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for them have their counter complaints. What | ing scene, Adam breaks out—"Sweet masters, proceed to sea. Another circumstance calculated is the cause ? What the cure ? We fear " be patient ; for your father's remembrance, to impress a careful person unpleasantly was that the sound of it is not within the range of the be at accord.” Orlando resolving to leave his some, at least, of the water tight bulk-heads"ear of political economy, else we would say, brother and his home, Oliver bids Adam—“Get upon the integrity of which the safety of the ship this is only one more sign of the decay of reli- - you with him, you old dog." Adam: “Is old might even on her first journey be made to depend gion amongst us. The essence of religion is re- dog my reward? Most true, I have lost my
-had passages left through them for convenience verence : reverence toward every glimpse of teeth in your service. God be with my old in moving from one compartment of the ship to
another. But one conclusion could be drawn God ; in your own self, your me, first of all; in master ! he would not have spoke such a
from this fact, viz., that if the bottom of the every phenomenon of nature and of human life; word.” Orlando delaying, and urged by great ship should by any fatality become fairly in your fellow-man," the image of God," and Adam to flee, says—“What, wouldst thou have breached in deep water, she would as infallibly go supremely so in those who are your superiors." me go and beg my food ?”
down as if she were hewn out of stone. In This is the golden chain that binds each to all, “ Adam : I have five hundred crowns, addition to these things one looked in vain for a all to each, from the worm of the ground up to the thrifty hire I say'd under your father,
sailorly ship's company. There was certainly a the throne of God. Now it is just this decay "Which I did store, to be my foster-nurse,
number of riggers on board, and with these there of reverence for what is below us, and equal to us, and superior to us in God's world, that has “ And unregarded age in corners thrown ; “When service should in my old limbs lie lame, appeared to be mingled a slight admixture of
grocers, bakers, and other unprofessional indi. snapped the link between the master and his "Take that : and He that doth the ravens feed, widuals, who had taken upon themselves for the workman. The relation of these two has its
“ Yea, providently caters for the sparrow, foundations in nature; as much so as that of “Be comfort to my age ! Here is the gold ;
But I must confess their presence inspired me parent and child. And the workman, who has " All this I give you ; let me be your servant ; however--or was it unfortunately ?-there was
with exceedingly little confidence. Fortunately, not departed from nature, will instinctively ap: I'll do the service of a younger man
but little need for sailors, seeing that the ship had proach his employer with homage. “ This man," “In all your business and necessities.” he will say to himself, “ or such as he, is set
not a single sail bent, even to serve a turn upon “over me by nature. He has a talent for con
“Orl. : 0) good old man; how well in thee an emergency! She was furnished, it is true,
with two sets of engines, and two propelling ap“ceiving and designing, and wealth and oppor- The constant service of the antique world,
paratuses, so that should any derangemest occur "tunity for executing, which I have not. Com
to one she would still have another to rely upon. “bined with such as he, we workmen make a “When service sweat for duty, not for meed !"
But both engines were new, and both might fail "world ; separated from them we make a chaos. Dying for food, they reach the Forest of without any miracle; and' I should have been "We are born lovers of work, and of work well Arden, where a duke lives "in voluntary exile, better satisfied to have seen that her yards bore “done apart from any wages it brings. We "and a many merry men with him, fleeting the canvas. In the captain of the ship I had full “offer our labour to him who can guide and re- "time carelessly as they did in the golden reliance; the pilot who was to navigate her was “ ward it. Let him be to us a human noble "world.” Orlando, invited by the duke to sit a man of long-tried ability; the immediate con“master, and we will swear fealty to him. He, down at his table, says :
trol of both the paddle-wheels and the screw was "and all his interests, shall be sacred to us.
in the hands of the best man for the purpose“Wherever our eye sees him it shall bless him. "Whiles, like a doe, I go to find my fawn
“Then, but forbear your food a little while, Mr. Scott Russell.# In these respects nothing “We will honour his name at our fireside, and
more could be desired. But at the same time it “our children shall honour him. Were there “Who after me hath many a weary step “And give it food. There is an old, poor man, appeared that these gentlemen themselves were in
the hands of commercial men by whom their pro“need, as our ancestors did for their chiefs, we
"Limp'd in pure love ; till he be first suffic'd, fessional desires were over-ridden, or the journey “would fight to the death for him.”
"Oppress'd with two weak evils, age and hunger, to Portland would not have been undertaken And the noble masters, on their side, will "I will not touch a bit.”
until the ship had attained greater completeness. care for something more than wages and hours
Re-enter ORLANDO, with ADAM. If this were not so, then Captain Harrison, though of labour for the men. These millowners and
“ Duke : Welcome : set down venerable
he may be a splendid navigator, is an indifferent architects will see to it that their men have
disciplinarian. dwellings fit to live in, and have sufficient there
In the passage of the ship to Purfleet on the to nourish and cheer. As far as in them lies
first day and to the Nore on the next, there was they will make men of their workmen. They “ Thou art right welcome as thy master is ;
“Good old man,
but little that needs remark here. will set up baths for them that they may be “Support him by the arm.”
There were, however, a few things which an healthy and pure. They will give them plots
intelligent eye-witness cannot have omitted to Is this romance? Or had Shakespeare seen
note. of ground for recreation for themselves and
The first was the application of steamtheir children. They will set up schools and its like in life? Did he believe that such had power to the rudder. This occurred, in the first
Mr. libraries, places of amusement, places of instruc- been in England's olden times, and that such instance, before the ship left Deptford. tion for them. Free from all condescension would be in her coming times—in her mansions, Lungley, whose steering-signal apparatus is fitted and patronage, as men moving amongst men, and cotton-mills, and farms?
to the ship--and answers well-desired to have
the rudder worked from side to side for a time. they will be frank, and courteous, and genial to
This there were not hands enough on the spot to their workmen, who, without servility, will THE GREAT SHIP'S TRIALS. .effect. Then it was that Mr. Prowse, the intellirevere. them in return. And what reward is
gent second officer of the ship, led a rope from like that which a generous, human, noble master
the engine of the steam crane to the tiller, and by earns for himself ? What is so sweet as the
(From Once a Veek.)
that means worked the rudder with the utmost trusty, grateful, admiring homage of men? The nominal trial trip of the Great Eastern has ease and facility. This device, noted at the time, Does purer pleasure ever thrill and quiver yet to take place, but a trip full of trials has was again resorted to off Beachy Head with great through human nerves, than through the sea
already been accomplished by her. Her strength, advantage, as will hereafter be mentioned. Another captain's, when his sailors doff their caps and have all been more or less tested on her passage power to the
weighing of the anchor. This was her speed, her steadiness, her steering capability notable circumstance was the application of steamhurrah to him ? or the farmer's, at the shout of from Deptford to Portland; and although her resorted to both at Purfleet and the Nore, and his men at harvest-home? or the millowners, baptism was not one of water only, but of blood without it I see not how the anchor could have when on a holiday the shout of a thousand and of fire, the good ship has doubtless a career been weighed at all by the few seamen on board. workmen greets him ?
of pride and glory before her. Let me here A third thing noted was the excessive delivery of Shakespeare, who has given us models for imi-trace, with all care, what I have seen of her perils cable at the Nore. Twice after the ship was tation of every phase of human nature and life, and her successes, and augur wherein her future anchored to the satisfaction of the pilot was has a fine sample of loyalty and devotion be- hopes and dangers lie.
fathom after fathom of cable allowed to run out, tween servant and master in his drama of As No one at all accustomed to life on board ship contrary to his instructions, and much to his You Like It. Our readers no doubt remember could have embarked on board the Great Eastern
annoyance. This is mentioned merely as one it, but will perhaps allow us to remind them of on Tuesday, the 6th ult., without observing that example of the errors committed, not to say the it here.
her condition was by no means what he might risks run, from the want of discipline and effi. Old Sir Rowland de Bois is dead ; Adam, his fairly have expected to find. The most careful ciency of the men on board the ship. old servant, falls to the service of his eldest son, tion, and therefore but few signs of security. The
• The proceedings which have taken place at Weymouth, Oliver ; Orlando, the younger son, is ill-used by passage from the ladder by which the visitor
since this article was penned, render it necessary for me
to remind the reader that this remark, like another of Oliver ; Orlando confides his sorrow to the old entered to the saloons in which he hoped to join similar purport which occurs later in the article, implies servant, and not from weakness,
for he is the his fellow-guests, lay through a portion of the only that Mr. Scott Russell had the working of the capbravest and manliest of men. The old man ship in which combustible materials, such as order that no mistaken instructions might be transmitted admires in him the father living in the son's shavings and planks, abounded, and in which to the engine-drivers below. This duty, which was volunface: “O you memory of old Sir Rowland ! lighted candles were freely pushed about. This tarily undertaken by Mr. Russell, necessarily absorbed the In the quarrel of the two brothers in the open- / was not an assuring feature in a ship about to satisfaction of the pilot and the captain.--E, J. R.
After the weighing of the anchor at the Nore, I speed without the directions of Mr. Russell, who | Glasgow Committee of the British Association, or at seven o'clock on Friday morning, the Great had charge of them; and, to complete the troubles of the public meeting in Manchester; but some Eastern started, under her own steam, and without of the moment, the screw engines, which had long of the questions referred to in those memorials the attendance of tugs, on her trip to Portland. been a little uneasy, began to groan very audibly, are adverted to in the Report of the CommisFrom that time until 'six in the evening the When the ropes went, the ship fell off the wind, sioners just issued. From that Report it appears company enjoyed one prolonged display of her turning herself directly upon Beachy Head, and that the number of applications for Patents may great and noble qualities. We had a high wind for the first time acquired a very sensible motion. be estimated at about 3,000 per annum-that of and a heavily-rolling sea for many hours in suc- By clapping a rope from the steam crane upon the these 3,000 applications, not more than about two cession. All other vessels-and we passed hun- tiller, command of the helm was speedily attained, thousand proceed to the final stage of a Patent; dreds—either tossed and pitched at anchor with and the momentary failures all came to nothing. and that of the two thousand Patents granted not the greatest violence, or ran before the gale under But they, nevertheless, sufficed to show how very more than 550 are kept alive beyond three years close-reefed sails. But, despite the driving wind desirable it is that even the Great Eastern shoald by the first periodical payment of £50 before the and yawning sea of the Channel, our “moving not be taken to sea, as I have said, imperfectly expiration of that term; and the Commissioners isle” went as steadily forward as if she had still equipped. Hnd both engines failed on this occa anticipate that the fee of £100, payable at the end been stealing her silent way down the unruffled sion, as they seemed disposed to fail, or had the of the 7th year, will not be paid on more than 100 waters of the Thames. It was only by the most inferior wheel-ropes not been supplemented by an of the surviving 550 patents. Should this anticicareful watching that any eye could detect even extraordinary device, we must either have gone pation prove correct
, the payment by inventors in the slightest motion in her. The ponderous paddle- ashore on a lee coast, or trusted to Mr. Trotman's fees upon patents not surviving beyond one-half engines worked as smoothly as the machinery of a anchors to keep us off it.
their term of 14 years, will not be less than at lady's watch, and the screw-engines, although less The remainder of the trip to Portland was all the rate of £100,000 per annum, as a direct tax perfect, require nothing but kindly mention here. that could be desired. Nobly the great ship held on the inventive genius of the country in addition Her speed, moreover, was all that could be on her course down Channel through the succeed to, and exclusive of time, labour, and other desired, and more than could have been expected, ing night, over the silver sea, and "under the charges and expenses. The total outlay in respect for, with her engines working at but half-speed, silver moon.” Nobly she came to anchor next of those patents may be estimated as at least she advanced at more than twelve knots an hour morning within Mr. Coode's costly breakwater at £250,000, or a quarter of a million per annum. against the beating head-wind. No wonder, then, Portland. How gladly would we have thronged The great work of printing and publishing in that every man on board congratulated his fellow her high sides, and echoed the cheers of the thou- extenso the Specifications of Patents, granted on that triumph of human genius over matter in sands of welcoming visitors who came to greet us, under the old law—that is, from 1,711 to the 1st which all were participating.
but for those who below were suffering, and those October, 1852, in number 12,977-is completed, But at 6-10 P.M., in a moment, in the twinkling who had been released from suffering !--but for and the surplus funds hitherto absorbed by this of an eye, all congratulations of that kind) were the destiny which had made our city of the sea a object will be henceforth available for other pur. brought to an end. A report as of a huge but city of the dying and the dead !
poses. That surplus is estimated by the Commis. lightly-rammed piece of ordnance-a heavy throb
The accident which has happened to the Great sioners at £30,000 for the current year, 1858-9, of the deck beneath our feet—the upheaval of the Eastern in no way interferes with the general and to increase in each succeeding year at the massive foremost funnel—the bursting forth of a question of her ultimate success. For the moment rate of $20,000 per angum. This surplus, after thick dense cloud of steam-the descent of a it may depress her interests, but the reaction will providing for the current expenses, is proposed by shower of shattered glass and saloon finery-all inevitably follow, and the ship will be estimated the Commissioners to be appropriated to the folthese, followed by cries and groans never to be according to her own merits.
lowing objects :forgotten, turned the joy of all into mourning.
1. The erection of a museum for the preservaBut the mourning that thus fell in a moment
The Great Eastern must, however, be fairly tion and exhibition of models, of which a conupon the officers, men, and passengers of the dealt with. Let her not be trifled with. Let her siderable collection already exists at Kensington. Great Eastern at that terrible crisis brought no water-tight bulkheads be made water-tight; let
2. The erection of suitable offices for the Comidle, whining, complaining spirit with it, but a
her yards have sails bent upon them; let her cap- missioners, including a free library of consultation, spirit of active aid and beneficence. The rescue
tain have a crew to handle her at his will ; let her of the unfortunate men in the stoke-hole, upon wheel-lines, and all other parts of her equipment, / upon a more extended scale than already formed
by Mr. Woodcroft. whom a horrible deluge of steam and fire had be of the right material ; let her machinery be
These most desirable and legitimate objects for descended, and the preservation of the ship from placed under the care of a sufficiently-large and the fire that seemed to threaten her, were the well-organised staff of engineers ; let, in short, the the application of the “Inventors' Fee Fund.”
cannot, however, be attained without the sanction first duties to which all applied themselves. Or, ideas of her designers and builders be faithfully of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's if not all, all but here and there a man whom the carried out in all
respects, and then commercial Treasury and a vote of Parliament, inasmuch az horror of the scene had overcome. There were a
success will be secured. It will be easy enough all the fees levied on inventors are, by a recent few such, and but a few.
for the directors to persuade themselves that in the state before described, had the bottom of to another, in her present imperfect condition. is conceived, be regarded as a most legitimate With the water-tight bulkheads.” (so-called) Ship taken from this place to that, and from that directly into the Consolidated Fund. These re.
many of these things may be deferred, and the change, levied in the shape of stamps, and so pass the ship been blown out--or, which is much more
But public confidence is the indispensable basis of probable, had masses of the shattered funnel been commercial success, and public confidence cannot application of the funds of inventors, and 83 * fired" through the bottom (after the fashion of possibly be gained while the ship is in her present British Association will give their aid, but your
one to which the Parliamentary Committee of the shot from cannon)-nothing but the pumps could
state. have saved the magnificent ship from foundering.
committee think that other considerations, an I Whether the pumps would have been equal to the should we ask for the ship now to be delivered other claims upon the Inventors' Fee Fund, and occasion or not it is impossible to say. The
up to the captain, and for the directors and upon the annual sarplus, whatever its probable eventa unquestionably, teaches that such a ship their friends to become his guests, and therefore amount, should be forthwith urged upon the should never be sent to sea at all until all that it subject to his wishes. The Great Eastern is no
Commissioners and upon Parliament. is proposed to do to make her safe has been done. longer a mere commercial man's hobby, or
The report of the Patent Committee of the The precations against fire-at that portion of Londoners” exhibition ; she is a ship, and hence - British Association to the Leeds meeting called! the ship, at least--appeared to be ample
. On the forth must be managed and commanded as a ship prominent attention to the two following quesalarm of fire coming up from below, Captain should be. Until this is done no good can come
tions :Harrison and Mr. Scott Russell promptly brought of her.
E. J, REED. 1st. Whether the present scale of payment the hoses into play, and the supply of water forced
would be maintained or reduced so as to leave no through them by the engines was abund.int. I have already stated that the ship had not
REFORM IN THE PATENT LAWS.
greater surplus than necessary for official exe a sail bent, and have also remarked that in the In Section G of the British Association at Aber. 2nd. If the present scale of payment be mainevent of an emergency Mr. Prowse knew how to deen, the following Report of the Committee on tained, how shall the surplus be appropriated ? steer the ship by steam. Both of these facts as the Patent Laws was read :
The Commissioners of Patents are in favour of sumed importance soon after the explosion. About At the meeting of the British Association at maintaining the present scale of payments, on the noon I had discovered that the steering wheel ropes Leeds for the year 1858, a committee was re-apground"
that any material reduction in the which were of hemp, and not of hide as they pointed for the purpose of taking such steps as amount of fees would undoubtedly tend to inshould have been-were being rapidly cut through may be necessary to render the Patent System of crease the number of useless and speculative by the iron sheaves round which they passed. A this country, and the funds derived from inventors, patents, in many cases taken merely for advertispreventer should have been at once got on, and more efficient and available for the reward of meri. ing purposes.” new ropes rove. Whether these things were done torious inventors and the advancement of science. Your committee are not insensible to the force or not, I cannot say. But as we were nearing Circumstances beyond control have prevented of this observation, but they beg respectfully to Beachy Head in the evening, and as a vessel (not that committee from taking any decisive steps in doubt whether this money check has any effective seen by me) is said to have been bearing down furtherance of the important objects entrusted to operation on the class of cases most requiring to be awkwardly upon us, our wheel-ropes gave way. them; but those objects have not been lost sight controlled, and whether the remedy is not worse Strange to say, the paddle-wheel engine was just of. No reply has been received from the Commis- than the disease in laying an unjustifiable burden then either stopped or very greatly reduced in sioners of Patents, either to the memorial of the on the inventive genius of the country, and
effecting confiscation of property of its own
No. IX. that the application for about 1,000 patents is not CONTINUING our explanation of the table given on prosecuted to completion, and in many cases page 299, Vol. I., we observe, that in order to probably not beyond the first stage; and that the complete the scale of displacement above the load first periodical payment of £50 at the end of the water line, it is assumed that the area of all sec. third year is not made in respect of nearly 1,500 tions parallel to that of the load water line of the 2,000 patents granted; and that the throughout a depth of one foot is the same as Commissioners anticipated during the enguing that of the load water section; conseqnently the year the surrender or lapsing of no less than 450 solid content of a zone, the base of which is the out of the 550 patents which survived the first load water section, and depth one foot, is found, periodical payment.
as shown at the bottom of the table to the extreme It must be borne in mind that the granting of right, and the weight of an equal volume of sea patents in this country is practically without water. A vertical line ab is then drawn through control, no attempt having been made to inter the point where the scale of displacement meets pose any of the checks urged before the Committee the load water line, and made equal to one foot on of the House of Lords, in the session of 1851, and the proper scale for draught of water; a level provided for in the three Bills of that session, and line b c is drawn through b; b c is then made in the leet of the subsequent session, now the law equal to the representative of the number of tons of the land. The payment of £5 on the first of sea-water in the zone, and the points a and c application may be regarded as a registration fee; are joined. The line a c is a tangent to the curve the applicant makes this payment on lodging the at the load water line, and when continued above line G H, it is therefore in 0, the point of interpapers, obtaining protection and inchoate rights it, is taken as part of the scale of displacement. section of G H and KL. from the moment of his application. This was
The displacements per inch immersion at all the To come, however, to the general case of findone of the cardinal features of the new system of other water lines have been calculated in the ing the centre of gravity of any number of bodies 1852. It has been productive of the greatest same manner as for the load water line, and are which are rigidly connected, let us first take the benefit to invention, especially to those of the given in the table in their respective columns ; case in which the centres of gravity of all the poorer class, by enabling them to obtain inchoate tangents to the curve may therefore be drawn at bodies lie in the same plane. rights, and to create property for themselves by all the water lines, thus forming guides at a num. a simple record of their inventions without pub- ber of points for the proper delineation of the
y licity and the obstruction of interested opponents. scale. We have now explained everything on the This power of placing inventions on record is also table referring to the displacement of our example,
FIG.18. resorted to in many cases by those who do not and shown how it may be found at any draught of wish further to secure or appropriate to them. water; it remains for us to describe how the selves property in their ideas and inventions, centre of gravity of displacement is found, it being which forthwith become public property. The necessary that this point should be situated in the 1,500 lapsed patents must be regarded in a dif. same vertical line as the centre of gravity of the
Is ferent light. These have cost their authors no ship, in order to fulfil the fundamental conditions less than £37,500 for fees and stamps as a direct of the equilibrium of a floating body. taxation on their inventive genius, in addition To find this point we must show how the centre to, and exclusive of, other payments of at least of gravity of any number of bodies rigidly conan equal amount. Of these 1,500 patents it is nected is found. And to commence with the believed that the progress of at least 1,000 might simplest cases with which we have to do in quesbe arrested with the consent of the applicants tions relative to Naval Architecture, let us find if the inquiry before the law-officers were sub- the centre of gravity of a parallelogram. stantial instead of merely nominal. Thus a large Bisect all the sides, and join the points of bisecuseless outlay of capital in money and time would tion of the opposite sides, the point in which these be avoided--talents unprofitably employed would lines intersect is the centre of gravity of the be directed into other channels, and the creation parallelogram. This will be readily followed of legal rights would be limited and reduced, without the aid of a figure. exactly in proportion as the applications were not
FIG.16. proceeded with.
Your committee conceive that the application of a portion of the funds contributed by inventors would be most properly applied to affording them this species of protection against the unprofitable
Let A1, A., Ay, &c., ..., 4., Fig. 18, be the expenditure of time and money; the attempt is
respective centres of gravity, situated in the same surely worth the trial; it would effectually check
plane, of the bodies whose weights are P1, P2, Pzo the prostitution of the patent system to the
&c., and Pr. Join A, and A,, and take the point 91 illegitimate purposes referred to by the Commis
in it such that P, * A9 = P, * 9,4. sioners. The reward of the meritorious inventor, in To find the centre of gravity of the triangle that (P,' + P.) * 9192 =
Again, join and Ag, and take y, in it such
Ра ху, А. . cases in which he alone of the public has failed to A B C, Fig. 16. Bisect the sides A B and B Ciu benefit by the fruits of his genius and the pur- D and E respectively, join. C D and 4 E; the for if g, be supported there will be equilibrium in
Then gi is the centre of gravity of P, and Po; chase of patent rights in him
of extending their point o in which these lines intersect is the centre whatever position the bodies are placed : g, is also terms, was referred to in the Report of the Patent of gravity of the triangle. For if we suppose the the centre of gravity of P, P, and Pg; and the Committee of the British Association at the Leeds triangle to be made up of very small slices alı
same mode of construction can be used until the meeting, as a legitimate appropriation of a portion parallel to BC, each slice will balance in all posi- centre of gravity of all the bodies is found. of the surplus.
, These objects being satisfied, a very large sequently the whole triangle would balance in all &c., and through it draw the straight lines or
Take any point o in the plane through A), Ago surplus would remain available for the advance. positions about 4 E. In the same manner it will and Oy at right angles to each other. ment of science, by researches having a direct be seen that the whole triangle will balance in all
Let perpendiculars 4M, 4, Mg, 13 M3, &c., bearing on the reproductive industry of the positions about CD: it follows, therefore, that 0, country. And if it be thonght expedient that the point of intersection of A'E and Do, is the phy, gohan
, &c., be drawn from the bodies, and from
Iv 9,, &c., upon the line Ox, and let the former more money should be levied on the granting of centre of gravity of the triangle. patents than necessary for the expense of the
To find the centre of gravity of the trapezium let Y represent the perpendicular from the centre
be represented respectively by yv yz, 13, &c., and office, inventors have, it is conceived, an irresistible A B C D, Fig. 17. claim for the expenditure of that surplus upon Divide the trapezium into the two triangles A B C
of gravity of the system upon the line Ox. objects bearing on their interest and the advance and 4 DC by the line A C: find, by the construcg, in R, and A,M, in N; and
Through A, draw A,RN parallel to Ox, cutting ment of science.
tion above given, the centres of gravity G and of Since P, x dig = EDWARD SABINE. the triangles A B C and A D C respectively, join then by addition
P, x 9.4, by construction Aberdeen, 16th Sept., 1859.
THOMAS WEBSTER. GIl; the centre of gravity of the whole trapezium
P, x 410 + P24191 P, * 9,4, + P, x Ali
= P, x 4,4 A new yacht, called the “Light of the River,” built the two triangles D A B, and D C B by the line of steel plates, for Ismail Pacha, of Egypt, by Messrs. D B: find their centres of gravity K and L re or, (Pi + P.) → A12 P, x 4,4,; George Forrester and Co., of Liverpool, sailed from spectively; join K I., then the centre of gravity
... that port on Wednesday for Alexandria. of the trapezium is in K L; but it is also in the
Also by similar triangles
to find the sum of the products of the weights of between the horizontal sections, gives for result A,91 9.R = 4, N
all these slices, and their respective distances from 4118 925; this quantity divided by 1832:0) will (12-y). 4,42
any transverse vertical plane : since this sum give 2.264 feet for the distance of the centre of
divided by the total displacement will give the buoyancy below the load water section : the rationale or, (P+ Pg R = P.y: - Pyi
distance of the common centre of gravity from the of these operations will be readily made out from also, by addition,
what has been explained for obtaining the position of (P. + P2) (R+R),) = Px;– P.4, + P12, + P. same plane.
Now the weight of any thin slice is equal to the centre of buoyancy in a fore and aft direction. (Pi + P.) = Punt Payz. Similarly,
the area of its section multiplied by its very small In order to complete our table of calculations we
thickness (if we take the weight of an unit of shall give the rule for finding the position of the (Pi + P, + Pagah2 Pill+ Paya + P 1/3 i volume as unity), and the product of the weight Metacentre, leaving the investigation of it u &c.
and its distance from any transverse vertical we come to deal with the question of stability in a and finally,
plane is equal to the area of the section multi-general way. (Pi+Pa+P+&c.... +P. ) Y = Py + Paya + plied by its distance from that plane, and again Rule to find the height of the Veiacentre above Px43+ &C....... + Pr Yn. by the very small thickness of the slice.
the centre of buoyancy. Therefore, by division, Take, therefore, a line of abscissw equal to the
Take the middle line of the load water section as Py + P 9: + P31/3 + &c....... + Pn Yn. entire length of the ship, and having found the before as the axis of abscissæ, and at the intersec
P + P + P3 + &c....... + P areas of all the equidistant transverse vertical tions of the several vertical sections let ordinates Or, the distance of the common centre of gravity sections, already made use of in finding the dis- be drawn, the numerical values of which are the of any system of heavy bodies, whose centres of placement, multiply them respectively by their cubes of the respective half breadths of the ship at gravity are situated in one plane, from any line distances from the foremost section, for example, the load water section ; find the curvilinear area in that plane, is equal to the sum of the products and draw ordinates at the several sections, making thus formed, take two-thirds of the result, and of the weights of the bodies and their respective them equal to the numerical values of the respec. divide by the displacement in cubic feet; the distances from the same line, divided by the sum
tive products; draw a curve through their extremi- quotient will give the height of the Metacentre of the weights of the bodies. ties, similar to that drawn in dotted lines in the above the centre of buoyancy.
The calculations given in the last two vertical In like manper it may be shown, if represent linear area will represent the sum of the products columns of our table, page 299, headed Meta
figure above mentioned, and the enclosed curvi. the distance of the centre of gravity of the system of the weights of all the slices and their respective centre, will be readily made out. Thus, the numbers from the line Oy, and.ij, tz, &c, the perpen. | distances from the foremost section ; the numerical in the first column, headed cubes, are the cubes of the dicular distances of A, A2, A3, &c., from Oy, value of this area divided by the displacement, respective semi-ordinates of the load water line ; :73 that PK + P x2 + Pytz + &c....... + Pn Xm
will give the distance of the centre of buoyancy is the cube of:9 nearly ; 6.86 of 1.9, &c. ; and the X from the foremost section.
second column gives these cubes multiplied by the P + P + P3 + &o....... + P In making the calculations, however, on our
numbers for finding a curvilinear area ; the sum When, therefore, Y and X are determined from table, it is more convenient to divide the distances of the latter quantities, or 16703:58, multiplied by these two equations, the position of G, the centre from the foremost section by the common interval, 4:2 (one-third the common interval between the of gravity of the system is known. It may be easily proved that wherever we place tained, to multiply it by that number. and after the sum of the products has been ob- vertical sections). gives the curvilinear arca
70155.036: two-thirds of this divided by 7691: 1, the lines Ost, Oy, the position of the centre of
Referring, therefore, to our table, (page 299) it the displacement in cubic feet, gives 6-0781 feet gravity G will be found to be invariable, as would, / will be observed that the third column under for the height of the Metacentre above the centre of course, be expected. If the lines be placed so that some of the bodies be on one side of Ox or Oy distances of the transverse sections respectively, Vertical Sections, contains the quotients of the of buoyancy.
We have now completed the description of our and the remainder on the other side, then the dis- from the foremost section divided by the common table of calculations, and elaborately shown how tances on one side must be considered positive interval : as 0, 4, 1, 11, 2, &c. The numbers in the displacement, &c., of a ship may be found when and those on the other side negative, and collect the vertical column headed Multiples of Areas, she floats on an even keel, in which case, the es; ing the products of the weights and distances, those when multiplied respectively by these numbers treme horizontal and vertical sections enclose all on the latter side must be subtracted from those opposite to them, are inserted to the right in the the displacement except such as may be safely on the former. Again, if the lines Ox and Oy pass through one products of the weights of very thin slices at the column headed Moments, and represent the relative neglected.
Ships are, however, more usually constructed to or more of the bodies, as Ox through 4, and Oy several transverse sections, and their distances than forward ; in our next
article we shall give an
“sit by the stern,” or, to draw more water abaft through 4,; then the distances y, and 2, vanish, from the foremost section; their sum, in the pre-example of such a construction; and the student and we have
sent case equal to 11689:05, when multiplied by O + P2y2 + Pxy + &c.
12:6, the common interval, and divided by 1832.0, will then be enabled to perform the necessary calY= Pi + P + P
+ P the sum of the column, Multiples of Areas, will culations relating to any design with which he
give the distance, 80.39 feet, of the centre of would have to do. P14, + 0 + Pipety + P.24 +&c.... + P vitin buoyancy from the foremost section. Pi +P, +P3 + P4 + &c.... + Px
It will be seen that the calculations have here THE COMPASSES OF IRON SHIPS: When the centres of gravity of the bodies do not been abridged; since to obtain the actual weights
, BEING A “REPORT Ox chanGzS OP DEVIATION lie in one plane: if three planes be taken at right and the products of the weights and their disangles to each other, and perpendiculars x, xn, xg, tances from the foremost section, the sums of
IEELING,' WITH EXPERIMENTS ON &c. ... Xn Y1, Y2Y3, Yu, &c. ... Yn, and 21, 22, 23, &c....those two vertical columns should each have been
TILE CITY OF BALTIMORE, APHRODITE, SIMLA, zx, be drawn from the bodies, and X, Y, and Z from further multiplied by •5, 4.2, and 2; this is, how.
SLEEVE DONARD," BY the centre of gravity of the whole system upon the ever, unnecessary for our purpose.
TOWSON." three planes respectively, it can be shown by con- We have now completed our description of the structions similar to what we have given above calculations on our table, referring to the fun- The author explained the manner in which the that damental conditions of the equilibrium of a
compass coinmittee was first formed, in accordance X=114 + Profi + Putz_ +&c. .....+PqXn;
floating body; and these must hold whether with the advice of the section he was then address the vessel swims upriglıtly of herself, or
ing, and that two reports had been drawn up, Pi + P + P's
which, with the advice of the Astronomer Royal, Py + Pay; + Psyy + &c....... +- Payn, horizontal forces. Ships, however, must not
had been printed and “presented to both Houses P + P + Pz
of Parliament by command of Her Majesty." He + &c.......+Px
only be able to stand up of themselves, but must thanked the Astronomer Royal for his valuablo
be indued with power to resist inclination when advice and support. There were matters of con, Pia +P67 + Pyry + &C....... + Paza and Z
acted upon by external forces : this power of re; sideration which the compass committee deemed Pi + P + P; + &C....... +P ,
sisting inclination, termed “moment of stability," Having obtained the values of X, Y, and Z from depends, cæteris paribus, upon the relative position incomplete; the one was the change which took the above equations, the position of the centre of of the centre of buoyancy, in a vertical direction, place in iron ships in proceeding to the opposito gravity of the system is known. and the Metacentre.
hemisphere; the other, the change that was proTo return, however, to the consideration of the To find the centre of buoyancy in a vertical di. that is,' when the deck of a vessel leaned over
duced by what is technically denominated heeling, centre of gravity of the displacement of a ship. rection the same process is gone through as that through the action of the wind or otherwise; if Since all ships are symmetrical with respect to a described for obtaining its position in a fore and when looking towards the bow it slanted downvertical longitudinal plane passing through the aft direction ; and the plane from which the dis-wards to the right, it is said to heel starboard, if middle line, it is evident that the point sought tances are measured is that of the load water line to the left, to heel port. The first question was must be situated in that plane; we have then at In the table, page 299, let the horizontal coluran undertaken by the late respected Rev. Dr. present only to find its position in a fore and aft corresponding to the vertical column headed Scoresby, who proceeded to Australia in the Royal direction.
Multiples of Areas) that is, 1.8, 1104, 103-95, Charter, and whose exertions in the pursuit of For this purpose let us assume that the part of 283.0, 257-1, 838-8, and 286:95, be multiplied by this branch of the inquiry shortened a most the ship under water is cut up into very thin 4, 35, 3, 2, 2, 1, and zero respectively, and the valuable life. The second question was the subslices by transverse vertical planes, as represented results inserted under them ; the sum, amounting in Fig. 5, page 56, vol. i., our object now will be to 2765-95, multiplied by 1.5, the common interval → British Association, Section A., 1859, Athenæ um,
OF THE COMPASS ON BOARD OF IRON SHIPS BY
ject of his (Mr. Towson's) present report. Having | prised at the amount, yet convinced of the practi- submarine cable, the moveinent of the spot of described the principles on which his graphic cability of compensating this source of error. He light, consequent on the completion of a circuit illustration was constructed, he pointed out the considered that the compass committee should through the battery cable and earth, can be so unexpected amount of deviation which this source not conclude their labours without further experi- observed as to furnish a curve representing very of disturbance (heeling) brought about, amounting ments, and thought that the Admiralty should accurately the arrival of an electric current. in most instances, when the ship’s head was in the place an iron ship at their disposal.--ADMIRAL Lines representing successive signals at various position to produce the maximum effect, to two or FitzRoy availed himself of this opportunity of speeds can also be obtained, and by means of a three points in the standard compass, and after to bearing his testimony to the value of the services metronome dots, dashes, successive A's, &c., can a greater amount as far as the steering compass is of the Astronoiner Royal. Notwithstanding his be sent with nearly perfect regularity by an ordi. concerned. He remarked on several particulars great exertions in the pursuit of science in various nary Morse key, and the corresponding changes in connected with this investigation. Generally the departments, he believed his great work was his the current at the receiving end of the cable ac. north end of the compass was drawn to the upper labours in connexion with iron ships.-PROFESSOR curately observed. The strength of the battery side of the ship-the case with seven out of nine W. THOMSON wished, so far as his opinion could employed was found to have no irifluence on the compasses on board the City of Baltimore, but in have any weight, to recommend that the necessity results ; curves given by batteries of different the two steering compasses the needles were for constant determinations of the error of the strengths could be made to coincide by simply drawn in a contrary direction. Mr. Towson ex. compass should be enforced on masters of ships drawing them to scales proportionate to the plained the theory on which this disturbance generally, but most strongly on all masters of strengths of the two currents. It was also found arose, partly from subpolar magnetism below the iron ships. It appeared to him that the only way that the same curve represented the gradual compass, and partly from the disturbance of the to use the compass safely is never to trust to it, increase of intensity due to the arrival of a inductive magnetism of the ships. In such ships that is to say, to take azimuths astronomically as current, and the gradual decrease due to the as those under consideration, the following empi. often as weather permits, and only to use the ceasing of that current. The curves of arrival rical rule held good with respect to compasses compass as a convenience for steering by accor- obtained for lengths of from 1,000 to more than favourably placed. When the vertical force as ding to these azimuths, and as a means of keeping 2,000 nauts were found to agree very closely in determined either by vibrating experiments or as nearly as possible the desired course in the in- general appearance with those given by Professor torsion on board the ship maintained the ratio, as tervals between the azimuthal determinations. Thomson's theory (Proceedings of the Royal compared with the vertical force on shore, in the When these intervals amount, as they often do, Society, May, 1855). In the curves representing proportion of nine to fourteen, little or no effect to several days or weeks, no confidence ought to dots and dashes sent at high speeds successive was produced by heeling; and in the case of the be felt in the dead reckoning within a wide dashes appear . in quite a different part of the Simla this plan of predicting the amount of error margin of possible error in the course, and the scale from that occupied by dots. It is in these was adopted : a moveable upright magnet was ap- established precautions on approaching those cases obvious that no delicacy of relay will enable plied so as to produce the before-named vertical | ought to include a large allowance for this uncer- us to indicate both of these signals at a constant force, when it was found with magnet in” no tainty. No such security can possibly be had for adjustment, nor does any increasing strength of error was produced, although “with magnet out" the determination of direction by the compass as battery help us, for though the variations of init amounted to 24° from changing a heel of 10° the comparison of two or three or more chrono- tensity are absolutely increased, the relative posi. starboard to 10° port. Another remarkable result meters always gives, in a well-approved ship, for tion of such changes to one another on the scale appears to exist. He believed that when a ship determining absolute time. Professor Thomson remain unaltered. The magnitude of the first was built with her head south-east or south-west, referred to the sound and thorough mathematical appearance of a current at the far end of a cable little if any effect would be produced by heeling theory which had been given by Mr. Archibald may, however, be increased by the use of powerful When examining the magnetic condition of the Smith, and the thoroughly practical manner in batteries, and delicate instruments would permit Sleeve Donard, they were surprised to find that which he had applied it, and brought it into form the faintest appearance to be observed. By these the vertical was very nearly that which would for practical use, in the real circumstance of sea- means one isolated signal might be sent with give no effect from heeling. Their talented sti. going ships, by which Professor Thomson believes great rapidity. Returning to the consideration pendiary secretary (to whom is due the credit of much has been done to give security to modern of successive signals, when the speed of transdrawing np the two reports already published) navigation. Professor Thomson referred to the mission is diminished, the oscillations of the spot immediately suggested that her head could not case of the wreck of the Tayleur, which increase in size, those for dots and dashes overlap have been east when building, which we had taken the late Dr. Scoresby, whose loss was so much one another, and would give legible Morse signals for granted; and on inquiry we found that on ac- felt by this section, bad attributed to a change by means of a relay, the amplitudes of oscillation count of her great length she had been built of the magnetism of the ship (a new iron representing any letter or letters were found to diagonally, with her head south-east nearly. ship), produced in consequence of being tossed be proportional to the amplitude representing Although Mr. Towson believed that for practical about the Channel in a gale within a few hours dots. The speed of signalling possible can purposes sufficient information had been obtained, after leaving Liverpool; and remarked that it therefore be measured by that amplitude as soon yet there were anomalies in their observations appeared strongly to corroborate the opinion now as in one case it is determined what speed of dot that rendered the theories deduced unsatisfactory. expressed by the Astronomer Royal," that new signalling is compatible with the reception of all This he believed arose from the rapidity with iron ships are liable to sudden and great changes other combinations of dots, dashes, and spaces. which they were obliged to carry on their experi- of magnetism on being knocked about in rough This amplitude is modified by the nature of the ments, on account of the passing in and out of weather at sea.-Mr. Towson considered that iron receiving instrument, by the nature of the signal, ships through the docks, from which cause the ships were as safe as woodea ships, and remarked by the skill of the manipulator, &c. The possible inductive influence of the earth had not sufficient that they were insured at the same premium as speed of signalling was found to be very nearly time to complete its effect. It had been proposed class A 1 at Lloyd's, which would not be the case proportional to the squares of the lengths to request the aid of the Admiralty in allowing if they incurred more risk. He believed when the spoken through; thus, a speed which gave 15 the Committee to experiment on one of Her evils of the compass were got over, they would be dots per minute in a length of 2,191 nauts, reproMajesty's iron ships in some convenient place for by far the safer class of ships.
duced all the effects given by a speed of 30 dots an unlimited time. In conclusion he requested
in a length of 1,500 nauts. At these speeds, with that the Astronomer Royal would favour the ON THE RAPIDITY OF SIGNALLING ordinary Morse signals, speaking would be barely Society with his remarks.
THROUGH LONG SUBMARINE TELE: possible. In the Red Sea, a speed of from seven The PRESIDENT (the Earl of Rosse) remarked,
to eight words per minute was obtained in a that he himself had made some observations on
BEING A PAPER READ BY W. F. JENKINS, AT THE length of 750 nauts. This result agrees very the deviation of the compass on board an iron ship Tuis paper detailed certain experiments under: influence of electro-magnetic induction, due to
BRITISH ASSOCIATION, SECTION A., 1859.*
closely with the deduction from the experiments which he possessed. After trying magnetic com
at Birkenhead, and apparently shows that the pensation, the magnets were taken away, and a
taken at the establishment of Messrs. R. S. Newall the disposition of the cable in coils, does not very table of errors adopted. He believed that mag- and Co., Birkenhead, with a view to verify the materially retard the possible speed of signalling. netic compensation rendered the compass sluggish. theory of retardation, and to supply certain The amplitudes of oscillation representing dots The ASTRONOMER Roral, in reply to the noble constants required. This theory has been well
can be thrown into a curve which will be the same President, stated that the magnetic adjustment developed by Professor Thomson, and is conrendered the
directive force exercised on the firmed by the results of these experiments, which for all lengths. By this curve we can determine needle equal,
with the ship’s head on all points of have indeed only been rendered possible by the amplitude of oscillation due to any speed, and,
Without compensation, with the peculiar construction of Professor Thomson's ship’s head on some point, the directive force was marine galvanometer. In this instrument mo
consequently, the possible speed of signalling on frequently neutralized by the ship's magnetic mentum and inertia are almost wholly avoided by the possible speed of signalling, presupposes that
that cable. This method, however, of determining force. He complimented the compass committee the use of a needle weighing only 11 grain, comfor their labours, and the judgment exercised in bined with a mirror reflecting a ray of light manufactured. Mechanical senders, and attention
a considerable length of the cable shall have been carrying out their experiments, and he especially which indicates deflexions with great accuracy. referred to the services of Messrs. Rundell and by these means a gradually increasing or decreas to the proportion of the various contacts, would Towson: the former was now carrying out these ing current is at each instant indicated at its due materially increase the speed at which signals of experiments on board the Great Eastern. Ile had strength : thus, when this galvanometer is placed hand cannot equal the accuracy of mechanism,
any kind could be transmitted. The best trained been prepared to find that
the compasses on board as the receiving instrument at the end of a long and the slightest irregularity causes the current iron ships were affected by heeling, but was sur
to rise or fall quite beyond the limits required for