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DR. HOPKIN'S THEORY OF A CENTRAL in the flight of birds is the energetic action of compressed by the downward stroke, escapes FIRE.

their wings upon the resisting medium of the air. backwards, bending upwards in its passage the TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” The comparative power of flight in birds depends fine elastic tips; and thus exerting an upward

GENTLEMEN,- It appears natural for the com- on the proportion between (1) their weight, (2) and onward reaction on the whole body of the mon mind, so soon as it has become acquainted the atmospheric area covered by their wings, and bird. It must be added that the same principle with any phenomenon, to set about and try to (3) the force with which the wings are worked. is followed in the wings of all fying animals ; account for it, and to build thereupon facts which it is not the lightest bird with the largest wing with much variety in the material, forın, and disare but slightly corroborated. Thus as to the which flies best or fastest; on the contrary, the position of parts. The wing of the bat is the fossils found in coal strata, they look like vege- fight of such a bird is generally laborious and heavy. most conspicuous modification--the more remark. tables, therefore they must once have been The heron is a familiar example. Its body is able as in all probability it is on this model that growing upon the surface of the earth. So of extremely thin and light, its expanse of wing is artificial wings will be most easily constructed. Dr. Hopkin's theory of a central heat (in your enormous. Every one must have observed how By means of a leathery web stretched between last number, p. 183), it has been found that the slowly and heavily it flies. On the other hand, long, attenated, and elastic bones, the foro-legs heat increases in a certain ratio, and must, at a birds of the greatest weight, with the minimum and fingers of a mammal are made to perform certain depth, become red hot. Yet with only size of wing which is compatible with flight at all, precisely the same functions as the pinions and this single fact to support so large a theory, were fly with enormous velocity. The divers are an quills of birds. there no other way of accounting for this increase example. Their wings are very small, mainly The problem of aërial navigation will never be of heat, it is not unreasonable to give our assent used as fins or paddles under water. The weight solved until the principles of flight are clearly to it. But if it can be found that this increase of the bird is very great ; they have, consequently, understood, nor until we recognize precisely what of heat may be accounted for on principles to much difficulty in rising into the air at all, but are the obstacles which prevent us from acting which assent will be at once yielded as being when once “under weigh” they go like an arrow. upon them by artificial means. It is, of open and easily comprehended, then, I think, our It is their great weight, and consequent momen- course, possible that these obstacles may prove assent may not reasonably be withheld—the former tum, which gives them this velocity. To to be insuperable. I entertain a different imset aside, and the latter adopted. I think this counteract the great force which gravity exerts pression, but, at all events, they cannot be over. heat found in mines may be accounted for in the upon them, or rather to turn it into a horizontal come until they are exactly known. I believe same way as some other natural phenomena—the instead of a perpendicular direction, the small them to be all sumined up in one great deficit of heat of the human body and of hot wells. Before wing is worked with almost inconceivable force our present mechanical knowledge-a light constructing any new theory from isolated facts, and quickness. Nothing but the most rapid motive power. Steam is the greatest motive it would be well to look round us, and see whether strokes could derive from 80 small an atmospheric power among all that we know of yet, but the any question arising upon them would not be settled area sufficient supporting power. Between these material required for the generation of steam, and by reference to some already-known law of nature-two extremes the heron and the diver—there is the material required for the construction of its which acts by general, not by partial laws." One among birds every variety of proportions between machinery, render it enormously heavy. We general law is that all substances on passing to a weight, area of wing, and flapping power. Each don't want buoyancy, but neither can we succeed inore solid state give out their latent heat, which different proportion gives a different kind, and a with excessive weight. Every year is, indeed, at once becomes sensible; part of the air drawn varying power of flight. Some proportions are adding to the perfection of the steam engine-to into the human lungs at every inspiration becomes best adapted for “buoyancy," others for velocity, its compactness and to the amount of power which a solid or more dense fluid, and the latent heat others for facility of direction. The power of flight, is derived from a given volume of steam. It is required, in its aëriform state, is converted into in all its combined conditions of lightness

, duration, difficult to say what economy of weight might sensible heat, giving life and warmth to the and perfect facility of direction, attains its maximum not be effected if ingenuity and science were body. Part of the water passing through in some species of the swallow tribe, especially the specially directed to this object, and if the cellular calcareous rocks, as Dr. Hopkins says, of low con."swift;" and in various kinds of sea birds whose structure adopted in the bones of birds, an1 which ductive power, becomes solid, filling crevices in wings are of very similar construction. . The is already receiving so many new applications in the rocks, forming stalactites in the caverns, and soaring of some birds is an apparent exception to mechanics, where strength and lightness are regiving out its latent heat, which becoming the ordinary action of flight, and suggests to the quired, were applied wherever it is possible. Still, sensible in the water passing on is the cause of eye the idea of actual buoyancy or floatation. But I have very little hope that, until a lighter motive our hot wells. So water percolating through the exception is apparent only. The eagle or the power than steam is discovered, aërial navigation coal and other strata ultimately becomes wholly vulture, when soaring, is not the less a very heavy will be accomplished. But even with steam some solid, and must give out its caloric of Auidity to bird, and the slightest derangement of his ma experiments might be tried which would test the the surrounding strata, which is, perhaps, the heat chinery of flight would bring him crashing to the principles of flight, and at least lead the way in a we find, and which has given rise to the notion of earth. Weight is as essential to soaring as it is to right direction for the progress of discovery. a central fire. progressive flight. The soaring of a bird is effec.

Not being myself a practical mechanic or engi. I am, Gentlemen, your

obedient servant, ted precisely as the same action is accomplished neer, I would suggest for the consideration of T. L. H. in a boy's kite.

others some of the conditions under which such 19th Sept., 1859.

This being the principle of flight in birds let us an experiment might be made. I assume that it

look for a moment at the means or machinery pro- would be easy to derive from a steam engine the THE NAVIGATION OF THE AIR. vided to satisfy these necessary conditions. A perpendicular action of a bird's wing. In truth, The navigation of the air-a subject respecting whole volume might be written on the structure of the direct action of a piston would give this movewhich many of our readers entertain very sanguine the wing in birds. In the whole range of nature ment. I rather think this is the simple principle expectations, and in reference to which very much there is one main feature in its action which above any difficulty in making such a piston work a pair

there is no more beautiful piece of mechanism. But of Nasmyth's steam hammer. Would there be has doubtless to be discovered, and as much done all others deserves attention. The stroke of a bird's of wings, constructed on some such model as the -is ably and usefully discussed in the following wing is always perpendicular, and this one action wings of a bat ? What is the maximum velocity letter which appeared primarily in the lead- serves both to sustain and to propel. This is a re with which such a piston could be made to work ing journal the early part of the present week. sult as well of the structure of the whole wing as a given area of wing ? or, conversely, what is the The principle from which the writer starts is, that of the structure of each feather. The feathers are all maximum area of wing which such an engine if we are ever destined to navigate the air it will upward stroke they tend to separate and to allow so placed with reference to each other that in the could be made to work at a given velocity.

When these questions have been answered by be by a strict adherence to the principle and a the air to pass between them ; while in the down calculation or experiment, the next step would be close imitation of the means which have been ward stroke they are pressed against each other to ascertain the lifting power of such action. I designed by the Creator for effecting the sam so as to present to the air one impervious expanse, have no hope that any steam eugine can be made

so light and so powerful as to work wings capable purpose in flying animals. He proceeds as fol. and thus to secure the greatest possible amount lows :

of atmospheric resistance. The same purpose is of lifting its own weight. But the important

further assisted by the shape of the whole wing, question is-how much of that weight can be so Be it observed, then, that none of these animals which is slightly convex above and concave below. lifted, or rather (as no actual lifting would take are lighter than the air; on the contrary, their But beautiful as this mechanism is, the most place) how much of the weight would be deducted being heavier will be found to be a necessary con- beautiful part of the structure remains to be from the gross weight by the rapid action of the dition of their flight. It is from their weight that noticed- viz., that which converts the stroke for wings? Would it be any appreciable quantity ? Itis they derive momentum, and without momentum sustaining into a stroke for propelling also. This impossible to doubt that the amount of atmospheric they might float but they could not fly. We is a result of the structure of each quill, and of pressure exerted by steam power working a vane sometimes speak of a bird's flight being "buoyant,” the direction in which all the quills are set. Each

or wing would be very considerable. The

amonnt but this is only a mode of expressing the greater quill is highly elastic in substance, and in form of such pressure would be the measure of the lift. facility with which some birds fly as compared with tapers rapidly to the end. All the quills are so ing power exerted, and might be tested or calcu. others. No bird is ever for an instant" buoyant" set that the elastic ends constitute the terminal

lated various ways. in the literal sense of that word. Gravity never and posterior margins of the wing. The anterior Supposing, then, that a steam-engine could be for a moment ceases to act upon its body, and on margin of the wing is rigid-being that contain constructed which could move wings equal to the slightest accident the force of gravity brings ing the bone in which the quills are set. The lifting 1-10th, or even 1-20th of its own weight, it heavily to the ground. The sustaining power consequence of this arrangement is, that the air, 1 tle difficulty remains how to deal with the re




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new members and friends generally to trace the ing with it, I would suggest that it be balanced by


course of the association since that early period of the lifting power of a balloon. In this combina. On Saturday night last the anniversary dinner of the its history, and to understand its present numerical tion, be it observed, the whole machine would not

" Association of Foremen of the Engineering Trade" be hogyant. Even this modified use of a balloon took place at their rooms, 35 St. Swithen’s-lanc, City.

No. of Contribu- Honorary Donais open to great objections, because the power ex- At seven o'clock Mr. Newton, of the Royal Mint,

Members. tions. ercised over it by the slightest current of air who, it may be remembered, was elected chairman in

1852-3 would be very great, and the experiment could place of the late Mr. Sheaves in January last, took only be tried in a tranquil atmosphere; but, in his seat at the head of the table, and was supported 1855 default of any machine capable of lifting the by from eighty to ninety members and friends of the whole of its own weight, there seems to be no al plimentary toasts were drunk, being severally pre 1859, pres.

Åfter dinner the usual loyal and comternative but to take off part of that weight by a faced by brief but appropriate and able speeches from balloon. My belief is that such a machine, when the president. In giving the “Prince Consort and its wings were put in motion, and when it rose the rest of the Royal Family” the chairman took the from the ground, would be found capable of being opportunity of saying that H. R. H. never dis. directed, and that the direction of its flight would tinguished" himself more than when at Aberdeen the be determined by that in which its wings were set.

other day he paid homage to the votaries of science, I have said that the wing of a bat would be and acknowledged himself a devotee at her sacred found most easy of imitation. There is, however, shrine. “Our Employers” was the next toast of the

Against which our disbursements and incidental one observation of great importance which may considered it to be a toast in which every individual expenses are as follows :be gathered from the flight of different animals, member of the association must feel a direct and per


Incidental. viz., that, as regards facility of flight, the shape sonal interest. It was not necessary to urge the comof a wing is even more important than the large. plete and indissoluble identity of interest which existed ness of its area. Length is more important than between masters and foremen engineers. Not one breadth. Birds which possess the greatest powers among their own body would think of disputing such of flight have always very long, but often very

a position. “We one and all ” said he," are aware narrow wings. The swift swallow is an excellent the effects of their failure, and that in their prosthat employers cannot fail without foremen feeling 1858

1859 up to pres. time 35 0 example. Every one must have observed the experity is bound up our own fortunes." He must be traordinary narrowness of its long wings. This permitted to say, however, that from the attitude peculiarity is carried to its extreme limits in the assumed by engineering employers generally towards wings of the albatross, a bird of unwcaried power the Foremen's

Association, he was afraid that they of wing. The cause of this result is pretty did not regard this intellectual, moral, and charitable

Receipts, Donations, &c. obvious. Length gives leverage, and leverage is, union with the favour which it had a right to expect

Disbursements of course, all-important in lifting power.

at their hands. It was certain that the masters' In a subsequent letter Mr. L. Morris writes as

advantage was bound up in the welfare of those who follows:-“It may be useful to point out a few coldness should be manifested towards a society such

served them, and it was unfortunate that so much errors into which he (the above writer) has fallen, as that over which he had the honour to preside, by

Total balance in hand .................... 164 15 6 and which can only have the effect of leading employers generally. Would that employers would away from the path he wishes to pursue. He attend their monthly meetings and learn from their "Having thus shown you a copy of the whole of states that weight is essential to a bird's flight, as own observation that their's was no unfair banding

our receipts and expenditure as well as the number of producing momentum; now this cannot be con. together for the purpose of coercing the labour members in each year of the existence of the society, sidered as essential, but as incidental. A kite is market, but simply a union for mutual improvement I think that you will be willing to admit that we have not sustained by the weight of the string, but in and for provident objects. Would that an employer have been

made available on all legal occasions for spite of it, although the string is incidental to its Mr. Newton then proceeded to say that he trusted the widows and orphans of such as have departed to condition. We do not, in order to overcome the from henceforth the Association of Foremen Engi: that bourne whence no traveller ever returns. It power of gravity, require an aërial machine to be proportionally heavy, on the contrary, the lighter seemed to obstruct the vision of employers, and that may be further stated that during the present year it is the better. The writer also states that a the latter would join the society in large numbers as

papers have been read at our ordinary bird is enabled to fly more swiftly and with honorary members. He appealed to the representa- 1 monthly meetings by Mr. Newton, our chairman, on greater ease in proportion to its increase of tives of the scientific press then present to put Men on the Age in which we Live By Mr. Keyte, evident that both the swiftness of its flight , and felinthe vihera ee toe gembers of the nasociation, and Briggs

, Senr., mm." The Concussion for Water Boy to incite them to lend their countenance to those who Mr. Stabler,' on "The Economical Formation of consequent momentum, entirely depend upon the

earnestly desired their friendship and co-operation. speed with which the wings are moved, and its

Mr. Fowler, an employer, in responding to this toast, ture of the Rifle.

And by Mr. C. F. Hayes, on The Manurate of progress can never exceed the rate of this disclaimed to some extent the strictures of the chair followed them have tended in no small degree to

These and the discussions which movement. Your correspondent also observes man as to the isolation of employers generally from the elevation of the institution, and the edification of that the soaring of a bird is caused by the pres the interests of the society, and concluded by handing its members. The library fund, & separate and sure of the wind on its outstretched wings, ex

in his own name and subscription as an honorary distinct affair from the general fund, I regret to say actly as in the case of a kite.. This action of the member.

languishes somewhat, and though we have to thank wind, however, could only produce a backward “Honorary Members and Supporters." was the next Mr. McGregor especially for a donation of books, yet movement, and soaring is evidently caused by toast, and this was responded to by Mr. Blackett.

the library is not quite what it ought to be. I think, the previously-acquired movement of the bird “Prosperity to the Association of Foremen Engi. Mr. Chairman, that the report may be deemed on causing a resistance which for a time sustains it neers” now claimed the attention of the assembled the whole satisfactory, and

I look confidently forin the air ; and this is the very principle carried members of it, and the chairman having expressed ward to the future of the Association of Foremen out in previous attempts to construct a flying his confidence in its permanent we!l-being and in. machine. It is sufficient to sum up by stating creasing, usefulness, called upon the secretary to plause, and silence being restored, the chairman pro

The reading of this statement elicited much apthat the problem of aërial navigation will be furnish from his minute book the substantial reasons

ceeded to give, as his next toast, the “Scientific easily solved whenever the progress of science he had for forming those conclusions. Mr. Jones Press." Alluding to the statement of the secretary, shall place us in command of a motive power con. then proceeded to read an abstract report of the and trusting that the representatives of the press then siderably lighter in proportion to its capacities society's rise, progress, and present prospects, the present would ensure it the publicity of their columns, than any steam-engine that can be constructed, substance of which we subjoin :

Mr. Newton proceeded to observe that much of the and not till then. This is the true direction to pliance with your request, a brief history of the Asso- due, as he thought, to the notices of their monthly

“Sir, I have the satisfaction of presenting in com. recent success which had attended on the society was: whicu our aims should tend.”

ciation of Foremen Engineers, with some account of meetings, which had been regularly published in the

its present financial condition. In the year 1852 various journals which constituted the scientific press: TIE NEW STEEL.

several members now present, together with Mr. of London. In eulogistic terms the chairman then

Sheaves, now, alas ! no more; Mr. Allison, whoso gave the toast, which was drank with “ three times: We have this week had an opportunity of examining unfortunate accident we all deplore, and myself, first three." In obedience to the request of the chairman, a sword-bayonet constructed of steel manufactured met to discuss the desirability of forming an associa- Mr. E. J. Reed, of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, as by Farrar's new process. This sword-bayonet has tion of foremen of the various branches of the engi- the senior member of the press present, responded to been put through all the tests ordinarily used to try these occasions, a committee was formed, meeting importance of the class of men who constituted the

the toast. In his address Mr. Reed alluded to the neering trade. The matter was fully considered on such instruments, and has stood them with perfect nights, once or twice in each week, were appointed in foremen engineers of the kingdom. He pointed out success. The steel commonly used for such bayonets order to frame rules and to make regulations, and the unrecognised influence which they exerted in the by the manufacturers of the weapon cost £81 per ton, ultimately from those small beginnings grew into promotion and successful carrying out of all engi. whereas the Farrar steel employed in the present existence the now flourishing society of whi we neering works, and incited them to persevere in the instance costs only about a third of that amount per memory of our late lamented chairman, be admitted are all so proud. It must, however, in justice to the pursuit of mutual improvement for which the associa

tion offered such facilities. ton. The value of Mr. Farrar's process may be that the idea of such a society originated with him. “Success to the Engineering Trade” succeeded, and judged of from these facts.

self. The following brief statement will enable our | Mr. Keyte acknowledged it. Then came the "Founders of the Association," and a response on behalf of the their names, and the second on the obverse the ten thousand years hence our railway earthworks will surviving founders by Mr. Briggs. "Our Visiting initials of their majesties in cypher in the field, instead remain. There will then be a hundred thousand Friends," prefaced in a kindly tone by the chairman of the sword and sceptre, and only their titles circum. miles of rail, and every village will have its branch; was drunk, and Mr. Robertson, in a talented speech, scribed. The last distinctive copper coins for Scotland and there will be a series of Bradshaws, with their acknowledged the honour conferred. The " Health of were struck during the reign of William III., and maps complete, purchased at the rate of 21. a-number, the Chairman” was next proposed by Mr. Keyte, who bear date 1694, and no " bawbees" or "bodles" have in the British Museum, and there will be no difficulty described that gentleman as "an able mechanic and been minted since that time.

in distinguishing an ancient line of 1859 from the a clever man," which he said well qualified him for A French agent, who is stated to be a distinguished modern addition made in the reiga of Albert XXIIL, his post. This was received with an amount of en. naval officer, pre-eminent for his nautical knowledge A.D. 6859. A single peck of the mound will show the thusiasm and of what are called "musical honours," and experience (and whom, we believe, to bo Admiral difference of the sil, and the production of a time. which must have amply repaid the chairman for his Paris, Major-General Maritime of the port of Brest, table will set at rest the question whether or not there exertions on behalf of the society. The cheers for and with whom we had much pleasant and instructive was a line in the 19th century between one place and Mr. Newton made this part of the proceedings quite intercourse on board the Great Eastern), bears testi. another. Many laments will be made over the onan ovation. Under the manifest influence of strong mony, in a letter published in Wednesday's Moniteur, happy convertibility of paper, which will then have emotion, the chairman thanked the assembled foremen to the enormous strength and indubitable safety of reduced so many interesting records to the original for the warmth with which his name had been re- the Great Eastern, and to her victory over the ocean. pulp. Even a palimpsest, it will be observed, can be ceived, and promised to devote his whole energies to With regard to the first point, the naval officer says: I made to reproduce its six or seven strata of ancient the welfare of the society. He regarded, he said, “Nevertheless, it may be said that the destruction of lore; but piles of journals, archives of railways, Hera. mankind as the agents of a higher Power, and bound, the forward funnel of the Great Eastern might have path and Bradshaw, pulp they were, and into pulp therefore, to develope the good promptings of the happened to the smallest steamer, and would probably will they have returned." mind into deeds of kindness and love. Gratefully he have occasioned its total destruction, because it would The China Telegraph communicates the following returned his warmest acknowledgements, and proud not have presented the mass and solidity of the great facts respecting telegraphic progress. Messrs. Newall indeed was he to possess their good opinion. The ship, while the accident in question in nowise com. and Co's steamers Imperador and Imperatriz will be health of the secretary was next proposed by Mr. promises the future of this last." With respect ready to leave Liverpool at the end of the present Ross, and duly responded to by the former. The to the second point, the same authority says: "The month, with the remainder of the cable to connect health of the treasurer was pledged by Mr. Keyte, little swell while going against a strong head wind, Kurrachee with Aden. The cable to connect Aler. and the “Managing Committee and Librarian" was and a heavy sea on, proved that the nautical problem andria with this country is now to be laid through proposed as a toast in a neat speech by Mr. Stabler, has been solved (the italics are his own). If there the Islands of Rhodes and Sehios to Constantinople, Mr. Briggs returning thanks. Mr. Suffield gave be any doubts, they can only be as to her rolling, and not by way of Candia, as previously intended. It “ The Ladies.". These pleasant proceedings, un. because she experienced no slanting heavy seas, and is expected to be laid in about a month by Messrs. mixed by one dash of alloy, brought twelve o'clock the vessel was too light to be considered in her normal Newall and Co. Captain Pullen, of the Cyclops, has too speedily, and the National Anthem concluded a position. But when, with the wind right ahead, she fixed on Hallani, one of the Kooria Mooria išlands, as a delightful meeting:

oscillated up and down hardly a quarter of a degree, station for the Red Sea telegraph.-A contract has It may be stated that the address of the Secretary while the neighbouring vessels plunged into the been made with the Gutta Perchą Company, on is 7 Arlington-square, New North-road, Islington, waves, and her sharp bows threw up less spray than behalf of the Government, for a cable to be laid from London, and that country foremen are eligible as a boat, one feels convinced that no sea can stop her, Falmouth to Gibraltar, 1,200 miles, which is to be members.

and that she cut through the waves with too great a ready in June next. This will be succeeded by one

force and facility for them to retard her progress, or from Gibraltar to Malta and Alexandria, thus giving Our Weekly Gossip.

for them even to produce that pitching which is so an independent line, free from Continental diffi. inconvenient to passengers. Contrarywise to so many culties.

We have before us a circular headed “Universal Ix searching the annals of the coinage of Great ships of rounded lines, which the sea tosses and retards

more than does the wind, the Great Eastern meets Peace throughout the World,” which informs us that Britain some curious facts have been disinterred from with no impediment from the waves. She cuts them “Speedily will be published, with engravings, the musty volumes and age-worn parchments. Few per: too easily to feel their rapid motion; the wind particulars of a new peace-inducing system of aggressons probably, for instance, are aware, as we were not appears the only obstable which nature can present; sive warfare, so overwhelmingly destructive in its until lately, that the term "bawbee," as used by and all who are acquainted with navigation know results, that nations could not exist if brought to bear our northern friends, was the legitimate name of a how slight its action is in comparison with the action against them for any protracted length of time, the current copper coin once circulating beyond the of the waves. Thus the trial which has just been very knowledge of which (without ever being put to Tweed. Towards the end of the reign of Charles II. made proves that this gigantic mass will always over the test), it is believed, when duly appreciated by this coin came into existence, and passed for sixpence. power the sea, and that she will not feel even the mankind, must inevitably become the forerunner of The "bawbee” had for its obverse impression the effects thereof, except when the waves strike her peace throughout the world, by making it evident King's bust facing his right, His Majesty's name sideways. But then, again, the weight of the vessel to the meanest capacity, that all standing

armies, town abbreviated, numeral and titles, and

for its reverse, and her length

will diminish her motion, as was proved and coast fortifications, ride clubs, vessels of war, and Nemo. Me. Impune. Lacesset., and the date 1677, with during the voyage, when, from the breaking of some national defences of every kind, would not only be was about 130 grains. Coins called "bolles Wohnd part of her steering gear, she was thrown into a perfectly inefficient, but absolutely

powerless to resist

, to

prevent, or lessen in the slightest degree the dreadful circulated in Scotland before the period in question, but Charles II. seems to have had a penchant for from a leading article in the Times, is well worth ciple, which in point of cost (as compared with every

The following clever piece of vaticination, taken consequences of a well-directed attack upon this princreating new coins, and for giving new,impressions to reading :-“A thousand years hence, if the world last other system of warfare) would be trivial in the er: them, he therefore ordered “bodles” to be struck

so long, we shall have Railway Antiquities. At the treme, and of which particulars a brief statement has equal in value to twopence only, in place of three: meetings of perambulating associations papers will be been already forwarded to the Government, sereral pence, as previously. The “bodle” of this monarch read on the origin and early struggles of this or that Members of Parliament, and the Lord. Mayor of bears a similar device as an obverse to that on the line. The sketches of a primitive locomotive will then London.” It will only be fair to say that this document " bawbee," with a sword and sceptre under a crown, and a reverse similar to that of the bawbee," except Royal Harry, in which Henry VIII. set forth to the himself as the “ (assistant) surveyor of the Liverpool be as curious as the picture of a Chinese junk or the proceeds from Mr.

W. H. James, C.E., who describes that the thistle is not crowned. The weight of the field of the Cloth of Gold. "Bits of old rail will be and Manchester and Bolton railroads in the year 1821, " bodle” is about one third that of the “* bawbee." handled and passed to and fro, with remarks on the and oldest son

of the real (but unrequited) originator It is a curious fact, and somewhat apropos to the quality or make of the iron. Here and there a bridge and founder of the modern railway system.” What coming coinage of mixed metal, that the Merrie

or a viaduct will be shown to illustrate the waste of a happy prospect we have to thank Mr. James for! Monarch had a peculiar horror of mixed materials for material natural to a semi-civilized age, and the precoinage. It was ordered, for example, in the year 1661, ference of finery to simplicity. Architects will remark

NOTICES. that "three thousand stone weight of pure copper, on the absurdity of our making a railway train pass P. $. It is seldom an easy thing to refer correspondents without any mixture of brass," be forthwith coined over a Doric entablature,

or placing a booking-office to situations that will suit them;

and in your case we have for circulation in Scotland. “ Two thousand stone under the Temple of the Giants. Should there ever not, of course, the slightest knowledge of what you are fit weight of said copper to be coined within three be discovered a means of locomotion sufficient to scale for, or of what is fit for you, otherwise we would gladly aid years after the date hereof, and the third thousand greater inclines than are now possible, our prodigious you il we could. within such time after the expiration of the three tunnels, cuttings, and embankments will then be as

JAMES PARKER, Camberwell.-Your letter reached us years as the Lords of the Secret Council shall judge mere curiosities and as decided proofs of our scien

too late to find a place in this number, but we hope to give meet, and who are to resolve upon the impression and tific ignorance as the aqueducts of Rome. They will circumscription to be stamped upon the pieces.” When be classed with pyramids and sphinxes, as the mere

The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to will the “Lords of the Secret Council" of our own time follies of power and wealth. Nevertheless, the earth Post Office Orders to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at

all subscribers of 1s. 8d., annually, payable in advance. come to a decision as to the “impression and circum- work will stand. It will never answer anybody's pur. the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C. scription" to be put upon the new bronze pieces which pose to level a huge embankment or fill up a cutting. the Government have determined to issue. It is costly as it was to make, it will be more costly to un.

CORRESPONDENT'S QUERY. rumoured that there are great differences of opinion make; there will be no object, and the funds will not among them on the point, and that a strong determi- be forthcoming. So, should the world last a thousand nation is manifested in one quarter to keep Britannia,

MR. EDITOR, -Will you be so good as to enlighten or ten thousand years, 99 per cent. of our earthworks me on the following? King Charles' Lady Stewart, seated as of old upon will stand just as they are. So stand the barrows, the rock supposed to be on the sea shore. We still and dikes, and hill-camps, which are uncertainly endless belts, each two feet diameter, and each

Suppose (working parallel to each other) two broad hold that public competition among artists and en referred to Britons, to Romans, to Danes, and every stretched over two cylinders or axles, what should gravers is the proper course. Has no engraver the tribe that existed before the Conquest. Stones are public spirit to produce a set of designs for the mixed removed, marble is burnt for lime, ashler work is

be the relative sizes of the cylinders or axles in order metal pence, halfpence and farthings ? Speaking of stripped away, even concrete crumbles, the copper tie belts. Your answer will oblige

to ensure uniform simultaneous motion of the said the Scottish coinage, it may be stated that in the attracts the plunderer, everything perishes or is reig James II. no copper coins were issued; that destroyed, but solid earth remains. There it lies; it

Yours respectfully, in the reign of William and Mary more “bawbees” neither moulders nor rusts; nobody carries it away;

NOTICE and more " bodles” were coined, the first having on it is neither blown up nor ploughed over; earth it was,

September 19, 1859. the obverse the busts of the King and Queen, and I earth it is, and earth it will remain. So, as we say, attention of correspondents.]

[We must commit this and all such inquiries to the

it next week.


Patents for Inventions.

of the distance towards the opposite side of the fire or conveying water, &c., across canals, &c., the inbox, by which the direct current of the gases is di- vention consists in constructing a curved hollow

verted froin the entrance to the transverse partitions channel extending from the part to be discharged to ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS or flues, and thrown towards the fire.door plate the part to be filled, so that by exhausting such

through which, or the side plates, atmospheric air is channel of air, the water, &c., will rise therein, and Tos abridged specifications of Patents given below are admitted to ensure the prevention of smoke. Patent filling the same will flow through it until the balance classified, aceording to the subjects to which the respective completed,

of pressure is equal at both extremities. Patent nventions refer, in the following table. By the system of 410. C. SANDERS. “Certain improvements in orclassification adopted, the numerical and chronological

abandoned. order of the speciAcations is preseryed, and combined with namenting English passe-partouts for photographic 416. E. H. ALDRICH. “Improvements in ladies' all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be pictures, also the glasses used with the same, and dress caps.”. Dated Feb. 15, 1859. understood that these abridgements are prepared exclu- which said modes of ornamenting are also applicable This consists in securing the ordinary materials, sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the to ornamenting photographic frames generally." such as lace, &c., to the common bobbin net founda. Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie- Dated Feb. 14. 1859. tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not

tion by cement, through the medium of heat and to produce them without acknowledgement:

This consists in applying to photographie mounts pressure by suitable blocks, and attaching flowers, STEAN EXGINES, &c., 472.

the well-known process or processes of gilding, paint &c., thereto by metallic ties or fastenings. Patent BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, &c., 409.

ing, staining, etching, or printing, singly or combined, abandoned. ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car,

the inner side of the front glass, around that portion 417. C. L. ROBERTS. “The manufacture of an im. riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 424, 448, 460.

that does not intercept the picture or the moulding proved cigar.” Dated Feb. 15, 1859. Ships and Boats, including their fittinga, 425, 437, 449, that surrounds it. Patent completed.

This consists in enclosing within the ends of cigars 461.


J. WRIGHT " Improvements in reducing and during manufacture tubes or mouth-pieces of glass, CULTIVATION OF THE Soil, nelnding agricultural and hor rolling steel and iron wire, and other forms of those &c.,

so formed as to admit of one end being readily tieultural implements and machines, 481.

metals in long lengths.” Dated Feb. 14, 1859. held within the mouth of the smoker whilst the other FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing This consists in winding the wire to be reduced on is firmly imbedded in the cigar. Patent abandoned. food for men and animals, 451.

a cast-iron bobbin or reel, which is then placed on a 418. R. MUSHET. "Improvements in the manu. PranoUs Pagrics, including machinery for treating fibres, box of the same metal, and the whole placed in a fur. facture of steel, iron, and cast-steel.” Dated Feb.

pulp, paper, &c., 407, 457, 463, 465, 466, 468, 470. nace and heated to the required degree. The wire 15, 1859. BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALA, including sewers, while heated is passed through rolls and rolled flat, This consists in combining cast-iron, decarbonised

drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 427, 433, 443, as for watch springs or crinoline steel. There are 445, 462

or partially decarbonised, by passing air through it modifications included. Patent completed. LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 413, 41, 467.

whilst in the fluid state, with welding cast-steel FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils,

412. J. L. CLARE. "Improvements in the means obtained by melting suitable materials in meltingtime-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 416) of working railway signals and switches." Dated pots or crucibles heated in ordinary steel melting 421, 122, 450. Feb. 14, 1859.

furnaces, the union of the said welding cast-steel and Metale, including apparatus for their manufacture, In order to work railway signals and switches, the decarbonised cast-iron being effected by mixing them 418, 419, 447.

patentee arranges at or near the foot of the signal together whilst both of them are in a melted state, to CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 444.

post, or at or near the switch, two hydraulic cylinders, obtain thereby malleable steel iron or steel suited for ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 434, 458.

each furnished with a pipe leading to the place from commercial purposes. Patent completed. WARFARE, 406, 471.

whence the signal switch is to be actuated, and at this 419. F. WALTERS. "The application of the waste LETTER PRESS PRINTING &c., 453.

place is a force pump or pumps, by which water may heat from puddling furnaces." Dated Feb. 15, 1859. MISCELLANEOUS, 408, 410, 411, 412, 414, 415, 417, 420, 423, be forced through one or other of the pipes into one This invention is not described apart from the

428, 429, 430, 432, 435, 436, 438, 439, 440, 446, 452, 454, or other of the hydraulic cylinders. The pistons or drawings. Patent abandoned. 455, 456, 459, 464, 469, 473, 474, 175, 476.

plungers within the cylinders are connected with the 420. W. RAYMOND. "An improved life-raft."

signal or switch to be worked in any convenient man- Dated Feb. 16, 1859. 406. W. E. NEWTON. "Improvements in breech- ner; and they are also connected together so that The inventor employs two semi-cylindrical vessels of loading fire-artas." (A communication.) Dated Feb. when the piston or plunger of one of them is forced corrugated sheet iron, with tapering round ends, the 12, 1869.

forward by water being injected into the cylinder concave portions to be filled in with cork, &c., attached This invention is not described apart from the the plunger or piston of the other cylinder is pushed thereto with marine glue, over which he places a comdrawings. Patent completed.

back to its original position, and the water which the plete covering of cork. He then places a covering 407. W. E. NEWTON. “Improvements in sewing cylinder contained is caused to flow back by the pipe of canvas, secured by a casing of cork, the whole machines.” (A communication.) Dated Feb. 12, 1850. to the place where the force pump is situated, and to be secured by corrugated galvanized iron bands at This relates, 1, to the manner of drawing the thread there it is caused to flow into a measuring vessel, so intervals. There are various

other details in connecthrough the fabric after the stitch has been com- that the person working the force pumps may know tion with the fittings of the raft. Patent completed. pleted, and the required tension given to it; and to by the quantity of water returned by the pipe when 421. J. PATERSON. “ Improvements in brace effect this end the needle used is of the kind known the required amount has been produced. The employ. buckles and loops, and in braces.” Dated Feb. 15, as the double-pointed needle, which is made to pass ment of the return water to give this indication is 1859. back and forth through the fabric, and is caught and the peculiar feature of the arrangement which ren. This consists in carrying down a piece of metal held at each operation by suitable holding instru- ders it superior to the systems heretofore proposed from the lower bar of the buckle or loop, and in turn. ments. The loose or free end of the thread is drawn for actuating signals and switches at a distance by ing up this piece of metal towards the bar so as to through the fabric by a hook or hooks attached to a hydraulic power. Patent completed.

form a pipe or tube for the chain or catgut carrying travelling endless band. It consists, 2, in alternately 413. J. "COPCUTT. "Improvements in obtaining the cords to run in. It also consists in attaching gripping and releasing the needle from the needle light from gases." Dated Feb. 14, 1859.

leather tabs to tab chains by eyelets, and a piece of bars as it passes back and forth through the fabric, In obtaining what is called oxy-hydrogen light by metal attached to cach end of the chain. "Patent carrying with it the thread to form the stitches. It directing a jet of ignited gas on to lime or a prepared completed. consists, 3, in the arrangement of an adjustable material, the patentee has found that a better effect 422. J.T. JONES. “ Improvements in sewing mapresser foot, to answer the twofold purpose of guiding is obtained by employing the gases at a far greater chines.” Dated Feb. 15, 1869. the needle to the upper needle bar, and to press the pressure than the apparatus now employed will admit This comprises various improvements in sewing thread against the needle to give the necessary tension of. Patent completed.

machines, the details of which are too voluminous for to the stitch. Patent abandoned.

414. R. CLEGG, F. ANGERSTEIX, and J. W. PAGE. us to quote them at sufficient length for an intelligible 408. J. PARKINSON. "Certain improvements in "Improvements in making soap.” Dated Feb. 14, abstract. Patent completed. coffins." Dated Feb. 14, 1859. 1859.

423. G. Bepson. - Improvements in joining wire This consists in manufacturing coffins or burial The patentees take one cwt. of the silicate of for telegraphic and other purposes.” Dated Feb. 15, cases of earthenware, such as the brown ware made alumina, and half-cwt. of carbonate of soda in crystals, 1859. of ordinary clays, or of finer descriptions, such as boil in the water of crystals till on dropping a test This consists in placing the ends of the wires to be china clays, or other similar plastic material ; or they quantity on a cool slab it shall appear quite hard; joined within a short tube, which the inventor then may be inade of ordinary clay, and veneered with call this A. Then they take one cwt. of the silicate strikes with a punch. He prefers to galvanize the clays or cements of finer qualities, and they may be of alumina, 100 cwt. of carbonate of soda, and 10 joints, or otherwise to apply molten metal, whereby coated both inside and out with a vitreous enamel or gallons of water, boil them together for half-an-hour, the parts become soldered together. There are glass. Patent completed.

when they will become amalgamated. Then add of various modifications included. Patent completed. 409. T. Hunt. Improvements in steam-boilers brown resin one cwt., and continue the boiling, when 424. J. F. TOURRIER. “Preventing oscillation of er generators, and in the prevention or combustion the whole will become a homogeneous mass; then add the last carriage of a railway train, and giving rigidity of smoke.” Dated Feb. 14, 1859.

56 lbs. of the product of the first process called A, and steadiness throughout the train." Dated Feb. This consists, 1, in the use of transverse flue spaces and when sufficiently stiff, pour into moulds, and 16, 1859. or chambers having one or more openings made cut into bars. Take of tallow 14 lbs., caustic soda Oscillation is here prevented by placipg the action through each, but so arranged that the openings in or potash 14 lbs., boil together, adding fresh alkali of drawing at the two third back of the carriage, and one chamber are not exactly opposite to those of the from time to time, till the soap is perfected; or of a secondary or slight action of drawing at the one. next chamber, the whole being placed in the barrel of this add as much as the quality or character of the third part of the same carriage. The whole is con. the boiler of a locomotive engine, or in that portion soap requires; while hot incorporate, and pour into nected by chains or rods with the shackles now in use. of a multitubular boiler usually occupied by the tubes moulds. Patent completed.

The rigidity and steadiness is obtained by coupling and flues. 2. In combining these transverse chambers 415. A. B. CLARK. " Improvements in discharg- chains fitting so as to assist the shackles and sup with tubes, the latter being fixed at the end of the ing sewage and water from lands into tidal rivers, porters to the carriage in case of need. Patent boiler, or flues, or transverse chambers, next the and in flooding lands therefrom, also conveying abandoned. chimney. 3. In arranging the transverse flue spaces sewage and other waters or liquids across canals and 425. M. CRAWFORD. “An improved anti-fouling in boilers having two or more furnaces or flues, so over structures, part of which said improvements metallic varnish, applicable to ships' bottoms and that one set of transverse chambers may be used in being applicable as a substitute for sluice cocks and other similar purposes.” Dated Feb. 16, 1869. common to all the furnaces, or have a separate series valves.' Dated Feb. 14, 1859.

The inventor mixes in suitable proportions plum. of chambers to each. 4. In constructing the fire-boxes The objects of this invention are effected by means bago or black lead, fine or gum varnish, arsenic, and of multitubular or locomotive boilers with a water of a hollow vessel in the form of a magnet. The spirits of turpentine. Patent abandoned. space or midfeather attached to the tube plate and to action of this vessel is regulated for draining land by 426. S. BAILEY. “ Certain apparatus for prevent, the crown plato, such water space projecting a portion the ebbing and flowing of the tide. In discharging | ing the skip in mine operations being pulled over the

pulley on which the rope or chain works, to which | slides up and down between guides, and is actuated by bined, some of the pieces being flat and others un. such skip or cage may be attached, as well as prevent. a cam un a suitable aris, on which there is a cog-wheel dulated, placed one edge juxtaposed and rivetted at ing the skip or cage re-descending until pat in motion driven by a pinion on the main axis of the machine, the points of contact. Patent completed. for that purpose. Dated Feb. 16, 1859.

which is put in motion by a steam engine. There are 446. T. CATTELL. Improvements in treating The objects indicated in the title of this invention two fires suitably placed for heating the edges of the and purifying gutta-percha." Dated Feb. 17, 1869. are effected by certain apparatus, the details of which plates to be welded. When the overlapping edges are This consists in submitting gutta percha to the are too elaborate to be quoted here. Patent com- sufficiently heated they are brought between the two action of volatile solvents of two classes, in the proploted.

dies and pressed between them. Patent completed. portion of one part by weight to about fifteen parts of 427. R. COOKson and C. W. HOMER. “Improve. 436. W. A. O'DOHERTY. “An improvement in solvent. The details are voluminous. Patent com. ments in machinery for making bricks, tiles, tubes, black-lead pencils and pencil cases.” (A communica- pleted. and other articles of plastic materials, and in the mode tion.) Dated Feb. 16, 1859.

447. F. W. EMERSON. ." Improvements in the of joining drain pipes.” Dated Feb. 16, 1859.

This consists in manufacturing black-lead pencils treatment of certain ores of lead, and obtaining from This consists in a combination of machinery by with the lead running half way through, and india. them valuable primary and secondary products." which clay or other plastic material is supplied to a rubber the other halt. Also, in applying a piece of Dated Feb. 17, 1859. box furnished with a double-acting piston, from which india-rubber to one end of a pencil case. Patent This consists in the treatment of certain ores of it is forced through dies of the proper shapes for abandoned.

lead known as mendipito or orchloride of lead, phosmaking bricks, tiles, tubes, and other articles. "Patent 437. J. Seguir. "Improvements relating to the phate of lead, and the arsenio chlorides and arsenio. completed.

employment of moving power arising from the tides, phosphates of lead, native sulphated and carbon. 428. C. E. WRIGHT. “Improvements in means or and its application to manufacturing, agricultural, ates of lead, and all those ores of lead, contain. apparatus employed in the nursing or treatment of and other purposes.” Dated Feb. 16, 1859. ing any combination of chlorine, phosphoric acid, intants.” Dated Feb. 16, 1859.

This invention is not described apart from the arsenous or arsenic acid, carbonic acid, sulphuric acid, Here the child is placed in a basket or other re- drawings. Patent completed.

or any mixture of the same, so as to produce thereceiver, and supported by bands connected to rings 438. J. S. BENSON. "A new or improved method from oxide of lead for the preparation of its various and a spring book. Patent completed.

of silvering glass.” (A communication) Dated Feb. salts, as the acetate, nitrate,' &c., and the various 429. R. J. S. PBARCB.“ Linprovements in weighing 16, 1869.

uses for which litharge is now employed, red lead, or and dynamic machines.", Dated Feb. 16, 1859. This consists in the use of a solution in water of minium carbonate of lead, and metallic or pig lead,

This relates to the application of a weight on a pen. nitrate of silver and tartrate of ammonia. Patent and from the mendipite or orchloride of lead & very dant lever, as the counterbalance to determine the abandoned.

durable and anticorrosive paint is obtained. Patent weight of any body, in combination with a lever or 439. J. BREEDEN. “New or improved machinery completed. series of levers and a circular dial and inder.hand, for the manufacture of taps or stopcocks, and fittings 418. C. Fay. “ Improvements in apparatus for showing the result of the weighing operation. Patent for gas, stearn, and water-pipes.” Dated Feb. 18, working railway breaks.” Dated Feb. 17, 1859. completed. 1869.

This invention relates in great part to a former pa. 430. P. M. P. BOURJEAURD. "An improved ap This invention is not described apart from the tent dated 18th Dec., 1858, and consists of various paratus for supporting the womb." Dated Feb. 16, drawings. Patent completed.

peculiar arrangements of mechanism for imparting a 1869.

410. J. Easox. “ Improvements in apparatus ap- rotary motion to the longitudinal break rods of the This consists of a mushroom - shaped vessel in plicable to tanning, dyeing, and obtaining extracts train, whereby the breaks may be made partly self. caoutchouc with an aperture through the centre from vegetable, animal, and mineral substances." acting and self-adjusting, so as to compensate for the thereof, and connected to india-rubber or other straps Dated Feb. 16, 1869.

wear of the blocks, whilst they are still free to be for securing it to the body of the wearer. The vessel This consists of machinery for the tanning of skins, applied by the hand wheel of the guard when requisite. is hollow, and may be permanently sealed, or it may bides, &c., by exhaustion and repletion, caused by | Patent completed. be connected with a pipe fitted with taps, and an air. hydraulic and hydrostatic pressure. The vessels or

449. J. H. JOHNSON. "Improvements in appabag for the purpose of inflating and letting out the tanks the patentee uses for this purpose are composed ratus for propelling and steering vessels and other air from the mushroom-shaped vessel as required. of iron, wood, or other suitable material, either square floating craft." (A communication.) Dated Feb. 17, Patent abandoned.

or cylindrical, the former in ordinary cases being pre- 1859. 431. W.E. NEWTON. “An improved mowing ma. ferable if of sufficient strength to bear a pressure of

This consists in the application and use to and in chine or grass harvester." (A communication.) from 100 lbs. to 1000 lbs. to the square inch, and are the propelling or steering of vessels of a scroll.shaped Dated Feb. 16, 1859.

lined with marine glue, gutta percha, lead, copper, or box placed in a horizontal position beneath the sur. This invention is not described apart from the wood as may be required, as the liquor used for face of the water, and connected to the stern or other drawings. Patent completed.

tanning in coming into contact with the iron would convenient part of the vessel. Within this box 432. A. V. NEWTON. " An improvement in the tend to destroy its tanning properties. Patent works a rotary fan or series of vanes attached to a construction of brushes.” (A communication.) Dated completed.

vertical shaft which extends upwards into the vessel, Feb. 16, 1869.

4.1. S. T. COOPER. “Improvements in the use and is driven by a steam engine or other power. This consists principally of a method of fitting and and application of artificial light.” Dated Feb. 17, discharge mouth is made on one side of the circum. fixing the bristles of cylindrical and other like brushes, 1859.

ference of the box, and an outlet aperture is made on which method is not described apart from the draw. The essential condition of this invention is the in the upper and under side of the same, both apertures ings. Patent completed.

stantaneous ignition of jets of gas as they issue from a being covered over by a hood or box having a mouth 433. W. E. NEWTON. “Improved machinery for burner, by one or some of them inpinging upon and or opening in the contrary direction to the discharge making bricks.” (A communication.) Dated Feb. coming in contact with a fixed flame (which may be mouth in the circumference of the fan-box or casing. 16, 1859.

that of gas or of an oil or other lamp) kept continually To steer the vessel it is simply necessary to turn the Here a wooden drum is mounted horizontally in burning, in combination with an arrangement whereby main box round more or less, so as to alter the direcbearings, and actuates an endless cloth, which is the gas is supplied from the main through a branch tion of the jet. Patent abandoned. passed round it and extends down to the ground, and pipe and turned on to, or cut off from, the burner by 450. J. J. Cole. " Improvements in Venetian and is supported beneath by small rollers so that it may the action of an ordinary shut-off cock placed at & other suspended blinds, and in the method of hanging move with facility, and carry forward to the upper or distance from it. Patent abandoned.

and working them.” Dated Feb. 18, 1859. feeding parts of the machinery the clay that is placed 412. G. GRAY. “An improvement in screw This consists in having a balance so made and hung thereon. A chain-wheel on the axle of the drum is wrenches." (A communication) Dated Feb. 17, 1859. as to counterpoise the weight of the blind to wnich it driven by a chain which passes round a smaller chain The short-threaded screw which gears into the bar is attached, and in fixing or hanging the said weight wheel on the axle of the feeding or crushing rollers revolves on a shaft, the end of which shaft is made to the lines which pass in the ordinary way orer which crush the clay and feed it forward to the pug with a projecting thumb-piece, having a centre pin pulleys and through the laths of a Venetian blind, or mill. These rollers are so mounted and arranged that passing through both,

and on one

side of the shaft, so through the rings, loops, or eyes of a blind of a flexible should stones, &c., be found in the clay the rollers that by moving the excentric shaft round half a revo material. Patent abandoned. will yield, but will be brought back to their original | lution the short screw is raised out of gear, thereby 451. C. Garton. “An improved method of treatposition by springs or counter-weights. The clay is allowing the jaws to be opened to their fullest extent ing cane sugar, in order to render it fitter to be eroconducted down to a horizontal cylinder, around without the trouble of the continuous motion of the ployed in brewing, distilling, and wine and vinegar which are arranged moulds for the bricks, each mould screw, which is merely pushed into gear for tightening making." Dated Feb. 18, 1869. being fitted with a moveable piston. By the rotation the object to be held. There are other features in. This consists in assimilating the properties of cane of the mould drum, the moulds are brought under the cluded. Patent abandoned,

sugar to those of malt saccharum and fruit sugar áction of a presser wheel, which forces the clay into 443. H. Y. D. ScoTT. “An improvement in the prior to its being employed in brewing, distilling, or the interstices of the moulds. The clay is submitted manufacture of cement.” Dated Feb. 17, 1859. wine or vinegar making by heating it according to a to a second pressor, while the pistons are also pressed In carrying out this invention, which is an improve certain process. Patent completed. from behind. The bricks are forced out of the moulds ment upon Scott's patent cement, as patented April

452. H. SWAISLAND. Improvements in box by causing the rods at the back of the pistons to be 17, 1858, and Feb. 19, 1857, the patentee takes the sextants.” Dated Feb. 18, 1859. brought against a wheel which will force them out above-named cement, if it is in lump, which he pre This consists in the combination of a compass card wards, and deliver the bricks on to a plank or board fers, and grinds it down in an ordinary cement mill or needle with an ordinary or other bos sestant, so placed on a travelling belt or cloth whereby they are with an equal quantity by measure of chalk, using that the bearings as well as the angles of lines may carried out of the machine. Patent abandoned. less or more of that material as desired. Patent com. be simultaneously indicated, whilst the advantages of 434. W. H. HORSTMANN. “Telegrapbic cables and pleted.

A pocket compass are combined with the sextant. the mode of constructing the same and laying them 444. B. SAILLARD. “An improved mode of obtain. Patent abandoned. down." Dated Feb. 16, 1859.

ing printing-plates from collodion pictures.” Dated 453. G. WALLIS. "A new or improved method of This invention is not described apart from the Feb. 17, 1859.

engraving, applicable to the production of printing drawings. Patent completed.

This relates to the obtaining by the aid of the elec. surfaces and the ornamentation of metallic and other 135. J. J. RUSSELL." Improvements in machinery trotype process metal printing plates from collodion surfaces." Dated Feb. 18, 1859. used for heating and welding the edges of the plates pictures. Patent abandoned.

Here the inventor prepares a drawing upon paper used in the manufacture of cylinders and other arti. 445. P. E. FRAIBSINET. “A new or improved of the design to be produced. The drawing is made cles." Dated Feb. 16, 1869.

structure of iron, applicable to paving, flooring, with ink or composition containing gum arabic. He Here a standard framing is used from which pro- bridges, gratings, girders, and other like purposes. applies to the drawing emery powder or sand, which ject two arms. These arms at their outer ends are Dated Feb. 17, 1869.

attaches itself to the adhesive ink, &c., and causes all Arranged to receive dies or tools. The upper tool This structure is formed of hoop or other iron com | the lines of the design to stand out in relief. He

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