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fixed pulley is attached to each end of this shaft,


without the support of the external pressure of these pulleys projecting over the sides of the ves

the sea water, which would balance the internal

By HENRY JOHNSOx Esq.* sel; they are three feet or more in diameter, and TIE few experiments which I have made on the pressure, and has not been strengthened for the on periphery have a hollow or groove to

present experiment, this experiment must be concompressibility of water by pressure, show a receive the chains which are to run over them; they are also so constructed as to take a firm hold greater than indicated by Nr. Carston of 1 in sidered not as an exact experiment, but simply as

an illustration of a principle; the amount of con. of the chains as the power is exerted in dragging 21,740 for the pressure of one atmosphere. The the chains over the pulleys. On the other or the method adopted is that of subjecting to the pression being greater than that indicated by the

previous experiments. stern end of the boat are two pulleys, also pro- pressure of a column of mercury a bulb of water

The vessel is made of cylindrical form in order on the short end of an inverted glass syphon, conjected over, one on each side ; these are loose, so

to allow some length for the piston and scale, and that the chains merely run over them. Friction taining eight ounces of water; ninety-nine parts it contains exactily 10 ounces of water. The rollers are also placed along each side of the ves. sel, to carry the chains as they pass from the vided into 100 degs, so that each degree is of the piston is of such a size that 26 in. would displace stern to the bows of the vessel; the chains, which 30 in. of mercury caused a compression of rather being 1-1000th part of this length a portion of

one ounce of water, and is divided into 100 prinwhole 1-10,100th part, and the pressure of each

cipal degrees, which are subdivided, each principle are endless, pass or are dragged over fixed pulleys at the bow of the vessel, and falling down lie

more than 1 deg. in fresh water, and about of a along the bottom of the canal, and thus become degree in sea water. The result varied a little 40 deg. (about 10 in.) has been taken, so that this

instrument can record compression up to the exthe fixed point or lineal anelor on which the owing to the effect of slight variations of tempera- tent of 40 parts in a thousand.

A spanner power acts; the action of the engine in dragging ever, does not affect the principle of the instru- accompanies the instrument, to unscrew pr tighten the chain over the loose and fixed pulleys being ment. The compressibility of water is too minute the spanner fits into and turns a tap at one end of necessarily to drag or propel the boat forward. Every yard of the chain passed over the pulleys corded in two methods ; one, with a bulb or bottle the cylinder, the interior of which is oval, and the representing a yard of space that the boat has and a tube accurately divided, the tube being tap has a small air channel to allow the escape progressed in her course—the fixed point or length of chain lyiag at the bottom of the canal furnished with an index to be pushed along the air, so that the cylinder may be filled quite full

of water. The instrument may then be placed in still remaining the same, what is taken up at / tube by a cork or elastic piston isolating the water the accompanying stand, and the cross bar screwed the stern being replaced by exactly the same in the vessel, and travelling along the tube towards

on to the piston, and weights attached to the length deposited at the bows. The

the bulb during the descent until the isolated speed

cross bar showing pressure after deducting the water became equally dense with the water sur weight of the two 2 lb weights, together 4 lb., of the vessel is thus exactly equivalent to the speed and size of the driving pulleys, rounding it, and when pushed back in ascending which are required to overcome the friction on unless, indeed, there should be any slip of the by the expanding water in the bottle, leaving the piston in the packing box, when the cylinder chain in passing over them, and this in prac. sion, a small aperture at the end of the scale index pressed down a little, and afterwards pushed

behind the index to mark the degree of compres: is empty. The spring should be relaxed, and the tice is easily prevented, and is again exactly measured by the velocity of the chain, unless there allowing the escape of the air confined by the cork should be a slip of the chain along the whole or elastic piston. The instrument to be fastened up to the piston to prevent the friction of the in

If the two

dex from affecting the length over the bottom of the canal, and this, of to a line with the piston downwards, so that the 5 lb. weights, together 10 lb., are used after deduet, course, is a mere matter of the weight of the isolated water, being lighter than surrounding chain. In repeated trials which have been made water, should press upwards against the tap rathering the 4 lb. for friction, a pressure weight remains before thousands of spectators (and in more than than towards the piston. Another method of of 6 lb. The diameter of the piston being isths of an one of which the writer was on board), in a boat applying the principle has, however, been adopted and the pressure of the 6 16." upon the piston is 70 feet long and 7 feet wide, the chain used was

on the suggestion of Mr. F. Hoffman, who made thus equal to a pressure of 81 10. per square inch. only 20 lbs. per yard, or 40 lbs. per yard for the of metal, and in lieu of a scale tube, to use a long ments to ascertain the effect of variation of tem,

the instrument; namely, to have a tube or cylinder two chains, 22 yards of double chain being always bolt of metal, or, in other words, a long solid perature upon the capacity of the cylinder, and

It is to be hoped that after some further experi. at bottom; this gives a weight or resistance of 880 lbs. in this case as the fixed point. From the metal piston to enter the cylinder through a data ascertained by Mr. Fairbairn, that in tug. packing box, and to be pressed into the cylinder any correction that may be required, that the ging vessels the average pull of a horse was 94 lbs., by the external pressure of the superincumbent instrument will be found practically useful. the fixed point in these trials would exceed nine into the cylinder until the density of the isolated ON THE TRUE ACTION OF WHAT ARE

water. In descending the piston, when pressed horses' power, and an engine power of nine horses could therefore be exerted without the chain slipsea water equalled that of the sea water surround.

CALLED HEAT-DIFFUSERS. ping over the bottom of the canal. The speed at- ing it would draw along an external scale an index

By Artur A. Taylor, of Marseilles. tained ranged from four to six miles per hour, and recording the compression; and on ascending, the nothing more was attempted at that time; the piston, when pushed back by the expansion of the Mr. WYE WILLIAMS and others liave found that

an increased effect was produced by the fuel motion was easy and regular, the facility for start- index fixed by a spring acting on a toothed rack burnt in steam boilers when what have been called ing equal to either screw or paddle, and the power at the side of the scale. In this form the action heat-diffusers were placed in the tubes or flues

, cf stopping quite peculiar. The moment the en. gine stops she drags at anchor, and the momentum piston being pressed into the cylinder, or out of it

, matallic bands or ribands twisted into spirals of

of the instrument appears to be very simple—the The apparatus in question consists generally of half of her own length. The weight of chain can

according to the relatial density of the water in bent in the direction of their length into zigzag be doubled or quadrupled without inconvenience, the cylinder and of the water surrounding it; and forms, and placed in the tubes or flues, the and the capability of using increased power to any

resemble the action of some other hydraulic professed object of this addition being to break up extent be afforded as required. The weight of presses, although this instrument is worked by or disturb the current of heated gases passing chain when ir.creased does not materially increase the pressure of the sea, and others by the hydranlic through the tubes, and to cause every portion of the loss of power, as the power expended in rais- pump. After a correction for the effect of the the gases to inpinge on the heating surfaces. ing the chains at the stern is neutralised by the friction upon the piston in the packing box, and The cause given for the increased effect produced weight of the falling chain at the bows, the only which is considerable, the instrument appears to being, that when a current of heated gases passes loss of power being the friction on the pulleys and record the density or compression of the sea through a tube under ordinary circumstances

, only friction rollers as the chains pass from stern to water surrounding it--and consequently the the exterior portions of the columns come in constem of the boat above water, and that must be so pressure to which telegraph lines would be sub- tact with the sides of the tube, and that in thus trifling as not to merit calculation. The inven-jected at the same depth.

disturbing the current by obstacles to its direct tion is not limited in its application to canals, but

An experiment of great interest might be made course, a more perfect contact of the gases with is suited to rivers where occasional shallowness by sending down with this instrument a deep sea the surfaces is produced. The question which I may render either paddles or screw useless, or

thermometer, and deducting from the total amount wish to raise is, whether this is the true explana. where a strong current would prevent any amount of compression, the compression resulting from tion of the effect produced by diffusers, deflecting of power being got except at an enormously in- variation of temperature between the temperature bridges, &c. I think it can hardly be admitted creased and therefore impracticable speed. No of the water and the surface and at extreme that each molecule of a gas passing through a tube additional speed but only an additional power depths, and comparing the balance of compression follows a course parallel with the axis, for those in would be required by the chain propeller to stem with the depth as indicated by careful soundings, contact with the sides of the tube will be so imthe strongest current, and however shallow, if the or with some approved instrument, as, for instance, peded by friction as to have a much slower motion boat will float the propeller will work.

Massey's sounding instrument. Some further ex- than those in the centre, just as in a river the It is almost needless to add that the working periments will be required to ascertain the effect current near the banks is less rapid than that in of the chain gives rise to none of that commotion of variation of temperature on the capacity of the the middle of the stream; and, that as in the river, in the water that constantly attends the working cylinder; and any correction that may be neces- so in the tube, a series of eddies will be formed, of both paddles and screw'; the chains rise and sary. An endeavour has been made to demonstrate tending to bring all portions of the gas in contact fall without the least perceptible agitation of the practically the compression of water by screwing with the sides of the tube. This peculiar motion water, and even the ordinary wave from the bow a small cross-bar into the end of the piston and of gases in a tube may very clearly be observed of the boat is cut in pieces by the falling chain attaching weights to it, but as the instrument is in the smoke issuing from the funnel of a and reduced to the merest ripple.

British Association, 1859,

+ British Association, 1859,



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steamer, the smoke retaining the eddying motion are 75 per cent. less than the usual pumps cm- 3. Work for the power or root in the usual which it had in the funnel for some time after ployed for mining purposes. 3. It occupies a very way. leaving it. These considerations led me to con- small space. 4. It raises water from any depth 4. Then subtract from the characteristic the sider the mere disturbance of the currents as with the same facility and economy. 6. It raises numerator of the before-mentioned fraction, which inadequate to explain the increased evaporation with the water, and without the slightest injury will bring it negative again, and the result is the observed, and to attribute it to a very different to the apparatus, sand, mud, wood, stone, and substituted logarithm of the answer, which may be

Gases do not radiate the heat which they every object of a smaller diameter than its tube. found at once by the tables. contain, so that the only mode in which a gas can 6. It is easily removed, and requires no cleaning This mode, though long in description, is very communicate its heat to a surface is by contact or or attention."

easy and simple in practice, as the following exconnection. This is in the present practice the The pump may be seen at Mr. W. P. Warners, amples, scarcely practicable at all by the ordinary only mode in which those heating surfaces of a Welsh Harp, Edgeware-road (near Cricklewood). mode, will show :boiler, which are not exposed to the radiation of the fire or flame, can abstract heat from the pro- CONCUSSION AND PERCUSSION SHELLS.

Required the value of ducts of combustion ; but if in a flue or tube a solid body be introduced, it will become heated TO THE EDITORS OF THE MECANICS' MAGAZINE."


= 0·4555. by contact with the gases, and will radiate the GENTLEMEN,—In page 96 of Captain Jervis's

11 heat thus received to the sides of the flue. Now“ Engines of War," he states that “ Captain Moor

Tabular Log

7.6585411 these diffusers, &c., exactly fulfil these conditions, som, R.N. perfected concussion fuzes." Captain

Add denominator 11 and I, therefore, attribute their effect mainly, if Moorsom's sheli was and is a percussion shell. not entirely, to the function which they must It was I who invented the concussion fuze as ar

+ 10-6585411 fulfil in absorbing heat from the gases by contact, back as 1842. and the select committee of artillery

5 and then radiating this heat to the sides of the officers at Woolwich were so pleased with its pertubes or flues, and I think it will be admitted that formance that they officially reported that it was

11 ) 53.2927055 the amount of heat thus conveyed to the water simple, safe, and efficacious, being well adapted may be very important, when it is considered that for horizontal fire with high velocities.” I gave

4.8417914 the temperature of the gases in the tubes of a it the name of concussion fuze to distinguish it from

Subtract numerator + 5 boiler at 5 in. er 6 in. from the fire-box tube-plates all percussion shells of the spherical form, which is about 800 deg. Fah., and that these radiators latter I considered to be highly dangerous, as has

Tabular log.

7-8147914 will consequently have a temperature of several since proved to be on more than one occasion. hundred degrees above that of the surfaces in con- See former numbers of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. tact with the water in the boiler, and that a very

I am, Gentlemen, yours obediently,

= 0 69956 Answer. active radiation must consequently take place

J. NORTON. from one to the other.

Required the value of 0-000004738100682.
This principle once
Rosherville, 24th Oct.

682 established, the modes of application in pratice are, Extract from Colonel Beamish's letter to the

Here 0.0682 = of course, endless, and I will only mention that I Editor of the United Service Magazine, August

10000 do not see any advantage in making these radiat. 1859. “It is interesting to trace the progress

Tab. Log. = 6.6756012 ing surfaces of such a form as to impede the of human invention, to observe the unaided

Add Denom. + 10000* draught, especially in the case of marine boilers, struggles of genius, the frowns of fortune, the rebut would rather choose the form which would buffs of ignorant officials; "the hope deferred,

+ 9994-6756013 give the greatest amount of radiating surface, and the assumption, presumption, and jealousy of

0682 offered the least impediment to the free passage of rival aspirants, until the name, and fame, and the products of combustion through the tubes. identity of the original are mystified and over.

681.6368762 Perhaps as effective a form as any for placing in laid by modern pretenders, and the public are left

Subtract Numerator + 682 the tubes of boilers would be a simple straight in the pleasing predicament of not knowing band of metal, or a wider band bent in the direc. which is which.'

tion of its breadth, at an angle of 60°. In the
case of marine boilers, they should be made so as RULE TO FACILITATE THE USE OF LO.
to draw out easily, to enable the tubes to be swept.

= 0·4333873 Answer.

Required the value of 0.5253.


Here 2.53 The following description of an improved chain GENTLEMEN,—Everybody who has worked much

100 pump, the invention of M. Bastier, has been sent with logarithms knows that the raising of powers

Tab. Log. 0:5 1.698970 for publication :or extracting of roots of numbers below unity by

Add Denom. + 100 “The chain pump now employed in the Royal their aid is attended with some inconvenience. Navy has a calibred tube of uniform diameter, and This arises from the fact that, in order to faci.

99.698970 the discs are furnished with leather washers. Its litate the use of the Tables, it is customary not

2:53 defects are, namely:-1. The resistance caused by to take the real logarithm of the number, but a the friction of the leather discs against the inner certain substituted conventional one.

For ex.

+ 252.238394 part of the tubes. 2. The rapid decay and altera- ample, the real logarithm of 0:5 is 0:301030, Subtract Numerator + 253. tion of shape of the leather discs, which cannot but as this number is not found in the tables, it retain their elasticity. 3. The loss of the water is customary to take the log. of 5, and affix to it

1.238394 caused by the spaces left empty by the ascending a minus index, marking it thus: 1-698970. This column of water, and consequently loss of motive is an anomalous kind of expression, one part being

= 0:1731 Answer. power, wbich renders it unfit for mining or other positive and another part negative; and, therepurposes where the water has to be raised from a fore, it is scarcely to be wondered at that its

I am, &c., considerable depth. In T. 0. Bastier's new pa- management should cause trouble.

W.P. tented pump-elevator the tube is of unequal In multiplication or division by logarithms, the London, 20th October, 1859. diameter, that is to say, some parts at a certain rules usually given, though somewhat confusing, distance from each other are of a slightly smaller are sufficient; but ini involution or evolution

“HOW BIG BEN SHOULD BE SUSdiameter than the others. This peculiar disposi. with complicated exponents they fail; and it be

PENDED." tion proves a great improvement. It replaces the comes necessary to resort to the true method of


“ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.' piston, and keeps the column of water suspended working. by finding the real logarithm instead of by causing each disc passing through the smaller the substituted tabular one, i.e., taking the tabular GENTLEMEN,—Will you oblige me by inserting tubes to produce sufficient 'aspiration.' Besides, logarithm of the reciprocal of the number, with a in the next number of your Magazine a few words M. Bastier's discs are furnished with three super- negative sign.

in reply to an article in the last number of the posed india-rubber washers of different diameters, I venture, however, to propose a rule by which Magazine from Mr. Charles W. Lancaster on the which by their permanent elasticity are in con- the substituted tabular numbers may be used, subject, “How Big Ben should be Suspended.” tingal contact with the inner part of the tubes, however complicated the exponent of the power The method there mentioned by Mr. Lanand keep them constantly filled. The discs being or root may be:

caster originated from myself nearly two years placel about one yard from each other, it has been 1. Express the exponent of the power or root since, and was at that time communicated to Mr. found practically that the resistance was suffi- in the form of a fraction, whose numerator and C. Mears previous to his casting the present Bell. ciently divided to render the action of the india- denominator are both whole numbers.

It also appeared in the MECHANICS MAGAZINE rubber washers easy and effective."

2. Having found the substituted logarithm October 7, No. 41, in a letter from Mr. Loseby on The following statements are made as to the from the tables, and given it a negative charac- Big Ben, and also in the Society of Arts Journal of advantages of the improved pump: _“1. Itteristic in the usual way, make this characteristic the same date. utilises from 90 to 92 per cent of the motive positive, by adding to it the denominator of the

I am, Sir, Yours, &c. power. 2. Its price and expense of 'installation' above fraction.



THE GREAT EASTERN AND STEAM-SHIP sult determined after this manner, but that in occasion to bring the matter under public notice. If ECONOMY.

fluence must be ascertained separately, by taking you, Sir, and the public agree with me in thinking TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” the midship section for the peculiar governing such a step desirable, I am sure the authorities will a few observations on the formulæ for steam-ship of her form ; but at the same time it is seen that tions. As a justification for putting myself forward

quantity. In this way it is seen that the Great gladly give their consent to the necessary arrangeGENTLEMEN: --Permit me, in addressing to you Eastern presents no remarkable result arising out mention and the friends and ind minerheit dhe in performances, to take the opportunity of adverting first, to an erratum in my last communication, the result is so far satisfactory as to permit the in this matter, I beg to add that I was an intimate by the omission of part of a sentence, thus render other circumstances of her build to have full scope, friend of the late George Stephenson, and that I alss ing it somewhat obscure. I contended therein that for a dynamic performance of extraordinary com- enjoyed the friendship of his son, whom, indeed, a in respect to the combination of speed and carry. mercial excellence.

short time before his fatal illness, I had arranged to ing power, the triumph of the Great Eastern was May I be permitted to think that the appro- join in a journey through Egypt next month"

The following letter on this subject bas been te complete," but the words in italics were omitted. priate formula for mercantile steam transport is a I may add, that her performance was very satis subject for the reconsideration of Mr. Atherton ceived:-GENTLEMEN, - I quite agree with Sir Joseph factory even as to absolute velocity, althongh it and the committee of Section G of the British Paxton, who has been honoured by Royal distinction should be admitted that it never exceeded four

for minor services, that the nation's gratitude should Association, I am, &c.

speak for itself, in the last tribute paid to the honoured teen knots; because as your correspondent

BENJ. CIEVERTON. memory of both those illustrious benefactors of their “ Atlantic” observes, high speed merely was not

country, the Stephensons. Among the earliest and the paramount object to be achieved, but eco


greatest works of the father George Stephenson, was nomic speed, in relation to definite power, and in

The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to

the union of Liverpool with Manchester in less than relation to such power and burthen; with the

all subscribers of £l ls. 8d., annually, payable in advance, one hour by railway and locomotive conveyance, thus Post

Office Orders to be made payable to Ř. A. Brooman, at largely contributing to make Liverpool the greatest condition, however, that the absolute velocity the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C.

port in the world, and Manchester the greatest town should rank with the best steamers of the day.


in the world for home and foreign cotton manufacIt was on this point of economic speed, in these All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-column tures, besides leading to the formation of all the other its two relations, that my communication dwelt ; are charged at the rate of $d. per line for any number of railways in this and every other nation. The late pardon me, therefore, in saying, that your remark

insertions less than 13; for 13 insertions, 4d. per line; and Mr. Robert Stephenson stated in his address as Pre

for 52 insertions, 3d. per line. about my forgetting " that a very small (compara- Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as

sident of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1856 tive) amount of engine power has been given to two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for

that railway engineers, railway surveyors and railway the Great Eastern,” does not apply to my obserthe space occupied.

solicitors, divided between the two millions sterling;

Special Arrangements for larger or Serial Advertisements and no member of the engineering profession was more vations, although it certainly is pertinent in re- To ensure insertion, Advertiseinents must reach the Omice extensively and importantly engaged in the executiva spect to absolute speed, and in regard to the by 5 o'clock on Thursday evening each week. None can of these works than the late Robert Stephenson, who lucubrations of those newspaper reporters to

be received after that time for the ensuing number with his father, it is said, most deservedly realisel whom you allude, and who, it is to be regretted, do

nearly half-a-million of money. Among the results not on like occasions hunt in couples, one as the


of the railway and locomotive system Mr Robert literary and descriptive, and the other as the

TO TIE SUBSCRIBERS AND READERS OF THE Stephenson states in his address that the whole com. scientific observer, if the union of such talents in


munity in the United Kingdom were then saving (1856)

in conveyance alone, forty millions sterling annually; in my case, because any variation in the magni: hearted and charitable persons, we

take the liberty (being saved

may be computed to be at least two hundred one person is not to be found. It does not apply Knowing that we have the happiness to embrace among

our subscribers and readers a goodly number of large and as this saving had been progressing gradual, tude of steam-power embarked in the Great fully aware that it is a liberty) of bringing to their notice

for twenty years previously, the aggregate amount Eastern ought, if within reasonable limits, to give nearly the same constants for dynamic per- something more than the relief which, as individuals, we a case of peculiar hardship and distress which calls for spirit which induced Sir Joseph Paston to suggest

millions sterling. The same patriotic and generous formances. have been able to afford it.

a more appropriate resting place for the remains of Now, is the constant 692, as corrected by your- Early in 1857, a firm well known to the engineering world locomotive system,” will no doubt induce the wealthy

George Stephenson, the father, " as the author of the self, anything extraordinary, seeing that four prosecuted a clerk of theirs for embezzlement, and got ships of the Royal Navy exceed it! The formula passed upon him a sentence of several years' imprisonment representatives of George and Robert Stephenson to which gives this constant has for its peculiar gov traordinarily heavy in proportion to the offence, on account

-a sentence which, as the judge himself said, was made ex- rescue the remains of another illustrious railway and erning factor, the midship section of the vessel, of the prevalence of such offences just at that time. The Chesterfield, or the monument so generously and nobis

locomotive benefactor from still greater oblivion than and indicates the value of its form. The result, wife of this manna refined and excellent person--was left intended at Newcastle-upon-Tyne-the only monulike that of absolute velocity, is satisfactory, and whom was then contributing towards its own maintenance.

ment that was erected over the remains of the great that is all that can be said. But in regard to the Aided by two of her children she has, since her husband's man whom I now refer to being the most ordinary third point-the economic speed in relation to conviction, laboured with the utmost industry, and to the full tombstone that could be afforded by his widow, power and burthen-the result is successful in ceeded with the aid of a few friends in doing this until now, yard of Hampstead village-not by removing his the highest degree, and much more I conceive despite a long and dangerous illness. Her health is at last; dishonoured remains to Westminster Abbey, though than the constant 292 indicates, although there however, sadly broken down, and unless assisted she will is not a vessel in the Royal Navy that approaches speedily be, no longer able to keep her children about her, very much nearer than Chesterfield, but merely by even should her life be prolonged."

substituting some humble tablet for the worn-outtomb. it. The appropriate formula in this respect

A memorial, praying for a mitigation of the father's stone erected more than 58 years ago, over the grave giving the above constant is the usual one- punishment, and setting forth in connection with this case The inscription might be :-" This tablet was erected Velocity * x Displacement !

other facts to which we need not here refer – (which
memorial was signed by the present Lord Mayor of London, Robert Stephenson, to the memory of Henry Cort,

in 1859 by the representatives of the late George and Indicated Horse Power

the Rev. W. Cadman, M.A., of St. George's, Southwark, Now, am I mistaken in supposing that this Taylor, M.D., W. Cooper, Barrister-at-law, one of the

the founder of the British Iron Trade, and Tubal

Cain of our country (See Times 29th July, 1859); he formula, although

it may be appropriate for ships sented to the Henne Secretary, but for want of the signas departed this life the 23rd May, 1800. Reader, bear of the Royal Navy, does not apply properly tures of the prosecutors was of no effect.

in mind this, the humble individual who lies buried to those of the steam mercantile class, and Believing that some of our readers might be willing, or here, was robbed of all his property and patent rights does not do justice to the performance of even desirous, to contribute towards tho relief and aid of this by servants of the British Crown in 1788, who were the Great Eastern in the aspect of commer

unhappy person and her family, we adopt this method of the greatest robbers of the State ever known in cial excellence, namely, speed in conjunction generous enough to send to ourselves (the Editors not the English history , yet, without the inventions of this with great transport capabilities and economic MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, 166 Fleet Street, London), shall be victim to State villany, no railway locomotive

, steam employment of power? It appears to me that this instantly transmitted to the objects of their benevolence, engine, or electric telegraph, for

manufacture or con. formula does not relate purely to burthen, but otherwise. We need hardly say that the smallest gift the old or new world: nor could the consumers of

veyance, could have been made available either in mixes up with it the question of section; or rather

would help to gladden the mother's heart. We sincerely British iron have saved in the price of wrought iron it infers from the displacement a factitious midship hoppe des écore, we seal

. not fail to receive many immediate alone, in the last sixty years," six hundred inillions section, instead of the real one, in order that

of money."

Sexxx tonnage as well as section should be represented.

We learn from the Paris correspondent of the But surely these two elements should each have its

Our {Weekly Gossip. Times that Admiral Paris, C.B, of Brest, has been destinctive formula, each excluding the influence SIR JOSEPH Paxtos proposes that the remains of system in France,

doing good service in connection with the lifeboat of the other, if we would arrive at the merits George Stephenson should be removed to Westmin issued from the Paris


, entitled Instructions in

A very useful pamphlet has just truly. The square of the cube root of the dis honouring the son

(Robert Stephenson), the father, English

as Instructions for the Management of Opera placement excludes the influence of the great who was pro-eminently the author of the locomotivó Boats in a Heavy Surt and Broken Water

, fc, and length in proportion to width for which the Great system, ought not to be forgotten, but that his re- was published under the auspices of the Royal Eastern is remarkable. It is this, with her great mains should be removed from the comparative National Lifeboat Institution. The French translation size, and with good lines as a condition, which obscurity in which they are now placed to Westmin has been very well done by Admiral Paris

, and the will give her such pre-eminence in a commercial ster Abbey, and that a suitable monument should be pamphlet has been extensively circulated on the coasts point of view, and to a degree which no formula erected there in memory of father and son, to whom of France. “I alluded some time since," says the writer within my knowledge sufficiently indicates. England and the world are so much indebted.

The just referred to, “to the lamentable want of lifeboats Surely what is required is to take the simple dis mentioned to me by some of his old associates not Lifeboat Association to assist the French Governo

on the French coast, and the offer of the National placement as the factor, and not any power thereof. very long ago, although without any anticipation of ment in this work of humanity. There is not sa Good lines will no doubt contribute to a good re-| the sad event which appears to make this a proper accurate a Wreck Register and Chart

kept bere as is

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England, but it is known that hundrels of lives are binding). 2. The manufacture of socket brushes and sponge or other like porous homogeneous matter, in every year lost from wrocked vessels on the coasts of sockets for brushes with a binding formel of wire rok a bulk, or in separate layers, so arranged that by a France France has an extent of sea-border from or strips of metal, such binding being employed as the perforated plate, or by wire gauze dises suitably Dunkirk to Bayonne of nearly a thousand miles, yet, socket itself or to form only part of the socket. 3. strengthened, he is enabled to compress such porous with the exception of one or two places, there is The holding of the binding for brushes together while matter so as to regulate or allow the gas to penetrate hardly a single ellicient lifeboat on the whole of this being formed, and the binding after being formed, to through it at such a rate that when lit it shall be cxtensive and dangerous line of coast, and, as for the the block or cap by strips of metal. 4. The use of a enabled to commingle with and consume a due promortar and rockot, life-preserving apparatus, such pin for securing the block of socket brushes to the portion of atmospheric air to produce silent and perthings are very little known, perhaps never heard of.handle. 5. The securing of wire bound brushes lect combustion in the burning of gas, and consequent Saving human life is as noble a task as destroying it, generally by soldering the wires together after the purity and brilliancy of light. Patent completel. even for an “idea,' and the Emperor of the French brushes are made--all as described with reference to 743. W. Delany. “Improvements in ploughs for could not carry out a better one than by ordering the drawings. Patent completed.

tilling land.” Dated March 23, 1859. some practical and immediate steps to be taken to 731. J. MACINTOSH and G. RUODES. “ Improve- This consists in the use of a number of wheels fixed remedy the evil, and to provide efficient means for ments in tents and such like coverings for shelter upon stationary horizontal axles carried in a recsaving the lives of thousands of his subjects, and against the weather.” Dated March 22, 1859.

tangular frame. A cam groove is formed in the perithose of other countries, who are shipwrecked on the This invention has been described and illustrated phery of each wheel, which groove is in a plane at French coast, and who too frequently perish for the in the Mechanics' MAGAZINE. Ses pages 201 and right angles to the axle, excepting at one part where want of such means. 220, Vol. 1 (New Series). Patent completod.

it is made to diverge slightly out of its course, and to 735. S. ORAM. “Improvements in pipes or tubes return to it again. These wheels are each enclosed by Patents for Inventions. for generating and superheating steam." Dated a pair of discs formed with flanges at their periphe. March 23, 1859.

ries, and rotating loosely upon the axles, the flanges

The improved pipes are made of spiral, corrugated, surrounding and enclosing the wheels. These discs ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS undulated, or indented forms to give increased heat- carry at their peripheries a series of cutters or knifo. ing surface. Patent completed.

edged plates which * radiate from the axles, and Tue abridged Specifications of Patents given below are 736. W. ADAMSON. "Improvements in apparatus revolve with the disc so as to cut the surface of the classified, according to the subjects to which the respective for propelling vessels.” Dated March 23, 1858. nventions refer, in the following table. By the system of

soil into strips, and then to turn such strips over after classification adopted, the numerical and chronological

This is applicable to vessels of light draught. The the manner of the ordinary mould board of the order of the specifications is presorved, and combined with patentee places on the under side of the vessel a lap plough. Patent abandoned. all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be which turns at one of its ends on an axis parallel with understood that these abridgements are prepared exclu- the keel. This flap works water tight within a cham; chinery or apperatus for the manufacture of sheet

741. J. I. JOHNSON. “Improvements in ma. sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the ber of a suitable form to permit it to make a partial tin.” (A communication.) Dated March 23, 1850. Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie revolution on its axis. The chamber is open at its tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not to produce thein without acknowledgement: after end, and in the sides of the chamber there are which the melted tin is poured to endless bands

This consists in attaching the vessels into STRAN ENGINES, &c. None. valves which alternately open and permit water to

continuous travelling BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, &c., 745. flow into the chamber when the flap is moved away or chain which have a

Elastic bars are ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car.

from the side in which they are situated, and close motion imparted to them. riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 740, 759, 793, 794. when the flap is moved towards them, the water being arranged as to moderate the pressure of the vessels SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings, 732, 736, 738. thus forced out at the open end of the chamber, by against the spreading plate or surface during their

Patont com CULTIVATION OF THE Sort, including agricultural and hor which means the vessel is propelled forward. Patent passage over or along such surface.

completed. tieultural implements and machines, 743, 773, 786.

pletelt. FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing ture of candies." Dated March 23, 1859.

737. S. CLARKE. “ Improvements in the manufac- in steam boiler and other furnaces.” (A communi

7 15. P. P. BOLL and II. REGEE. * Improvements food for men and animals, 753, 758, 761. Fibrous FADRics, including machinery for treating fibres This consists in manufacturing candles with their cation.) Dated March 23, 1859. palp, paper, &c., 739, 751, 771, 774, 776. lower ends composed of plaster of Paris or other

This consists in constructing furnaces with two or BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, cement, which, in addition to extending the lengths of more fire-places in combination with suitable flues, so

drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 741, 772. the candles, also sustains the wicks whilst the lower arranged that the gases distilled from the fuel fed LIONTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 737, 712, 749, 763, portions of the candles are being consumed. Patent upon the fire bars of one fire-place shall be caused after 772, 781, 782 abandoned.

traversing the furnace to enter beneath the fire-bars FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, 738. W. MIDDLESHIP. "Improvements in pro

of another fire-place and pass up through the hot fuel time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 736, pelling vessels.” Dated March 23, 1859.

upon them, being thus effectually consumed. Patent 762, 790, 796. Metals, including apparatus for their manufac-ure, 711, centre, so that its interior space may communicate for cutting splints for matches." Dated March 23,

I[ere the screw is to be made hollow, or open at the


746. F. TILLETT. “Improvements in machinery 752, 775, 777.

with the interior of a hollow shaft on which the screw CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY. None. is mounted. Water is to be admitted to the central

1859. ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 753, 785. hollow shaft, and allowed to flow to the ends of the lances or cutters (for grooving the block to be cut

This consists in combining a set of reciprocating WARFARE, 731, 757.

arms, blades, or plates of which the screw is composed into splints) with a knife or cuiter for slicing off the LETTER PRESS PRINTING &c. None. MISCELLANEOrs, 733, 734, 735, 716, 77, 713, 750, 754, 760, 761, 765, 768, 767, 768, 169, 170, 173, 179, 130, 183; -88; phery of the screw, and if desired it may be arranged grooved portions, so that the cut of the slicing knite 791, 795.

to deliver the water from suitable openings at either shall take place at right angles, or nearly so, to the

side of the blades. The reactionary force of the ellluent cut of the grooving instruments. Patent completed. 731. R. A. BROOMAN. " Improvements in fire- water rushing from the openings in the blades will 747. W. and J. GARFORTI. “A certain improve. arins and ordnance, and in projectiles and apparatuses cause the screw to rotate. Patent completed. ment in metallic pistons." Dated March 21, 1859. to be employed therewith.” (A communication.) 739. J. EVANS. "Improvements in the manufac- This consists of an outer ring or rings of ordinary Dated March 22, 1859. ture of paper.” Dated March 23, 1869.

construction which are to be expanded against the The patentee claims, 1, the construction of breech- Here the paper is burnished by bringing it into cylinder by an internal v-ring made in sections, loading arms described with reference to the drawings. contact with one or more polished rolls, driven rapidly each of which sections being provided with a small 2. The use of a cartridge with a preliminary priming as compared with the surface speed of the paper, the piston or pistons, one end of which acts upon the which is discharged by a pin or needle fitted in a hole paper being supported by other hard and polished ring, and the other receives the direct pressure of of two different diameters. 3. The forming of a bullet rolls. Patent completed.

steam which is supplied and conveyed to an angular to answer the purpose of an ordinary bullet and car- 740. B. Browne. “A new method of working or space in the interior of the piston by a steam tridge. 4. The application of the foregoing improve operating switches and signals on railways by inpipe which rises and descends through a stuffing ments in small arms to revolving fire-arms. 6. The proved apparatus for such purpose.” (A communica. box in the cylinder cover with the action of the construction of breech-loading cannons, described with tion.) Dated March 23, 1859.

piston. Patent completed. reference to the drawings. 8. The construction of a This consists in working switches and disc signals by 743. W. E. WILEY. "Improvements in the non-recoil carriage for cannons, described with refer causing the flanges of the running wheels of the car manufacture of boxes or cases used for holding ence to the drawings. 7. The forming of projectiles riages and lovers connected to the engine to actuate needles, pens, matches, pencils, and for other liko for rifled small arms or cannons with wooden pro. mechanism fixed at certain parts of a line of railway. purposes. Dated March 21, 1859. jecting plugs, either let partially into, or passing The mechanism consists of a hydro-pneumatic swing This invention embraces various modifications, and entirely through the projectile. 8. The construction table, connected with which are pumps in which oil is is not fully described apart from the drawings. of a rod with spring arms for cleaning out the bore placed An important feature in this invention con- Patent completel. and grooves of breech-loading cannon, all as described sists in employing oils of a non-siccative character, or 749. W. E. WILEY. “New or improved instru. with reference to the drawings. Patent completed. not capable of congealing in cold weather. Patent ments to be used in burning and supporting candles." 732. J. TYSSEN. “An improved apparatus for in completed.

Dated March 24, 1859. dicating the speed of ships and other vessels.” Dated 711. J. V. HIELAKKER. “Improved apparatus for This consists principally of a cap, or a tube March 22, 1839.

pressing or moulding artificial or patent fuel, fire- terminated by a cap, which cap or tube is placed upon This consists of an apparatus to be fitted to a ship bricks, and similar articles.” Dated March 23, 1859. the candle while burning. The wick of the candle to show inboard the speed at which the ship is passing This consists of certain new mechanical arrange protrudes through a hole in the summit of the cap or through the water. The inventor fits on the axis of a ments constituting an apparatus in which percussion tube, and the said cap or tube, resting on the top of three-bladed screw, which is placed outside the vessel, force is to be employed for effecting compression of the the candle, descends as the candle burns. Patent a wheel inboard, which wheel gears into one or more materials to be moulded. Patent abandoned.

abandoned. wheels, and causes the last in a train to make gay 749. G. NEAL. “ Certain improvements in ap- 750. F. E. SHARP. “ Improvements in machinery the revolution when the vessel is progressing at say paratus or fittings connected with the burning of gas for corking bottles.” Dated March 24, 1859. en knots an hour, which revolution is shown upon an for regulating and economizing its consumption." This consists in the use of a table moving on a indicating dial, Patent completed. Dated March 23, 1859.

centre axis, in connection with which are certain 733. C.A. WATKINS. “ Improvements in the manu. In this description of regulator the chamber or wheels and levers, which upon being actuated either facture of brushes.” Dated March 22, 1859. cavity containing the principle of regulation forms the by steam or other power effects the working of the

The patentee claims, 1, a method of securing hair in base of the part that extends up, surrounding the base bottles. Patent completed circular and oval brushes by means of certain metal of thie burner. This cavity the inventor fills with 751. E. S. TEBBUTT. " Improvements in the manufacture of elastic fabrics.” Dated March 24, 1 from moving sideways; the lower end of this web or the larger bulge serving as the base, and the smaller 1859.

keel may be formed with a flange or rest projecting one to take hold of. He forms a hole through the The inventor cements in the ordinary way the on each of its sides. There are various modifications body of the glass from top to bottom, such hole being inner surfaces of the fabrics which are to be united to included. Patent abandoned.

largest at the ends and small in the middle. Thus i form the compound elastic fabric, and inserts between 760. H. HUMPHREYS, Sen. “An improvement in cylindrical piece of lead or other soft metal may be them bands or tapes of india-rubber, the tapes being unhairing hides and skins, and in the manufacture of inserted and pressure applied above and below, which at tension at the time of the joining of the fabrics in leather." Dated March 25, 1859.

will fix the lead or soft metal firmly in the glass. order to prcdace the puckering or corrugations. This consists in the application of the ashes of spent Patent abandoned. Patent abandoned. tanners' bark in the unhairing process. The spent

770. B. and C. L. SMITH. “Improvements in the 752. C. SANDERSON. “Improvements in preparing, tanners' bark is burnt to an ash, the ash combined preparation of certain colouring matter, applicable for tempering, and covering or coating thin strips or with water, and is then used. Patent abandoned. dyeing and printing." Dated March 26, 1859. sheets of steel.” Dated March 21, 1859.

761. G. HASELTINE. " Improvements in the This consists in precipitating the colouring matter One of these improvements consists in hardening manufaeture of small metallic chains.” (A com. from ordinary archil liquors of commerce, so as to the strip or sheet of steel when in the full or normal munication.) Dated March 26, 1859.

obtain from them the colouring matter in a concen. size, as it comes from the cold rolls, and before it ir This relates to the construction of a chain composed trated or solid form. Patent completed. cut up into the narrow strips which constitute crino. of domed or cup-shaped links, the several operations 771. J. BUCKLEY, O. GREENHALGI, and R. line steel. The strip or sheet is coiled round so that being performed by certain novel mechanical devices. Hutcoinson. "Improvements in machinery or apa small space is left between each coil. This is The invention is not described apart from the draw. paratus for printing woven fabrics." Dated March effected by coiling along with the strip of steel a ings. Patent completed.

26, 1859. piece of wire of a thickness cerresponding to the 762. W. REDGRAVE. “ An improved pillow travel. This consists of an apparatus for printing both distance required between the coil of the sheet. ling cap.” Dated March 28, 1859.

sides of a fabric at once. It is not described apart When the sheet of steel is coiled in this manner the The 'inventor describes a tube of air-tight ma- from the drawings Patent completed. oil in which it will be plunged to harden it will cir- terial. Patent abandoned.

772. C. J. RICHARDSON. “ Improvements in ap. culate over the whole surface of the strip. After 763. E. STRANE. “An improved means or ap: paratus to be applied to chimneys or flues of buildings, removal from the muffle in which it has been treated paratus for preventing candles dropping or guttering." for preventing down draught or return smoke, for a spindle is passed through the centre of the coil, and Dated March 26, 1859.

their insuring upward ventilation, and for reducing the strip of steel being removed therefrom is gradually This consists in a protecting hood, cap, or cover, to the quantity of smoke or the blacks from the staoke passed between a pair of metal dics which are kept at fit over the top of the candle, descending as the passing into the atmosphere." Dated March 28, 1869. å red heat. Patent completed. candle burns away. Patent completed.

This consists in a contrivance for the prevention of 753. W. CLARK. “A machine for separating oats 764. S. DREYFOUS, G. Richer, and E. CORNIER. down draught, called the "wind cap," in a contrivance from their husks or chaff.” (A communication.) “Improvements in preserving eggs.” Dated March for securing ventilation called the " iron stack flue,". Dated March 24, 1859. 26, 1859.

and in a contrivance for reducing the quantity of This invention is not described apart from the This consists in introducing the eggs into boxes dense smoke or blacks passing into the atmosphere drawings. Patent completed.

moulded of plaster of Paris, and hermetrically sealing called the "rain vase." We cannot devote space to 754. H. RIGBY. "Improvements in machnery or the boxes, the eggs being wrapped in paper and sur- the details of the invention. Patent completed. apparatus for obtaining inotive power, applicable to rounded with charcoal powder. Patent abandoned. 773. C. F. VASSEROT. “ An improved diving ap. hoists, and all other purposes to which motive


765. M. Firti. "Improvements in machinery paratus.” (A communication.) Dated March 28, can be applied." Dated March 25, 1859.

for grinding saws and flat plates of steel.” (A com- 1859. The patentee employs an upper reservoir of water, munication.) Dated March 26, 1859.

This consists of a garment formed of metallic frameand by a regulating valve allows the water to fall Here the patentee arranges beneath a grinding work, the joints of which are covered with a waterupon the buckets of a water-wheel or turbine, the stone an adjustable table, supported at one end by å proof coating. By means of this garment a body water being delivered into a similar reservoir below. short shaft forming a hinge, which rests on a casting sunk at the bottom of the sea may be visited, and The water wheel or turbine gives motion to a series or pan. To this casting or pan set screws are fixed chains fixed to for raising it. Each chain enters an of hydraulic pumps for forcing the water into one or for regulating the table that it may grind the saws iron tube which passes at different

inclinations through more hydraulic rams, to each of which a larger pump thinner on the back if required. The other end of the a large cylinder of sheet iron, and the upper part of bucket is attached, working in a suitable barrel, the table rests on a screw attached to a wheel, by which each tube is furnished with a check for holding the bottom of which is placed in the lower reservoir. As the table can be raised to the face of the grinding chain when it is drawn up. This cylinder is conthe turbine turns from the supply of water, and gives stone, or withdrawn from it at pleasure. On top of nected by caoutchouc pipes with an air pump, and has motion to the series of pumps, the ram or rams rise the said table he places a carriage on which the saw to valves for the admission and effluxion of water. and raise the larger bucket or buckets, the effect be ground is placed, and is made to travel backwards Patent abandoned. of which is to raise the surplus water from the lower and forwards in a direction transverse to the axis of 774. J. BUCKINGHAM. “ Improvements in mareservoir to the upper. Patent completed.

the stone, or nearly so. To prevent the saw from chinery or apparatus employed in drawing fibrous 755. C. COWPER. " Improvements in telegraphic coming off the carriage while in the process of grind. substances." Dated March 28, 1859. cables." (A communication.) . Dated March 23, 1859. ing he affixes a plate of metal at one end of the car. This consists in the application to the surface of

Here copper wire is first covered with a coating of riage, of nearly the same thickness as the saw to be the leather coverings of covered rollers of“ a varnish gutta-percha, &c., and then with a mixture composed ground. One end of the saw coming against the said or solution of gutta-percha, or other similar gum, of caoutchouc, gum lac, tar, and cork reduced to plate prevents it from coming off the carriage while non-soluble in oil, dissolved in any suitable solvent. powder, in such proportions that the cable shall be grinding. He also places a cover over the saw to pre. Patent completed. but slightly heavier than the water. Patent aban- vent it from spinning off the carriage. The table and 775. A. V. Newton. “An improved construction doned.

carriage rest in a wooden frame, to which are attached of furnace for reheating steel, preparatory to the 756. R. BAKER. “Improvements in chronometers, two standards for supporting the brackets in which hardening, tempering, or annealing process.” (A watches, and other time-keepers.” Dated March 25, the shaft supporting the grinding stone revolves. communication.) Dated March 28, 1859. 1859. Patent completed.

This consists in so arranging the furnace as to This consists in constructing the escapement of 766. G. NAYLOR. “An apparatus for measuring cause the flame and heat to act upon a closed oren or chronometers, watches, &c., with a balanced detent and indicating the distance passed over or travelled by chamber in which the metal to be operated upon is lever carrying a pin which enters a groove in a piece the same.” Dated March 26, 1859.

placed, so as to distribute the heat under, above, and or block carried by the balance, except at the point This consists in the combination of a graduated in the back of the oven or chamber, and to communi. where the impulse is to be given. Patent completed. “ motive or running wheel,” a “toothed wheel cate a powerful and steady heat to the interior of the

757. J. H. Johnson. 'Improvements in fire moving in trundle gear," a dial-plate, and a hand or oven or chambers, while such interior and its contents arms." (A communication.) Dated March 25, 1859. pointer. Patent abandoned.

have no communication with the flame or gases of This relates more particularly to that class of self- 767. J. C. Evans and P. SOAMES. “Improvements combustion, and as little as possible with the external primers wherein the magazine is contained in the in apparatus for superheating steam.” Dated March atmosphere. Patent abandoned. hammer of the lock. It is proposed to combine suita- 26, 1859.

776. A. TURNER. " Improvements in the mann. ble mechanical devices with the slide which pushes This consists, 1, in the use of a set of superheating facture of elastic fabrics." Dated March 28, 1859. forward the individual primers (which are of the flat pipes in front of the tube-plate. 2 In the employ This consists in the use of threads or yarns composed or wafer kind) into the striking part of the hammer, ment of a superheating chamber, heated by a separate of wool in combination with some other fibrous mate by which combination the slide can be kept rigidly in fire. 3. In the use of superheated pipes

, heated by rial, such as silk, cotton, flax, &o. These compound position over the mouth of the magazine chamber, so a highly heated fluid, or by molten metal. 4. In the threads are chiefly intended to be used as warp threads. as to intercept all communication with the latter. general arrangement of apparatus, shown in draw- Strands of india-rubber may be combined with the Patent completed. ings. Patent completed.

above. Patent abandoned. 758. W. E. NEWTON. "Improvements in ovens 768. M. A. Muir and J. McILWIAM. Improve- 777. A. V. Newron. Improved apparatus for for baking bread and other substances." (A com- ments in moulding or shaping metals." Dated retaining the oil or other fluid used for annealing, munication.) Dated March 25, 1859. March 26, 1859.

tempering, and hardening steel at any equable low This relates to an arrangement of parts whereby This relates to a system of mechanically moulding temperature.” (A communication.) Dated March the oven is rendered automatic, and consists in a sys- various moderately-sized articles in metal, but in par- 28, 1859. tem of screws and endless chains in combination with ticular railway chairs. The mechanical arrangements The apparatus here employed consists of two large a system of permanent ways or tracks loading from consist essentially of two separate divisions, viz., that iron cylindrical tanks placed side by side at a short end to end of the interior, and through the doorways relating to the ramming of the moulding sand upon distance from

each other in a timber framing. The of a horizontal oven. The invention is not fully the pattern, and that comprising the removal of the tanks are connected by a pipe near the bottom to allow described apart from the drawings. Patent com pattern from the moulded sand, or the “ drawing” of the Huid to run freely from one vessel to the other

. pleted.

the pattern. We cannot quote the details of the in. Within each tank is a worm or coil of metal pipe 769. C. HILL. “Improvements in the permanent vention here at sufficient length for an intelligible through which water circulates to keep the oil cool way of railways.” Dated March 25, 1859. abstract. Patent completed.

A space is left in the centre of the coil in one of the When supporting the rails by side bearing plates 709. E. Dowling. Improvements in weights." tanks for a well in which the springs or metal may be having flanges on one or both sides, the inventor Dated March 26, 1859.

plunged and withdrawn without interfering with the forms the rail with a web or keel which projects Here the inventor forms glass weights of any suit- coils. These tanks have moveable covers perforated downwards below the bearing plates, strengthening able shape, but for the large ones he prefers them with small holes, and the cover of the immersion tank the rail itself, and preventing it and the bearing plates circular with a double

bulge and flat at the bottom, has a circular opening at the centre, large enough to

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