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THE

the enemy.

“ber her with the masts and rigging of a line

THE DECIMAL SYSTEM.
MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.

“of-battle ship.” We entirely dissent from
him. Were she not so rigged it would be im- The question of a Decimal Scale, as regards

possible to send her with safety in the presence weights and measures, is not by any means a LONDON, FRIDAY, JULY 8, 1859.

of an enemy. Lighter masts and

rigging would novelty. In the year 1816 a Royal Commission

never afford her the necessary means of sailing was appointed “ to consider how far it might be THE IRON STEAM FRIGATES OR and manceuvring in the event of her screw, her practicable or advisable to establish a more RAMS. engines, or her fuel failing, and we know too Commissioners were Sir Joseph Banks, Sir

uniform system of weights and measures." The The writer of an article which appeared in the little of the effects of a naval battle with steam- George Clerk, Mr. Davies Gilbert

, Dr. WollasTimes of Thursday, the 30th ult., and was

ships to leave such a ship, dependent upon her ton, Dr. Thomas Young, and Captain Kater. quoted in our last number, criticised the Ad- steam alone. No action between steam-ships Three years subsequently, these gentlemen made miralty with some severity, and not without has yet been fought, and it is very doubtful if their unanimous report, and it was adverse to sarcasm. The grounds of his complaints were, such an action would not reveal the impotence

alteration. In 1824 Sir John Wrottesley first, that a foolish attempt to conceal the cha- of either

the screw or the engines

in close
con; brought before

the House of Commons a motion racter of the new iron ship in the presence of fict. Especially is this true now that rifled for inquiring into the applicability of the decian enemy was contemplated ; and, secondly, I guns, and other

weapons of precision, are find- mal scale to coins. He referred to the example that while the great purpose with which the ing their way into ships of war.

of France, of America, and China, and urged ship has been designed is that of “ramming.”

Nor can we leave this point without mention the simplicity of their system of accounts as comdown an enemy, no provision has been made ing that the writer under notice has unwittingly pared with the complex

arrangements in use at for clearing her of her masts and rigging, dealt a heavy blow to the scheme of Admiral home. Sir John's scheme was to employ which must, the writer assumes, come down Sartorious. The question which the former has pounds, double shillings, and farthings, the last “ by the run," when the ship is driven against sarcastically put to the Admiralty really ad- having four per cent deducted from their pre

dresses itself to that gallant officer. How does sent value, and thus making 100 farthings = 1 Now, offensive as it may be to show that the he propose to clear his ram” of her own double shilling, 1,000 farthings = 10 double premises from which such weighty conclusions wreck of masts and spars? This is for him to shillings 1 pound. At that time of day it are drawn are false, we have to state that the answer, because the running down of ships is was customary for Masters of the Mint to have writer in question is wrong in both his assump- the primary object of his vessel.

seats in the House of Commons, and Mr. Waltions. No absurd attempt to conceal the There are many minor inaccuracies in the lace, who then filled the office, opposed Sir character of the new ship from the enemy is article under notice, some of which it may be John Wrottesley's plan, whilst admitting its contemplated. The only fact brought by the worth while to mention. The writer says :- advantages. The motion was unfortumately writer in support of his view-or rather, the

“ Neither the bows nor stern have any of the large therefore withdrawn--the only good which came only fact upon which his conclusion in this

armour plates, but are coated with wrought iron plates of it being that the Government agreed to assimatter is based-is that the new ship, like of nearly one inch and a half thick over two feet of milate the currencies of Great Britain and every other large English ship of war, is to be teak, which will offer sufficient resistance to prevent Ireland ; a promise faithfully kept shortly furnished with a knee of the head. It may be most shots from going through, But to compensate after. Matters rested thus till 1834, when the true that this feature of the vessel will in her for this apparent

deficiency both boros and stern are case be of less service than it ordinarily water-tight compartments that iť is a matter of standards of weights and measures were destroyed

80 crossed and recrossed in every direction with Houses of Parliament were burnt, and the is, since the bowsprit and bowsprit rig- perfect indifference whether they get riddled or not, in the fire. Much discussion followed this catasging may possibly be fitted independently and each of these ends are shut off from the engine trophe—the destruction of the standards, we of it. But without such a feature the room and fighting portion of the ship by continuous mean—and the question of their restoration vessel would be needlessly ugly; and it is massive wrought iron transverse bulkheads. So that,

was referred to a Commission in 1838. In 1841 doubtless for this reason, if not for any other, be shot away, the centre of the vessel would remain-three years appear to be the usual period for that the knee is to be fitted. We do not

complete and impenetrable as ever, still offering in hatching a report-in 1841, this Commission, we cannot — for a single moment believe all 24 inches of teak coated with 5 inches of wrought which included three astronomers, made their that the Admiralty authorities have connec- iron to every shot, .But both stem and stern are report; and it contained among other matters ted any fatuous expectations of concealment built inside of such immense strength that coating the following statement : “ The first point which from the enemy with their arrangements bows, as the spot where the whole shock must be re- has called for our special notice is the general in this respect. It is evident that if the ceived in running down ships, are inside a perfect question of the decimal scale. In introducing knee of the head were omitted from this web of ironwork, strengthened back to the armour this subject we invite the attention of Governparticular ship that feature would be so "con- plates with no less than eight wrought iron decks an ment to the advantage and the facility of estaspicuous by its absence” that her character inch thick, and crossed and recrossed in all ways and blishing in this country a decimal system of would be declared at a glance to the dullest methods with diagonal bracings and supports.

coinage. In our opinion no single change which enemy, if he had but eyes in his head. This All the passages marked in italics are entirely it is in the power of a Government to effect in the Admiralty know, of course, perfectly well

, wrong. Neither the bow nor the stern is either our monetary system would be felt by all classes and are too prudefit to give so conspicuous a sign coated with 14 inch iron or lined with teak. They as equally beneficial with this.” The worthy to the foe." As they intend to build her, she are, so far as the plans at present adopted pro- Commissioners then proceed to recommend sub may be so fortunate as to escape the observa- vide, formed of iron similar to that used in or-stantially the plan of Sir John Wrottesley pretion of some careless observer at the right time, dinary stout iron ships. Nor are the bows and viously mentioned. The consequence of this and this chance is accordingly given her. To stern to be crossed and recrossed with water recommendation was, that in 1843 another say that the Admiralty anticipate more than tight compartments "in every direction.” Commission was appointed with a view to a this is to libel their intelligence.

They have several flats of thin iron at different further consideration of the matter. The report In his second position the writer is equally at heights, corresponding to ordinary decks ; but of this Commission, which included Lord Wrotfault. The ship in question has been designed, the only water-tight bulkheads are a few trans- tesley-formerly Sir John--proposed to carry not as a ram primarily, but as a shell-proof verse ones of common iron. This is, of course, out the suggestion of the standard Commission frigate. Her armament, and not her bow, is to exclusive of the transverse shell-proof bulkheads of 1841. be her means of offence. The Admiralty have at either end of the defended portion of the On the 27th April, 1847, Sir John Bowring very judiciously decided on so forming and vessel. These are formed of 4. in. (not 5 in.) moved for an address to the Crown in favour of strengthening her bow that if, upon an emer

iron backed with wood. The " diagonal bracings the coinage of silver pieces of the value of gency, the resort to such a clumsy and question and supports," spoken of by the writer, form oth and both of the pound sterling. Sir able expedient as that of attacking a ship by no part of the Adiniralty design, so far as that Charles Wood, the Chancellor of the Exchequer running full butt against her should be deemed is yet completed. The same remark applies to of that day, objected to the latter coin but had advisable, the operation may be effected with as the telescopic bowsprit,” mentioned elsewhere no objection to the former-hence, Sir John little damage as possible to the new iron ship. by him.

Bowring, preferring a half measure to no And as Admiral Sartorious and Mr. Nasmyth It is much to be regretted that the false im- measure at all, withdrew his motion-and the have taken so much trouble to recommend this pressions which such an article as that referred florin was ordained. A considerable period expedient to ourselves, the French, and others, to must necessarily produce should have gone elapsed before the new coin made its appearance, no one can blame the Admiralty for the step forth to the ends of the world with the sanction and when it did so, it was amid great uproar. they have taken in this respect. "But it is alto- and authority of the Times. While so much The engraver of the Mint, W. Wyon, Esq.gether a mistake to suppose that the ram-bow room is afforded by the Admiralty for just and since deceased---had engraved several model is any more than a subordinate feature of the useful criticism, it is sad to see the power and dies for the new coin, and these, or rather ship.

influence of such a journal frittered away in pieces struck from them, had to be submitted 'The Times' writer deems it “unwise to cum- such a manner.

to Her Majesty and Prince Albert for approval. It did so happen that these illustrious per- that a decimal system of coinage would be of look for enlightenment upon this subject to those sonages fixed upon that peculiar design in which immense advantage in monetary transactions. few men who, while eminent for mechanical the artist had been compelled, from the small | The weight of evidence was entirely irresistible skill themselves, have the happiness to comdiameter of the die, to omit from the legend on on that point. As to the particular system to bine with it that sound sense and that liberal culthe obverse the words DEI GRATIA, and even be most beneficially introduced, that was another ture which are indispensable to every man who the initials D. G. Now arose the uproar, the thing. We had not anything like unanimityon would guide the minds of others in these times. Master of the Mint, poor Mr. Sheil, who had that point. The Government could scarcely Perhaps there is no man more thoroughly combeen appointed for the express purpose of take the initiative, unless a definite plan calcu- petent to enlighten and advise us upon it than ejecting from their posts the Company of lated to overcome prejudice among the masses the gentleman who last month spoke upon this Moneyers, and who was innocent of everything of the people generally and to meet business very question to the students and visitors at the pertaining to coining - poor Mr. Sheil was a complications could be set before them. In South Kensington Museum - Mr. J. Scott Roman Catholic, and several zealous Protestants, such terms and by prescribing patience did Mr. Russell. If we had been asked to point to a therefore, began to cry out—Conspiracy! Con- Gladstone meet the deputation of 1854. person from whom the soundest knowledge of spiracy! For had not the clever little lawyer There is no doubt that since then the popular the intellectual wants and necessities of meeliminated that part of the inscription from the mind has been considerably enlightened on the chanical workmen might be elicited, to whom new coin which makes Her Majesty reign by matter, for fortunately the association named could we have more appropriately turned than the Grace of God ?” The hue and cry raised have by means of tracts, discussions, and lec- to him whose brain and hand have for weeks against Mr. Sheil and his “Godless ” Florin- tures, disseminated much valuable information past been, and at this very hour are, informing, a wonder it was not named the “Devil's ducat”- on the subject. Mr. Cardwell—also again in directing, and controlling that huge hive of added to the real disadvantage of the coin power-in reply to a deputation in 1854 from mechanics who are giving strength, and combeing too dumpy to be musical when thrown the indefatigable body named, said that there pleteness, and splendour to that wonder of the on a counter, led to the withdrawal, or rather was no doubt at all about the value of a decimal modern world--the Great Eastern ? to the discontinuance of the coining of the system of coinage all authorities of any weight Mr. Russell's lecture was undertaken in conexperimental piece ; and Mr. Wyon engraved were unanimous in support of it. Like Mr. sequence of a conversation which took place the dies for the existing florin, in which Gladstone, however, Mr. Cardwell could only not long ago between Mr. Henry Cole and himthe theological difficulty and that of the shop- counsel patience. Five years have elapsed self on the subject of the education of the class keeper are swept away. So much for the intro- since then. Surely patience is now entitled to of workmen to whom he (Mr. Russell), as he duction of the first decimal coin. A very large its reward. On the 12th of June, 1855, Mr. said, belonged. Mr. Cole had shown him somo issue of these roths of the pound had gone on W. Brown moved the following resolutions in papers which he had prepared for the purpose up to 1853, when Mr. W. Brown, M.P. for the House of Commons: 1. That in the opinion of examining workmen as to the progress which South Lancashire, moved for a Select Committee of this House the initiation of the decimal sys- they had made in the kind of education gene

- Commissions had, it seemed, done their best tem by the issue of the florin has been eminently rally provided for them ; and remarked that and worst—to take into consideration and re- successful and satisfactory; 2. That a further the education provided in this country for port (once more) 'on the advantages or other extension of the system will be of public advan-workmen was not very directly calculated to wise which would arise from adopting a decimal tage. A long debate followed, and on a division render them good workmen. With this Mr. system of coinage. The Committee was ap- the first resolution was carried by 135 to 56. Russell agreed, and as a large employer of pointed — all the witnesses examined by it, The second resolution was carried without a skilled labour, he now in his lecture) asked twenty-five in number, with the exception of division, whilst a third which advised a comple- whether there was any description of education Mr. Headlam, M.P. for Newcastle, were in tion of the decimal scale by the issue of silver which would tend greatly to the increase of the favour of the introduction of the particular coins of the value of the 100th part of a pound, skill, dexterity, ability, and success of the pracscheme proposed 1841 and 1843, and known and copper pieces of the value of the 1000th tical working mechanic. He maintained that as the Pound and Mil scheme. In August, of a pound, was withdrawn.

there

was, but that the mechanic did not get 1853, three months after its nomination, this The Government objected during the debate it. He himself was obliged to get his very best comparatively hard-working Committee reported so manfully incited by Mr. Brown, to a change draughtsmen and mechanics from foreign counitself. The report stated that the existing which would, they said, so “deeply affect the tries. He had men in his employment from system was needlessly complicated, calculated “poorer classes." They also promised the Prussia, Germany, and Lolland ; and he was to create confusion as regarded questions of “most careful consideration possible to the bound to say that, as far as preliminary educaForeign Exchanges, and otherwise generally “subject” in the future. In 1856 a new Royaltion was concerned, although the workmen of inconvenient. By the introduction of the deci- Commission, consisting of Thomas Spring, Lord foreign countries had not the skill obtained by mal system, on the contrary, the Committee's Monteagle of Brandon, Samuel Jones Lord the British workmen from practical experience, report went on to assert, an important benefit Overstone, and John Gellibrand Hubbard, Esq., their scientific knowledge was greater, and that would be derived in several departments of the was nominated for the purpose of inquiring into knowledge was telling so rapidly on the present public service and in every branch of industry, the “expediency of introducing the principle of generation of workmen, that we from the economy of skilled labour which

"decimal division into the coinage of our equalled (he would not say excelled) by the would result from the proposed change ; at the “United Kingdom.” Of the labours of this workmen of many countries upon whom we same time, that education in our schools, so far latest Commission and its final report we shall were inclined to look down a few years ago. as arithmetic was concerned, would be facili- probably have something to say next week. tated. The Committee of 1853 further recom

This is strong and most serious testimony

Five and twenty years ago a Master of the Mr. Russell did not say anything, of course, mended the pound sterling as the unit of the Mint alone caused the rejection of Sir John against the education now given. “On the new system of coinage - a recommendation Wrottesley's scheme; now the opinion of a which, at this hour, we think to have been Master of the Mint is not equally weighty with “ drawing, reading, writing, and accounting in

contrary, he would say, continue to teach based on a truthful foundation.

that of Samuel Jones Lord Overstone-as it “ the best manner you can; but if you have a This unmistakeable opinion, backed by a

“class of young workmen coming forward to quarter of a hundred of scientific witnesses, when

“ learn, think how you can turn the little time it came to be promulgated raised much discus- THE EDUCATION OF MECHANICAL

they can afford to give to the best advantage sion in pamphlets, newspapers, and magazines,

WORKMEN.

so that you may raise them higher in the and zealous advocates of the old and new schemes Who is to determine what mechanical workmen “social scale and make them better workmen." did battle on the occasion.

shall be taught ? Not the untaught workmen In order to do this, it would be necessary to The year 1853 may be considered an era in themselves, for the value of knowledge is known give them a higher class of education than they the decimal coinage agitation, and early in 1854 only to those who possess it. Not mere school- were ever taught before. We did not go far a Decimal Association owing its rise principally men or professors, for none but he who under- enough ; but the pupil teachers whom he adto that agitation sprang into existence. A de- stands a craft can judge what is fittest for the dressed were not to blame. The persons to putation from this active and persevering body craftsman. Who, then, shall tell us what that blame were their teachers. Two years was soon waited

upon Mr. Chancellor of the Exche- knowledge is by which, and by which alone, perhaps all the time that could be devoted to quer Gladstone, and urged the immediate intro- the appetite of the intelligent and aspiring me- education, and six months were often devoted duction of the Pound and Mil scheme. Mr. chanic may wisely and

healthily be satiated ? to as may books of Euclid, which were wasted for Gladstone met the proposition with some remarks The question is of immense importance in this all practical purposes, unless, indeed, the student which showed his knowledge of the subject, and land and this age ; for our present energies intended to become a professor. He would adleads us now to hope that, restored to the same seem directed almost exclusively to the develop- vise them to skip over the beginning, and deonerous post he then occupied, there is still a ment of mechanical agencies, and the extension vote the least possible time to Euclid-in fact, chance, despite Lord Overstone, of a decimal of mechanical arts.

he would advise them do a very heterodox thing coinage. Mr. Gladstone said he could not doubt To us it appears plain enough that we must |—to cut off all the propositions but the useful

were now

seems.

ones. They might naturally exclaim, " Then was very true ; for what workmen wanted to

A LORD ON LABOUR. how little will be left.” Very little, he admitted, know was every shape, and how to get out LORD NAPIER, our late representative in the but plane trigonometry would be left

. Suppose, another shape. The workman who took from for instance, a man had but six months in a heap a block of stone, or piece of timber that United States, has, in his recent speech at the which to learn. Six weeks might in that case cost his master 50s., when a piece could be got

, Society of Arts

' dinner, addressed us on be given to Euclid, and then trigonometry answering quite as well, which cost 25s., in- topic of which it is cheering for us to be occamight be commenced, solid geometry might ficted a loss upon his employer perhaps equal sionally reminded. It cannot be too often renext follow, and that constituted the whole to a week's wages. Hence the necessity of ac- peated, said he, that more than half the populaeducation of the workman. But that was pre quiring a knowledge of solid geometry. But tion of the British empire live by arts, manucisely what he did not get in the present day. if there were beauty in the quantity of numbers, factures, and commerce that is, they subsist Ile would also teach within the six months and in regular geometrical figures, there was

on the results of skilled labour, or labour diconic sections, and afterwards the nature of infinitely more beauty in curves. It was the rected by speculation, invention, and design, in curves, within the first, second, third, and fourth duty of many mechanics, especially of those contradistinction to the simpler forms of indusdegrees. He was aware he might be met by engaged in ship-building, to make curved lines. try. A. vast proportion of the manufactured the exclamation, “Oh! but we shall be teaching To him it had always been an interesting sub- productions of the British people are exported them more than we ourselves understand : ject to learn how curves grew. He was aware to foreign countries, where they have to compete

with the domestic manufactures of those but to this he would answer, " That is the fault that he might be told that the higher curves of your education.” Sir Isaac Newton dis- were never taught, but his answer was that they countries, often guarded by protective tariffs, covered no less than 130 curves, and nine- might

easily be taught, and that they were very or with the productions of other states stimutenths of them would be of great use to the easy of comprehension. In order to effect this, lated by commercial rivalry and administrative mechanic, if he had them in two places — in his somebody who understood the subject would encouragement. Nor are the resources of the head and at his fingers'-ends.

have to be prevailed upon, not to write a book, home market to be enjoyed in security or negliHaving now got to teaching something which but to pụt down in the shortest and plainest gence ; for though we possess in the unrivalled they did not know, and had not learned, the possible language what he knew of curves. This mineral structure of our soil a broad basis of next thing they wanted was, said Mr. Russell, would be a treatise which the workmen could natural advantages, and though we derive from the assistance of the Government. Decent understand, and would be well worth the thou- the thrift and contrivance of our ancestors a elementary text-books were wanted for the sand pounds which he hoped the Government noble heritage of accumulated capital and knowhigher departments in mechanics, but there would be prevailed upon to give to one of the ledge, yet we can only maintain our superiority

by ceaseless vigilance and exertion, and we may were many able men versed in the sciences ; four clever men to write.

not expect any artificial defence by a recurrence and what he wanted the Department of science The remarks which we have above briefly to the prohibitive system. and Art and the Government to do was, to ask sketched,* need no comment. It only remains Starting with these considerations, he reminds the four cleverest men in England to write, in for us to add the finishing words of the lec- us that the industrial movement of England at the fewest possible Lnglish words, all that they turer.

The subject of the education of the home and abroad is therefore one of anxiety knew (not all that they had read), or, in fact, workman was one which he had, he said, and strife, and it is our bounden duty to levy so much of their brains as they carried about

very much at heart. He did not know from every department of intellectual inquiry with them. If Government would but pay how it was to be given, but as the pupil auxiliaries in maintaining and enlarging our handsomely for these books, a set of treatises teachers were present as an institution which present ascendancy. “If we be true to the might be collected such as the world never saw took charge of the mechanic, and a Government examples of the past and watchful of the prebefore, and such as would be sufficient to teach which was anxious for the spread of education, sent emergencies I would not speak with apany mechanic his business. They might, it he would urgently beg of them to take counsel prehension of our commercial future.

Far was true, say, “But we do not know where to with half-a-dozen of the best mathematicians of " from thinking that the universal demand has get these clever men." But he knew where the day, and arrange with them to write short “ attained its full proportions, or that British they were to be got. There were three of the treatises, which could be circulated at a cheap “industry has necessarily reached its culminating four present at that moment; and if the Go- rate, and which could be taught in our elementary “point, I conceive that the powers of consumpvernment would but give them a thousand schools. He also thought that there ought to “tion in the world never appeared so capable of pounds a-piece for writing the books, he was be a large quantity of apparatus—a sort of in- indefinite expansion, and that the incalculable sure they would write them. What he had ventory of education of every conceivable “ activity of another age may, revert with said about geometry was true as to mathematics. shape and object. In addition to these models, “curiosity, and perhaps with indulgence, to the Of great importance to the working man was he would have the schoolroom hung round, not“ respectable efforts of the nineteenth century. the comprehension of the laws and relations of with pictures of animals, but with solid bodies, “Passing over the home demand, which is susnumbers, so as to enable the working, man to which could be explained and drawn. He "ceptible of a steady development proportioned think in figures about the immediate business would, in fact, impart any kind of practical to the increasing numbers and wealth of the before him. Having explained the manner in rather that book knowledge. If drawings nation, there is much of an encouraging nawhich mechanics might make reduced or en- merely were used instead of models, he did not ture in the prospects of the foreign market, larged models, and the relations and practical think the student could imbibe so correct a “whether we regard those half-civilised nations properties of numbers, the lecturer illustrated notion of the object to be produced or deli- “ which take off the commodities of common the value of a knowledge on these points by an neated. There was a mode of studying forms “utility, or those communities at a higher anecdote. “He remembered an instance in called la théorie de développement, but the plain“ stage of culture which afford a market for ar" which a respectable working man sent in a English meant nothing more than making flat "ticles of luxury and beauty.” “tender for £12,500 for a very large piece of surfaces into round and angular forms (as models The ancient and stagnant empires of the East, “work. The tender appeared to be low, and he now made from sheets of paper, which was a recently disturbed by our diplomacy and arms, “ obtained the order, and got on some way with most valuable mode of studying forms). If this swarm, he tells us, with a population equal to "his work when he found he had made a trifling description of education could be given, he the united numbers of Europe and America. “omission-he had forgot to multiply by two. would take the pupils educated in that depart- Surely we are justified in expecting that the " His figures were all right, but in one place he ment and give them three guineas a week. He vehicles of our exchanges with those regions "forgot his multiplication, and his whole cal- might afterwards raise them to foremen with will not long continue to be silver and opium, "culations were wrong" He was of opinion salaries of £500 a year, and that would be far the former of which owes no portion of its value that geometry ought to be taught by a large and better than remaining all their lives at the to the manipulation of the British artizan, while comprehensive system.

bench, earning 30s. a week. Machinery could the latter is the creature of monopoly and the Mr. Russell continued to say that, with re- now be obtained to do all the unintellectual cause of demoralisation. It is not extravagant spect to solid geometry, the two great duties drudgery of mechanism. He was not opposed to anticipate that when the barriers of tradıin a workman's life were conversion of materials ta machinery, and had no apprehension that it tional prejudice and fiscal exaction are dissolved, and adaptation to strength. A mason who used would supersede skilled intellectual handicraft. the multitudes of China and Japan will graup a wrong stone, or a carpenter who selected a He would employ machinery to do all the dually unfold an immense market for the ordiwrong plank or piece of timber, showed that he drudgery that degraded the workinan into a nary fabrics of Europe. Turkey, Persia, and was ignorant of one of the most useful portions beast of burden. He would give him higher Central Asia, without any important staple of of his art or calling. Now, nothing would teach views of mathematics ; he would show him that exportation, and inhabited by a sparse, indigent, conversion of materials like solid geometry ; it he was an intellectual, thinking being, with a and in part vagrant population, approximately was in fact the daily business of the workman. soul for high and immortal things.

estimated at forty millions, annually absorb It had been said that every block of marble cut

more than seven millions worth of British mafrom the quarry contained a beautiful statue, but the art was how to get it out of it. This and which appeared first in the Builder, we believe,

From the only published report which we have seen, nufactures. At the same rate the inhabitants

of the remoter East, who must eventually ex

SWINEY PRIZE.

WRITING CASE.

hibit greater faculties of consumption and ex-
“think that, whether we regard the govern-

To Mr. E. J. Reed, for his paper read before change, would draw annually sixty millions' "ment of the country, or the forces sponta- the Society—“On the Modification which the worth of goods from Great Britain, an amount "neously operating in the ancient and complex Ships of the Royal Navy have undergone during equal to more than one half of the produce of " frame of our society, there are many causes the Present Century, in respect of Dimensions, the United Kingdom exported abroad. If Bra-“uniting to afford an intellectual and artistic Forms, Means of Propulsion, and Powers of

Attack and Defence." zil be selected as the standard of comparison, a “education to the working orders commensurate

The Society's Silver

Medal. far higher result would be obtained. Add, then, “to the task which lies before them.” First,

To Monsieur Théophile Silvestre, for his paper to those portions of Asia but half appreciated with respect to the action of government and read before the Society—“Les Arts, les Artistes, and explored the nations of India, Africa, and parliament there is now, perhaps, in principle, et L'Industrie en Angleterre, depuis la Dernière the Pacific Archipelagos--all of which are, by as much direct intervention as is consistent Moitié du Dix Huitième Siècle Jusqu'à ce jour.” conquest, commerce, or conversion, being sub- with the spirit of our free institutions. In the The Society's Silver Medal. jugated to European ideas and manners—and British Museum, at Hampton Court, in the To Dr. J. Forbes Watson, F.R.S.. for his paper the boundaries of our uncivilised market appear National Gallery, at the Kensington Museum, read before the Society:- :-“ On the Growth of to recede into an impenetrable distance. and in other repositories of national possessions, Cotton in India, its Present State and Future

The aspirations of the British people are not the historical examples of arts and manufac- Prospects, with Special Reference to Supplies to limited, however, as the eloquent speaker re- tures are rapidly accumulating, which we hope Britain.” The Society's Silver Medal. minds us, by the grosser conceptions of cheap- to see placed in magnificent and instructive To Mr. Leonard Wray, for his paper read before ness and quantity. It must not be alleged that combination, and which will then only obtain the Society "The Culture and Preparation of the gracious genius of English industry merely their full value for imitative and suggestive Cotton in the United States of America, &c.The drudges in the service of a barbarous demand. purposes. In 78 schools of design, cheap in Society's Silver Medal. It is our aim to invest the most familiar and struction is afforded to 79,000 pupils, whereby the Society="Some remarks on the application

To Mr. John Bell, for his paper read before useful objects of manufacture with some appro- the poorer classes have the opportunity of dis- of Definite Proportions and the Conic Sections to priate charm, and to rival the accredited seats covering and improving gifts of native genius, Architecture, illustrated chiefly by the Obelisk, of cultivated' labour in the production of ar- and although our public edifices and monu- with some History of that feature of Art.” The ticles of a purely decorative and aesthetic cha- ments recently constructed cannot be regarded Society's Silver Medal. racter. If the markets of continental Europe with unqualified approval, we may at least hope be partly closed against us by the existence of that the Government has a poignant sense of older establishments, or by the force of conven- past errors ; and it has certainly shown a desire anniversary of the death of Dr. Swiney, and the

This year brought with it the third quinquennial of illiberal legislation, we may still find in the tions to draw the highest talent to the service Society, in accordance with the trust imposed on new markets of rising states, in those which of the state. Allied with the Government of sented the Silver Goblet, of the value of £100,

them by the will of that gentleman, have prehave been planted by the adventure of our own England, or sanctioned by our laws, we find with the gold coin in it to the same amount, to race on the plains of America and Australia, a many institutions of a corporate character

, Dr. Alfred Swayne Taylor, F.R.S., as the author fair field and ample scope for the higher de- which though not designed for the encourage- of a treatise on Medical Jurisprudence. The partments of invention and design. The disco- ment of arts, must yet, in an intelligent and goblet is in silver, from a design by Mr. Maclise, very of gold has been the chief instrument in critical age, by their opulence and associations, and was awarded at a joint meeting of the Memthe formation of the markets here alluded to, become powerful vehicles in fostering the prin-bers of the Society of Arts and the College of and it will long continue to be the basis of their ciple of good taste.

Physicians, held in accordance with the terms of prosperity. The importance of that discovery But it is certain that neither governments, Dr. Swiney's will, on the 20th of January last. is not to be sought so much in the amount nor corporations, nor societies, can be profitable added to the circulating medium, or in a gene- agents without a generous, responsive, and cri- It will be remembered that in the society's ral rise of prices, which is precarious, and in tical public. History shows how academies report of last year it was stated that the sam part delusive: it is to be found in the sudden may go on teaching and prating amidst general of £20, placed in the hands of the council by dispersion over vacant countries of men fur- sterility. There will not be intelligent pro- the Rev. F. Trench and J. MacGregor, Esq., to nished with all the faculties, and feeling all the ducers without intelligent purchasers. But the which the Council added the Society's Medal, necessities of civilization, engaged in a descrip- industry of England is nourished from a as a Prize for a Writing Case suited for the tion of labour requiring neither capital nor com- thousand silent and spontaneous sources. “Our use of soldiers, sailors, emigrants, &c., had not bination, nor considerable consumption of time, treasures are not only laid up in museums, been awarded, none of the articles forwarded havbut resulting in the delivery of a commodity“ like grain in warehouses ; they are also scat- ing been considered to possess sufficient merit which, if it does not directly add to the mass of "tered in our homes, like good seed in pleasant to justify a decision in their favour. The Council productive capital, is at least always in the and fruitful places. Many do not worship in then announced their intention to invite further highest demand, and subject to the smallest " the public temple who have built domestic competition. In reply to this announcement fluctuations of value. In no other inconceivable

6 altars to the arts. Consult those quiet habi- twenty-eight cases were sent in, and after a careform could twenty millions' worth of exchange

tations of the beautiful and good, how many in favour of a case manufactured by Messrs. Par

ful examination by the committee they reported able produce have been annually raised with

modest deeds and gentle voices attest the kins and Gotto, and the Council have thereupon such celerity, and no motive save the intoxicat-prevalence of a beneficent culture."

awarded the prize of £20 and the Society's silver. ing cupidity belonging to the pursuit of the We offer no apology for re-echoing the noble medal to that firm. The retail price of the case precious metals could have impelled mankind language of this noble lord. We have our own is 18. 6d., including an indelible pencil, but withto such immense migrations.

strong persuasions respecting the swiftness and out other contents, which must depend on the Nor is the consequence of this great move certainty of our national progress ; but although selection of the buyer. ment of the English race-(we still follow the

we need no assurances like the above for our thought and repeat the language of Lord comfort, we observe with pleasure that so just

At the date of the Council's last report, the Napier)--to be measured by the mere value of an appreciation of the present, and so en

essay sent in competition for the prize of two the precious metals now or hereafter collected, lightened an expectation of the future, has hundred guinens, placed in the hands of the for while one portion of the population set on

already reached the minds of those who have Council by Mr. Henry Johnson, to be awarded as foot by that primary incentive sift the aurife heretofore been slow to learn like lessons. a prize for “The best essay on the present financial rous soil with increased assiduity, or apply

position of the country as affected by recent more scientific processes to the reduction of the

SOCIETY OF ARTS.

events, in which the principle of a sinking fund rock, or carry their insatiable inquisition and

should be discussed, and also an investigation predestined power over those desolate empires, The Council of the Society of Arts, on the re

made as to the best mode of gradually liquidating escaping from the paralysed grasp of the Spanish commendation of their Committees, have awardej the National Debt,” were under consideration, colonists, another portion are

twenty-two essays having been received. ever betaking the following Medals :themselves to various kinds of accessory labour, To Messrs. Hamilton and Nash, for an “Im. prize has since been adjudged to Mr. Edward

Capps, and the essay has been published. The and to the creation of other articles of traffic proved Lock.” The Society's Silver Medal. which, though not in such instant demand, will,

To Messrs. Peter and Charles Garnett, for their adjudicators appointed by the Society to report in the long run, become a profitable addition to

on the merits of these essays were Professor "Toothed-Roller Cotton Gin." The Society's

Charles Neate, of Oxford, Professor Waley, of Silver Medal, general commerce.

To Mr. F. Jaubert for his invention of "A University College, London, and Mr. J. T. Danson, It would not be difficult to show that the Method of rendering Engraved Copper Plates Fellow of the Statistical Society, and their decision wants

of other nations and the dissemination of capable of producing a greatly increased Number. in favour of Mr. Capps was unanimous. our own are sufficient, if wisely used, to provide of Impressions," and for his paper explanatory of abundant employment hereafter for the indus-it, read before the Society. The Society's Silver The Council in their last report informed the trial energies of England. "I also humbly Medal.

members that no essays had been sent in to com

FINANCIAL ESSAY.

AWARD OF MEDALS AND PRIZES.

The

MARINE ALGE.

No. V.

pete for the two prizes of £50 and £20, placed in solidity, and there is ample reason that this should ment by which continuous, rapid, and powerful their hands by Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart. That | be so. The beds of the presses, it is obvious, have motion will presently be given to this screw and its gentleman has now increased the amount to £100, much to withstand. Millions and millions of appurtenances. The golden blanks are distributed and that sum is now at the disposal of the Council heavy blows are continually being struck upon among boys who tenant square holes, fitted with as a single prize for "The best Essay on the these coiners' anvils, and it is certain that they seats, in the platforin, and have wire meshed Applications of the Marine Algæ and their pro- would yield if not of immense strength in them- trays beside them for the reception of metal. ducts, as food or medicine for man and domestic selves, and well-sustained on their stony seats. These boys, however, must await our leisure beanimals, or for dyeing and other manufacturing At a height of about 21 feet from the floor, which fore putting the blanks through the sovereign purposes. Competitors must give the results of is of thick, narrow, oaken planking, so closely ordeal, and the rapid movements of the presses their original investigations on sea-weeds; and jointed and tongued as that the smallest coin will no doubt atone for our delay. they must prepare a series of specimens illustra- shall find no crevice through which to disappear

The screw of which we have spoken, and which tive of the best modes of collecting, preserving, -at the height named, a platform covered with is the everything in the Mint coining press-exand preparing the several species. Mere compila. diamond-patterned iron plate, and with ample cept the life-giving dies—projects above the body tions will not be admitted to competition.” space on all sides of it for truck traffic, surrounds of the press, and has fitted and keyed upon its

The essays, with accompanying specimens, must the eight presses. From this platform, at con- conically-turned end, a pair of fly-arıns. These are be delivered at the Society of Arts by the 31st venient distances for enclosing the

presses, spring of about three feet radius, and have on their exday of December, 1860. Each essay to be marked eighteen oaken columns of a foot square, reaching tremities hollow boxes of iron, which may be Essay on Marine Algæ," and to have a motto or

to the iron girders of an upper floor; and bound weighted according to the nature of the work exdistinctive mark attached, which must also be together laterally by hollow cross bars of cast-pected of the press for the time being. These written on a sealed letter containing the name

iron, with tension rods passing through them.boxes are flat-ended, and fall upon the aforenamed and address of the author.

The cross-bars perform a double office, they unite buffers when the press is in action. From the the columns in pairs, and support regulating centre of the fly rises a gracefully-formed trum

buffers which limit the travel of the fly-arms of pet-shaped hollow shaft, through the medium of MONEY-MAKING AT THE ROYAL MINT. the presses. Taking now one of the tier of presses which motion is transmitted to the press. The

as illustrative of the whole, it may be stated that mouth of this trumpet is on the first floor, and we To visitors to the Royal Mint, perhaps the last

a coarsely pitched, say 5-inch, treble-threaded will therefore adjourn to that place. So! here are process of the art of coining—the crowning blow screw, of about 6 inches diameter, passes vertically levers, rods, counterpoise weights, pumps, &c., and to all previous manipulations of the precious through a gun-metal bush or nut in its centre,

we are evidently behind the scenes. But let us metals there, is the most interesting. The weigh- and leaves a space of say a foot between the lower look first to the mouth of the trumpet. This is ing machines, with their delicate little forceps, end of the screw and the planed bed of the press about three inches above the floor, through which wheels, levers, slides, glass counterpoise weights, In this space the die-holders have to be arranged, the trumpet shaft has passed, and between the and distribating tubes, are unquestionably beauti- and in this space all the money is struck. iron girders of which brass bearingsguide and steady ful, as their action is next to infallible ; but they To the lower part of the screw—and so adjusted it. A rod suspended to a vibrating beam overhead, yield the palm, in one respect at least, to the as that its flattened end of hardened steel may work runs down through the trumpet shaft, and is concoining-presses. The weighing machines, like freely in a cup or dish, also of hardened steel, be- nected with the screw of the press. The other Civil Service Commissioners, are capable of report- longing to the upper die-holder—this latter is end of the vibrating beam has a rod depending ing npon the merits of candidates for public attached. The upper die-holder is supported by from it, and which at its lower end on the same office, but they do not, like the coining-presses, rols running quite through the body of the press floor is attached to the piston of a vacuum-pump. qualify those candidates for passing current in the vertically, and fastened to a collar working on the The cylinder of this pump is in communication best as well as the worst society. Vain would be upper end of the screw. It is guided, too, by with a great vacuum-chamber-of which we must all past operations indeed without the impressed steel V pieces sliding over angles of the press, and presently speak again-by means of a small pipe, stamp of the coining-room. The rapid transfor. it is clear, therefore, must rise and fall with any and when exhausted the atmosphere presses on its mation of blanks into finished coins-the covering upward and downward movement of the screw. piston with just sufficient force to make it balance of their entire surfaces and edges with beautifully Firmly screwed down to the planed and perfectly through the beam the weight of the screw.pin engraved devices in the twinkling of an eye, as it level surface of the bed of the press, is the lower of the press, its fly-arms, and fupper die-holder. were, this it is which astonishes and pleases all die-holder. This is recessed for the admission so perfect is this state of equilibrium maintained, who see it.

of the die, and is fitted with three "set" screws that if we take up the trap in the floor, and ask To describe as accurately as letter-press will for fixing it accurately. The upper die-holder is the even youngest boy to move by its fly-arms the allow the manner in which this important change similarly recessed in an inverted form, but the die press he is attending, we shall find that he can do in the complexion, and value, of the assized discs of once fixed in it is not adjustable. As the press- it with the most perfect ease. The fly-arms are gold is effected. is now our task, and we return for screw fits its "bush” or nut, and is made to move made to stand still indeed by these means at any a moment to the four journey-weights of dried-out perpendicularly by adjusting brasses, above and point of the stroke of the press desired. This is pieces. These are advanced to the coining-press- below that bush, so must the upper die-holder a great convenience in setting the dies. The press room, and whilst the officer is once more weighing, and its die move perpendicularly also with it. It may be moved up or down with the completest and the workmen are adjusting the presses for is only necessary, therefore, in die setting that the readiness, and thus hand-tests may be made of the stamping them, we may endeavour to explain the lower die be placed fairly below the upper one, work, and impressions of the dies taken before the general features of this department, and the me- which cannot fail to be rightly placed itself. power is applied. chanical appliances it contains.

To the left side of the press is attached the A notched rectangular lever of wrought iron, The coining-press-room, then, is about 70 feet in feeding apparatus, a clever contrivance—now out of considerable strength, and say twenty inches in length, from 30 to 40 feet in breadth, and, it may shone, however, we believe, by a newly arranged length, is keyed upon the projecting upper end of be, 15 in height. It contains eight presses, ranged Layer-on," invented for the Calcutta Mint by the trumpet shaft, and lies close to the surface of in a straight line, on the vertical screw principle, Mr. Harvey, of that establishment-to which the floor. The lever has a sliding steel box fitted as constructed in 1810 by Messrs. Boulton and motion is given by means of a flattened vertical upon it, and this is furnished with a key by which Watt, and these may be said to be at work almost rod about three feet in length, working on a to fix it at any distance from the centre of the every working day throughout the year. There fulcrum pin passing through its centre, and the press as less or more power is required to be transis in addition a small hand-press, which does only upper end of which slides in the slot of an eccen- mitted, or as, in fact, small or large monies are in two days' work in the year. The large power tric quadrant clasping the circumference of the the process of manufacture. Through this box, presses coin all the current monies for England press serew. This feeding apparatus is furnished too, a shifting steel pin passes, and this allows a and the Colonies-except Sydney, which has a with a set of brass tubes of the various sizes of connection to be made with a horizontal rod of small mint of its own from the florin down the money coined at the British Mint.

wrought-iron working over a guide immediately through all denominations of silver to the three- Well, then, if an engraved die be placed in the above the floor, and attached to a “horse-head” halfpenny piece circulating in the West Indies ; upper die-holder with its face downwards, another crank with a rod and vacuum-pump and great and from the penny to the quarter-farthing of die in the lower with its face upwards, with a vacuum-chamber beneath it. Here, then, it will Ceylon in copper. At the power presses, too, the space say of an inch between the two, and a be seen that the communication is made perfect great majority of the fine silver medals distributed piece of gold be placed upon the surface of the with the reservoir of power as the vacuumamong our noble-hearted and brave sailors and lower one, it becomes plain that a forcible turn chamber is, although, as the “ used-up” travefler soldiers are struck, though in a different way to the of the screw downwards will inevitably transfer said of the dome of St. Peter's, “ there is literally ordinary coinage, as will be hereafter shown. The impressions from both dies to the softened metal nothing in it.” We will now descend therefore once French toy-press produces only the silver Maunday between them, and, in fact, make it a coin. And more, and after examining the arrangements pennies given by Her Majesty or her agents to this, indeed-of a much ruder character, of course, of the vacuum department, will induce the boy so poor pensioners on Maunday Thursday, according than any machinery is now made-was the prin patiently awaiting in his hole our coming, to put a to ancient custom. As may be supposed, the ciple of Blondeau's screw-press, of that early period press in motion. coining-presses are very heavy castings-weigh in Mint history when the hammer was superseded, The vacuum-chamber is a cylinder of cast-iron ing very nearly two tons each. By far the greater and of which we have before spoken.

about sixty feet long and two feet in diameter, portion of this metal, however, is thrown into the Imagining that the explanation so far is mani. and is placed horizontally parallel to the tier of base of them. They are firmly bolted to founda- festly plain, let us take a stand upon the iron plat. coining presses, from which a wall separates it. tions of granite of great depth and of immense form, and examine a little further into the arrange from this reservoir-if we may so name it-arise

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