« EelmineJätka »
for letting off any steam that might be gene-issued before the company left the ship in
rated in it; on the contrary, it was furnished Portland harbour on Saturday last. It runs :MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. with such a valve, or rather with a tap, and
“Great Eastern Steamship, this valve or tap opened into a small stand-pipe
“Portland IIarbour, 10th Sep., 1869. LONDON, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 1859.
which was led up by the side of the main blow- “Yesterday, at six p.m., an accident occurred on
off steam pipe of the boiler. Why the pipe board the Great Eastern. The feed-water casing of THE GREAT EASTERN.
alone was not sufficient, and why it had a tap the foremost chimney collapsed, owing, to some MONDAY, Sept. 12, 1859. fitted to it we cannot divine. But such a tap neglect. Several stokers are seriously scalded; three
No passengers injured. The ship and was fitted, and unhappily, on the occasion in machinery nre uninjured except main cabin fittings In the late passage of the Great Eastern from question, it was either closed or left closed—by which are damaged. The working of the engines con. the Thames to Portland, with the terrible epi- whom, or by whose dire neglect, the inquest tinued, and the ship proceeded uninterruptedly on sode of a deadly explosion, there is much that upon the dead alone can be expected to reveal her voyage to Portland.
“J. Scott RUSSELL, "J. E. M'CONNELLE seems to require our attention. The remarks and, consequently, when the engineer ceased
“R. P. BRETON, which we transmitted from the ship for public to feed from the chamber, steam was generated
" — BRERETON, cation in our last number will have acquainted all men must deplore ! and found no escape. Hence the accident which
"F. P. SMITII,
“W.SMITII, our readers with the prosperity and promise of And before proceeding further, let us do an
“W. WOLLASTON BLAKE.'s the journey from Deptford to the Nore. Our act of simple justice to Mr. Scott Russell, by
It is incumbent upon us to record the history present observations will therefore be directed preventing a misapprehension which may easily of this very ridiculous production-ridiculous to what happened during the completion of the arise. It is thought by some that the responsi- because while it pretends to be a professional passage from that point. And in carrying out bility of the arrangement above described rests document, and bears the names of men all of
with that gentleman, as the builder of the pad whom are either real or pretended engineers, it our design we shall not enter upon any detailed dle-wheel engines ; the more so because a simi- does not state a single fact that was not known narrative of that eventful trip. The rapid run lar arrangement was excluded from the boilers to every soul on board the ship long before it apto the Downs against a driving wind-the used for the screw-engines of Messrs. Boulton peared. The manner of its concoction will be steady progress down the Channel through a and Watt. But this opinion is utterly false. gathered from the following statement :-Up to gale which no other vessel faced—the joy and We have proof as positive
as can be desired to the time of the explosion, the success of confidence with which all on board beheld the the effect that for the arrangement in ques- the Great Eastern was felt' by all on board
tion Mr. Russell is not in the remotest to be fully assured. The rato at which sho mastery man's genius had at last gained over degree responsible. It was adopted by the travelled, with engines at half-speed onlywave and storm—then, the sudden explosion, Company on the recommendation of their own her perfect steadiness in heavily-rolling scas the crashing down of the funnel, the rushing of engineer, and was carried out by the Company - the ease and readiness with which she the steam, the bursting up of the saloon, the in entire independence of Mr. Russell as the answered her helm-the absence of all vibraalarm of fire, the activity of the officers, the builder of the paddle-engines. We are the tion in her splendid saloons all these things, steadiness of the passengers, the rescue of the more anxious to enforce these facts, because and some others, had made it plain that
those engines themselves by far the largest in in all her mechanical features the vessel was a scalded firemen, the devotion of the surgeons, existence, and for which Mr. Russell is solely complete triumph. When the explosion came, the gradual return of confidence, the continu- responsible--are unquestionably one of the
a brief, but strong revulsion of feeling ensued. ance of the voyage, the deaths of the sufferers, most magnificent and successful features of this In accounting for this let us state our own perthe arrival at Portland, the greetings from all magnificent and successful ship. On the whole sonal experiences in the matter. About a around the ship, the silence of all within her journey from Deptford to Portland, the astonish- dozen passengers
, including Mr. James Nasall these things have been faithfully and ably ing ease , the constant uniformity, in a word, the myth, the celebrated engineer, Mr. M'Connell
, told by the special correspondents of the daily absolute perfection with which those huge the locomotive engineer, Lord Alfred Paget
, press, and need no repetition here. But con
machines worked, excited the unceasing admi- three or four literary gentlemen, and ourselves nected with these occurrences there were others ration of some of the foremost engineers in the
were right forward in the bow, sitting in the which fall within our professional sphere, and whole world, several of whom were on board. shelter of the topside ; and having decided which, if they are not dealt with efficiently here, When this is understood, and when it is further that the ship was mechanically a success, were will probably not be dealt with efficiently at all. stood the tremendous shock of that great ex- Lord Paget was uttering the last word of a To these, then, let us turn.
And first, let us state that the cause of the plosion absolutely unharmed, was also the work sentence when a loud report, and a fearful throb explosion which occurred has not been correctly. I would be to detract from the credit of such suc- turned all our eyes aft. They were so turned
of the same man, all will feel how unfair it through the ship beneath us, in an instant described, we believe, by the correspondents of the daily press. It is quite true, as has been cesses by any error on the point in question.
only to behold the foremost funnel fly upward, said, that the vessel which burst was formed by
Nor let us be content with doing justice to followed by a cloud of steam driving the wreck one individual.
Let us do it also to the Com- of the grand saloon before it. Our first imthe uptake or funnel on the inside and by a casing on the outside ; and also that while the pany's engineer, by saying that nothing within pression was that the boiler itself had burst
, primary object in forming this chamber was to
our present knowledge places the responsibility but something in the sound of the report made prevent the heating of the saloons, a further of the late accident upon him. The arrange
us think that the bottom of the ship had sucadvantage was gained by feeding the boiler
from ment of water-casing described may be, and we cessfully resisted the shock. Of this we could the water which the chamber contained. This believe is, a bad and dangerous one ; but, let it not, of course, assure ourselves until considerwater, being supplied to the chamber cold, and be observed, the thing itself was not in this able time had' elapsed. Being situated before drawn off when heated by the waste gases the unwise adoption or the bad management of Ariving aft, there was nothing to prevent our
instance the cause of the disaster. It was either the scene of the explosion, with a high wind passing up the uptake, first had the effect of keeping the water-casing cool, and afterwards
a mere detail—the valve or tap--that caused rushing at once to the spot. This we accord(when heated) was readily converted into steam the explosion, and no evidence has yet been ingly did, in sufficient time to hear the first in the boiler. So far the newspaper accounts produced to show, who was guilty of that un- cries of agony, and of fire also, from below. are correct. But when they proceed to tell us
wise adoption or that had management. This Steps were at once taken to rescue the firemen that “the safety of the whole aftair depends upon board the ship after the accident, but without three of the unfortunate men were brought up
we laboriously endeavoured to ascertain on from the stokehole ; but ere more than two or " the stop-cock which lets off the water into avail. Clearly, however, the Company's engineer (in a condition which we need not describe "vigilance," and that “ the neglect of this for may be entirely free from blame in the matter
. here) our attention was called off by an exces“ half-an-hour would allow steam to generate
At the same time, as other dangers attend the sive activity at the ship's side. This arose " in the casing, which would then, in, plain altogether done away with in the Great Eastern making to lower a boat—whether to save a
use of the feed-water casing, we hope it will be from an attempt which some of the riggers were “terms, become a gigantic boiler, without a for the future. “ valve or any means of letting off its steam
frightened nobleman, as some say, or to rescue “save by blowing up"*—when, we say, they
And now, before we turn from this subject of a man who had leaped overboard, as others tell us this, and add that it was the neglect of the explosion, let us advert to certain circun- say, we cannot positively state. But we at once turning the aforesaid stop-cock that occasioned stances which followed that event, and which saw that the paddle-wheels were still going, and the accident, they fall into error. The fact is, reflect great discredit upon some few of the that the boat was being lowered immediately the " gigantic boiler” was not without a valve passengers who are pleased to call themselves in front of them. One word whispered in the
engineers. Some of the morning papers have ear of Captain Harrison sufficed to have this * The Times, Monday, Sept. 12, 1850. printed the following document, which was monstrous folly checked, and the boat restored to its place. The removal of the hysterical this could readily be removed—that the bottom Eastern, or lessens the success which her wife of a director, who was rushing wildly in of the ship had sustained the shock without builder has achieved. What her full speed will the thick of the turmoil screaming for her son, the least injury, thereby showing wonderful prove to be cannot be foretold ; her trial trip to with the restoration of both son and husband strength-that notwithstanding the alarm of Cherbourg will have that to decide. That trip to her, and other circumstances of the kind, the evening, the ship had been in no sort of will also have to determine by what expendivaried the business of the moment, but need no danger from fire—that the mischief was really ture of fuel-and generally with what degree of record here. A considerable time-nearly a circumscribed within very narrow limits—and economy—her full speed is to be attained. But quarter of an hour-elapsed before either the that altogether, although the disaster was to be when it is remembered that on her way round Captain, Mr. Russell, the Chairman of the deeply regretted on account of the sufferings to Portland the paddles where at no time perCompany, or any other official person of note and deaths occasioned by it, the inference to be mitted to make more than 81 revolutions per on board, became positively assured that there drawn from a survey of the vessel was, that minute or her screw more than 30, and that she was nothing to apprehend from fire. There the hull of the Great Eastern had borne un- nevertheless attained a speed of more than 12 was no panic, or anything of the kind, so far as harmed an explosion which would in all pro- knots against a strong head wind, we have good we observed—no considerable fear, even ; but bability have sent any other ship to the bottom. grounds for expecting great things of her when that further danger was supposed to exist for All this might have been said, and the only she shall be allowed to do her best. It should the time we have named is, we believe, quite effect produced would have been that of helping be remembered that those extravagant expectrue. Moreover, until it became known that the gentlemen present to publish a dispassionate tations--of 22 and even 24 knots per hourthere were no less than three medical men on account of what had transpired. There would which we so often hear of on all sides in conboard many thought it the duty of those in have been nothing in it to offend either their nection with this subject, have never proceeded charge to take the ship into the nearest port ; pride or their good sense.
from persons authorised to speak upon the subbut after this was known, we heard nothing But Mr. M'Connell—with whom, for some ject. Mr. Scott Russell modestly names 15 more upon the subject—except from the gentle mysterious reason, Mr. F. P. Smith got asso- knots has a fair speed for her; and when her men of the press, who naturally enough would ciated in the business-acted quite otherwise. power is compared with that of other vessels have been glad of an early opportunity of It will scarcely be believed, but it is neverthe- there is really no reason for calling this too low making the occurrence known to their respective less true, that, in his first words, he said he an estimate. But it is already pretty certain journals.
" desired to disabuse the minds of the gentle that she will considerably exceed it ; let us Now, from what we have said, as well as from men present of the belief that an explosion hope she may. But what she is able to do in what the newspaper correspondents have said “had taken place." "There has been,” said he, respect of speed must of course depend, to a before us, it will be seen that a disastrous no explosion, but only a collapse of a water great extent, upon the capabilities of her screw “blow-up” occurred. Evidences of the force “vessel." When it is remembered that cor- engines, and we are sorry to say we feel rather by which that blow-up was effected were to be respondents of the press almost invariably con- doubtful as to them. They are unfortunately seen as soon as the excitement had subsided ; sider themselves thoroughly independent, horizontal engines, and very similar to those first, in the utterly crushed-up condition of the honourable, and excessively clever fellows, the fitted by Boulton and Watt in screw ships of up-take or lower piece of funnel within the effect of Mr. M'Connell's announcement may be war.
For such ships it is, of course, absolutely casing, and, secondly, in the fact that this mass imagined. It was, of course, met not only with necessary to keep the engines low, and there is of metal, weighing a ton or two, had been stout resistance, but with derision; and was good reason therefore for adapting horizontal blown bodily up from below. Equally strong followed by an hour of most unprofitable talk, engines to them. But there was no kind of neevidences were to be seen in the lower parts ending with the promise of a report signed by cessity for fitting such engines in the Great of the ship. That the delight which pervaded Mr. M'Connell and Mr. F. P. Smith in the Eastern. We should have very much preferred the minds of all on board up to the moment of morning. On our part we opposed this pro- to see her furnished with engines of the form the explosion was now succeeded by a general ceeding, urging the production of a report for now largely in use on the Clyde, the plan of gloom will be readily believed ; and it will also which Mr. M'Connell, or some other engineer which may be said to be a modification of Mr. be readily understood that none felt really alone, should be responsible, or else of a report Nasmyth's hammer engine. In the arrange. more depressed than the Directors of the Com- from a committee formed of several of the ment to which we refer the cylinder is placed pany, to whom the commercial success of the scientific men on board. It should be remem- above the screw shaft, and from the piston rod vessel was of the greatest moment; but, bered that we had Mr. Nasmyth, Mr. Appold, a long connecting rod extends down to the like men of business, they—and especially Mr. and other eminent men on board the ship; and shaft. A light hollow frame carries the cylinCampbell, the Chairman-at once set about there can be no doubt that had the object of the der, and a cross-head on the piston forms a considering how the best of a bad thing was to proceeding been fairly and justly carried out, guide, sliding up and down between the oppobe made. The persons with respect to whom we should have had a truly scientific report site sides of the frame. The hollow frame itthey of course became deeply solicitous were framed before we left the ship. As it was, a self forms the condenser. Engines of this conthe gentlemen of the press "—chiefly those of draft of a statement even more absurd than that struction work with great smoothness and the daily press. We had representatives of the afterwards produced was brought forward, but sweetness—more than can ever be hoped for Times and half-a-dozen other daily papers on was withdrawn on the opposition of a literary from the screw engines of the Great Easternboard, and as the despatch of telegrams gentleman, who pronounced one of its clauses “a and such engines might have been adapted to announcing the accident to the world, and also lie," and most of the others unfair. Finally, the her with the utmost convenience. It must also of papers describing it to the world, rested precious document printed above was produced, be admitted that the present engines manifested with these gentlemen, very much depended and signed by some who would sign anything to much uneasiness on the trip to Portland-an upon the impressions produced upon their get their names in print--men who will have a uneasiness which we sincerely hope may not reminds. In order to modify those impressions— finger even in a dirt pie—and also by Mr. appear on the next trial. in so far, at least, as an accurate statement of Blake and Mr. Russell, whose names were after- Several of those writers for the daily press the facts of the case in a scientific manner wards put to it, probably to save trouble, and who have most admired the steadiness of the could modify them—the Chairman and his because the paper meant nothing. We state ship on her last week's voyage, seem to imagine colleagues determined upon appealing to a all these facts only for the sake of denouncing that when, by the breaking of the steering scientific man to make such a statement. Ac-them; we state them only that we may follow lines, command of her was temporarily lost off cordingly Mr. M'Connell, the locomotive engi- them by saying that, from first to last, Mr. Beachy Head, she rolled and pitched very neer, was requested to prepare himself for the M'Connell and his officious colleagues on this heavily. This was not so. A real and manipurpose. This he did, and at 11 o'clock on occasion, did nothing but degrade science and fest motion was undoubtedly imparted to her Friday night-five hours after the accident, put really scientific men to the blush. The when she fell off from the wind, but it was so the representatives of the press were assembled whole of their proceedings, from the moment slight that it would scarcely have been noticed in the Chairman's cabin to receive his state- when reference was first made to them until we at all in any other vessel. For our part we aro ment.
left the ship, were in the highest degree dis- quite convinced, from the experience of last Now, Mr. M'Connell's duty in the matter creditable to them as professional or scientific week, that the Great Eastern, if properly should have been plain enough to him. It was,
We should say this had we been en- handled, will disappoint no one in the matter undoubtedly, to have stated as accurately as he tirely unsupported in our opinions ; but we say of steadiness in a seaway. Our meals were could the nature of the apparatus which had it all the more readily because the really taken throughout the journey down Channel produced the mischief, and to have shown, as scientific men who were on board are looking without our
being once reminded, by any movenearly as he was able, the cause of its failure. to us for a firm protest on the subject.
ment of the service, that we were on board a He might then with truth have said that the Having disposed of these scientific (!) pro- ship at all,—and yet we were really in the apparatus which had burst formed no integral ceedings, let us now remind our readers that midst of high winds and turbulent seas.
We or necessary part of the ship--that there was the disaster of Friday evening last in no way must add to all this the perfect ease and readibut one other of a like nature on board, and detracts from the intrinsic merits of the Great Iness with which this huge monster steers, in
order to fully appreciate her qualities as a sea-paper"—the Morning Star, which has reported "explosion," is the blameable person ; there is going vessel.
upon the various features of this case with sin- little need, therefore, for wrangling on the geneWEDNESDAY, Sept. 14. gular moderation and fairness-we find that ral question. As long as steam boilers are used In the evidence given at the inquest on (although the fact is suppressed in the Times) we shall be at the ercy of mechanical workMonday, last, as reported in the morning Mr Russell did object to the evidence given on men, and even of labourers ; and this accident papers, the accuracy of our former remarks (writ- Monday, or rather to the endeavours which the appears at present to be an instance of the ten on Monday) is fully established. It appears Company appear to be making to colour the terrible neglect of which such men, as well as that the tap and stand-pipe were really fitted facts of the case, and said " he was decidedly at others, are at times guilty. as we said, and the difficulty we had in account issue with the Company upon some points reing for the existence of a tap in such a pipe is "lative to the inquiry.” removed by the statement that it was put there If we may be allowed to offer a suggestion to THE ACCIDENT ON BOARD THE GREAT
EASTERN. to enable the engineers to test the funnel-casing the Company we would advise them-and esby hydraulic pressure. It is therefore pretty pecially their young and inexperienced solicitor, The following account of the inquest held at evident that the cause of the accident will ulti- Mr. Leverson (or Levy-son, as we think the cor
Weymouth on the bodies of the men who were mately be traced to some individual or indivi- rect name is) --not to run to excesses through from the reports published in the Times. Those
killed on board the Great Eastern is condensed duals. We account for the mistake made by an undue anxiety to protect the Company at parts only which have little or no professional the newspaper writers in their accounts of the the expense of the illustrious builder of the bearing are omitted. There is a great deal of accident by assuming that they mistook the ship, or of any one else. It is perfectly evident obscurity in some of the statements of the wittop of the length of casing which was blown from the Morning Star's report of this day that nesses, but as we were not in attendance at the upon the deck for the top. This is certainly the coroner is already alive to their danger in examination we cannot say whether that obscurity what some persons did-a Metropolitan Mem- this respect, and has offered a gentle warning, arises from the imperfection of the report or not ber of Parliament, for instance, who was on which we hope the solicitor will avail himself
TUESDAY, Sept. 13. board, and who displayed great skill and inge-of-witness the following conversation :
The inquest was commenced on Monday mornnuity in discussing with us the cause of the
A Juryman: Mr. Scott Russell I suppose is aware ing on the bodies of five men, all of whom lost accident ; and this, probably, is what the that the imputation is that the man who lengthened their lives by the late explosion. It was held at gentlemen in question did also.
the stand-pipe screwed in the tap of the water-casing, the Town-hall, at Weymouth, before Mr. Henry It would also appear from the evidence given and so left it.
Lock, the Coroner for Dorset. by one of the witnesses on Monday last that in evidence that previous to the sailing of the vessel
bodies, Mr. S. Russell : Yes; but I think it will be shown
The jury having been sworn, and having viewed Mr. Scott Russell had charge of the boilers at that cock was found open. I shall be happy to the time of the accident. If he had, it cannot attend to any intimation from the jury as to the pro- the junior engineer of the paddle-engine depart
The first witness examined was James Briscoe, be supposed that an engineer taking tempo- duction of any other witnesses. rarily the general control of a ship's boilers is to In reply to another question from a juryman,
ment, who said that it was his duty to attend to be held responsible for the condition of a tap
Mr. Russell said that Mr. Dixon, the superintend the direction of the engineer in charge of the which was boxed up” or cased in many days ing engineer, would be in readiness to give evidence paddle-engines on duty, and to render assistance
under their direction. He was told not to meddle before, and which, as a matter of course, should
The Coroner: Have you many witnesses to call, witlı or make himself responsible for any of the have been open, and afforded no sort of indica- Mr. Leverson ? tion that it was not so. But we believe it to be Mr. Leverson : As the caso at present stands, it the morning of the explosion was to attend the
cocks or valves. The duty assigned to him on altogether a mistake to suppose that Mr. Rus- appears clear that, unless Mr. Scott Russell puts a sell had anything whatever to do with the different construction upon the facts to that which boilers and keep a proper supply of water in them. charge of the boilers on the trip: What he took servants are at all to blame for this unfortunate into the boiler; it was out of order, and did not
we have put upon them, none of the company's He had charge of the donkey-engine which pumped upon himself—in our own hearing, in the first catastrophe. At present I shall not feel it necessary perform its duty satisfactorily. He stood by one instance, as it happens-was the duty of com- upon the part of the company to call any witnesses of the donkey-engines in No. 1 stokehole ali day municating between the pilot or captain and whatever.
to keep it doing its work. That was on the starthe engine-rooms, in order that no bungling or
The Coroner : On the part of the court I can in board side of the ship. The donkey-engine on the risk might happen in consequence of imperfect sary to call is Mr M‘Lennan. form you that the first witness I shall think it neces.
port side of the ship in the forward stokehole had or contradictory instructions reaching the engi
Mr. Leverson explained that he was quite ready to broken down. One minute before the explosion neers in charge of the paddle-wheel engine and produce any witnesses whom the coroner and jury Mr. M'Lennan, the chief engineer of the ship, the screw engine respectively. For this purpose thought ought to be examined. All that he meant to came down to witness, and looked to the saturahe took his station upon the paddle-bridge, and say, was, that he did not intend to volunteer any tion of the water in the boilers, and said, on leav. stuck to it-incessantly from London to the evidence. He had endeavoured, and should endea ing, that everything seemed right, and again Nore, and all but as incessantly from the Noresponsible for this deplorable accident. vour, to show that the company were in no way re- cautioned witness not to meddle with any of the
cocks or valves unless told by the engineer in to the Downs, all the while the ship was under The Coroner: And I presume that Mr. Scott Russell charge of the paddle-engine department. Mr. weigh. How it is possible for any one to sup- will endeavour to show that the responsibility does M‘Lennan left the place, and witness resumed his pose that a gentleman stationed there, and not rest upon him. having charge of the telegraphs to both engine- elicit the whole facts of the case.
Mr. Newman: Mr. Scott Russell will endeavour to place by the donkey-engine. Shortly after the
explosion took place, filling the stokehole with hot rooms, can have been at the same time respon
Mr. Russell : All that we wish to know is, who was air and steam, witness came up the fore stokehole sible for the details of the various boilers also, the man who shut the cock which caused the explo. ladder. Noticed, while on the lower deck, that passes our understanding. We believe the sion ?*
the inner and outer casings of the funnels were witnesses must have been altogether mistaken on this head, and look anxiously for further
In point of fact we think it time the “Com- burst asunder, and that the whole of the cabins intelligence on the subject.
" had given up their personal interference were destroyed on the lower saloon. Knew that
in the ship time that the captain took charge the bursting of the water heater round the forward THURSDAY, Sept. 15. of her, and held himself and his officers respon
funnel caused the explosion. We have already guarded our readers against sible for all that transpires in her. No confi- Mr. M Lennan calling the engineers and stokers
Examined by Mr. Leverson.—He remembered accepting the statements made by the witnesses dence will be felt by the public at large until together on Tuesday last. Mr. M'Lennan told at the inquest on Monday (supposing them to this is done. Meanwhile we may look to the witness not to medale with the engines or boiler, be correctly reported in the Times) as altogether resumption of the inquest for interesting infor- but to obey the orders of the engineer in charge fair and true. As matters advance, the neces- mation. What we suspect will be found out is, of the paddle-department;, that the engines were sity for caution in this respect appears to in- that Mr. Russell
, as we before said, took charge in Mr. Scott Russell's hands, and that he had supcrease ; and we begin further to fear that we of the engines, and of them alone ; but now that plied the engineers to attend them himself. Mr. must look to other newspapers rather than to life has been lost and expense incurred by an Dickson, Mr. Russell's foreman, assumed control the Times for full, and even for fair, reports of explosion in the boiler department, an attempt in the paddle-department; the explosion was what transpires at Weymouth. In confirmation is being made to show that he took charge of confined to the funnel casing, which was for heatof this we would remind our readers that, in that department also. But we have already ing the water before going into the boilers, and the absence of Mr. Scott Russell on Monday, stated why we believe this was not the case, and also for keeping the saloon cool. The boiler would the witnesses spoke and the Times reporter re- we have no doubt that the attempt is based under ordinary circumstances be fed with water ported in such a manner as to indirectly but se- upon either a sad mistake or a gross subter- from the water-casing. At the time of the exriously implicate that gentleman. In the Times füge : time will show which.
plosion, the boilers were not being fed from the герої of to-day not a word appears to counter- But whoever had general charge of the casing, which was evident from the low temperaact the impression thus produced ; nor is Mr. boilers, it is pretty evident that not he, but ture of the water going into
the boiler. They had
ceased to feed the boilers from the water-casing, Russell, although present yesterday, represented
“ the man who shut the cock which caused the he believed, to get a greater amount of water into as expressing any dissatisfaction with Monday's proceedings. But when we turn to a “penny Chronicle and other papers.
• The same report appears, we find, in the Morning the boiler. If the water-casing had been regu.
larly kept supplied with water, and a continual flow in and out, the accident would not have hap- one seemed to know how, when, or by whom the this on the company's behalf. He had no desire pened. There were two stand-pipes to the water cock was shut. Two or three days before the to call further evidence unless wished for by the casing, which, if open, would have prevented it. ship sailed, the "stand-pipe" not being high court. When the accident took place he had saved him- enough, a piece was added to it, so that up to that The Coroner said it was most likely the jury self from being scalded to death by throwing him time the cock must have been open. It was sup. would like to examine Mr. M‘Lennan the chief self down in the stokehole and covering his face posed to have been closed by some workman for engineer. with his hands. Witness knew that the engines some purpose, and not to have been again opened. The inquiry was then adjourned till Saturday Wera under the charge of Mr. Russell. Mr. By a Juror. — There was no safety or other morning. Russell was on the bridge giving orders to his valve to show there was pressure in the cases, as men below.
the pipe should always be open. Mr. Dickson The Special Correspondent of the Times, who is The Coroner asked the solicitor to the company was the engineer ander Mr. Scott Russell directly now at Weymouth, states that "the repair of whether any one was in attendance on the part of responsible for the making and working of the the damages inflicted by the explosion has already Mr. Scott Russell ?
engines. The engineer believes the cock never commenced, Mr. Scott Russell having contracted Mr. Leverson stated that there was no one.
was opened from the time of leaving the river. to restore the whole for 5,0001. If it should turn
If the cock had been taken off the accident could out that either of the forward boilers has been Mr. Brereton, one of Mr. Brunel's principal never have happened. The cock was put on to test injured, 5,0001. will hardly suffice for the entire engineers, was called to give evidence as to the the cases by hydraulic pressure
, and had not been restoration. From the fact of there having been probable cause of the accident. He stated that removed. T'he cock could not have been closed by no escape of steam from either of the boilers at Ifr. Brunel intended to accompany the ship on the trial trip, but in consequence of his illness could not conceive the accident occurring. the force of the explosion, or, indeed, witness the time of the explosion, when there was a
pressure on each of 221b., it is believed that they witness accompanied the ship on his behalf. The
The court then adjourned to 9 o'clock on Sat. have escaped without material injury. The mere accident occurred at six p.m. on Friday afternoon, urday morning. The jury and the Coroner pro- joinery of the cabin fittings and the
redecoration when the ship was off Dungeness. When the explosion took place witness was near the paddle-accident occurred. ceeded to examine the part of the ship where the of the grand saloon can, and doubtless will, soon
be completed. With the ironwork, however, it is boxes. The foremost funnel was blown up above
a different affair. All this must be executed in the deck, immediately followed by a shower of
WEYMOUTH, WEDNESDAY, Sept. 14.
London from the working drawings of the vessel, splinters and pieces of glass. Went forward and To-day, at 2 o'clock, the adjourned inquiry was and sent down piecemeal by rail to Weymouth, found the funnel lying on deck in two parts, and resumed. The investigation appeared to excite where it can be bolted together on board the ship. on looking down the gratings leading to the no great amount of interest, and the court was Mr. Scott Russell's contract is to finish the whole boiler-rooms heard men crying for help and water. almost ompty throughout the entire proceedings. ship in her foriner state as she left the river A good many of the passengers were there at the Mr. J. Scott Russell, in compliance with a wish within three weeks.” time, the fire hoses were laid on, a supply of water expressed by the Coroner, came down from town obtained to extinguish any fire that might have to attend the inquest. occurred; men then went below and brought up Mr. John Dickson, foremen to Mr. Russell, and HOW TO MAKE A RIFLE BARREL. the wounded. As soon as the confusion was under whose superintendence the machinery of The barrel of a rifle when turned and bored to over examined the broken funnel on deck. On the paddle engines was fitted, was also present, its finished dimensions is so different a thing from the following morning, according to the direction and Mr. M‘Lennan, the chief engineer of the what it was originally in the hands of the smith of the chairman, witness, with other engineers on Great Eastern.
that its intermediate stages of manufacture may board, examined the place where the explosion Mr. Newman (of Freshfields and Newman) well be described. The problem which has to be took place, to make a report as to the cause of attended to watch the case with Mr. Scott solved by the workers at Enfield, and other places the accident. Witness was accompanied in his Russell. At the commencement of the proceed which contract with that vast establishment is, how examination by Mr. M'Connell (the engineer of ings Mr. Leverson, the solicitor to the company, to convert plates of the finest Wedgebury iron, the North-Western Railway), Mr. Scott Russell, said he wished to correct an error which had 13 inches long, 9-16 inches thick, and having Mr. Smith (the inventor of the screw propeller), appeared in some of the papers to the effect that bevilled edges, which make the sides vary in Mr. W. Smith (a civil engineer), and Mr. Bates, who he (Mr. Leverson) had stated at the previous in width from 54 in. to 5 in. respectively, into a represented the firm of Boulton and Watt. Wit- quiry that Mr. Scott Russell had had ample notice slight but strong tube capable of withstanding the ness and those with him came to a conclusion as to attend the opening of the inquest, but had not shock within it of innumerable discharges of gunto the cause of the accident. The double-funnel done so. In fact, what he had stated was exactly powder, and of directing unerringly a ballet of casing was not always applied to other steam. the reverse, namely, that Mr. Scott Russell had lead to a mark 1,000 yards distant from its boilers. The fact of the woodwork around the had no notice of the inquiry; that he was at the muzzle. funnel being blown away led witness to see the time in London, on the company's business, and The plate or “skelp" of iron intended for cause of the accident without the drawings or ex- could not possibly have been in attendance. conversion into a barrel has, in the first instance, planations. They ascertained that the funnel After a few words from Mr. Scott Russell, who an almost white heat given to it, and is then was double for 40 feet of its length, the inside explained the cause of his unavoidable absence passed between a pair of corrugated rolls, the being 6 feet diameter, and the outside one 7 feet, [and, as reported in the Morning Star, added that upper roll having semi-circular projections running leaving a space of 6 inches between the two ali ** he was decidedly at issue with the company latitudinally around it, and which fit flatings round. The water was contained between the upon some points relative to the inquiry"], sunk into the lower roll. The effect of this pinchtwo; the explosion took place about half-way The Coroner said that, on the opening of the ing is to bend the barrel plate longitudinally. down, near the lower deck. The inner casing inquest, he had at once considered that it was a case It is next passed between double flutings on the was collapsed, and the outer one burst out. The which ought to be adjourned, in order that the same rolls, and this operation makes a cylinder of object of the casing was to prevent the water jury might have the assistance of some of the the “skelp," minus the welding. The bevilled being led direct to the boilers. There was an ap- surveyors from the Board of Trade He lad ac-edges are made, however, to approach each other paratus provided to prevent any excessive pressure cordingly communicated with the Board of Trade, for this purpose, and welding is the next process. accumulating in the water-jacket. This apparatus and received a letter in reply the previous day | A rod or maundril of iron about f ths in diam. is consisted of a “stand-pipe," which was carried to wbich stated that it was impossible that Captain passed through the orifice of the "skelp,” and it near the level of the top of the funnel, and com. Robertson, the Surveyor-General, could attend is then placed in a reverberatory furnace. When municated with the water-jacket, constituting a the inquiry before Saturday next. He, therefore, sufficiently hot for the purpose, it is taken to the safety-valve. Being open at the top, as soon as thought that, under those circumstances, it would rolls for welding and drawing out to length and the pressure increases it runs out of the "stand. | be most advisable that the jury should have the shape. These rolls and their framings resemble pipe.” The height of the column of water regu- benefit of the experience of those oflicers, and, much those ordinarily used for rolling iron. lated the pressure in the jackets. From inquiry with their permission, he would adjourn further There is, however, an important difference—the they learned that the feed water for the boiler proceedings till Saturday morning at nine o'clock. grooves or flutioga upon them are turned out was sent direct to the boiler without passing He (the Coroner) trusted that both the company eccentrically with the axis of the rolls. This is through the funnel, as the donkey engines did not and Mr. Scott Russell would be ready on that for giving the requisite taper from muzzle to work satisfactorily; one of them being disabled, occasion with any evidence which could throw the breech of the barrel. When the heat is sufficient, the other had to do the work of two. That ac- smallest light upon the causes which had led to which of course practice enables the workman to counted for the fact of the communication be. so disastrous an accident.
decide, the barrel is withdrawn by aid of the tween the boilers and the casing being shut off. One of the jury said that they hoped every maundril from the furnace, and laid on an iron rest An explosion ought not to have occurred if the effort would be made to discover the man who in front of the mill. The operator now watches “stand-pipe” was in operation. Their attention had turned off the cock or valve which led from carefully his opportunity to thrust it into one of the was called to the state of the stand-pipe, and the stand-pipe into the stokehole.
grooves of the running rolls at a moment when they they found at the bottom of it a plug capable of Mr. Scott Russell said it would be proved by are prepared to administer the proper pinch for being turned. It was shut off, leaving no vent witnesses that the cock of the valve was open on tapering the barrel. A series of these grooves, for the steam generated in the case. If the Tuesday, and when the vessel left the river on each smaller than the other, now receives the gra“stand-pipe had been in operation, or if the feed Wednesday.
dually welding and elongating barrel, until the was continued through the jacket, the explosion Mr. Leverson intimated that the company gauged recess in the rolls finishes the rolling pro. would not have occurred. The steam must have were in no degree responsible for what had taken cess. In this Inst time of passing between the gone on generating till the cylinder burst. No place, and the evidence adduced had established | rolls the maundril is turned round differently, and
a guard attached to it coming in contact with the a workman-should be sufficient for the purpose of powder, and the propulsion through it of a rest, a boy stationed at the back of the rolls re-making an accurately parallel hole through a bullet, may reveal some defect which will conceives in a pair of tongs the barrel only, the rifle barrel; but it is so. One end of the square demn it. If, on the contrary, it stands this maundril remaining behind for another operation. bit fits a socket, and is made to revolve to the test, it is passed forward to the machine or This boy, whilst the heat is still upon the barrel, tune of something like 300 revolutions per minute. revolving cutter, which “mills” the fore-sight roughly straightens it upon an iron surface. After On two sides of the squares of the bits strips of deal | into shape. A little hand labour-such as rethis it is placed under a power press provided with wood are placed, and it is astonishing to note the moving by aid of smooth files any trifling im. beds or swedges of the same length as the barrel, perfect truthfulness attainable by these primitive perfections left by the various machines—is now the lower of which is horizontal and stationary, means. Of course the gauge is put in requisition performed, and then comes the task of fixing the and the upper one rising and falling by means of when this boring, for which oil is the lubricator, all-important "back-sight." This must be most a central joint, which allows it to "give" to any is completed.
carefully done, for accuracy of range and aim deirregularities. Supposing all to be sound and satis- The chamber at the breech-end is next attended pends on this. The V, which is the centre point factory so far, the next operation will be that of to, and a rose-faced pin-drill is the implement of this sight, must •range exactly with the centre "lumping," or having the cone seat welded on. used for boring it out. Afterwards the breach of the fore-sight, and both be central with the This is rather peculiar, and demands especial obser- pin is secured to it, and then the proving is com- centre of the axis of the bore of the barrel. Withvation. A nice heat is taken on the breech end, menced. The inspector, whose duty is momentous, out attending scrupulously to these points, indeed, and a piece of iron of sufficient dimensions is put at this stage, too, steps in and examines every the whole of the previous labour might be deemed on the particular place where it is needed by hand. part of the workmanship and material. Passing as thrown away. Presguing that all has been saThen another heat is taken on all together, and this ordeal, the barrels are now ground on an or- tisfactorily done, from the bending of the " skelp" whilst in a soft state a maundril is driven into the dinary grindstone to a gauge. Sundry operations to the attaching of the back-sight, and that inbreech end. It is next placed between dies of the follow, the lump or cone seating is shaped up by a spectors have pronounced it very good, the barrel form required, and repeated blows from a trip cutter, and brought nearly to a finish--the breech has next to be bronzed; and in order to effect this, hammer brings the cone to its proper shape. pin is also now brought into form by similar the exterior is made, in the first instance, to be.
This machine is of American invention, and it means. Indeed, revolving cutters or "mills” are come oxidised, by application of water, and is very effective. Its principal parts are of wood. the universal tools at Enfield, whilst the variety of then to pass through a simple chemical proThe hammer itself, or lever, is hang on journals, names given to them for identification is amusing.
Polished over the bronzing, it is now the end carrying the die being by far the heaviest. The barrels are next drilled and tapped to re
fit for its walnut-wood bed, and for the com: A disc, fitted with a number of studs on its out-ceive the nipple, then clamp-milled about four panionship of those component parts which go ward diameter, lies at right angles with the other inches up from the middle, and on each side of the to make up the handsome weapon with which the end of the lever. The disc revolving rapidly, foresight, so that the bayonet may fit well. various and happily increasing number of rifle and fitted with a fast and loose pulley for disen- The barrels are now drawfiled from end to end. club members are becoming familiar, but which gaging, &c, carries with it the triangularly formed Gauges are next applied once more to every part, we trust they may not be called upon to use hosstuds-of which, indeed, there are 12 of about 4 and the rifling must be performed.
tilely. For much of the information in the foreinches in length, and they strike the end of the
The machines used at Enfield for cutting the going paper we are indebted to the courtesy of hammer lever. It is needless to say that the three rifle grooves in each barrel are of Belgian C. E. Hayes
, Esq., of the Small Arms Factory, hammer itself, therefore, rises and falls, rapidly, manufacture, strange to say, most of them having
Enfield, too, on the principle of the tilt hammer. In fact, come from Liège. To describe them without diaat Enfield this hammer, with its die face--so to grams is difficult. Their beds resemble somewhat
INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL .
ENGINEERS. speak-falls upon the cone seat of a rifle barrel | those of the ordinary slide-lathe. On each bed at the rate of 300 times per minute. Annealing there is a slide working backwards and forwards, The Annual Meeting of this bod y was held in is the next thing to be done, and it must be done after the plan, almost, of a planing machine. This Leeds, during last week, under the presidency of carefully. The atmosphere must be jealously slide is provided with a pinion which gears into a
Mr. John Penn, of Greenwich. The first meeting excluded, and charcoal used to prevent decarboni- rack, the end of which slides on a radial bar set
was held in the Civil Court, at the Town Hall, on sation. Great care is necessary with regard to at the required angle from the central line of the Tuesday, Mr. Penn presiding. the degree of heat applied in annealing. The machine.. As the slide is made to traverse slowly desideratum is to make the material "mild” and along the bed, the radial bar is made to advance The first paper was a description of Bernot's easy to work without deteriorating its strength or recede according to the direction in which the file-cutting machine, by Mr. Thomas Greenwood, or quality,
slide is going, and of course gives a gentle twist to of the firm of Greenwood and Batley, machine The succeeding process is that of rough boring. the pinion which has the cutter bar attached. makers, Leeds. Mr. Greenwood alluded to the This, too, is accomplished at the Government This latter requires some explanation. It is com- fact that whilst machinery had been introduced works in a machine of American origin. The posed of a bar of steel passing clear through the into most manual operations, file-cutting remained machine is so contrived as to bore four barrels at barrel, and filling it. The end remotest from that stationary. Various machines liad been invented once. Perhaps a brief description of it may not fixed in the pinion of the slide has a kind of in America and this country, and large sums of be uninteresting. Four spindles, geared together, mortice cut in it, with an inclined plane acting money had been spent by manufacturers in are driven by a pulley with a loose one beside it. against a similar one ou the other. The incline on Sheffield, but partly from difficulties, real and These spindles rest horizontally on a frame sup- the cutter his the point of a fine threaded screw imaginary, and also from the opposition of the ported by two standards, the frame also forming bearing against it. This screw is prevented from operative file-cutters, these experiments had failed a troagh, and holding an abundant supply of cold moving by a square rod into which it is fixed, and up to within a recent period. So great were water for keeping the barrels cool whilst being which slides through a disc at tho extreme end the prejudices of the operative file-cutters that bored. The boring “bits” resemble twisted augers, of the machine. All the time the cutter is travel they refused to teach the apprentices how to the cutting portions being about six inches in ling, it leaves the screw, and, as a spiral spring grind their cutting chisels until the last year of length, but welded to rods sufficiently long to pass now acts upon the end of the cutter opposite the their apprenticeship, and the tariff of prices completely through the barrel. The ends of these inclined plane, the tendency must be to force it remain fixed, on the supposition that no improve. bits are secured into the sockets of the spindles, the out, and make it wider at the breech-end to the ment had taken place in the rolling of steel, thus barrels being fastened horizontally in the ma- extent mentioned in a former article of this entirely ignoring the progress that had been chine. A self-acting feed causes the bits when in Magazine (September 2nd). The cut commences made; and forgers charged the same price for motion to take a cut completely through the at the muzzle, and the barrel is firmly clamped drawing the tang upon a round or square rod of barrels. The operation is repeated, and then the whilst the “rifling" is going on. At the breech- steel for a parallel or equalling file as they did barrels are taken out and straightened by blow end there is an arrangement for setting the barrel for forging a half-round taper file of the same of hammer. The outside of the barrel next into proper position for cutting the grooves at length. The actual process of file-cutting, howclaims attention, and it is turned in a peculiarly equal distances from each other. Supposing the ever, was one of the simplest description. It constructed self-acting slide lathe, with a copying spiral grooves or rifles to be now cut in a barrel, consisted in driving a chisel of suitable form an! bar attached to produce the required figure. The the next operation will be to remove the slight inclination to a small depth into the prepared tool rest of this machine is so devised as to carry “burr” which the cutter, however clean it may surface of the blank, and steadily withdrawing it two cutters, one in front, the other opposite and have cut, will have inevitably left in its progress again. The difficulties to be surmounted were to behind. One of these is to "rough,” whilst the from muzzle to breech. In order to accomplish present the blank perfectly parallel to the cutting other takes a light and smooth cut. In order to this the barrel is placed so that it cannot turn edge of the chisel; to withdraw the chisel from prevent chattering a very solid bearing is made round, though it may be moved laterally. A the incision made in the blank without damaging to follow the cutters closely. The turning leaden“ lap” made to revolve at a very rapid rate the edge of the newly-raised tooth; to prevent a properly done, another boring becomes necessary is now introduced, and the barrel is made to slide rebound of the chisel after the blow which drove -the all-important one. Now one barrel at a time to and fro upon the lap. The effect is to remove the chisel into the blank before the next blow was only is operated upon, the machine being a hori- every vestige of wire edge which the cutter may struck; to give a uniform traversing motion to zontal one fitted with a bracket which fits the barrel have left, and to polish the interior of the barrel the blank, ensuring regularity in the teeth ; to on the outside. The“ bits” used for this boring are like a mirror.
proportion the intensity of the blow to the vary. square, the sides being carefully ground on a Released from this machine, the barrel is next ing width of the file, so as to give a uniform stone. It does seem strange that so simple an in taken to the proof-house, where possibly the ex- depth of cut; and to perform these operations at strument—by the aid only of the truthful eye of plosion within it of a heavy charge of gun such a speed as to make them commercially pro