then ordered to be made at the (Here other extracts from Captain Younghus. He then agreed to manufacture a gun for me on Government foundry at Woolwich, further to test band's paper* the Times, the Daily News, and my plans in which the above-named principle was my plan. The gun has been made, but, I believe, other journals follow.) has not been fired to this day!! Meanwhile I of these extracts I would wish, Sir, to draw iron larger one, the latter forming nearly, the

to be applied by forcing a small tube into a cast have made many private experiments.

your especial attention to that from Captain entire gun. He afterwards declined making it. In 1853, Mr. Robert Mallet, assisted by an emi. Younghusband's report,—" the parts are then in nent mathematician, Dr. Andrew Hart, of Trinity that state of initial tension which is necessary;">this nor any other unimportant alteration would

I am advised by eminent lawyers that neither College, Dublin, planned the construction of can. non on the same principle I advocate. He forcing on the rings the necessary degree of tension enable him legally to use the essential feature of obtained the sanction of Lord Palmerston to can be obtained," because this tension is the my patent. I was prepared to try the question expend a large sum of public money to test the essential and novel feature ; and the similarity of this summer by an action against the Elswick truth of the theory; the Ordnance Select Com- expression is striking. If the necessity for this Company, but was stopped by a declaration by

General Peel that if I continued it, he would mittee having reported it unsound. I could bring tension was known before to any one, and cannon forward, if necessary, many more proofs that the were publicly constructed accordingly, my case is

cease to consider the question of the infringement value of this method of manufacture was unknown not good (though even could that be proved I of my patent rights in Woolwich Arsenal, or at at the commencement of the year 1855, at least fancy I have some claim on Government, having least to correspond with me on the subject. to the British Government and all their officiel spent a large sum of money to prove this neces.

In choosing whether I would submit my case to advisers; but those I have here stated will, I trust, sity to them, they denying it), as the words of Her the decision of a legal tribunal, where any quibble Sir, remove all doubt on that subject from your Majesty's patent to me declare it void “if the might have deprived me of my rights, or to that mind: the Ordnance Select Committee reported said invention is not a new invention as to the of an English statesman and gentleman, I could that "guns 80 constructed could never be con- Public Use and Exercise thereof in our United not hesitate. I made a discovery of great value sidered safe," and even after witnessing the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Chan- to my country ; I offered it to the country, and wonderful endurance of two guns, desired to see

nel Islands, and the Isle of Man." Sir W. Arm- urged its acceptance; to enable me to raise money further experiments. They cannot pretend to strong's own letter is, I presume, conclusive, to prove its value, which after being denied for have known the value of the method before that his first cannon was made on my patented four years has now been acknowledged, and my Nor can Lord Palmerston's Government, as that plan; "the gun,” he says, “is composed internally plans adopted, not only as better than the old statesman sanctioned Mr. Mallet's spending of steel, and externally of wrought iron, applied system, but as the only known method whereby thousands to test it.* Nor can any of those who in a twisted or spiral form." I am informed that sufficient strength can be obtained for rifle cannon have sanctioned the manufacture of 3,000 or 4,000 now he makes the inside of wrought iron, think of any size. This has been proved by the burstguns within the last three years on the old plan. ing thereby to evade the words of my patent, ing of the 32-pounder and 68-pounder guns rified This being the case, and I have spent upwards wiz: the tension on the outer part. This might mediately adopting my plan for those guns he is

while retaining the only essential feature of it, by Mr. Whitworth, and by that gentleman imof £1,500 in experiments and in urging the

now making Government to use my method, I have no hesita- do for a private individual, but I feel certain

It remains for you, Sir, to decide what the tion in asking you, Sir, now that it is adopted, to Her Majesty's Government, so long as you, Sir,

are Secretary of State for War, will never sanction country shall do for me; I can thank my God cause to be paid to me a suitable royalty on each such an evasion. Even were it fair, or even legal. ] that He has enabled me to do my duty to it. gun manufactured according to my patent either in the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, or by private it would be most prejudicial to Her Majesty's I have the honour to, Sir, service to substitute an inferior metal for the

Your obedient servant, • I published, in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, my reasons inside of the gun, merely to save the trilling

A. T. BLAKELY. for believing Mr. Mallet's mortars would fail, before they were tried, He had underrated the strength required.

The Right IIonourable The Secretary of State
See MECHANICS' MAGAZINE for April 22, 1859, p. 24.

for War, &o., &c., &c.

8
9

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THE NEW BRONZE COINAGE. ELONGATED POINTED RIFLE SHOT FOR columns, in my fifth chapter, the greater part of A CORRESPONDENT of the Times writes as fol

VERTICAL FIRE.

which, if I recollect rightly, was written a twelvelows :-A very sensible article, extracted from the

month ago. I remain, Gentlemen,

Your obedient servant, MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, has been inserted in several of the daily papers on the above highly

THE AUTHOR OF THE “NAVIES OF THE WORLD." important subject, and I respectfully beg a small

Bridgenorth, 5th Sept., 1859. space in your columns, while I, as a practical en

[The above letter calls for but very few remarks graver of some experience, endeavour to answer

from us, since it offers no contradiction whatever it. I shall feel too glad that if by your kind in

to our comments of last week. We can assent to sertion of the opinion of one of the profession it should succeed in inciting others with more ability

TO THE EDITORS OF THE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” all four of Mr. Busk's “facts," and still leave the to supply my defects in striving to vindicate the

GENTLEMEN, - In your Magazine of last Friday subject precisely as we then stated it. We regret, national ability of the engravers, designers, and you were so kind as to give a drawing with a however, for Mr. Busk's sake, that he has not the modellers of the present age. I will first glance steel rifle bolt. 1 shall now be much obliged if mate of the book was fairly formed. Seeing evi

description of my elongated flat-faced iron or candour to acknowledge plainly that our first estiat the highly commendable and honourable desire for improvement that has lately been shown in all you will be so good as to insert a drawing of my dences of very recent composition in all the our late national undertakings in connection with wooden jacket is cut out of a piece of seasoned places, we concluded that the book was recently

elongated pointed rifle shot. The four-grooved chapters, and finding them plentiful in many the fine arts, viz., by means of a public and gene- willow wood, with a sharp rifle cutter corre written, and every intelligent reader of it will do ral competition, judging the relative merits and sponding with the bore of the rifle ; a hole is the same. gaged in the

work required, and I ask you, Sir, drilled out the centre of the jacket, which is then content to let Mr. Busk's explanations have whatthe editor of the leading public journal, and the placed in the rifle mould, and the molten lead is ever weight may belong to them, notwithstandpublic generally, if it has not been of the greatest poured through the hole, thus forming the body ing the difficulty we ourselves have in accepting

some of them, Take this 4th “fact” of the above advantage to the country; therefore, why should of the wooden jacket. In the year 1851, when letter, for example. Mr. Busk says he has never not the same course be followed in the present the Kafir war was raging, and the letters of read either Mr. Isherwood's work or our quotainstance ? I have such perfect faith in the versatility of genius of our native artists that I have many officers from the scene of action stated that tions from it. How difficult it must be for us to no hesitation whatever in saying they will relieve the Kaffirs sheltered themselves in the, to the believe this statement the reader will judge when our Lady Emblem from the uncomfortable position British soldier, impenetrable jungle of thorny we put two passages side by side, thus :she has occupied for so many years. The questions mimosa, in the midst of stony and rocky ground, Mr. Isherwood, as quoted

where our horizontal fire of musketry could make in raised are :

the MECHANICS' Mr. Busk's “Navies of no impression on them, I wrote to the editor of MAGAZINE for Feb. 18, What impressions are to be given to the nex

the World,” p. 146.

1869. bronze coins, and why not have something new? the Naval and Military Gazette suggesting that my elongated rifle-shot and percussed shells fired

“The machinery of the “Well made, however, To this I answer there is indeed a vast field open vertically might have the effect of driving the gun-boats, though well as the machinery of these for improvement.

and by -and skill among engravers that there is danger of get- of his own, that Carnot made experiments by boilers and engines gave getting out of order

, Again, is there so much poverty of inventive / Kaffirs from their jungle strongholds. The builders, was constantly best makers, both engines

editor inserted my letter, but with an observation out of order. Both and boilers are constantly ting something worse than the present impres- firing vertically round bullets from mortars

, continual trouble ; sion ? I here assert that if the means of publicly and howitzers, and carronades

, but that in their fall first from the use of high measure, to the excessive generally testing the question be allowed, there they made but a slight impression on boards pressure steam and water; velocity of the screw. The will be found plenty of native artists capable of placed on the ground. Now, the nature of the last from the high fifteen gun-boats employ

rotary velocity employed. ed in the late Chinese making and executing a better design. To the Carnots round shot vertical experiments bore no last question, Is there no one in the kingdom who analogy to my plan of firing

vertically elongated of the engines was so large steam factories (one has talent enough to sketch out a design which sembled the

arrow shower, Carnot's that of a ball ble to keep them in order. work in executing their

great that it was impossi. afloat and one ashore) at would at once be symbolical of the ocean's sovereignty of Great Britain, and a fit impression falling from a sling: Every archer knows how During the hostilities at repairs; therefore

, until for its coinage ? I finally reply, let the opportunity deeply an arrow falling vertically penetrates the and around Canton, the some more durable

mabe given of trying the fact, and proof would be ground, and that it requires some force to draw English established a shop chinery can be devised

, it out.

I am, yours obediently, on shore at Hongkong for these vessels can hardly shown that our countrymen have not degenerated,

J. NORTON.

repairing; they also had, considered available, er. but will be found in numbers, ready, willing, and

Rosherville, 5th September.

at the same place, the cept for temporary emer competent to execute a design that shall at once

floating workshop, “Vol. gencies in hostile operabe a fit emblem to represent the coinage of THE “NAVIES OF THE WORLD."

cano," sent out from Eng. tions upon an enemy's the first country in the universe as it will the TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” with tools and power for

land, completely fitted up coast.” artistic skill of its people. Let me entreat, Sir,

GENTLEMEN, I have not the slightest wish to doing a large amount of your powerful and generous advocacy in aid

and
of the following proposition, should no better be enter into any dispute, nor to prolong this cor- casting, forging,
found :

respondence further than may be requisite for the finishing; and both these
statement of the following facts :-

establishments were kept
1. That there be a public competitive exhibi.
tion of pencil or sepia drawings and wax or plaster sations Lexicon,” which you say " was not printed ing, out of about fifteen,

1. With regard to the articles in the “Conver- constantly employed on

the gun-boats, there bemodels, about six inches in diameter.

in the Times, nor heard of in England until usually a couple under2. That the exhibition he holden within this January"—this article originally appeared, I be going repair ; in fact, the present month.

lieve, last September, and had, as I observed, repairs upon them were 3. That artists of every grade be invited to “made a great sensation throughout Europe” long enormous. For economy compete.

before it was discussed in England. The trans- of fuel, durability and re4. That the judges appointed shall choose a lation of it given by me in the “Navies of the liability as war vessels for design from the drawings or models exhibited, and World,” together with the greater portion of the constant use, the maif their choice of design should not be the work of critique thereon, was in type last November. a practical engraver or artist, capable of carrying

boats cannot be recom

2. 'The list of the French navy was in type mended, however well out the design, let a given sum be paid to him for shortly after, as was also a large portion of the adapted to the momentary the drawing or model chosen, and then give the rest of the book, though it was not published in purpose for which they commission to the best practical exhibitor for its present form till the 28th May.

were constructed.” execution.

3. The parliamentary papers you allude to I 5. That the judges appointed be unconnected indid not see till March. The information extracted perience in literary matters to read the above er:

Now, we ask any man of the slightest ex any way with any of the exhibitors.

from them, which is not furnished in the appendix, tracts carefully, and then tell us if he finds it

together with the comments upon Sir John easy to believe that the writer of the second exIt is reported in Toulon that orders have been re. Pakington's and the extracts from Sir Wm. Arm-tract had never read the first, particularly when ceived from the French

Admiralty to cease disarming strong's speeches, together with various other he remembers that Mr. Isherwood (as we said in the fleet, and that the forts commanding the entrance subjects, were embodied with the matter already in February) “ derived most of his information reto the harbour are being armed with the guns which type (and which had, of course, been “kept specting our gun-boats from personal examination have hitherto been kept in store.

standing") just before the volume went to press. One of the Armstrong guns, an 80-pounder, forged

of those employed in the capture of Canton," at the Elswick factory, was recently tested in the long « Engineering Precedents for Steam Machinery,” wish to urge such objections farther. Let

4. The work you name, Mr. Isherwood's he being in China at the time. But we do not nance Select Committee at Woolwich Arsenal, and I do not remember ever to have heard of, nor did those who have confidence in us do the best they gave the most

wonderful results as regards accuracy, I ever see the quotations therefrom in your Maga. can with Mr. Busk's statement; as for others, &c. The flight obtained was 9,000 yards, or upwards zine of the 18th February. There can, therefore, they may read the book for themselves, and then of five miles.

be no extracts from that book, nor from your judge us harshly—if they can. Eds. M. M.]

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THOMAS'S HEAVY RIFLED CANNON FOR | miles,* lay any town on the coast in ashes, in a ON EXPERIMENTS IN GUNNERY. GUNBOATS. very short time, and with perfect impunity. This

By LYNALL THOMAS Esq., F.R.S.L.

GUNNERY furnishes no exception to the rule, that The author of the interesting paper on “Experi- may be accomplished, and will be; if not by our

own nation, by another. It is questionable, how there must be a cause for every effect; indeed, in ments in Gunnery” given in this number, in the

ever, volume from which that is taken proposes the form the armament of the American corvette, causes more essential than in conducting experi

whether the 11 or 12 inch guns, such as scarcely any investigation is a knowledge of use of the powerful rifled gun represented in side Niagara, would not prove more destructive in ments in gunnery. Hence, when we find that two and front view in the annexed engraving. He close action from their large diameter and shots, fired apparently under precisely the same says our own heavy guns are constructed upon a heavy bursting charges—than even the powerful circumstances, show a variation in their range, or principle so false that the only wonder is that so

rifled guns which I have described. Before in their accuracy, we know that a cause must exist few accidents happen with them; those of the adopting rifled guns into our naval service, to the why this should be the case; and althongh the largest size are not only unsafe, but also very

entire exclusion of smooth-bored guns of large fact of the variation in the effect of shot fired inferior in power to the American guns. If,

calibre, inuch consideration would be necessary, under similar circumstances shows that general however, it should be discovered that rifled guns and many experiments required to be made. 1 rules only are applicable in gunnery, and that no of six or eight tons weight—the weight of some

see no reason, however, against the acquisition of single result is to be relied on, yet a proper study of the guns employed in the American service, such a gun as I have described. The only difficulties of cause and effect in this matter will considerably can be constructed of wrought iron, then, indeed, which lie in the way of it have already been once reduce the chances of failure.* a powerful piece of ordnance will be obtained; a surmounted in the case of Messrs. Horsfall’s It is not sufficient merely to obtain a greater compound shell

, of 2 cwt. and upwards, could be 13-inch gun, and will, no doubt, be still more fired from it, and a greater range and accuracy completely overcome.

range, accuracy, or general effect; but we should

The great tensile strength know, also, how these results are obtained, if we coinbined would probably be attainable, than which is required for guns to throw compound wish to profit by them in the greatest possible could be acquired with any other description of shells arises from the absence of windage, and degree. gun, such as could with convenience be used. A

also from friction on the whole surface of the fortress or a floating battery, attacked with ord bore, which impedes the progress of the shell applied in practice, repeated failures must always

Before any new principle can be successfully nance of this kind, could scarcely escape destruc- along the bore, and allows the Auid produced by be expected. I may go so far as to assert that tion. The length of the bore of the gun here the fired charge to accumulate behind the shell, they are absolutely necessary to the complete atillustrated is nine feet, and the calibre eight and thus to exert a great strain on the gun. tainment of success. Because the Lancaster, inches; the metal which surrounds the charge is Nearly the maximum results as to range and Whitworth, and other guns may have failed in nearly twelve inches in thickness; this (if the general effect—regarding the means employed fulfilling the expectations that were forined reguns were constructed of the new puddled steel) might be attained with the gun represented in specting them, their trial is, by no means on this would probably be sufficient to give it ample Plate 7. Any larger piece of ordnance would not account, to be considered as an entirely useless strength, and weight enough to prevent great only be unmanageable, but probably unsafe ; and expenditure of either time or money. On the recoil. A shell of 2 cwt., similar to that shown although a larger gun could, of course, throw a contrary, it was necessary that they should be standing on end below the muzzle of the gun in heavier projectile, still a comparatively greater made, and, no doubt, considerable advantage in the engraving, and a charge of from 25 lbs. to effect could not be obtained with it, as the range many respects will arise from their having been 30 lbs. of powder, might be used with it; a is the of the larger shell would probably not be greater, made. front view of the gun. A long, low, strongly unless a higher velocity could be given to it; so built vessel, possessing great steam power, armed that, to acquire the same relative effect, compara- highest degree-as Mr. Whitworth for instance

When men possessing mechanical skill in the with a gun of this kind, would prove,” says Mr. tively greater means would have to be em- undertake experiments with a view to any imThomas, “infinitely more destructive than the ployed.

provement in the construction of implements, steam battering-ram which has recently excited

whether of a warlike or a peaceful character, good some attention. A vessel such as I have described

LIST OF NEW BOOKS.

must always result; for, even if they fail in would possess great advantage over a steam-ram,

establishing their views, considerable light will from the difficulty which would be experienced Family Cyclopædia, The, 3s. Bd.

always. be thrown upon the subject to serve as : with the latter—first, in striking a vessel under Moore's History of the British Ferns, 3 edition, 73. 6d.

guide for the future. Suill, although the aid of sail or steaming; and secondly, in getting disen- cedham's Physiology of Articulation, 3s. cl., 18. swd. Our Farm of Four Acres, 7 edition, 2s.

able mechanicians is of great importance in the gaged from it afterwards.

Parkinson's Under Government, Key to Civil Service, “Ten or twelve vessels of the above description

• These somewhat trite remarks were called forth by an sea-going gun-boats—each armed with a heavy Shot-Gun and Sporting Rifle, The, by Stonehenge, observation which was made to the author by an artillery

officer of some eminence--to the effect that the firing of rifled gun to throw shells of 2 cwt., and with

the charge with cannon was attended with such varying steam power sufficient to give them a speed of at

results, that it was useless to think of applying any rule

* At this range such a gun would not require an eleva- for regulating the thickness, or strength of metal, required least fourteen knots, would, at a distance of three tion of more than about 11°,

for guns of different calibres'

38. 6d.

. .

practical application of the theory of rifled cannon To produce any great and useful results, a com- rifled ordnance, in a much shorter time and more and projectiles, the theory itself is, nevertheless, bination of sound theoretical and practical know. satisfactorily than could otherwise be the case. a philosophical rather than a mechanical question. ledge is necessary, and this can only be obtained To conduct experiments in a desultory manner is

It will require systematic and well-conducted by a long and close study of the subject, and by invariably a useless expenditure of both time and experiments, extending over a course of many numerous experiments carried on with unre- money. years, before a sufficient knowledge can be ac- mitting attention.

It is impossible for a private individual to unquired of all the circumstances attending the ap- No single invention--as of a projectile-a dertake such experiments on a sufficiently large plication of the principle of the rifle to cannon, method of loading at the breech-a peculiar form scale to be productive of conclusive results; they to enable us to decide upon the best practical of groove, or any other mechanical contrivance should be conducted somewhat after the manner system for the construction either of the gun or is of the least use in itself, unless a perfect com. of Hatton's experiments, only on a much larger the projectile. The different methods of applying bination—such as the proper length of the gun-scale, each with a view to some well-defined the principle of the rifle to cannon-as, by having of the turn-the most suitable metal for the gun, object. The following are amongst the chief cir. the gun to load at the breech, or the muzzle ; or, &c.--is obtained for rendering it effective. If cumstances in connection with rifled ordnance, having a compound, or a homogeneous projectile, each of these be not adapted to the others, the respecting which some certain data are required, will each have to be the subject of numerous whole must inevitably fail in practice. It is the and each should therefore be the subject of a experiments.

difficulty of effecting this combination which separate course of experiments. It is all the more imperative that these experi- renders experiments with rifled guns so compli- 1. Experiments with the ballistic pendulum ments should be undertaken by the Government, cated and costly. If properly conducted experi for finding the different velocities of rifle shot inasmuch as no person——so small is the knowledge ments had been at first undertaken by the Govern. under various circumstances ; so that both the which has as yet been generally acquired of this ment at their own expense, instead of relying initial velocities given by different charges of subject—is at present really competent to give an upon the inventive and pecuniary resources of powder, and the loss of velocity-occasioned by opinion upon anything new in connection with it private individuals for the acquisition of their the resistance of the air—which the shot suffers which may be brought before their notice. I think data—which, to say the least, is a rather pitiful in passing through different spaces, shall be I should not be far wrong in asserting that only a course to adopt; for, if a new thing is worth thoroughly ascertained. At present literally very few persoas connected with the War Depart. trying, it must surely be worth the cost of the nothing (certain) is known with respect to these ment are yet fally aware either of the compre-trial--the public would have been spared the

points. hensive nature of the subject of rifled cannon, or expense (amounting to between three and four

These experiments in the case of rifled shot of their want of knowledge in everything relating hundred thousand pounds) of the Lancaster gun ought to be attended with better than ordinary to it. To stand by and witness the trial, at factory.

results, as the pendulum could be placed at a Woolwich or Shoeburyness, of a number of pro- Notwithstanding, therefore, the numerous ex. greater distance than usual, on account of the jectiles, or a new gun-the result, in general, of periments which have been made in gunnery, and superior accuracy of flight of rifled shot. private experiment-teaches little or nothing. the immense mass of data which must have re.

2. The different quantities of friction in the Much more is learned by firing a single shot-sulted from them; yet, owing to the desultory

case of both compound and iron shot of different made expressly for the purpose of ascertaining manner in which the experiments have been some particular effect--and by a thorough exami- carried on, they have been productive of much kinds; and the loss of range occasioned by it. nation and careful study of all the circumstances fewer practical results than we might reasonably shot by any alteration in the position of the centre

3. The effect produced upon the flight of long attending its projection, than by merely wit- have expected. Experiments with rifled cannon

of gravity. nessing the firing of twenty thousand projectiles not only require to be conducted systematically ;

4. The effect produced by a difference in the devised by other persons. The results obtained i but, to be productive of real benefit, they also

form of projectiles.* with the latter may be apparent enough, but the require to be conducted by properly qualified train of reasoning (the fruit of personal expe- persons.

5. The difference in the ranges and deflection rience) which produces these results, remains The questions which constantly arise in gun, different lengths.

produced by different elevations with shot of altogether unknown; for although a man may com- nery experiments are sometimes so complicated

6. The circumstances attending the penetration municate the result of his experiments, yet he and difficult of solution, that none but a mathe

of long projectiles into various substances. cannot furnish another with his personal experi. matician of the highest order can really ascertain ence; and without this it is perfectly impossible the value of the results which are obtained. To different sizes, forms, and density, when fired with

7. The angulár velocity required for shot of to effect, or even to suggest, any important im- conduct experiments in gunnery, therefore, in a

different velocities and elevations. provement. *

proper manner, it is of the first importance to There is scarcely a question--if, indeed, there be have a good mathematician to collect and arrange compound projectiles,) which shall produce the

8. The form of groove, (both for iron and one-in the whole subject of dynamics, or the the data, and to ascertain the exact numerical necessary effect with the least amount of friction. laws which relate to a body in motion, which is value of the results obtained. not involved in the investigation of the circum- It will be also necessary to have a practised ex

9. The strength of metal required in the gun, stances attending the flight of elongated projec- perimentalist to profit by these results ; one who, whether it be destired for the employment of iron tiles; these require to be thoroughly investigated with a proper knowledge of cause and effect, is

or of compound projectiles. and known before any decided opinion can be capable of suggesting the best method for the at- long projectiles ; 'in order to ascertain the best

10. The curves, and also the times of flight, of given as to the best practical method for con- tainment of certain objects. A clever mechanician, 1 method for securing the greatest amount of structing rifled cannon. A system founded upon to invent and judge of the means which can best efficiency in firing them at high elevations, mere guess-work would have a very unsound be employed for carrying out the plans suggested, basis. should also assist in conducting such experiments,

11. The effect of windage, especially with iron It has been too much the custom to speak to ensure their being attended with the most

projectiles. slightingly of theory in gunnery. This is probably useful results.*

12. The effect produced by altering the length

of the bore of the gun. owing to the unsatisfactory state of the ordinary The whole of these qualifications are rarely theory of gunnery; but the acquisition, in this combined in a single individual. Robins was a

Besides those which I have enumerated, there instance, of a sound theory is of the highest im- remarkable exception, and his experiments, in data must be fully acquired before unerring re

are many other points relative to which sufficient portance. The stride which has been made in the consequence, formed an era in gunnery. practice of gunnery since Robins's experiments

sults can be obtained. Those who, like myself, were made known, resulted from his discoveries found in one person, there is no reason why have acquired sufficient data, perhaps, to form by

Bat although the necessary qualities are seldom have made many experiments on a smaller scale, respecting the laws which govern the flight of several persons should not be selected, who would, comparison a general opinion upon all these projectiles, and respecting the nature of the pro- collectively, possess them; and who might either questions, and (assisted by some acqnaintance jecting force. When once a theory had been be placed on the Rifled Ordnance Committee, or framed, based upon sound principles, the me- act with it in such a manner that their services nery) may even have arrived at the power of

with the ordinary theory and practice of gun. chanical improvements followed as a matter of would always be at its disposal, or at that of the estimating their effects with a certain degree of

Sufficient attention has not hitherto been paid office, for which no one could be better qualified fired with different charges, the friction, and to the correctness of the principles upon which than the gentleman who now

fills it); the results many other points, can only be ascertained by ... the cannon and projectile should be constructed. of their operations to be finally submitted to a regular course of experiments with the ballistic To this chiefly must be attributed the failure of committee of experienced military men of all and gun pendulums, and by other means of much the Lancaster and Whitworth guns—the projec services, who would be able to judge of their tile in the former case acting like a wedge; in the practical value.

too extensive a nature for a private person to latter like a lever in the bore of the gun.

undertake. A systematic course of experiments conducted under such joint superintendence would be the carried on, there is no reason why the country

Whilst the necessary experiments are being The truth of this remark is exemplified in a striking manner by the fact that the rifled cannon and projectiles right course to take for acquiring the proper data should be deprived of the use of rifled cannon. produced at Woolwich by artillery officers, who had before respecting all the circumstances connected with them the results of all the experiments made from time to time at Shoeburyness, proved most signal failures.

• It would be a great advantage if the establishment at

• The appointment (since this was written) of Sir W. fact also affords a proof of the defective nature of the

Shoeburyness were furnished with the means-at least ou Armstrong, as Engineer to the Rifled Ordnance Comordinary theory of gunnery, and of its small utility in mittee, will no doubt prove highly beneficial; in that he

a small scale--of casting, forging, or altering experi. estimating the comparative results to be produced with

mental projectiles, so that they might be tried without appears to possess the last-named qualifications in a very delay. It would be a great saving in time, and, evcuong projectiles. eminent degree.

tually, in expense.

course,

This

The manufacture of the Armstrong gun may be vote of thanks rewarded Mr. Hayes for imparting tons, and presents an appearance (with the exception proceeded with; but we need not confine our- some valuable information on an interesting subject. of the present calibre) similar to one of our 68. selves exclusively to guns of this particular de that several honorary members were elected and powder, and a conically-shaped shot, weighted with

Prior to the reading of the paper it may be stated pounders. The charge will consist of 16 lb. of supply of very efficient rifled cannon may be obsthers proposed. The anniversary dinner of the lead to 9 lb., and hollowed, similarly to the Minié tained without going to an exorbitant outlay in Society, postponed many months by reason of the bullot, which it is presumed will be propelled 15 or

20 miles. Mr. Jeffries, it is stated, has asserted his the exclusive adoption of cannon of the most announced to take place at the above-named place on conviction that it would carry from Dover to Calais. expensive kind, previously to a thorough trial Saturday, 17th instant, at 6.30 p.m.

It is the intention of the authorities to carry out a of their merits in actual service, or before the Mr. Newton presided.

varied and complicated course of experiments under utmost simplicity in their construction is attained.

the inspection of the Select Committee of Woolwich Enough has been said to show that the knowledge

Arsenal. After being satisfied of its power in its which has already been obtained bears but a

Our Weekly Gossip. present form, the bore will be progressively increased small proportion to that which remains to be

to a 68-pounder. To enable the gunners to point the acquired, and that further experiments are there. The following note has been addressed to the Times gun, the trunnions will be fitted with a couple of telefore necessary and Notes and Queries :-" In the Times of yesterday scopes, to assist the eye over the enormous range pre

dicted The accuracy attained with the Armstrong gun I observe that as soon as the breaking up of the

A very curious atmospheric phenomenon is said to is a beautiful mechanical feat, but one which will Tartar frigate is completed in Chatham Dockyard, have been produced on Friday morning on the

railway be commonly performed (and by much simpler taken into the same dock and broken up. The St.

the St. Lawrence, one of the 46-gun frigates, will be wires round Paris. “At 7 o'clock, when the service means) when a better knowledge of the subject Lawrence is, I believe, no other than that famous old commences in the various stations, it was remarked has been acquired; it has shown what can be Shannon which fought and captured the Chesapeake Minister of the Interior, that some of the instruments

at the central station, placed at the hotel of the effected with this particular combination, but in the American war. Her name, having taken an

were charged with electricity, as if the corresponding little else has been learned from it; and until the imperishable place in history, was transferred some

station had sent a constant current. It was soon truth concerning all the points which I have few years since to the large screw frigate which now enumerated, and many others, be clearly ascer- bears it, and the renowned old hull has since been found that the fact was general, the wires at all the tained, it will

be impossible to decide as to which lost sight of under the name of the St. Lawrence.' circuit of the wires strong sparks were obtained. The is positively the best system for the construction hardly be many will doubtless be glad to learn that

same thing was produced at the same time on all the of rified cannon. To give an example of the change in opinion -R.” a last look may yet be taken of this famous old vessel. telegraphic wires throughout France, the stations

placed between two lines receiving the current from which experiment will effect, it is a remarkable

each side. At half-past nine the electricity, in place of fact that almost all the circumstances which the for laying the dust in public promenades, and has so scientific authorities were consulted as to the cause

A curious experiment is now being tried at Lyons being permanent, showed itself only at intervals. The Ordnance Select Committee objected to three or far been attended with success. A chemist of that of this phenomenon. In stormy weather atmospheric four years since, as perfectly inadmissible in the city having accidentally spilt some hydrochloride acid electricity produces many discharges, which set in practical adaption of the principle of the rifle to on a terrace of his found that it hardened the spot on motion the telegraphic machines, but these discharges cannon-such as a compound projectile—a pro- which it had fallen, and maintained it in a state of are instantaneous, and have not a permanent characjectile composed of many pieces—a breech-loading permanent moisture. This led him to think that by ter.” So the paragraph runs. gun—a gun constructed of wrought iron, especially macadamised roads might be laid, or rather prevented much of the attention of engineers and architects,

The production of solid bricks has of late received in such a manner as not to be homogeneous—are from rising. Experiments were first made on the with a view of their being produced more economically, united in the Armstrong gun.

Cours Napoleon between the Rhone and the Perrache of a better quality, and with greater facility, than by In like manner, it will probably happen, when station. The success was complete, and has also the time-honoured means known as “hand-mould. further experiments are made, that the descrip- proved durable, the carriage-way having now been ing;” and although many mechanical contrivances tion of rifled gun which will be finally adopted several months free from dust; and

another experi. for making bricks have been introduced, not one has will differ as much from the experimental (for the ment is now being made on the Place Bellecour

. realised the requirement practically, or been

considered whole are but experimental) guns which have been During the hottest part of the day the ground, worthy of adoption, until Mr. Henry Clayton, of the tried up to the present period, as these differ from being as consistent and damp as if it had been brickinaking machine. although dry and gravelly, has the appearance of Atlas Works, London, produced and patented his

Its simple and effective the earlier attempts which were made; for as watered half an hour before. But as evening ap- character has lately attracted the notice of the able yet experiment has been directed almost solely to proaches the moisture becomes more and more per; engineer of the South Eastern Railway Company, tho improvement in the mechanical application of a ceptible. Every morning the ground is stiffer and directors of which have now had erected a set of principle of which really very little (certain) is more comfortable to walk on. This may easily be Clayton's patent brickmaking machinery on their known; instead of being directed to the acquire- accounted for; the acid, decomposing the gravel or premises adjoining the railway station at Folkestone ment of a knowledge of what relates to the prin stone, forms one or several deliquescent salts, which, for the manufacture of bricks for the use of the com

therefore, attract the moisture of the air. The ciple itself.

pany. On an average 20,000 to 25,000 good bricks question as to whether roads thus watered are likely are made daily by each of Clayton's large machines, This it is which gives rise to such expensive to last as long as they ought, can only be decided by with the attention of two men and four boys. blunders as the Lancaster gun factory; a greater time.

The following is extracted from the foreign corre. blunder, however, will be committed if we adopt The following paragraph appeared a week ago in spondence of the Star:-“M. Jobard, of Brussels, breech-loading guns to the exclusion of all others, the morning, papers :- The Trinity steam yacht who has almost suffered himself to be forgotten, from Fortunately, there is to be found amongst the Argus arrived at Harwich from London at about the lengthened and unusual silence he has main ained members of each branch of our service a fund of half-past 9 p.m. on Saturday, and had on board an sound common sense, which (and this, upon inves- experimental model of Maillard's patent mechanical and vivacious as ever with his invention of artificial tigation, will be found, I believe, correct) always The instrument was merely lashed in the rudest for chimneys and vases, but the pure and spotless

for steering ships without needles or magnets. statuary marble—not the veiny, greasy stuff in use leads, eventually, to the adoption of the best manner to the after part of the paddle-box, and, not. Carrara, transparent, polished, and hard as the real thing of its kind, when its superiority has been withstanding the great disturbing force thrown and substance taken from the quarry; This marble, properly established : although, in most cases, it acting on the steering

shaft of the instrument, which which is to be prepared for the sculptors in a liquid is effected by a very roundabout and expensive is immersed in the water, it worked and gave the state, will, like many other artificial inventions, process.

ship’s course with sufficient accuracy to establish the possess an immense advantage over the natural proBy neglecting, therefore, in this instance, to entire success of the principle on which the compass duction itself. It can be inoulded on the plaster make proper experiments, we throw away advan- is constructed, and to justify the inventor's guaran. figure, and thus instead of having to hack and hew

teeing the perfect efficiency of his invention. These tages which would enable us to acquire the su

a shapeless block with great pains and labour, the instruments are meant to be used in the stern of the artist will henceforth realise the genuine impression periority with regard to projectile effect, the vessel, and to stand on deck, where the ordinary com- of his cast at once, and, with scarcely any further possession of which (especially in a country like pass stands at present; but the inventor selected the exertion, bring out his creation with all the freshness our own, the confines of which are all coast) position in which his compass was placed on board and vigour of the first idea. The invention, which should be a matter of primary importance. the Argus, in order to put it to the severest test, and has created an immense sensation in the world of art,

to see it in operation under every imaginable disad- is due to a practical chemist of Brussels, of the name

vantage. This compass can be used on land, and bids of Changy, the same skilful practitioner who disASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN ENGINEERS.

fair to supersede the magnetised needle wherever covered the divisibility of the electric light, and the This Association held their usual monthly meeting true bearings are required.” We are rather curious miraculous draught of fishes by means of the chemical at their assembly rooms, 35 St. Swithin's-lane, City, to know, and to make kuown, more of Mr. Maillard's light which is sunk at the bottom of the sea. M. on Saturday, the 3rd instant. Mr. C. F. Hayes read extraordinary compass. His application for the Jobard, whose word cannot be doubted, pledges his on the occasion a paper on the Manufacture of Rifles. patent has, however, been made so recently that we honour that the table on which he writes has been He described with great minuteness many of the pro- fear we shall not be able to gratify ourselves and our composed by M. Changy's process, and possesses cesses connected with the completion of these extra. readers on this head.

every quality of the finest marble--and that, after ordinary armes de précision, as carried om at Enfield, The Times Woolwich correspondent (who is not having submitted various specimens of the substance, and by contractors in various parts of England, averse to marvels) writes :—“A most wonderful long both black and white, to every chemical test in us Belgium, and America. A large attendance of range cannon, invented by Mr. Jeffries, patentee of he has come to the conclusion that the composition members, considerable applause, and a unanimous the well-known marine glue, is in course of being of marble is no longer a secret

Dame Nature, and mounted in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, for ex- that man has at length learnt to rival her in the • The advantage of the breech-loading system, in allowing the men who serve the gun to be less exposed, "is periments at Shoeburyness. Its range or flight of most cunning of her works, while Art will rejoice at 110: 0 prominent with long-range gans as with others; shot is spoken of as certain to eclipse every other beholding her sons freed from the laborious toil which since the former would more frequently be out of the

weapon hitherto known. The gun, with its present has hitherto rendered the sculptor's profession so range of musketry.

bore-namely, a three-inch diameter-weighs seven difficult of pursuit."

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