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No. II.

at intervals corresponding with the distances of useful sovereigns are thrown off with marvellous ployées in manufacturing concerns. It is not the presses from each other and with their number speed. The levers, springs, weights, counter- extravagant to say that three-fourths of all the -that is, eight-a series of three-inch pipes, fitted poises, valves, and other portions of the vacuum sewing done in the city of New York is executed on with indexed stop-cocks intermediately to the arrangements go on with their task so long as machines—so profitable and so popular has this vertical vacuum-pumps to which their upper the press attendant keeps the line on the stud work become. flanched ends are bolted. The press-pumps are beside him; but, wishing to stop all, he has As a consequence of this rapid introduction and fitted with one disc valve opening into the vacuum- nothing to do but release it, and his money extensive use of sewing machines, a great imchamber and another to the great atmospheric making forthwith ceases.

provement has taken place in the quality of maocean itself.

There are communicating lines When an accumulation of coins of some magni-chine needles, sewing silk, twist, thread, &c. The passing through tubes—and which lines hungry tude occurs in the tray, and this is soon, they Americans now boast that they can produce Mint-mice have been known to gnaw through are taken up by workers in attendance, and thread far superior to any of foreign manufacture during the night-to the press-holes, and these carefully examined to see that they are free from in strength and evenness of texture. lines give the attendant sprites who convert but. spot or blemish, and fit to pass forth into the Since 1850 the sewing machine trade in Great tons into sovereigns control over the inner and “wide wide world” on their mingled missions of Britain has merely followed, though at a great the outer valves. We now see that all is ready good and evil.

distance behind, the course of trade in America. and we will return to the coining press-room.

Probably one fifth of all the sewing machines used The patient and industrious boy we see has amused

THE SEWING MACHINE:

in this country have been imported from the himself whilst waiting for us by repolishing all

United States. Almost all the machines in use

A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF ITS USE. the brightwork about the machine until it shines

are owned by manufacturers of shirts, boots, like the bars of a palace grate-good boy !

The sewing machine is used either to ornament stays, caps, saddlery, and ready-made clothing. He has also charged the tube of his feeding ap- fabrics or to unite them.

Its use is confined to places of large trade, such paratus with some of our old friends, the blank During the first half of the present century the north of Ireland, Dublin, and Limerick. The

as London, Manchester, Nottingham, Glasgow, pieces of gold. The tube has two grooves down several machines, designed chiefly for ornament prices of machines have been so very high that its sides, and these enable him to drop rouleaus of ing fabrics, were invented in England and France; few, or almost none, are owned by the working blanks flatly into it with ease. Now observe, the and a considerable number must have been intro- classes ; and probably this is the principal reason dies are in their places, one above and one below, duced among the embroiderers, lace-makers, glove why the workmen resist their employment. A and like two seals—not those of the Arctic Seas, makers, and stay-makers of both countries. Be family sewing machine” is almost unknown in but letter seals—are ready to impress on both tween the years 1844 and 1850 a few machines

Great Britain. ‘sides any softer, material that may be made to for uniting fabrics by means of a running or interpose between them at the moment that power basting stitch were used by bleachers, dyers, that one of the first patentees of the sewing ma

Since our last issue, we have been informed is applied to bring them together. The attendant umbrella-makers, and others, for the purpose of chine in Great Britain has withdrawn the suit now stands for a moment on the platform and tacking materials together. The number of maputs the press up, where perforce of upstairs chines of all kinds, however, at work in Europe in turers of ready-made clothing who were using the

which he had commenced against some manufacpump it remains ; he next causes the feeder to 1850 must have been so few that the name of a machines of another patentee. clasp one piece from the bottom of the tube—and sewing machine could scarcely have been known to find he has pursued, in this case, the wiser

We are pleased more than one at a time cannot find room to pass even in manufacturing towns like Nottingham in policy of paying the expenses already incurred out—and to carry it forward to the lower die. It England, or Lyons in France. is placed so exactly as to cover the Queen's in the United States, sewing machines were in attempting to control the sewing machine trade

in his prosecution, rather than meet a final defeat “image and superscription" completely... The first introduced into public notice and general of England. We may now hope that the people vertical rod, worked by quadrant aforementioned, use. The Americans needed machinery for uniting of England will be permitted, without molestais now attached to the feeder in so simple a fabrics rather than for ornamenting them. So

tion, to select from the best machines that can be manner as to disengage itself readily if by any great was the need of machines for plain sewing brought into the market. Patentees should enchance a distorted blank objects to leave its tube that improvements were made at different places deavour to settle their disputes among themselves or be stamped upon, and one of the starting lines almost simultaneously; and even now, after years without quarrelling with their customers. is pulled by some little force—the resistance of a

of litigation, it is impossible to decide with cer. small spring having to be overcome—and fas- tainty who was the first inventor in America of tened to a stud beside the boy in the press-hole. any considerable improvement in the sewing

Literature. Nothing moves as yet, and the fastening of the machines. During the years 1850, 1851, and line has merely allowed a tappet to close the outer 1852, the three largest manufacturing establish. High Speed Steam Navigation and Steam-ship Pervalve of the press-pump. Now behold! the Genii ments in the United States commenced business,

faction.-Can perfection be defined in the form of a of the press-room touches another cord—not chord and for several years they almost monopolized Steam-ship, a Propeller, or any other mechanical -and the effect is miraculous; he has opened the the trade. The high price of hand-sewing had appliance? A proposition for the solution of the inner valve, and hey, presto! the air below the prepared the people to welcome their machines;

Scientific World, and for the consideration of th piston has vanished and the atmospheric column while their competition and extensive advertising

British Admiralty. By ROBERT ARMSTRONG has carried it instanter to the bottom of the cyl. soon overcame the hostility of the working classes.

London : E. F. Spon, 19 Bucklersbury, E.C. 1859 inder. The press-screw has followed by dint of Sewing by machinery became, in a short time, a This production, with its very attractive and rods and levers; and as an interiorly milled steel more important branch of national industry than particularly mysterious title, reminds us forcollar which nicely fitted over the neck of the either spinning or weaving by machinery. Manu- cibly of a narrative which must be familiar lower die and rested on a tripod spring arose by facturers of boots, saddlery, and clothing of every to the most incipient entomologist, beginningforce of that spring and encircled the piece of description were the first to patronise the new Will you walk into my parlour, said the spider gold at the moment that the upper or reverse die invention. At present there are many large to the fly? 'tis the prettiest little parlour that ever struck it, it is clear that both the head and the establishments in which between 100 and 200 you did spy: the way into my parlour is up a tail, and also the serrated edge or milling were machines are used in shirt-making, quilting, winding stair, and I have many curious things to given to the blank at that one blow. The milled dress-making, &c. In the Southern States ma- show when you are there;"—for we know of old collar acted a double part indeed, it prevented the chines are

used extensively to make negro- that Mr. Armstrong is very liberal in his inviundue and irregular expansion of the gold as oc- clothing. Within the past two or three years tations to the scientific world,” the “ British curred in the old sledge hammer coinage, and it families have commenced to purchase them for Admiralty,” and other acquaintances of his to formed a mould from which the edge of the so- domestic use, and already the sewing machine has walk into his parlour (“parley''); that the way vereign became by sheer pressure within it become almost a necessary article of household into it is an extremely round-about one; that the serrated. Whilst the firs of our batch of furniture. Steps have been taken in many places things he has in it are exceedingly curious; and sovereigns was getting, its impressions, the toward their introduction into the female depart. finally, that when he onco gets you into his mazes feeder slide came back self-actingly and singled ments of the public schools, as a part of the regu- and meshes it is a most difficult thing to extriout another piece; this it now carries rapidly lar course of study, and it is considered far more cate yourself from him. Indeed, the faculty forward to the die, and as the milled steel desirable that young ladies should understand the which Mr. Armstrong has for spreading words collar has been made-also self-actingly—to sink proper manipulation of a sewing machine than and figures in complicated forms is so wonderful again below the surface of the die, the coined that they should become good pianists or indif- that, were his knowledge of geometry and his piece resting on it is unceremoniously pushed ferent artists. In some neighbourhoods one love of symmetry equal to the spider's, he would away by the new comer and thrown down an family will purchase a machine and hire out the almost stand upon a level with that clever creainclined copper slide in a finished state, to a tray use of it to persons not rich enough to own one, ture in the art of spinning webs. We must do placed to catch it and its lovely companions. The or several families will unite in the purchase of a him the justice, however, to say that he is void of feeder now makes its deposits of piece after machine, and pass it around as needed. Many that cruel and selfish disposition which his little piece with wondrous precision, the collar alter- seamstresses who, at first, borrowed money to buy rival so wantonly manifests. nately rising and falling, the boy keeping up the one, now own two or three, having other seam- There is, to speak more gravely, a very true supply of food to the hungry "critter" who dis- stresses to work those for which their own hands sense in which the man who writes and publishes. poses of his golden rations at the rate of from do not suffice. Full one-half of the machines now a book invites the reader into his parlour-his. sixty to seventy pieces per minute, and bright, made are sold to the laborious class of persons " parlour” being that mental region or apartbeautiful, glistening, tempting, mischief-making, known as needlewomen, sewing girls, and em- ment in which he dwells. The knowledge which a man possesses constitutes the furniture and showing its total force in each reign, and the at its natural temperature. The register, when decorations of that apartment, and it is by numbers of ships in the several rates since the partly opened, may even permit a mixture of the means of it that he proposes to entertain the system of classification was adopted by Charles I. two at different degrees of temperature, and reader. If, therefore, on entering the apartment The relative strength of the navy at the principal moderate the warmth of a ward for the moment we see at a glance that the whole aspect of the periods of our history may, therefore, be readily become overheated. The air conduit (or pipe) place is uninviting or repugnant to us, it is only compared by means of it. The sheet has been very enters the ground-floor ward in its centre at the wise of us to retreat forthwith. And this, we carefully printed by Messrs. Eyre and Spottis- floor level, through the middle of a cast-iron drum must say, is the purpose we have formed in re- woode, and is issued either anmounted, or mounted of four vertical sides, furnished with perforated ference to Mr. Armstrong: We do not like his and bound strongly in cloth. We cannot vouch doors for admitting the air into the ward. The "parlour" at all; his furniture is all rickety and for the accuracy of the compiler, as he has not tambour or drum incloses some wire shelves, on unsound, and his decorations coarse and extrava- thought fit to verify his figures by distinct refer- which linen may be placed, and drinks for the gant. We do not find in his writings any clear ences to the sources from which he has drawn patients to be warmed. The air-pipe debouches understanding of existing science; any sufficient them, and we know how easily mistakes may be on the floor-level through an opening of 75 centi. appreciation of the present condition of our made in such matters. We see no reason, however, mètres (2 feet 5ļ in.) diameter, in which is inserted knowledge; any orderly statement of what he to question Mr. Perigal's care in this respect, and a vertical tube of 60 centimètres (1 ft. 114 presumes to be erroneous; or any systematic en- we know that he has for some years made the in.) diameter, rising to the first floor; between deavour to explain his own theories. Nor, indeed, navy a subject of study. For general purposes these two tubes there exists an annular space, do we even find any indication of the mental such a compilation as the present will be very permitting a portion of the air to be arrested power and culture which are indispensable in a useful.

on the ground floor. Thus the air introduced man who presumes to handle such a subject as

is divided into two portions; one admitted that on which Mr. Armstrong here addresses us. VAN HECKE'S SYSTEM OF VENTILATION. to the ground-floor, the others continuing upWe write this without a shadow of ill-will to

wards for the use of the upper floors. A register, Mr. Armstrong, and with the hope that he will Much attention having lately been drawn to the regulated by a quadrant, permits the reducnot persist in estranging all sound scientific men

system of ventilation lately introduced by Van tion of the section of the tube, and of varying from him. That he is now running the risk of Hecke in many continental hospitals apparently the volume of air for each of the floors. If the this is most evident. Months ago Mr. G. P. with great advantage.--.we have been anxious to register is entirely closed, the whole of the air Bidder openly repelled him at the Institution of lay some correct description of the system before would be arrested on the ground-floor : by opening Civil Engineers, saying that he (Mr. Armstrong) our readers. This, an article in last week's it, more or less, the air for the two upper floors is was either so insensible or so indifferent to the number of our excellent contemporary, the increased at pleasure. On the first floor there is arguments of the cultivated members of that Builder, opportunely enables us to do. Institution, that further argument with him

an arrangement like that on the ground-floor, a

“Of the application of Van Hecke's plan to register for stopping a certain volume of air, and "would be as useless as to attempt to hold a con

one of the pavilions of the Hospital Beaujon, and for allowing the rest to rise to the second floor, versation with him in a language he did not un

a highly favourable report by a Government com- where the second column terminates, and a tamderstand;” and Mr. Armstrong himself innocently mission on the subject, we had some time since bour only exists

, in every respect resembling tells us that “ an eminent engineer has used pre- heard, and were favoured,” says our contempo those of the lower floors. Thus fresh air, serving cisely the same words.” We not only adopt them, rary," by Mr, J. Bonomi, with a special transla: both for warming and ventilating, is admitted but go further, and say that scientific men who tion of an elaborate paper by the reporter on that into the centre of the wards, entering

through converse with Mr. Armstrong do actually employ commission, Dr. Grassi, who had instituted an ex

wide openings, so as not to acquire a great ve. a language which he does not understand. And perimental investigation of the system for his own locity, and produce disagreeable currents. The air the reverse is equally true-scientific men do not satisfaction, after the commission of which he was which has been harboured (séjourné) in the wards understand his language.

He makes a very free the reporter had favourably reported on it to the escapes from them through four evacuating chan18e—too free a use of certain great names

, but French Government. Of this translation we pro nels in their corners or angles-a number too we believe he fails altogether to comprehend what pose now, making some use; the more especially limited, in my opinion ; but the pavilion being the persons whom he quotes mean in much that

as we find that Van Hecke's mode of ventilation already built where the system of ventilation was they say. Our opinion is, that he is wholly mis- continues to be preferred to all others in new adapted to it, a greater number would have occataken in supposing that he is in any way compe- French hospitals, to which it has since been sioned a considerable outlay for cutting chaces in tent to deal with the subjects on which his mind applied."*

Dr. Grassi, in the outset of his dissertation, surfaces with a very disagreeable appearance. The

the walls, or for placing the channels on the wall appears to have fastened. We do not for a moment doubt the excellence of his intentions, be after some allusion to the modes of ventilation three channels at each angle, and which correit observed ; it is of his inability to give effect to and warming long in use at the Hospitals Neckar spond with the three wards, rise side by side vertithem that we speak, and of that alone.

and Beaujon, and to the commission appointed to cally to reach the loft, where they are received

examine the new system of Dr. Van Hecke which into a horizontal zinc pipe, one at each of the The Polymeter, or Quintant. The Practice of a

has been tried in the Pavilion No. 4 of the Hos- four corners, which unite in the centre of the loft New Sector, as used in Trigonometry, Surveying, pital Beaujon, thus proceeds to describe that in a tambour, capped with an evacuating cylinder Fortification, Gunnery, Engineering, and Astro- system :

of zinc, 75 centimètres (2 ft. 54 in.) in diameter. nomical Observations. By FREDERICK R. A.

“ The warming of the Pavilion No. 4 of the At the intersections of the air-escape channels Glover, M.A., Chaplain to Her Britannic Ma- Hospital Beaujon is performed by means of a from the wards with the receiving channels of the jesty's Consulate at Cologne. Cambridge : Deighton, Bell, and Co.

calorifère-#ove situated in the cellar-floor. Air is loft, registers are fixed, by which the openings London: Bell and Daldy. 1869.

conveyed to this stove by a cylindrical channel of may be regulated, and, consequently, the draft or The author of this little work is the inventor of zinc, 75 centimètres (2 ft. 54 in.) in diameter, extraction from each of the wards. The air from an instrument called the Polymeter, which is re

which, after running horizontally through the the wards has, besides the evacuating channels presented as answering all the purposes of—1, a

vault, is received into a vertical shaft of masonry above-named, an exit for escape through the sextant; 2, a double sextant; 3, a surveying opening out in the garden at about 2 mètres water-closets by an opening in the ceiling, which magnetic compass; 4, a level; , an artificial (about 6 ft. ? in.)above its surface ; from this also communicates with the channel in the loft.

source the air is derived. After the air has passed the air from the ward, entering into the waterhorizon ; 6, a dial; 7, a set of scales ; 8, a pro- through the tubes of the calorifere and become closets through an opening in the lower part of rant; and 11, a pair of callipers—the whole being warmed, it enters a large pipe, to be distributed the door, rises towards the evacuating opening in brought into the size and shape of a thin memo- by it in the three wards (one above another): the water-closet ceiling, sweeping through and randum book, which its cover forms. In addition before, however, reaching them, it passes over a carrying away in its course all smell. The ventito all this, it likewise is a "trigonometer"-a

pan of water to supply it with a suitable quantity lation is not effected through the water-closet new instrument for measuring heights and dis- of moisture. By this arrangement the air trans- basins, as at La Ribosière, the seats being closed,

mitted to the wards is derived exclusively from the and the ventilation acting exclusively upon the tanees, doing trigonometry without logarithms, &c. The pamphlet before us is a handbook for garden, and not allowed to mix with the air of the atmosphere within the water-closet; it is quite the use of those who are fortunate enongh to pose in the calorifère, it may be sent to the wards in a water-closets so completely rid of smell as in the

vault. Instead of permitting the air to circulate sufficient, and in no hospital have I found the ness this invaluable instrument, and must, of course, be purchased by all such persons. To those direct course, which bears the same relation

to the Hospital Beaujon. who do not know the instrument the pamphlet channel of the calorifère that the chord does to

At the commencement of the calorifère troduction and exit of air, I must mention a

" By way of concluding what refers to the inwill make its nature and value known.

tube there is a moveable register for the purpose source of pure air considered as accessory, which, Chart of the Royal Navy of Great Britain from the of giving such a direction to the air as may be however, is not unimportant :-On the ground

Earliest Period of History, Compiled from His required, either for warming it, or allowing its use floor at the entrance to the cellaring is placed a
torical Publications, Old Records, Parliamentary
Returns, and other Authorities. London: J. D. • A pamphlet entitled “Remarks on Ventilation, with small steam-engine, of which I shall presently
Potter, 31 Poultry, and 11 King-street, Tower- Ventilation and Warming ;-System Van Hecke. By Wilson
Extracts from Official Reports, on the Combination of speak. The smoke-flue from its furnace, united to

that from the calorifère-stove, is surrounded by a bill. 1869.

Weatherby Phipson, C.E." (Printed by H. M. Pollett, 35 Tas chart, which has been compiled, we be- Aldermanbury), has recently been forwarded to us, which concentric enclosure, the lower end of which is lieve, by Mr. Frederick Perigal, exhibits at a by means of Dr. Van Hecke's system, but no particular contains many allusions to the favourable results obtained

• It seems needful to add here, "of the upper ward.” glance the rise and progress of the Royal Navy, description of the plan itself.

TRANS,

open to the outer pure air, and draws it in through its orifice in the garden. This air circulates in

GIBSON'S PATENT STEERING APPARATUS. the annular space round the smoke-pipe, in contact with which it becomes warm as it rises to the top

FIG.1.

FIG.2. of the building. This air-flue is situated in the thickness of the wall separating the staircase from the wards; at the level of each story it presents three openings, one into the ward, one towards the stairs, and the third into the two-bedded room. These, openings afford a passage for the warm air during winter: in the summer season it is allowed to rise to the upper part of the building, where it disperses itself; but Mr. Van Hecke was desirous to turn this warm air to account, by causing it to enter the loft used as a drying. chamber. When the upper orifice of this air. funnel is closed, as is the case in winter, the warm air diffuses itself in the wards, and in the staircase, of which it keeps up the warmth. In summer, when the upper orifice is entirely open, the smoke. fue draws upon the air within the wards, and thus produces an increase of ventilation.

“ Such is the channel-system for the passage of the air derived from the garden, and finally escaping through the common flue. . Now let us consider the moving power. I have before men. Endless bands pass from one to the other of these turned, the nut is moved to or fro, moving with it tioned the small steam-engine at the entrance to cylinders, which revolve simultaneously. The air the lever G, which through the rod Fand arm E the cellaring; it is intended to keep in motion a circulating in the channel is forced to pass over turns the rudder. ventilator, which, in the first instance, Mr. Van these constantly moist bands, and thus acquires a Hecke had placed in the upper part of the tubing much lower temperature.”

SHAND AND MASON'S NEW STEAM FIRE. within the flue or chimney of the loft. A band or The use of steam-power, we may add (says the

ENGINE. strap transmits the movement from the ground. Builder), is only requisite to Van Hecke's system SOME interesting experiments were made on Frifloor to the loft; the ventilator then produces a on a large scale. In ships and elsewhere, where day last at the Waterloo-bridge-wharf, with a view suction-draft from the air of the wards. The ap- manual labour can be easily or economically ap- of testing the efficiency of a new steam fire-enparatus of Mr. Van Hecke produced ventilation by plied, or is sufficient for the purpose in view, no gine which has just been completed by Messrs. (appel) suction by mechanical agency. Since it steam-power is necessary to ventilation on this Shand and Mason. This engine is the second of was fixed an important addition has been made to plan ; and in dwelling-houses the ventilator has the kind that has been made, but in the construcit. Mr. Van Hecke has placed a second ventilator, even been put in action by clockwork and weights. tion of the present such a considerable reduction identical with the first, in the lower indraught A French admiralty report speaks favourably of of weight has been effected as to materially extend channel, where the column of air takes its rise the system as applied on shipboard, where one man its sphere of usefulness, while it is anticipated within the vault. On connecting this ventilator works it at a time. French Government reports that others of still lighter proportions may be with the machine, it drives into the wards the air speak strongly in its favour, as adopted at the built. The whole machine is mounted on high which it inspires from without, and thus produces Hospital Necker, for ventilation, heating, and wheels, with a fore-locking carriage, and is, of a ventilation by injection analogous to that pro: cooling. The Hospital L’Asile Imperiale de Ve- course, intended for rapid transit by means of duced by the apparatus of Messrs. Thoinas and sinet, near Paris, has had Van Hecke's apparatus horses. The box contains the hose and implements, Laurens, at the Hospital La Riboisière. In this applied to it, and it has been brought into use in with a driving seat and space for firemen. Its ex: manner the apparatus is arranged to allow of ven- other hospitals and public buildings in France treme dimensions are 124 feet long by 6 feet 5 tilation by suction, on putting the upper venti- and elsewhere, and is ordered for hospitals now in inches wide, and 8 feet high without chimney. The lator in motion, or by injection when the engine course of erection at Chartres, Lyons, &c.

total weight, including firemen and all impleis in connection with the ventilator situated in

ments, is nearly three tons, or almost double the the lower part of the building; the change being effected simply by the band which transmits the GIBSON'S PATENT STEERING

weight of the ordinary Brigade engine. This in

APPARATUS. motion, an operation requiring but a few minutes.

crease of weight is apparently the only disadvanThe ventilator of Mr. Van Hecke is composed of MR. W. GIBSON, of St. Leonard's-road, Middlesex, common Brigade engine; in all the other and

tage which it possesses when compared with the two (palettes) fans or blades, fixed to two stems, has just obtained patents in England, France, &c., more important qualities the superiority of the which are inserted perpendicularly on the axis of for a steering apparatus of novel and promising steam fire-engine is so great as to leave no room rotation, and inclined from fifty to sixty degrees. construction. His invention consists in working for comparison with any other. Like the common A peculiarity distinguishing this ventilator is, the rudders of ships and other vessels by means of fire-engine, this one by steam can be worked that the inclination of the fans is not constant, but an endless screw shaft, which gives motion to a either with a suction pipe, or water may be drawn varying with the speed of the rotary inovement. nut connected to a lever centred on a fixed stand from the cistern, which forms part of the engine The boiler of the engine warms the office on the end at one end, and connected at the other end to itself. The steam cylinder and pumps are ground-floor, in which are arranged pans for an arm projecting from the rudder head, through made entirely of gun-metal; the valves of poultices, and a warm-linen closet. A portion of a conecting rod. The steering wheel is keyed on india-rubber, as in the floating steam firethe steam, after giving motion to the engine, is or otherwise fixed to the endless screw shaft, and engine; and the whole machinery is - of the sent to the upper floors, where it heats the water on turning the wheel in one direction or the other simplest and strongest construction, and not liable required by the patients; but the greater portion, the required motion is communicated through the to be damaged by any amount of jolting over which might be usefully employed, is for the nut, lever, connecting rod, and arm to the rudder. rough roads. The boiler is of the upright tubular present wasted.”

The lever is slotted to allow of the connections construction, affording ample means for superDr. Grassi then proceeds to show how the effects and the nut and the rudder arm moving therein. heating the steam; there are 199 brass tubes, 17 of the system are indicated by anemometer, con- Fig. 1 of the accompanying engravings is a view inch outside diameter, and 15 inches long. The nected with a contrivance of M. Van Hecke’s. He of this apparatus taken from the side of a ship or fire-box is of copper, 3 feet. 4 inches diameter; then adds :

vessel ; Fig. 2 is a front view of the same. A is the cylinder is 84 inches diameter, with 6-inch “In order to complete the description of this the deck upon which are firmly fixed by bolts or stroke; one water cylinder is 6 inches diameter system of warming and ventilating, I have to otherwise two standards B B, carrying bearings, with 6 inches stroke, the other 7 inches notice an apparatus not yet fixed, but which is supporting a screw C; D is the rudder-head or diameter with a 4-inch stroke, the two being now being constructed by M. Van Hecke, and to post, and E an arm or lever projecting from side equal in cubic contents. In designing this engine be placed within the stone-built channel, which thereof; F is a vertical rod carried up from the other important circumstances besides obtaining from the cellar leads into the garden for air. This arm E; on the upper end of this rod a small the best theoretical steam pump have bad to be apparatus is intended to cool the air in summer, on roller is placed, which rides in a slot in one end of taken into consideration, such as weight, bulk, its way to the wards. It consists of two cylinders the lever or bar G. The opposite end of this bar means of transit, and accommodation for hose, placed horizontally one above the other, at 1 m. or lever is centred in a pin or stud supported on a implements, &c. The London Brigade engines 50 s. (4 ft. 111 in.) apart. On the axis of the standard I. The lever G is also slotted, and in have pumps consisting of two single-acting cylinupper cylinder is a pulley to receive the movement the slot a pin rising from and connected to a nut ders, 7 inches diameter and 8-inch stroke. The of the axletree. The under cylinder is plunged | H works; a friction roller is placed on the pin, average rate of w ing at fires is not more than into a trough of water, which may be obtained of where it moves within this slot. The screw C40 strokes per minute, and, as the cylinders con. the temperature of well-water, or be cooled arti- passes through the nut. On the tiller-wheel K, tain 616 cubic inches

, it follows that a London ficially by pieces of ice, should it be requisite. which is keyed on one end of the screw C, being brigade engine delivers, at its average rate : $ SAMUEL AND NICHOLSON'S PATENT PADDLE-WHEEL CONDENSERS FOR MARINE ENGINES.

[graphic]
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workng, 88 gallons per minute, being worked by SAMUEL AND NICHOLSON'S

donkey-engine into the condenser; A is a pipe 28 mm. The water cylinders of the steain fire. PATENT PADDLE-WHEEL CONDENSERS for supplying the fresh water from the bottom of engins contain 340 cubic inches, and, as it can be

FOR MARINE ENGINES.

the condenser to the feed pump; I from whence readil worked at no less than 218 strokes per MR. SAMUEL, C.E., of Great George-street, West- it is pumped through the pipe K into the freshi

: minut, it will thus be equal to three Brigade enrapidit with which steam can be generated is, of kind of condenser for marine steam-engines. pipe M to the boiler B through the pipe Ni is ginedite their ordinary rate of working. The have together obtained a patent for a very novel water introduced through

the salt-water supply a mache required for duty on the most sudden Their improvements relate to such engines as are emergeries, and this point had been well and employed to drive or to work in the neighbourhood starting until the paddle-wheel has commenced to satisfactrily ascertained before the trials of Fri- of paddle wheels, water-wheels

, or other apparatus throw the cool water up to the condenser. day last. Nevertherless, in the course of the

ex: by which the agitation and dispersion of cold perimen it was demonstrated that a pressure of we will describe and illustrate the improvements The Royal Agricultural Society has issued the

water are produced in their ordinary working. ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY'S SHOW. 10lb. stem could be generated in six minutes from the moment of lighting the fires; a high tion to paddle-wheel steam vessels. more particularly with reference to their applica- following programme of their proceedings at the

ensuing Warwick meeting :pressurevas obtained in 104 minutes, and the

The invention consists primarily in the employ. engine ws immediately in full work. Of course, ment of surface condensers of any approved form The implement yard open from ten o'clock in

TUESDAY, July 12, and WEDNESDAY, July 13.in the cæ of an engine of such description being within the paddle-boxes, or otherwise by the side the morning till six o'clock in the evening, on generallyadopted, the fires would always be kept of or behind the paddle-wheel, in order that the Tuesday; and from seven o'clock in the morning nessed ; that the whole machine would be in water which the wheel, while in motion, is con

till six o'clock in the evening, on Wednesday; at tinually throwing up may be received upon or full motin on its way to a fire. Before the trial

an admission-charge of 2s. 6d. for each person. the boile was overcharged with water, part of sers and effect the condensation of the steam work on each of these days.

come in contact with the exterior of the conden. Machinery will be shown by the exhibitors at which wa run out before the fire was lighted and within them. The invention further consists in found to e cold by the spectators. The jets used employing a supplementary or donkey-engine for

The judges to inspect the live stock, and to were k, l, and inch, in succession, the changes pumping the feed water into the boileror

boilers, and

award the prizes. being acomplished by means of a stop-valve on

Public trials of the steam cultivators on land in a supplementary boiler, or boiler compartment, for the neighbourhood of the city during such hours each of the two lines of hose without stopping the generating from the salt water of the sea sufficient engine. This feature will be of great use at a

as the stewards may determine. steam to supply, when condensed, the waste of fire. A last was placed on the bridge, the height water which occurs by leakage in the main engine judges shall have delivered in their awards,. of

At one o'clock (or as soon after as all the from higl water to top of mast being 82 feet; the and by other causes of loss. The feed pumps of which notice will be given) the public will be ad. height atained by the f jet was considered to be both the salt and the fresh-water boilers may be mitted into the cattle-yard on the payment of 5s. 145 feet,and the horizontal measured distance worked by the donkey-engine, which is itself each person, at the special entrances; members of 10 feet the inch jet went 120 feet perpendicu. ordinarily driven by steam from the salt water council and governors of the society being adla and 50 feet horizontal. Gentlemen from the boiler by preference. Air pumps may thus be dis- mitted by tickets to be purchased at the finance vrious insurance companies, and others interested pensed with, as the condensed steam from the department of the society at the show-yard; and is fire-engines, were present.

surface-condensers falls by its own gravity to the exhibitors of live-stock on producing their ex. At 6 p.m., on the 6th inst., a second trial took feed pumps. It is evident that where a screw- hibitor's ticket. Arrangements have been made pice at the South Kensington Museum, in the propeller and paddle-wheels are used in the same for distinguishing the animals that have won the pesence of Mr. Dilke, Mr. Cole, Captain Fowke, vessel, the condensation of the whole of the steam prizes immediately the judges have made their A. Braidwood, and other scientific gentlemen. used for giving motion to all of them may be awards. At eight o'clock in the evening the cattle 'le engine was started under a pressure of 25lb. effected by means of this improved arrangement yard will be closed. i: 9 minutes from lighting the fire. The only of condensers in connection with paddle-wheels.

THURSDAY, 14.—The general show-yard of iricator of height was a tree 70 feet high. The Fig. 1 is a transverse section of so much of a cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and implements open to It was considered to be 150 feet in height, and paddle-wheel steamer as is necessary for the ex- the public from six o'clock in the morning till six thinch 130; the measured horizontal distance planation of the manner in which they prefer to in the evening; admission 2s. 6d. each person. · we 168 feet with the inch jet. It was considered carry the invention into effect; Fig. 2 is a longitu. FRIDAY, 15.—The general show-yard open to byhose who were present at both trials that the dinal section, showing the condenser and arrange the public from six o'clock in the morning till six enne worked better at the second trial than mentof boilers and donkey-engine; A Aareordinary in the evening; admission ls. each person. at je first.

boilers; B is a supplementary salt-water boiler; General meeting of the members in the Shire

C is the condenser formed of side-plates a a and Hall at ten o'clock in the forenoon.
LLYHEAD LIVERPOOL TELEGRAPH. -
Thezubmarine cables connecting Holyhead with

top and bottom plates bb; cc are a series of tubes PRESIDENT.-His Grace the Duke of MarlLiveool have been successfully laid by Messrs. open at both ends, and fitted steam-tight between borough. Glas Elliott, and Co., for the trustees of the Mer: the plates a a; D is a donkey-engine; E the seg ocks. The old semaphore system, which has exhaust pipe leading from the cylinder into the

Cattle.--Mr. Robert Smith, Mr. Milward, Mr. been use up to the present time, will be imme. condenser; F is the steam pipe leading from the w. Fisher Hobbs. diatei superseded by electric communication between salt-water boiler B into the donkey-engine; and Implements.—Mr. Barnett, Mr. H. B. Caldwell, thesenportant points.

G exhaust pipe conveying the steam from the Mr. È, Pope, (Lord Leigh, Steward-Elect).

ASD

STEWARDS OF DEPARTMENTS.

Cheese and Wool.-Mr. Thomas Pain.

Clifford's letter, I certainly cannot view it as an receive every invention which may tend to di. Finance.—Mr. Raymond Barker, and Mr. | objection to Captain Kynaston's method of disen- minish the loss of human life. Wilson (of Stowlangtoft).

gaging, when there are probably no less than I remain, Gentlemen, your obedient servant, Show-Yard Refreshment.--Mr. Humberston, M.P. | twelve men sitting idle in a boat, that one among

NAUTICUS. Show-Yard Receipts.Lord Portman, Mr. Wren their number should be told off to let go a rope in July 2nd, 1859. Hoskyns, Mr. Torr, and Mr. Wilson (of Stowlang- case of need, which acts as a reserve, or a safety toft); Mr. Milward, Mr. W. Fisher Hobbs. trigger, to meet the remote contingency of the APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN General Arrangement of Show.- Mr. Brandreth proper disengaging line being foul, and there

PHOTOGRAPHY, Gibbs. By order of the Council,

fore may be the means of preserving life; in TO THE EDITORS OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE .B. T. BRANDRETI GIBBS, short, having, as it were, two strings to his bow,

GENTLEMEN,—Permit me through the median Hon. Acting Secretary, pro tem.

is a manifest advantage, and I think Mr. Clifford of your columns to suggest an improvement i will do well to consider this; for if his boats, as

the use of artificial light in photographic operiBy the regulations of the society all persons ad. now fitted, be lowered from a vessel going at any tions—a subject which appears to be attracting mitted into the show-yard, or other places in the speed, and one of the pendants be jammed, the much attention at present. temporary occupation of the Society during the

crew have no immediate resource to save themmeeting, shall be subject to the rules, orders, and selves from the imminent risk of destruction: Tyzed by the prism it is found that not only

at

It is well-known that when solar light is anregulations of the Council.

this kind, and been called upon by Mr. Clifford to the three primary colours which compose whic BOAT-LOWERING APPARATUS. substantiate

my statement, I will do so, though light arranged in different proportions in different TO THE EDITORS OF THE MECHANICS MAGAZINE." with some reluctance. In May last a written docu- parts of the spectrum, so as to produce a grat

GENTLEMEN,—-Permit me to offer a few remarks ment came into my hand, which I have quoted existing in the rays of the sun-light, heat, ni on a letter of Mr. Charles Clifford which appears word for word—"The ship Orwell, belonging to in your last number. Whether or no I be held Messrs. Green, of London, had a boat fitted with aetinism—are likewise each of them distributed competent to form a correct opinion on the sub-Clifford's lowering apparatus.' In lowering the unequally over the spectrum, appearing in greiter ject, I would leave, with all due deference to the boat to pick up a man overboard, the fore-pendant intensity in some parts than others, so that ach inventor himself, to the decision of those officers hung when the boat was at the water's edge, and each of the three principles. The red rays iave

the greatest heating power; the lightest color is apparatus” for some length

of time, rather than curred on her last voyage to Australia." Every the yellow; while the blue rays are the mos deto those who have merely witnessed its working one would be glad to find this deplorable event finite in both heating and illuminative

povers, during the ordinary trials.

In the first place, with regard to the impracti- rated also in writing on the testimony of Mr. Green's but are by far the richest in actinic or poto cability of adjusting the length of pendants to staunchest allies, and I think it a pity, therefore, spectrum, and is applied practically in mny of own officers by the hand of one of Mr. Clifford's colours obtained from sources other than th solar

This law prevails equaly in meet every contingency, I am ready to admit that the former should put himself so much out of the operations of daily life. Thus in azificial that the light-draught and the load-draught in a his way to challenge or deny the truth of a state- illumination, we select substances which ly their man-of-war vary but in a trifling degree with the ment which I fear does not admit of the shadow combustion emit a large proportion of yellow ordinary consumption of coal; on the other hand, in large mercantile steamers such as those of the of a doubt, the more so that it is not in human light; and when we wish to diminish to the reatest Peninsular and Oriental and Royal Mail Com; and that Mr. Clifford's plan has been already in the sun, for example, we observe it thragh the

nature that our best efforts should be infallible, extent the apparant light of a luminous object, panies, which are constantly under steam, and strumental in saving life. carry an ever-varying weight of cargo besides, the

medium of a blue glass. In warming or apartdifference is material. Setting, however, these

To avoid similar disasters I certainly would not ments we make use of coals, &c., which by their circumstances aside, Mr. Clifford quite overlooks advise Mr. Clifford to practise the dangerous ex: burning givea red light, the characteristiqroperty the chief drift of my argument, namely, that a

periment for which, he says, his plan is so well of which is, that it contains a very great mount o ship when pressed by canvas may have a con- adapted, that of attempting to drop his boat on radient heat, with but a comparatively small prosiderable heel at the time it is necessary to lower the top of a wave which he may encounter during portion of illuminative power indeed tb appeara boat from one side or the other; the weather his descent, or during the roll of a ship; however ance of a red object invariably conveys the

mind boat will consequently be raised several feet higher free may be the working condition of his pendants a sensation of warmth). The single excetion is in from the water's edge than the opposite one ; it is round the roller and

through their respective the selection of sources of artificial ligh for phohardly necessary to add that no adjustment of sheaves, it must be a sluggish wave indeed, or the tographic purposes. In this case the

objec aimed at pendants could be adapted to meet these ever-fluc- ship must be an easy roller, whose rising or

seems to be the production of a light of th greatest tuating changes during a sea voyage.

falling motion does not surpass the descent of a possible whiteness and intensity. But the blue Again, I am asked with reference to the old boat released under such circumstances by the rays, and especially the violet, possess th greatest plan of lowering with tackles which Captain lowering rope being let go-she will probably proportion of the photographic principi, and are Kynaston still thinks it advisable to retain drop into the trough of the sea in any case, or if at the same time the most deficient a heating “What is to prevent one fall going by a run?” will be inevitable. Captain Kynaston, whose mode rays are almost entirely destitute of the photo

a pendant hangs or is carried away, a catastrophe and illuminative power, while the red nd yellow one of Mr. Clifford's single pendants," which of disengaging is instantaneous, and in the power graphic principle. And it is evidentlythis prinmay work stifly in the nip-sheaves, from going of one man in the boat, and (contrary to Mr. ciple alone which is of service in a phtographie with a surge, and producing the same ill effects Clifford's statement) perfectly independent of those operation, the

others--the light especialybeing which the designer professes to avoid ? It is true who are lowering by the tackles, might probably an evil rather than otherwise if the objet in view that both pendants being reeled upon the same practise this feat with impunity.

be the production of a portrait, for the inconve. cylinder will be released from it simultaneously;

I do not consider Mr. Clifford is borne out in his nience and discomfort experienced by thy sitter in it does not, however, follow that they should statement, which attributes the fragility of some

consequence of too great an intensity of light traverse with the same facility through the of his pendants to the neglect of any one par- almost invariably occasions distortion of the fasheaves, for the reason thus mentioned; one or the ticular dockyard ; I believe never was invention tures. Why, then, is not a blue or a violet light other may work stiflly for a while, and then be- more zealously and carefully worked out by our made use of ? Such a light would be extremney come released with a surge, either carrying away Dockyard executives. It must be borne in mind powerful as a photographic agent, while its low with the jerk, or causing the boat to descend un

that a man-of-war has her boats in constant use, illuminative and heating power would admit evenly to the water's edge, as was fully exemplified whereas emigrant and transport ships have seldom its being used in a very high degree of intens.» in the last trial of the Exmouth, when the en- any occasion whatever to lower them; if, there without creating discomfort to the eyes of eitir gines were stopped to avoid an accident. Mr. fore, as Mr. Clifford states, no reports have sitter or operator. It would doubtless bé a ** Clifford having desired me to produce an instance reached their owners of broken gear, &c., the in- very difficult task to discover a composition wlulu of a serious accident through the above cause, I ventor has reason to rejoice, but the public at would burn with a pure and intense violet ligh. am bound to give one. A few months ago Her large will not receive the fact as a proof of the I have not had the opportunity of investigatus Majesty's ship Renown was leading the line of infallibility of his plan or the durability of his the subject practically, and I am therefore indrel the Channel squadron into Plymouth Sound, pendants.

to place it before your readers in the hope hat when a false alarm of a man overboard was In conclusion, I will add that the test of time is the suggestion may receive the consideratin e raised; on this a crew jumped into one of the alone able to establish the merits of every plan, any one who may think it worth his while tor: cutters, and a man had already commenced to and in the meantime there is no reason in the sue the subject further. In case the idea sbaki lower, when one of the pendants broke with a world why two methods of saving life, which not be a new one. I hope that my ignorape of surge, and the crew, gear, &c., were precipitated have already given proof of their efficiency, such a fact will prove a scient excuse. into the water, carrying away one of the davits should not jog along amicably together, and not My attention was first drawn to the subjet hy at the same time; to remedy the disaster the op- jostle each other like the two pitchers in the a lecture illustrative of Moule's method of otainposite boat was ordered to be lowered, and, stream, in the hope of one becoming irretrievably ing photographs by artificial light, in wich :. strange to say, precisely the same accident oc- smashed. There is surely room enough for both, light of great whiteness and intensity is prduce ! curred, the davit, however, remaining entire. and there are ships enough on the ocean with by the combustion of a chemical compositic; binti

With reference to another remark in Mr. their living freights whose owners should gladly I observed that the great intensity of th liglio

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