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admit the springs or pieces of steel with facility. I same, or in separate vessels, by electricity, or by other manufacture of yarns or threads from uncut and The small holes in the cover act as strainers means, and the invention consists in their introduc- long fibred soft silk waste, and also the combination for the oil from the springs, &c., placed upon them. tion into a cylinder in a mixed or separate state, to of the several processes of drawing, doubling, woving, Over and upon the central part of the other tank be there combined by an electric spark, or by other and spinning, applied as described to the manufacthere is a metallic cylindrical chamber which contains means. The invention is applicable to various pur. ture of yarns or threads from uncut and long fibred soft a central tube and a series of horizontal perforated poses. Provisional protection was not granted for silk, after the said waste bas been dressed, combed discs. In connection with this chamber is a pumping this invention.

out, cleared, &c., &c. Patent completed. apparatus whereby the heated oil is drawn from the 785. R. SEARLE. Improvements in apparatus 793. W. V. EDWARDS. Improvements in the immersion tank through a suitable pipe and delivered used for transmitting signals by electricity for tele- construction of ways and apparatus to facilitate the into the perforated discs of the upper chamber from graphic purposes, and in the construction of tele- conveyance of mails, goods, and passengers. Dated which it descends in a shower, and is cooled by cur. graphic cables.” Dated March 29, 1859.

March 30, 1859. rents of air. The cooled oil runs through the perfo. The patentee claims, 1, the mode of manufacturing Here a tunnel or enclosed passage is constructed rated cover of the tank below into the said tank and telegraphic cables with a core centro or foundation between distant places. At the lower part of such from thence into the immersion tank. Patent aban- formed of bamboo or rattan canes spliced together so tunnel two parallel trams or rails are formed in longi. doned.

as to form a support of the required length. 2. tudinal grooves or recesses. Arrangements are made 778. T. CARR. " Improvements in machinery for Placing the wire band or ribbon in a spiral form for a train of carriages to be brought to rest by means disintegrating artificial manures, and various other round or upon the core or support, by which means of valves which are caused to descend and close a substances." Dated March 29, 1859.

the patentee removes the tension or strain of the given section or length of the tunnel, and passages are This consists of a series of circular cages, arranged cable from the conducting medium. 3. Increasing the opened to admit air into such closed sections, in order on an axis concentrically, the outer periphery of each surface of the metallic conducting medium by forming that there may be no pressure of air acting on the cage being composed of bars having open spaces it into three bands or ribbons, or grooved or corru. carriages in one direction, whilst the tunnel is exbetween them. The material is placed in the central gated wires. Patent completed.

hausted in advance of the carriages. A piston is cage, and it is by centrifugal force thrown through the 786. I. SPIGIT. “Improvements in horse-hoes." applied in advance of or behind the train, and the bars of the several cages. The cages move in con- Dated March 29, 1859.

tunnel is kept exhausted in advance of the carriages trory directions. Patent completed.

Here the hoes are attached to levers connected with when they are required to be in motion. Patent 779. C. L. ROBERTS.“ Improvements in cigars." | a revolving shaft near the front of the machine. This abandoned. Dated March 29, 1859.

revolving shaft works in bearings in a slide frame, 704. G. T. BOUSFIELD. “ Improvements in preThis consists in enclosing within the ends of cigars and is moved by turning a handle attached to a shaft venting explosions in steam boilers.” (A communicamonth-pieces of glass, earthenware, wood, &c., having working a rack or worm thread, by means of which tion.) Dated March 30, 1859. inner tubes or linings of straw, and so placed as to all the hoes work on the same level. One end of each This consists in the application to various kinds of admit of one end being held within the mouth whilst of the levers, to which the hoes or hoe shanks are engines, of an apparatus for stopping entirely or parthe other is embedded in the cigar. Patent com. attached, being fixed to this revolving shaft by sockets tially the flow of steam, &c., to the engine when the pleted.

or otherwise, instead of hanging loosely as heretofore, pressure becomes too high, and by this means to stop 780. W. Mossman. “Improvements in machinery the hoes will all cut level, and not be liable to clip on or retard the engine. Patent abandoned. applied to embossing or cutting presses, for the one side. The depth to which the hoes penetrate the 795. T. D. SHIPMAN. Improvements in appabetter and more expeditious manner of manufacturing ground is regulated by the height of the revolving ratus for stamping and printing." (Partly a comornamental, cut out and embossed work in paper, shaft in the slide frame. At the top of each of the munication.) Dated March 30, 1859. leather, parchment, cloth, foil and other materials." hoe shanks is a socket which slides upon the lever Here the printing surface is fixed in a suitable Dated March 29, 1859.

connected with the revolving shaft, and which may be frame, which is affixed to and slides with an upright This consists in affixing a plate or block to the dab fixed in any position required for different kinds of bar or rod, which moves in suitable guides. The rod of the embossing or cutting press, or placing between corn or roots by set screws, clasps, or otherwise. Pa- or bar is attached to one end of a lever, and the other the dab and the die a plate or block of metal adapted tent completed.

end of the lever is constantly drawn downwards by a so as to press or bear equally on all the cutting edges 787. T. TAYLOR. “Improved means of giving in. suitable spring, so as to raise the printing surface when of the die or dies. Also using in the manufacture creased strength to paper.' Dated March 29, 1859. allowed to do so. An inking roller is carried by the of such ornamental work thin plates of metal, This consists in soaking paper when dry in a con- forked end of a lever which has its axis or fulcrum especially zinc, for the cutting edges of the dies to centrated neutral or nearly neutral solution of chlo. above the lever before mentioned. The other or back press against; also for the sliding framework and ride of zinc, either at the natural temperature of the end of the forked lever is constantly drawn on by a mnoveable point or points, to the lid or cover for the air, or moderately heated, and afterwards thoroughly suitable spring, so as to cause the inking roller to pass paper or other substances when cut remaining in the washing the paper in water. Patent completed. under the printing surface. The back end of the die until embossed. Patent completed.

788. H. P. Burt. “Improvements in apparatus forked lever is attached by a link or connecting rod 781. J. W. KELLY. “ Improvements in gas. for preparing and preserving timber.” Dated March to the fore part of the lever, which acts on the printing burners." Dated March 29, 1859. 29, 1859.

surface, by which the movement of the forked lever is This consists, 1, in the application of a small cylin- This relates to apparatus for impregnating railway caused to depend on the movement of the other lever; drical tube or ring of brass or other metal to the out. sleepers and other timber with creosote or other pre- by this means at each movement an impression is side or top of the burner, whereby a more complete servative liquids or solutions, which apparatus may produced. There are also arrangements in connection combustion of the gas is obtained. 2. In making a also be used for impregnating timber with liquids or with the inking process. Under the printing surface snall number of apertures immediately above or on solutions for clearing the wood, or for rendering it there is an elastic bed of vulcanized india-rubber. the burner side of the cock, which apertures are to be incombustible. Patent completed.

Patent completed. of various sizes, and in covering or enclosing these 789. H. Moss and T. WEST. “A machine for the 796. H, JEPFERIES. “ Improvements in castors apertures in a small bell-shaped or other form of cham. cutting of leather for every purpose, and cutting for furniture." Dated March 30, 1859. ber, at the top of which is to be inserted a burner of cloths, linen, and other fabrics and materials.” Dated Here, in making a castor of that description where larger apertures than any of those enclosed beneath. March 29, 1859.

a sphere is used as the roller, the frame or body of By this means, and with the aid of an external index This relates to regulating the feed, and consists in the castor is made of une piece of glass, china or earthor dial, the key of the cock may be turned so as to the use of a self-acting table, on which, by means of enware, with a recess at its under side to receive the lead to the gas through any of the apertures men. a cam motion, is worked a knife, constructed so as to spherical roller. Patent abandoned. tioned, and thus let pass to the burner a quantity of cut a square edge; the machine may be worked with gas corresponding exactly to that which would be or without a self-acting feed. The knife is so con- PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. issued by any one of the burners now in use. Patent structed, from its being larger at the top than at the

Dated Aug. 30, 1859. completed.

bottom, that when applied without the self-acting 1973. T. Eastman. Improvements in screw pro782. E. de Caranza. “A new system of gas feed it may be discharged from the top, so that it pellers. (A communication.) lighting through new apparatuses and matters richer gives a facility for cutting some six or seven shapes

Dated Oct. 1, 1859. in gas than pit-coal.” Dated March 29, 1859. before it requires emptying; it is also so constructed Here the inventor obtains gas from boghead or that when the self-acting feed is applied by the ap: hardening of saws and steel plates generally.

2225. S. Ward. An apparatus to be used in the compile clay, greasy sawdust obtained from wood that plication of springs, it leaves the material which is has been used in refining or cleansing fatty matters, being cut quite clear of the knife or stamp. Patent

2227. C. Brown. Improvements in inkstands and

date indicator. pit-coal, and the fatty residues left in the extraction completed. of schistic oils. The invention comprises an arrange

Dated Oct. 4, 1859. 700. W. BROWN. "Improvements in manufac. ment of cylinders, retorts, and furnaces, specially ap. turing clog soles, and in the machinery employed

2249. J. Rawlings. An improved construction of plicable for use in private establishments. Patent therein." Dated March 30, 1859.

boot-tree. abandoned. This consists in the use of certain cutters having

Dated Oct. 6, 1959. 783. E. N. NORMINTON, * The cleansing and re- a rotary or reciprocating motion given to them by 2271. G. A. Smith. Improvements in shot and manufacturing of old used dirty railway grease for steam, or other power. Patent completed.

shells, and other projectiles. the manufacturing of new railway grease, for the 791. J. H. LINSET. “Certain improvements in 2273. W. Hopkins. A new or improved steam cleansing and re-manufacturing of old used cotton binding or covering books.” Dated March 30, 1859. engine. waste, tow, or any other textile fabric, and for the This consists in fixing to the back of the leaves of 2275. G. Freeman and J. Royle. Improvements in purifying of oils, or any fatty matter." Dated the book a strong cloth or leather hinge, as is usually looms. March 29, 1859.

employed, which is secured to the cover by plates of 2277. W. Macfarlane. Improvements in machinery This consists in the combination of carbonate of metal, one of which is fixed to each cover; two other or apparatus for drawing off or discharging liquids, soda, sulphate of soda, or sulphuric acid, with palm metal plates clip or confine the loose sides or flaps of the and in fountains, baths, and similar receptacles for oil, or other fatty matter for the manufacture of rail. hinge between them, so that a new set of leaves may liquids. way grease. It also comprises various operations for be securely fixed without injury to the book or covers. 2279. W. Benson. Improvements in projectiles for effecting the objects indicated in the title. Patent Patent abandoned.

muzzle-loading rifled ordnance. abandoned.

792. J. W. HADWEN. “A new art or manufac- 2281. W. Barron. Iinprovements in boilers ap784. T. W. MEEKINS. “ The production of a ture for converting certain kinds of silk waste into plicable to heating and steam generating purposes. motive power and of a projectile and explosive force yarns or threads." Dated March 30, 1859.

2283. W. E. Newton. Improvements in the conto be used in instruments of war.” Dated March The patentee claims the combination of the several struction and manufacture of casks, barrels, and such 29, 1859.

processes of dressing, drawing, doubling, roving, and like vessels, and in the machinery or apparatus to be The object here is the evolution of gases in the spinning applied in the manner set forth to the employed for such manufacture. (A cominunication.)

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6, 4204 Wolverhampton

Dated Oct. 7, 1859. 2935. G. L. Lee. Improvements in producing printing surfaces.

2287. G. P. Dodge. Improvements in apparatus for preserving life, applicable to garments. (A communication.)

2289. D. McCallum. Improvements in electric telegraphs.

Date: Oct. 8, 1859. 2291. W. Irlam. Improvements in the construction of railway turntables and cranes.

2293. J. Brough. An improved waterproof dress for protecting and saving life at sea or in any other situations where a waterproof dress may bo required, as also in the apparatus to be attached to or used with the same, for assisting the wearer to hoist or make signals, by night or by day, and to inflate, propel, and guide or direct himself as desired, the waterproofing principle of which being also applicable to other useful purposes.

2295. J. Childs. Improvements in the manufacture of artificial gums. NOTICES OF INTENTION TO PROCEED

WITH PATENTS. (From the London Gazette, Oct. 25, 1859.) 1414. W. Donbavand and D. Crichton. Looms. 1194. O. Maggs. Washing machines. 1426. C. N. Kottula. Purifying the Thames. 1433. J. Cowan. Soap. 1452. H. F. Smith. Driving straps. 1457. T. Orrell, jun. Mules for spinning., 1459. E. T. Hughes. Treating fatty substances. (A communication.)

1465. A. V. Newton. Assorting substances of different specific gravities. (A communication.)

1468. J. Cor. Cutting rags. 1469. A. Jeffery. Projectilos.

1471. R. Harper, R. Stokes, and T. Walker. Bonnet wreaths and feathers.

1473. G. J. Parker. Giving alarm of fire.
1475. P. F. Aerts. Lubricating.
1481. C. L. J. Dierickx. Coining.
1485. W. Rowan. Generating steam.
1498. E. Oliver. Medicine for rheumatism, &c.
1506. J. Apperly and W. Clissold. Wheels.

1507. M. A. F. Mennons. Bolts and rivets. (A communication.)

1532. R. Dick. Addressing cards, &c.

1539. W. E. Newton. Steam enginos. (A communication.)

1559. T. Bell. Manure.
1573. S. Fisher. Ordnance and projectiles.
1604. C. Hagan. Curing smoky chimneys.

1652. J. Luis. Railway car seats and armchairs. (A communication.)

2103. H. Winter. Lifting and weighing. 2122. T. Elliott. Lubricators.

2133. R. A. Brooman. Elevators or lifts. (A communication.)

2170. T. B. Daft. Coating conductors.
2172. J. Todd. Screw propellers.
2190. W. Collins. Hydrants.

2202. C. Stevens. Stoam-dredging boat. (A communication.)

2217. B. Atkinson. Railway brakes. 2267. J. Macintosh. Flexible tubes.

2269. J. Macintosh. Coating conductors for tele. graphs.

2277. W. Macfarlane. Drawing off liquids.

2283. W. E. Newton. Casks, &c. (A communication.)

2331. T. Twells. Embroidering.

Th. full titles of the patents in the above list can be ascertained by referring back to their numbers in the list of provisional protections previously publish:d.

Oppositioa can be entered to the granting of a patent to any of the parties in the above list who have given notice of their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the date of the Gazetle in which the notice appears, by leaving at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing of the objection to the application. LIST OF SEALED PATENTS.

Sealed Oct. 19, 1859. 994. J. M. J. and E. 1018. J. Angus. Johnson.

1025. J. Marshall. 1002. J. Napier.

1030. J. Higgin. 1005. D. Auld.

1011. W. Mackenzie. 1007. E. Lewthwaite 1019. R. A. Brooman. and G. Ambler.

1055. H. R. Fanshawe. 1010. T. S. Truss. PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. 2412. R. II. Collyer. 2 176. V. E. Newton. 2102. 11. Deacon.




655. R. B. Cousons.

The tenders and racancies which appear in this weekly list 461. J. Gilbert and s. 725. J. F. Belleville.

are not repeated in sncceeding numbers. Nye.

BATTERY, Limp's Fort, near Portmouth.-Parties desiring

to tender are required to attend at the Royal Engineer LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, &C., Office, Portsmouth, 31st October, at 10 o'clock, to appoint Published during the rock ending Oct. 21, 1859.

a surveyor to take out the quanties in conjunction with the Government surveyor. Each party is required to pay

two guineas for the quantities.

RAILWAY BUILDINOS, * Scotland. For the Maybole and No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. No Pr. No. . No. Pr. Girvan Railway. For the erection of tirnber station

house at Maybole ; timber booking office for Crosshill; d d

Is d cottage for level-crossing lodge at Kilkerran ; stone-built 637 10! 6711 697) 3 7011)

9 7499 3

goods shed for Girvan; timber station-house for Girtan; 6518! 672 0 61 raso 3 701) 7:1 3 74110 6 and tank, engine, and carriage shed of same material. 65310 10 673 0 7 68910 3

7231) 3

Plans and specifications, secretary's office in Girvan. 651) 6 6710 3 69110 701

7240 7.74903 Further information from Mr. J. Miller, 25 Northumber65)106750 3' 6920 10 700 3,7230 11 7510 3 land-street, Edinburgh. Tenders, Nov. 7. 6511 676 0 3 690 5 711) 3 729 0 10 7520 3 RAILWAY CARRIAGES, South Eastern.--For the supply of 67) 11 6770 3. 695'0 3 71:10 6 730 0 3 75619 6 80 new first-class, 20 new composite, and 25 new second 6.301) 3 678 0 6! 69607 713) 731 8757 0 7

class carriages, and 25 new brake luggage vans. Drar69010 679 6 697 ) 3 714031 739 975807 ings, specifications, and patterns at station master's 66110 680 0 6 698,0 8 715 8.: 7340 4 7600 3 office, Bricklayer's Arms railway station, Old Kent-road, 6610 9 6310 699 0 3 7100 SH 7352 6 7610 3

or further information of the company's carriage and 66.3) 6683 0 3 7000 71710 7300 6 765,0 7

waggon superintendent, Ashford, Kent. Sealed tenders 666 5, 6910 6 701 0 3 71810

7370 37690 3

endorsed * Tenders for Carriage Stock," to be delivered 68;10 61 6950 3 7021 719 3 739) 10 7700 3 to 8. Smiles, secretary to the Company. No date given. 6860 31030 4

3 743) 7 778 0 10 FILTER BEDS.-A filter is required to be made. Apply to 67037 1

J. II. and R. C. Rawlins, Hope Mills, Wrerham.

SEWERAGE Works, Scotland.--Execution of the sewerage Nore.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from the works within the burgh of Portobello. Plans and speciGreat Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on re- fications of the works may be seen at the office of the ceipt of the amount of price and postage. Sums exceeding Commissioners of Police, Portobello, and schedules of 5s. must be remitted by Post Office Order, made parble measurement, and any information required from Mr. at the Post Office, High IIolborn, to Mr. Bennet Wood- Paterson, C.F., surveyor, 20 St. Andrew-square, Edincroft, Great Seal Patent Oifice.

burgh. Tenders with Mr. A. Paterson, elerk to the com

missioners, Nov. 5.

SEWERING, PAVING, &c., Manchestor.- For the draining, LIST OF DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF CTILITY paving, and flagging of Smedley-road, from its juncREGISTERED).

tion with the Queen's-road to the river. Sealed tenders Dates of Nos. in

to chairman of committee, Tuesday, Nov. Ist, at the Registra- Re. Names and Addresses. Bubjects of Design Town Hall, York-street, Cheetham. Plans, forms of gister.

tender, &c., Mr. William Francis, surveyor, Town Hall. ( Williams & Bate, Bir

CHURCI, Margate.--For the erection of a new congregaOut. 3, 1202

Case. mingham

tional church, Margate. Plans, &c., J. Denby, Esq., 3 5, 4203 T. Ridge, linckney.. Upper for boots. l'nion-crescent. Margate. Information and bills of quanLoveridge& Shoolbred,

ties, Messrs. Poulton and Woodınan, architects, Reading. } Coal scoop.

Tenders to Nov. Ist.
C. S. Windover, Hun-

Cors ESCRANGE, Wellinborough, Northamptonshire. -
19, 4205
tingdon ....


For the erection and completion of a corn exchange and 20, 4206 W. Hewitt, Birmingham Connector,

public rooms at Wellinborough. Drawings, &c., at the 21, 4207 S. Last, Oxford-street Bag.

office of E. Sharman, Esq., architect, Wellinborough.

Further information Messrs. Bellamy and Hardy, archiPROVISIONAL REGISTRATIONS.

tects, 30 Broadgate, Lincoln. Tenders, Nov. Sth. 3, 1109 R. Heath, St. George's-} spring.

Roads. Nero Whittington, near Chesterfield. For tho

whole of the works required to be done in the formatioa W. S. Mappin, Bir

and construction of certain roads ud sewers at New 8, 1110

Staff. mingham

Whittington. Specifications and copies of quantities at A. A. D. IIely, Oxford

the Wellington Hotel, Whittington, or Messrs. Senior

Stand. street

and Wade's office, Barnsley, to the 30th Oct. Tenders, 13, 1112'c. Watts, IIarrow-ruad' Carriage pole.

Oct. 31st. 18, 1113 J. Tye, York-road Violins.

CEMETERY, Dath.-For opening the ground for a cometery (lyards and Wilks,

in a piece of land situated behind the toll-house in the 20, 1114


Lower Bristol-road, seven feet deep, and providing and
placing in side drains 4-inch, and in the main drain

6-inch stoneware socket pipe. There will be about 500 PRICES CURRENT OF METALS.

yards of side and 250 yards of main drain. Tenders to

Mr. J. G. Hayden, clerk to the burial board, No. JohnLondon, Oct. 2861, 1839.

street, Bath, to Nov. 5th. IRON:


. s. d. £ , d. p.ct.

INO TIE PANISH (KCH, Stroud.- An organ, chapel, of England

pr. ton

5 O nett

and restry to be constructed at the side or sides of the Welsh Bars, in Wales

6 17 6

Staf. Bars, at the Works

7 10

chancel. A premium of $20 for the design approved.

Iloops .....:
8 0 0 813 0

Plans to Messrs. Sidney, Biddell, and G. Edwards, Hon.
Sacets, Singles
8 10 0

Sccs., Stroud, by Xov. 1st.
Nail Rods ...

7 0 0


8 10 0


LODGE. -With entrance gateway and boundary wall, Scotch Piy, M. N. War.

Bath. £10 10s. for the selected design should the archirants, at Glasgow

6 nett Do. No 1, Good Brands

trct not be employed to superintend the works. A plan:

0 Site Bars...

7 10

&c., to be seen Mr. J. G. Hayden, 3 John-street, Bath Sxedish Bars, in London ..

11 10 0

2 Designs and estimates to Nov. 5th. COPPER:

For TUE PURCHASE OF TIMBER.--Larch, sprnce, ash, beech, Sheet and sheathiag


and other timber, and the underwood, in the paris of Tough Cake and Tile...... pr.ton 107 10 0

Millington, near Pocklington, belonging to si. John Best Selected 110 10

College, Cambridge, to be pointed out by Mr. G. BricAustralian

109 100 110 10 0 South America


ham, of Millington. Tenders to the Bursar, of st. Yelow Metal Sheathing

0 0 10

John's College, Cambridge to Nor. 7th.

Boilea INSPECTOR.--Wanted, a sound practical mechanie
Swedish Kog.

pr. ton

19 10 0

thoroughly acquainted with the details of steam engines Faggot

21 10 0

and boilers, to act as a district sub-inspector. A knowTIN:

ledge of indicating engines required. Salary, £120 per English, Black,

6 16 0
0 0 0 93

annum.-Apply by letter, before 1st Nov. next, enclosing Bar.

6 17 0 Foreign, Banca

testimonials, tó H. W. Harman, Esq., C.E., the Acco 0

7 0

G 15 0
6 16

ciation for Prevention of Boiler Explosions, Manehester. TINPLATES:

Swirl AND ENGINEER for the Industrial School at West Charcoal, I.C.

1 12

Ham. Married man preferred. Wages Sos. a weck Coke, I C......


without rations or residence. Apply in hand-writing LEAT):

and with testimonials to guardians of Whitechapel Pig, English.

pr. ton 22

22 10 0 9

Union Workhouse, Charles-street, Mile End, New Town, Spanish

21 10

0 0
5 0

by 6 p.zn., Nov 1. Personal attendanee also.

IRON Merchants' TRAVELLER.-An experienced man who On the spot

20 17 6 2100 nett can give satisfactory reference and security. For arrival

20 17 6

0 0 ENGINEER'S BOOKEEPER. - To keep a sets of books in an ZINC:

engineering factory where from 50 to 100 men are emnEnglish Sheet

27 00 QUICKSILVER............

ployed.- Must be qualified to take out quantities, keep 7 0 0 0 0 0

stock, and price cost book Apply, stating age, salary REMARKS.-All mctals are in rather a depressed state, required, and reference to Mr. G. Bower, St. Neot's and scarce any business is being donc. A feeling of mucli Huntingdonshire. uncertainty prevails as to what effect political complica- Two Esoxx Keepers, at the weekly wages of £l each, tions are to have on teade.

with the usual rewards for the vestry of St. Mary,

Islington. Application on or before Yoaday, sist inst, LAWRIE AND II AGGER, Metal Brokers at Op.m. Personal attendance at that time, at the restry 33 Lombard-street, E.O.

2499. G. Ermen, 2474. G. Thomson. 2304. L. A. Mangin.


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Tuesday evening the ship was “abreast of the "the gain in speed. They seldom remained MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.

Skerries, distant about a mile and a half.” on trial for more than an hour or two. The
The wind had been so high all the latter part steam-power, small as it was, was our grand

of the day that Holyhead had been held in sight “ resource, giving us generally a six-knot speed, LONDON, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 1859.

for seven hours, and at this time (8 p.m.) so and ordinarily yielding us a progress of 140

strong a gale was blowing that the ship made “miles or more in distance, and a gain of 2° or THE WRECK OF THE ROYAL little or no progress, but was being carried “21° in north latitude.” And in another place CHARTER

by the wind and tide towards the shore. The the Dr. states that the Royal Charter overtook MANY circumstances conspire to make the Times correspondent at Holyhead, in his ac- a vessel on the homeward voyage, and found wreck of the Royal Charter one of the most count of the Great Eastern's dangers, tells us that her own steam power had enabled her to melancholy disasters on record. Not only are that there the wind was east at eight o'clock on gain 4,000 miles upon the other vessel in 40 there the facts which must strike every mind Tuesday evening ; and on comparing all the days ; " the great advantage of possessing this --the unexampled quickness of the passage reported statements, it appears that the gale peculiar appliance admits," he adds, “ of perfrom Melbourne ; her loss almost within hail blew from about the north-east upon the Royal "petually recurring proofs." both of a harbour of refuge (Holyhead) which Charter. Now, had the Captain put his ship

The fact is, the Royal Charter has fallen a she had just passed and of the port for which round at this time Tiving her as much sail as sacrifice to an undue passion for short voyages. she was destined ; the wholesale swallowing up she could well bear, bere was nothing whatever A too great eagerness to reach the Mersey of almost all on board, and so forth ; but there to prevent him from 1nning either back into carried her on to the rocks of Anglesey. But are other facts which are not so well known, the open Channel, or into Holyhead harbour, few know what risks are now run in these but which add greatly to the sadness of the with perfect safety. With no pilot on board “fast ships” in order to secure distinction event. The Royal Charter, it will be recol- he could not hope to enter the Mersey, and to in this respect. This fact also may be lected, was the ship in which the late Dr. go on, under such circumstances, with the gale illustrated by reference to a former voyage Scoresby made a voyage to Australia and back growing to a hurricane, was mere madness of this very ship. The first gale that ever expressly to observe and correct the errors of Yet on he went, actually seeking the lee shore blew upon her, and which lasted with variaher compasses, so that the risk which iron ships which he might have avoided—beating along tions for 40 days, was made to drive her run from compass errors was probably reduced the perilous north coast of Anglesey, until through more than 8,000 miles of distance, in her case below that of every other vessel in point Ælianus (or 'Lynus) was passed, and a under a pressure of sail which would have our mercantile navy. Then again, the Captain dead lee shore, of the cruellest kind, was well proved fatal to her and all on board had any who had command of the ship when she met behind him. Nothing now was left but to failure in the steering-gear, or any defect in its her fate possessed the rare advantage of having

withstand the elemental rage," and anchor management, occurred. “No one experienced made a long voyage in the vessel simply as a was accordingly cast. All the rest followed “in scudding before a fierce gale and a heavy passenger, and therefore with ple leisure to naturally enough. The anchors or the cables

sea, and knowing how the safety of the ship study her qualities ; for in 1856 Captain Taylor failed, the masts were cut away, the screw was depended on the steering," said a passenger was sent to Melbourne in the Royal Charter by thus fouled, and the ship went on the rocks. then on board of her, himself formerly a Messrs. Gibbs, Bright, & Co., to fit and bring There are, it is true, some discrepancies in the captain of merchantmen, "could contemplate home the William Monies, an old East India various published narratives as to these occur

"the possible failure in apparatus, gear, or ship, and he made the voyage in her accord-rences, some stating the masts were cut away

management of the helm of the Royal Charter, ingly. Again, while it appears from the narra- and the screw fouled before the ship struck, “when so scudding under the violence of this tive of her first voyage that her complement of and others alleging that when she struck the terrible cyclone and tremendous sea, without men and officers was then only about 85, at the screw was not fouled, but was put on at full “much anxiety." This is the sort of thing time of her loss it was no less than 112, and speed to harden the wreck on shore ; but these that is happening every day, the sole reason she therefore had a most excellent chance of details are of no great moment. The fouling being that men in these days make so much being handled efficiently. It was in despite of of the screw is always a very sure consequence unhappy haste to be rich, forgetting the proall these advantages that the Royal Charter of the cutting away of the masts, whether it verb, "He that maketh haste to be rich shall came to grief.

occurred sooner or later in the present case. “not be innocent." It will not do to dismiss this event as a Another false conclusion which has been There is another consideration which we dare pure piece of misfortune altogether beyond the drawn from the loss of the ship is, that the use not suppress. There seems great reason to fear prevention of man, as some writers have done of the auxiliary screw in passenger ships is that the Royal Charter was really a very inOne of our London morning journals tells us, baneful. The writer of a leading article in a ferior ship--inferior, we mean, in point of for example, that “ this melancholy catastrophe respectable morning journal says, “we are strength. It is difficult to believe that a “ was not the result of negligence or "guilty of no presumption in drawing one well-constructed and well-built ship-a ship « confidence on the part of any one. . : ..

.. No “conclusion, and that is the worse than useless- formed of good material well put together "prudence could have averted the disaster.” "ness, the absolutely fatal mischief, of the so- could have become so utter a wreck as she This view of the matter may appear correct to called 'auxiliary' screw.". This remark is became in so short a time. This is a matter some minds, but it certainly is not borne out supported by the reflection that had there been which may be, and should be, inquired into. by facts. The Times of Saturday last doubtless no auxiliary steam power in the Royal Charter Portions of the iron of her hull may be obgave the true view when it said, “ the origin of "she would never have been permitted to hug tained and examined, and the detailed drawings

the calamity seems to have been that in a a lee shore at night in search of a pilot, with of the ship may be got at. Let this be done. “wild night, with a gale blowing that soon a hurricane dead on her weather bow, and a Let, also, as much information relating to her “became a hurricane, the ship was brought up strong in-draught to the shore.” The reflec- actual construction as can be obtained be “ dangerously near a lee shore.” It was doubt- tion may be sound, but the conclusion is never- secured, that we may ascertain, if possible, why less graceful and generous of the Times to add, theless untenable. We cannot afford to give she yielded so swiftly to seas which some ships,

let it be remembered, however, that Captain up the advantage of steam power because here some iron ships even, would have withstood for “ Taylor was the last man seen alive on board;” and there a man relies too much upon it. In many hours, not to say days. There are other but gallantry in his death cannot atone for un- the Royal Charter herself the auxiliary screw facts, beside that of her rapid break-up, which skilfulness in the life of a man to whose hands has proved of immense advantage. Dr. Scoresby, indicate great weakness in the Royal Charter. 500 other lives are committed. It is necessary in his narrative of her first voyage, says, “Our On her very first voyage she to put back to to remind the public of this, because we cannot "quick transit across the first two belts of light Falmouth, after being six days out, in order not hold Captain Taylor innocent of error without "winds and calms (on the journey out) by the only to improve her trim, but to make her sound drawing absurd and dangerous conclusions from "aid of our auxiliary steam power, is a result, and water-tight if possible. "From the day the loss of his ship. The writer whom we first “ being one generally to be relied on, which " after our sailing," says a passenger, "much quoted, for instance, goes on to lament" that “must give special advantage and popularity “wet had passed through the seams of the deck,

no application of human ingenuity is able to “in Australian voyages to ships possessing this " by the skylights and bulls'-eye lights, screwwithstand the elemental rage," which, in appliance, of far more consequence in passage

“bolts, &c. After the commencement of the itself, may be true, but which, nevertheless, “ ships, as a relief from protracted oppressive- "westerly gale, the water had flowed down in implies an untruth. The Royal Charter may ness, risk of sickness, and actual suffering, “such quantities that all the third-class, and have been unable to "withstand” the elemental “than even from the gain of time in the gene- “most of the second-class, and some of the firstrage, but she was quite capable of retiring “ral passage.” Again, he says, " Three or four class cabins were more or less flooded." This before it, and seeking shelter from it, had her times an attempt was made (during a calm on looks like the result of weakness. Moreover, on journey not been persisted in after it became " the voyage home) to improve our progress by this and the return voyage her straining was perilous. The evidence of the boatswain's-mate "setting the lower topsails, but in all cases the much complained of. On the latter she leaked of the ship shows that at about eight o'clock on "disadvantage in direction was far more than | very considerably in the foremost compartment,



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requiring a donkey-engine to keep the leak "tion with reference to sailing vessels ; but all become one of great importance. It was time under. But the source and anxiety of alarm," very important consideration of the subject to break out of the antiquated systems of ages, says Dr. Scoresby, “was the discovery of "attaches itself to steam-vessels, and particu- and at least attempt an improvement in this "weakness and too susceptible working of “larly to those fitted with screw propellers. branch of nautical mechanical science, in which "some of the plates and angle-irons near the “I will

, therefore, proceed to point out how there has not been any marked change for up"junction of the stem with the keel. Some peculiarly adapted my invention is to steam wards of 200 years. The introduction, there"support had been applied within to the " navigation. It has been shown that the top-fore, of Mr. Cunningham's invention into the upper part of the weak place; but the "sails can be reefed by few men, and that, too, Royal Navy is a striking event in its history; apprehension of a risk of forcing off the " without the exercise of any particular nautical and Commander Power's duty of making the “plates had hitherto prevented any appliance "skill. On reflecting on these two very strik- first use of it has been an important one. “ to the latter part, where as the external pres- “ing considerations, viz., that the operation Although we have reason to know that the “sure varied as the ship plunged, the working “which now requires the assistance of the whole principal object which Mr. Cunningham had in

was most considerable. The compartment crew, and all the nautical ability of the ship, view when he devoted his time and ability to “itself, happily, was but small, and it was “can be accomplished by a fraction of the num- the great work of introducing his invention into " thought to be securely water-tight, having in “ber, and those untrained seamen, the impres- the mercantile marine was the saving of life ; “the outset of our voyage been filled, as a tank, sion cannot fail to be received, that such an still, as the advantages and capabilities of the “ with fresh water. But in the case of plates "invention is peculiarly suitable to screw steam- plan developed themselves, other considerations “ working loose, or, by working, cutting off the vessels, and so it is. There cannot be a ques. were suggested, and the expediency of applying "heads of the rivets, as was feared, it was "tion but that a steam-ship, whether propelled it to ships of war was entertained. We again “impossible to calculate on what the effect of "by screw or paddle wheel, should be in all quote an extract from Mr. Cunningham's work “the entire displacement of a plate or plates "respects as perfect a machine as possible. The before-mentioned bearing on this point :"in the bow might be, or where the mischief" utmost ability of man has been directed to- “ Hitherto I have confined myself to con"might end.” It is impossible to read these “wards this object, so far as the steam power "sidering the applicability of my invention to statements and not see in them an indication is concerned, but hitherto, although, by the “the mercantile steam navy, but it may further of that defectiveness of construction which“ application of the screw propeller, the steam“ be considered how far suitable it is to steam seems to have manifested itself so fatally in "power remains no longer a principal, but the ships-of-war. In action, the tactics of a war Dulas Bay. The thing most to be apprehended sail power resumes its ancient importance,“ steam-ship would doubtless be to depend on in such cases is, however, inferiority in the iron " and the steam may be viewed only as an “the control of the steam-power alone; the of which the ship is built

. We know that “auxiliary ; still, the bringing of that sail-power failure, however, of that power by damage to much inferior metal is sold as “ship iron," " under mechanical control appears to have the machinery would necessarily oblige her to whereas there is scarcely any work in which been entirely lost sight of. The object which “have recourse to her sails ; and the ability to excellence of material is more to be desired " has occupied the attention of the ablest engi- " apply the sail power with the utmost celerity, than in that of shipbuilding, This state of “ neers for years to accomplish, viz., to bring “and without exposing men aloft, would become things should be remedied. In the name of the navigation of a ship as much as possible an object of the greatest importance. Here, Christian charity let us not expose our fellow-" under the control of machinery, is thus over- then, the advantages offered by my invention creatures to violent deaths, 500 at a time, for “looked, and the steam-ship is relapsing into are very apparent. A steam ship-of-war, the mere difference in the price per ton between “the same troublesome machine to navigate “rigged and fitted in the manner before degood and bad iron !

that it was 100 years ago, indeed more so, for "scribed, would be enabled to go into action

the immense yards and sails of our large with her topsails and topgallant sails rolled CUNNINGHAM'S SYSTEM OF REEFING ocean screw ships are disproportionate to the

snugly up on the yard, yet ready for instant SAILS FOR THE ROYAL NAVY. “number of seamen comprising their crews ; setting, without exposing men aloft. The We have from time to time in this journal al

“and hence, in fact, all that has been gained“ ability thus afforded would not only give luded to Mr. Cunningham's system for working found mechanical science, ingenuity, and skill

, of her machinery becoming disabled, but

by the exercise and practice of years of pro- “the ship a superior advantage in the event the square sails of ships, more especially with reference to its extensive use in ships of the

“is that sailing ships can be propelled in a “would also enable her to use any of these mercantile marine. It is now with much plea

"calm, and otherwise assisted by auxiliary sails with great facility and effect in assisting sure that we observe its introduction into ships " considered, that this advantage has been ob

steam-engines ; but most gravely must it be in the tactical movements of the ship.” belonging to the Royal Navy.

We know that a reason given by naval officers “tained at the sacrifice of an immense original for not using the Cunningham system in the About a year and a half ago Her Majesty's troop-ship Perseverance was fitted at Ports

"expenditure of capital, the requirement of an Royal Navy is the necessity which there exists mouth on the “ Cunningham system,” upon the

enormous sustaining outlay, the sacrifice of for keeping up the old method of working the application of her late commander, John

room for stowage, and other negative consi- sails, in order to exercise the crew aloft. This McDonald (who has thus been the means of in

derations which really make it questionable

no doubt is very desirable, especially as it is to troducing the system into the Royal Navy);

whether any advantage has been obtained at be feared that our seamen are not possessed of and lately Her Majesty's ship Urgent has been

“all, particularly as it does not appear that the same agility and skill that some years ago also fitted at the same port upon the pressing

the brevity of the passages made by our large so greatly distinguished them from the seamen request of her spirited commander, W. H. Hire.

screw steam-ships in any way compensates of other countries. But still, Mr. Cunningham's The first use of the system in Her Majesty's "I maintain, therefore, that one thing is yet to ships-of-war deserve serious attention. Steam,

for the vast expense involved in their support.*

brief remarks on the application of his system Navy was entrusted to Commander Edward R. Power, of the Perseverance, an old and experi

required in a screw steam-ship, or indeed any power has greatly altered the features of naval enced 'officer, who, after two voyages to the full-rigged steam-vessel, and that is, to bring warfare. We shall no longer have, as a rule, Mediterranean and one round the Cape of Good

" the sail power more under mechanical control. fleets engaging each other under sail, when suHope in the winter time, has been called upon ing expense, by removing the necessity of

" This will not only afford the means of reduc-perior seamanship affords an advantage. Steamto report on the invention. We have been

power levels all these considerations, and the favoured with a perusal of the official report; “ will also give encouragement to commanders

having a large crew of trained seamen, but it feet which possesses the most expert artilleryfrom which we extract the following very strik

men will be the most likely to win the battle.

to make as much use of their sails as possible ; Why, then, cling pertinaciously to the contiing passage “In variable winds and squally

it being reasonable to suspect, that under the nuance of exercises which occupy valuable time “ weather, Commander Power was able to make “sail, and relieve the engines, when, with the

circumstances of large powerful sails, and with that would be well devoted to gunnery instruction.

few men to work them, sail is often taken in, We shall watch the progress of Mr. Cunning“ordinary topsails. it would not be judicious

“ when otherwise it might be carried ; such may ham's valuable invention in Her Majesty's navy “even on account of harassing and exposing the “men to continued wet clothing, the efficient be inferred from the fact of many sailing with much interest ; and we trust at least that “number in the watch of Her Majesty's ship

ships having made quicker passages to and the equipment of Her Majesty's ships Persever“ Perseverance being so small." " from Australia than the large and costly screw

ance and Urgent is the prelude to the fitting of We must now call attention to the following extract from a small work published by Mi corroborated Mr.Cunningham's expectations

, and all the troop ships and other shortly-manned Cunningham six years ago, on the sail-power of the consideration for his men displayed by the

The circumstance that the Cunningham syssteam-ships, by which it will be seen that Commander is an interesting feature in his report. tem is now fairly introduced into the Royal the views which he then held regarding the

There can be no doubt that the question of Navy suggests the expediency of some means advantages of his system to screw steam-vessels improving the mechanical appliances for work, being adopted for the instruction of officers in have been faithfully realized in practice : - ing the sails of ships, especially steam-ships, had the use

of it. We hear that its operation is as “ Hitherto I have only treated of my inven- • We dissent from this. See previous article.-Eds. M. u. I simple as can be possibly conceived, and that

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Mr. Cunningham has published copious instruc- which were brickmakers ; he also quotes the number of the Journal of the Society of Arts. tions for the working of it. But still the proper case of an American ship, the Hurricane, of up- Mr. Atherton's object in the first instance was practical working of it requires, no doubt, some wards of 1,500 tons, having been navigated to make gun-boats, mortar- boats, floatingprevious acquaintance with its mode of action; from Hong Kong to San Francisco with only batteries, &c., invulnerable ; and he asksand we can conceive the embarrassment of an twenty-five Lascars and three European seamen; Why not make them up to the lines of their officer of the watch being called upon to reef neither of which, of course, could have been done load displacements “solid masses” of material, the topsails on a dark night by a method which if these ships had been rigged on the old plan. of such specific gravity that they shall not sink practically he knows nothing about. Mr. Cun- Now this appears to us to possess considerable however much they may be perforated by shot? ningham has a small yacht brig at Portsmouth political importance. There is no doubt that He considered that a solid combination might fitted on his system, and he takes great pains should we be ever again involved in a long Con- be made of cork shavings, light wood sawdust, to get the officers of ships fitted with his plan tinental war, and the requirements of seamen rush stems, cotton waste, flock, hemp, and on board to instruct them in the working of it. for the Royal Navy be very large, as they other light material, by the aid of a solution of But although this individual effort may answer will be, the only source from which we gutta-percha, or other chemical substance. its purpose as regards these particular officers, can look for seamen for the navy is the mer- This mass might be made, he thought, so tough still, a general knowledge of the working of the chant service. The power, therefore, which the that it could not be knocked to pieces by shot, system appears to be most desirable, especially shipowner now has of sailing his ships with and so light that it would be only one-half the with reference to the younger officers' now being fewer regular seamen, would prevent the serious specific gravity of water, and therefore unsinkbrought up in the service. The mizen-topsail of injury to trade which a large drain of seamen able, however perforated by shot, and also capathe school ship Conway, at Liverpool, is already from the merchant navy would occasion. More- ble of carrying an armament and naval equipfitted to instruct the lads in the new mode over, it would help in a measure towards manning ment to the extent of nearly one-half the weight which, in the mercantile marine, is becoming the navy in an indirect manner. The landsmen of its own displacement in tons. Such vessels almost universal ; few new ships being now who would be entered on board the merchant " of light draught accompanying fleets of war as built without it, and a very large proportion of ships to make up their crews would, after a few “tenders to line-of-battle ships, whence they them already built being equipped on the voyages, be eligible for ordinary seamen in the might be manned and stored as occasion “Cunningham system.” The result of all this navy ; and thus, indirectly, the supply of sea- might require, would, I submit,” said he, will be that in a short time the rising genera- men would be kept up. It must be remembered form a useful auxiliary available for shore tion of officers, and, in fact, of seamen too, of that upon the old system few landsmen were service, or for attacking land batteries, which the mercantile marine will know nothing about entered on board of merchant ships ; the ship-deep draught ships of the line cannot ap; the old method of reefing topsails, and the owner could not afford to pay far labour com- proach, and would be sunk if they could.” officers of the Royal Navy will be equally igno- paratively useless to him"; hence the few sea- The idea was first broached by him two years rant of the new, with the exception of those men which composed the crew were necessarily before as being applicable to the construction officers who may have served on board Her obliged to be skilled seamen, to do their duty of vessels for carrying treasure. Majesty's troop-ships fitted with the system. aloft

. It is not so now: the sturdy peasant will In the interval that elapsed between the Whether, therefore, the system becomes general | be as useful in heaving the anchor up and put- dates of Mr. Atherton's letters his ideas appear in the Royal Navy or not, the instruction of ting his strength to the ropes on deck, after he to have expanded enormously. We no longer officers, and especially the rising generation, in has got over his sea-sickness, as the seaman. hear of unsinkable “tenders to line-of battle the practical working of it, really becomes a sub

We may have occasion again to say a few ships" only ; but ships of war of all classes ject demanding the consideration of Govern- words on this interesting subject

. The fact is are to be constructed on the unsinkable princiment.

clear that a very important and marked change ple. “I have no doubt,” says Mr. Atherton We understand that there is something re- in the mode of working ships has been steadily * that at a moderate cost per ten of shipping, markable about the fitting of the Urgent. The establishing itself in the mercantile marine, and “existing vessels may be rendered unsinkable, yards of men-of-war are constructed in a dif- is now making its way into the Royal Navy, "and that a new modification of ships of war of all ferent manner to those of merchant ships. The which involves deeper considerations than are classes may be devised, such as may obviate former are furnished with oak battens of consi, at first sight of the subject perceived ; and “the horrors which appear to be otherwise derable thickness towards the centre of the yard as a great maritime country cannot “inevitable in maritime warfare under the fire secured by hoops, while the merchant ship yards but look at this change with the deepest in- of modern ordnance.” It ought to be stated are without these battens. However, Mr. Cun- terest. Although so dependent on our marine that Mr. Atherton's reason for renewing his ningham has fully conquered any difficulty that for our security and our glory, we have, as it proposition at the present time, and in its enmight appear to exist, and the yards of the were, until lately, most unaccountably been larged form, is a belief of his (founded on a Urgent are remarkable for their snug appear- slumbering upon the subject of it. During paragraph in the Times) to the effect that iron

Another peculiarity in men-of-war is, the past forty years mechanical science of every cased ships will be incapable of resisting the that they reeve their topsail-tyes through blocks description has undergone change and improve- fire of modern ordnance, and that, as recent upon each side of the topmast, while the tyes of ment, but the sail appears to have been com- events have shown, ships of the ordinary build merchant ships are generally led through sheave- paratively lost sight of. It is true that the may be sunk by the fire “even of an extempoholes. Mr. Cunningham has met this by having utmost energy and talent have been devoted

“rised Chinese fort." two neat iron blocks placed well forward on the to the perfecting of the application of steam There is, of course, one great primary obtopmast, which brings the lead of the chains propulsive power ; but, to use Mr. Cunning- stacle to the carrying out of Mr. Atherton's nearly up and down. The advantage of all this ham's term, the sail power has been neglected. plan, namely, that no such material as he rehas been, that the new system was applied That power which costs nothing, and by the quires for his purpose is at present known. without even the topmasts being sent down; mighty aid of which the new world was disco- The singular compound mentioned in his first indeed, from the time the iron work arrived vered, and the ends of it brought together, has letter does not seem to satisfy him now, and he from London, the yards and sails were all com- not had its value properly esteemed. Its appli- therefore proposes that £250 be subscribed and pleted and ready to go aloft in three days. These cation to purposes of propulsion remained, until placed at the disposal of the Council of the are important considerations with reference to the production of Mr. Cunningham's invention, Society of Arts, to be awarded in premiums of ships of war, as it shows that they can be very in the primitive condition of ages past. £150 and £100, "for the discovery and specifiquickly altered to the new system, and without

Since commencing these remarks, we have “cation of the materials and process of manuinvolving any great change aloft. It shows, received information to the effect that another “facture most available for producing a comtoo, that if need be the sails and yards can be of Her Majesty's troop ships has been ordered bination of materials constituting a solidifying fitted with the reefing gear, and yet still be to be fitted by Mr. Cunningham-Her Majesty's pulp, possessing in the highest degree the proused on the old plan for purposes of exercise ; ship Vulcan, at Portsmouth, at the request of perties of specific lightness, toughness, nonthe reef beckets can be kept on the sails, and Commander Strode, who commands her.

"absorption of water, and cheapness, or a the toggles on the yards, and without interfering

“metallic cellular body having the same prowith the working of Mr. Cunningham's system,

“perties.” But how a metallic cellular body" provided that the reef earings are


is to answer the purpose we cannot conceive. before the yard is worked. This is very im- The extraordinary changes which modern It seems to us a very remarkable circumstance portant.

ordnance has undergone, and is still under- that Mr. Atherton loses sight altogether of the Mr. Cunningham in the work before alluded going, have led to many curious suggestions, danger of fire, which is more likely to do injury to points out the ability which his invention and among the most curious may be mentioned than anything else now that the use of shells is affords of sailing ships with fewer regular sea- a scheme first propounded by Mr. Charles universal in naval warfare. His light buoyant men in their crew. He instances a case where Atherton, of Woolwich Dockyard, in the Times material must be presumed to be exposed to a ship, during the late war with Russia, pro- of Jan. 12, and the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE of the fire of ordnance, for its whole merit is to ceeded to sea with a crew a large proportion of Jan. 14, 1859, and revived by him in a recent consist in being unsinkable when“ perforated"




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