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18 tons.







to | mile. 19 - Number.

Seconds per hour. to stop in. Distance run yaras,

pipe i.




3 25




5 25



6 25

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

this retarding power is still further increased, space in the interior of the piston by a steam pipe, ginning, but still it didn't do as well as the priand

which rises and descends through a stuffing-box in mitive and original contrivance of the mere mop5th. By the recommended communication from the cylinder cover with the action of the piston. stick and paling. Mother-wit, which is seldom at the engine to the van, used in combination with In this arrangement it will be evident, that by so a loss at a pinch, soon suggested the separation of the whole, a power of stoppage is obtained, which applying the action of steam to the expanding v their beloved idea, and out of the united fertility has not hitherto been equalled, and within much piston ring, the pressure of such steam, and, con of their contrivance, sprung their next essay out of less time. This last is the most important element, sequently, the piston packing, may be so regulated the bottom of an old saucepan, long having done as all necessary manipulations can be gone through as to admit of a pressure being exerted, sufficient duty as a stop-gap to the cocks and hens in the in one or two seconds after their requirement only to maintain the piston packing in steam- back garden. Of course the family shears in the being noticed.

tight contact with the interior of the cylinder. shape of sundry scissors came in for their share of

The accompanying engraving is a vertical sec. the anticipated benefit of the dear boy's genius for Abstract of experiments with a gross load of 85 tional view of a cylinder and piston, to which the mechanics, which Mr. Shorter very unceremonitons, made up as under :

improved steam-tight packing is shown applied, ously applied to the purpose of turning out speciEngine

clearing illustrating the method of applying the mens of propellers as numerous as they were Tender 11 Empty carriages. 55

calın; rails dry. steam to the packing ring by means of the pistons omni-genous. Even the garden shears with Gradients.—The first mile from the post at which and V wedges. a a is the cylinder, and the which the old gentleman had used to cut out the the break-power was applied was level. The next piston; c c being the packing rings, and d the peacocks for half-a-century in the forecourt were

mile further, zdo rising gradient. In every case, the annular V wedges which force the packing rings embedded in the stump of an old tree as a vice, retarding force was applied at the same mile-post on into contact with the interior of the cylinder, by and did duty in paring and pruning bits of tin till the same line of rails. The carriage-breaks were not means of the small horizontal pistons e e, against they became, with the assistance of a string and applied in any case.

which the steam exerts pressure; the steam being a pin, as geometrically correct as a pewter platter, supplied to the annular cavity f behind the small and flourished awhile at one side of his screw

pistons e e by means of the pipe g, which rises and stick with a shoulder of mutton blade-bone at the Class of Brcak, and Remarks. falls with the piston 6 through the stuffing-box in other, as under, till the junction of bone and tin

the cylinder cover, and receives the steam from relapsed into a divorce by sheer practical exhaus

the chamber h which is supplied by the steam tion: 36 156 1432 No breaks applied.

Thus it will readily be seen, that the

pressure of the piston packing against the cylinder
800 Throttle valve only used. Valve

may be regulated according to the amount and
leaky did not bring the train to
a dead stand. Speed was very pressure of steam supplied to the annular cavity

slow for the last sth of a mile. or chamber f.

715 Tender break only. 4 24 36.4 63 710 Throttle valve closed, and engine THE SCREW AND THE PROPELLER: 460 Throttle valve closed, cngine re

THEIR PROPERTIES, THEIR INVENTORS, AND versed, and tender break used.

THEIR IMITATORS, 450 Throttle valve closed, and tender


GENTLEMEN,—It is now thirty years since the From this severance of their profound idea 400 Throttle valve closed, and engine steam-break applied.

writer of these remarks first became acquainted sprung another device worthy of Archimedes him275 Throttle valve closed; engine with the propelling properties of the screw, self, the bit of tin having the preference of their

steam-break and tender-break
during which period, wishing well to the interests choice, and the blade-bone giving way to be the

more useful, as the sequel will show, for the future 220 Throttle valve closed; engine re

of its poor and ingenious inventor, he has watched prospects of the youthful and enterprising mecha. versed, steam-break and tender in confidence its progress of improvement as a nical aspirants. marine engine with much disappointment, yet


We now leave awhile incipient mechanism and NOTE.-The results as per table were obtained from an with no common interest. The little history of disappointments for the broader field of inven. engine with the throttle-valve and steam-break fitted up only in a temporary manner. With the apparatus more

this much coveted instrument of jealousy is simply tion, as it opens to one's view in the varied perfectly applied better results would necessarily be this:-When eight years of age, George Blencowe, lustre of its beautiful phases as they fit before obtained.

It occurred about the year 1832, then living at Barnet, seeing his mother's servant

genius. GARFORTH'S IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM trundling a mop, cut a hedge stake out of his and experience, that the old trial of the screw,

during the interval of a little adult schooling PISTONS.

father's garden, and with a bit of paling crossed for the sake of practice, as an engineer, the boy, Messrs. W. aud J. and a few twists of a cord round its shaft as it

now a man, ought to revive ; and under the Garforth, of Dun.

lay transversely in a punt with two sticks across bettered circumstances of George's acquired kinfield, Chester,

to rest its spindle upon at its stern, spun it as store of knowledge, being now master of the have just patented

boys do a water cutter made of a round bit of tin first principles of geometry, his resolution was an invention de

or a penny piece with a hole and string through taken to prosecute and perfect the old invention. signed to obtain a

it, propelling its little freight across a duck-pond Accordingly, the energies of the old people took sufficiently tight

as true as an arrow, and with a celerity, to his fire at George's genias, and burnt briskly as they packing between

astonishment, equalled only by the ducks scud set to work to exhume the dry bones of his early the piston and

ding before it, to the great delight of the old labours out of the back shed, where they had cylinder to ensure

people looking on behind the lattice at the rested so long undisturbed, for the reflective its being steam

energy and ingenuity of their little Georgy benefit of the bats and owls that had looked upon tight, without the

It so happened, as the boy grew up, that them with a jealous eye as something sacred to necessity of exert.

he made friends of a favourite companion of their snug Arcadia. Esquire Hearty, who had ing more pressure,

his father's, an excellent mechanic and clock- kindly consented to the young man's application and causing more

maker named Shorter. To him George opened to try his skill as a mechanician upon his lake, friction between

his heart, his friend the while exhibiting to his promoted his young neighbour's aspirations of the piston and cy

pupil the fly-wheel of a smoke-jack, from which, industry, it being his pride to love and be linder than is ab

after depriving it of four of its fans, they con- beloved, and to share in the happiness of all solutely required

structed after a rough fashion the following screw within his social circle; and though George at to effect a steam

in a right line with its spindle, with the original this time fought hard against fortune, a kind tight packing. The bit of paling at the end of it:

friend or two were not wanting in addition to improvement in

turnish him with a few tools and necessaries to the piston for ef.

complete what he had begun when a stripling, fecting the desired

with so much success as an engineer, at the end purpose consists

of a hedge stake or broom stick. Of course for in an outer ring

this primitive pediment of science was substituted or rings of ordi.

a spindle as bright and nary construction,

sparkling, as his father which are to be

said, as a lady's eyesight. expanded against the cylinder by an internal

And for the mutton bone V ring made in sections, each of such sections

and top of the old tin being provided with a small piston or pistons,

saucepan was substituted one end of which acts upon the V ring, and

a circular piece of block tin, the other receives the direct pressure of steam

cut through and fashioned which is supplicd and conveyed to an annular This, it must be a Imitted, was not a bal beo

as shown.

break used.




which when transversely twisted, thus,

ship counter," as Sir Howard very justly remarks, flue of the heather, made out in the rough the
“the water which is divided by the body of the following models :-
ship subsequently flows obliquely towards the
screw; and again, the water, after being pressed

by the screw, is broken by the stern-post and

rudder, where being arrested, part of it is forced and fixed on its axle, gave this next transfigura- forward in the direction of the ship’s motion.” tion of its economy :

Doubtless, this is a serious objection to the fair-
play of the screw's action ; and if the pressure of
motion is as the cube of the screw's diameter, as
much power of propulsion is lost as that back
pressure retards it, particularly as the gyrations
of an eddying volume of water act impulsively
upon its revolutions. “Another objection to the
screw in its present position of the vessel,” con-
tinues Sir Howard, “is, that the shake of the screw,
and the consequent injury to the stern of the
ship, are caused by the sudden and violent reactions
of the disturbed water in that place against the

A the back of an
This prodigious effort of poor George's, though blades of the screw as they enter and emerge from
considered the best screw of the day, succeeded thence." But the remedy proposed in rounding

oar blade; by Ericcson’s which much resembled it, and the the fans of the screw, or whether they be angular B the front ditto ; Smith's, Brown's, Jones', and Robinson's imitations or semicircular, does not appear fairly to meet the O a fairy wheel. of them being somewhat overlaid with science, inas- objection, since the stroke of its diameter must much that it was not calculated to give motion determine its force. To give this ingenious invenuntil the completion of its first revolution, as well tion fairplay surely it is necessary to disentangle as to sustain the pressure of the ship's way at it of all such impediments (as described by Sir fifteen knots an honr, (which is calculated to be Howard). If at the stern of a vessel the plungsix tons on the point opposed to its resistance ing against the screw of the eddy and the dis: Now you see, Sir,” continued the animated old supposing its diameter twelve feet,) was soon set turbed current of the ship’s way distracts its gentleman, “by reducing the fans to a pair

, aside, as all screws ultimately will be, for the promotion, surely there is a remedy at hand in fit- twisting them inversely at an angle of 45° of each peller, which George at first, as has been shown, ting it to the bows of a ship before or after its other, and inserting them at the end of a split started with. So without much ado, the old idea cut-water, where the undisturbed action of the

stick, thus, of the mop-stick came into vogue again, and forth- fluid's equal pressure would give a steadiness of with grew out of it the following invention, the motion irrespective of such fatal objections. mutton bone, in a very great degree, serving as the pattern in the shape of a fan at an angle at screw, or more properly propeller (since it has no

Whilst passing in review the subject of the 45° of its axial motion :

property in common with the former in the water
than a figure of 8 has above it when cut out by a
skater), a further and equally interesting anecdote
of its invention, more recently than that just
described, may not prove uninteresting to those
who lean rather to sympathy with original genius
than to a worship of the wealth accumulated by and then through a tube to my clockwork in

the boat, my screw
its practical application. To Mr. Farquhar, of

as my heart seemed to Tower Hill, the eminent chronometer maker, be respond to its motion spun away my model after then the honour dne in his own words, of the re

the following fashion, from one side to the other After a world of hard labour, as he termed it, vival of its discovery. “Sir,” said the old gen- of the creek, as true as a water-rat”:George, after boxing the compass of all the angles tleman, after hearing the errand, and measuring under the sun, and making the machine describe his inquirer's mental stature under the deep and as many circles in an hour as gyrations are per- thoughtful brows of a northern head that had formed on a windy day, as the gardener said, by a won its mechanical immortality—“Sir,"continued cherry clapper, finding the principle of its action he, “your introduction by my friend is your wel. the correct one, at once sought out for the means

come. Sit down, Sir. Well, now you must know, to protect it in a patent, then requiring some Sir, taking the morning air as I usually did thirty hundreds of pounds to complete it. of course, years since over the drawbridge of the London like many as good or better men before bim under Docks, my attention was arrested by a youth about like circumstances, George's little castles in the air twelve years of age propelling, or sculling, as it is

A public exhibition of this taking place, of came to the ground for his want of capital, crush-called, a boat by its stern in a manner so unusual

course the same fate befell it as its predecessor by ing his hopes in their fall as he saw rise from as to excite my unbounded curiosity, and to Blencowe, as the following statement will exhibit

, their ashes a hundred of his wealthy imitators, ventare in me a thought of its transference to printed about the time of the award of a premium now many of them enjoying the proceeds and circular motion. Ever delighted at improvement for the screw's discovery to certain capitalists

, premiums of the wreck

of the genius of the screw's for our countrymen never throw a chance of ad. and to the patentee of a very similar screw, insole inventor.

vantage away, as you southerns good-humouredly deed, by a gentleman :It is rather a remarkable feature in the imita- say, honestly acquired—I was at once delighted and

" Statement of William Farquhar, the roa? Inrentor tions of the screws of George Blencowe, from the instructed, and the lad and I were the best friends

of the Universal Under-water Propeller, claimed first which he had permission to try on the lake in the world long after ; he for the value to me of

and patented by Lieutenant Carpenter. of Captain Trotter's park at Totteridge, in Hert- his skiff, and I to him of the means of earning

"If the government of this country, of whatever fordshire, to that which he had perfected in 1832,

an honest penny. It was no little trial, to one like party, had not shown invariable disposition to do now used with

a trifling deviationfrom its original myself, of six feet stature, unable to swim, and justice to individuals, however obscure, who had a clear by the Great Eastern, none seem to have got the burly withal, as you may suppose, Sir, when the and dispassionate case to present, the undersigned correct angle of 45° of their axial motion. And tide at times ran wildly, to adjourn with him to the would hesitate to solicit attention to this statement. though science is indebted to Sir Howard Douglas and fro of his little cockle-shell, not more than had it lacked means to bring it under the notice of

deep-water of the Lea, there to abide the rocking to If a right could cease to be a right, because he who for his animadversions on many similar faulty in. ventions, yet is but little additional knowledge to double my length, and of such slender proportions those influential to recognise it,

the writer of this

statement would despair of the justice he now seeks. be gleaned about the screw in his little work on as to require my holding on its gunwales with a

" In 1828 (so far back as this date) I, the under. Naval Warfare,* replete as it is with great modesty tenacity and grip with which you know, Sir, my signed, William Farquhar, was in the employ of Mr. and ability. There is one remark, however, about countrymen, in common with all, ever hold their Grant Preston, a relative, a woll-known inrentor, to the disadvantageous position of the screw under for his lesson, my best wits, after putting together The constant talk of naval improvements going on in own with. However, giving the lad a fair price whom the navy owes the Ship Deck Lights still in use

. tion, not the less for its ever having been a point of little ships, some with holes at their sterns, and which

in my time I have perfected several

. Standing vention, than for the stubborn perseverance in the others with wells in their middles, as would fill a present practice of its faulty situation. From the garret, and coupling what I had learnt of the bridges, I noticed under me a man seudding a bout


when it instantly occurred to me that the oblique Skiff's motion with that of a fairy wheel, which as action of the oar could be produced by wheel-work. position of the screw in an aperture close under the children we all have delighted'in during

windy I went home, and found three persons (two of whom "On Naval Warfare," p. 37. Murray, London, 1858. weather, as it skims along the ground like the are now living) and proposed the thing to them. They were all persons that ha i considerable influence as possible to the original models, might serve as prominently bring under the notice of your readers in such matters; but, as it fequently happens in a hint for improvement, particularly if it can certain general features and practices in the conthese cases, my proposition was received so coldly as


ease the fluid upon the screw's axis, which the struction of iron vessels which in my opinion are to deter me from prosecuting the design I had formed

in the last degree dangerous and reprehensible. -the design now understood to be Lieutenant Car present one in use is far from effecting.

It would seem to commend itself to the common penter's. It was not until 1833-4 that circumstances induced me to recur to the aforesaid idea, and then an

sense of every man that in building an iron sailing event occurred that gave a clear proof of its superiority

or steamship which is to be subjected to all the to any other plan. At that time I was employed to

strains and buffetings of tempest-tossed seas, make a piece of machinery for driving a model boat,

which will be freighted with hundreds of human the patent of Mr. W. Hale. The party for whom it

beings and the most precious cargoes, and which was made disagreed with Mr. Hale, and a law-suit

must run the risks of collisions and strandings, ensued; when I, to show him who lost his money in

none other than the very best and strongest mathe matter that he had lost nothing, made a model of

terials should be employed. The toughest iron, my aforesaid invention, wbich answered beyond my expectation. From that time up to 1839, I kept

the best seasoned spars, and the stoutest planks showing it to everybody I thought capable of under

and ropes should alone find places in such a standing it. Many nautical men in the navy, and

venture. But in our ordinary every-day practice engineers, and practical workmen saw it, many of

is this the case ? Is not any kind of iron thought whom (some have since deceased) I am ready to pro.

good enough to build a ship with ? What is the

But its proper place, let it be borne in mind, as duce in proof thereof. As, however, I had no means of applying my invention, I was naturally disa before hinted, is foreward, as sailors say; for who meaning of “boat plates” being the lowest priced

If we pay £25 or £30 heartened. At the end of 1838, or early in 1839, I would fix the sails behind instead of before the in any ironmaker's list ?

a tou for the plates of which a locomotive boiler was invited by the captain of a large steamer to in. windmill ? spect a model of a similar invention, exhibited in a With such facts before us, can it be surprising, is made, why should we give only £8 108. or £9

If public room in Gracechurch-street.

Here I first Gentlemen, that men of genius, with out the per ton for those of which a ship is built ? met Lieutenant Carpenter, who had himself a model of a gun brig with him, which Admiral Sir preyed upon by capitalists, dividing amongst them means of promoting their inventions, are so much safety can only be bought at the high price in the

one case, are we not courting disaster with the Arthur Farquhar (at that time in the room) had at least the £15,000 awarded by Government ? low price in the other? Who will draw the fine disheartened, and took his model to a side table. I Whatever may be said to the contrary by shrewd line of distinction in moral responsibility between followed him, and pointed out to him exactly what calculators looking on rags as they cull its fruits the directors of a railway company who should was wanted; and my idea of the Universal ûnder for their own advantage, there can be no question take your fare, place you in a comfortable firstwater Propeller* was exactly what he shortly after that science is ever the sufferer, as the scores of class carriage, and drive you at 40 miles an hour patented, and nearly in the very words I had used: discarded screws will prove, by such conduct, as

over a viaduct which was miserably insecure, and though at this conversation he said, ' the idea (the well as the inventors. And there is no mistake so

the owners of vessels who send passengers to sea plan I described to him) had never entered his mind;' these were his exact words. I afterwards showed my when premiums without inquiry are injudiciously the way of excuse is, I fear, that most men are fatal to the advancement of genius, as that made in ships sheathed with plates which are as brittle

The only answer to this question in Admiral Sir Arthur Farquhar: and on that occasion I awarded (as in this case of the two gentlemen re

In the established my priority to the invention in Lieutenant ferred to), to bustling unscrupulous men of busi- really and truly ignorant of the facts. Carpenter's presence. Persons, at that time when he ness, having the ear of State interest, and emi- eyes of the merchant in London or Liverpool who took his patent, commonly remarked that the inven- nently successful by assurance.

orders the building of a ship, iron is iron. He tion was mine. I have had no means adequate to the I have the honour to be, Gentlemen,

probably does not know that in this material establishment of my right to it, but I have never

Your obedient servant,

there are as many shades of quality as there are ceased publicly and privately to assert my claim to it;


in the wines or fruits which all bear one common and now that Government are about to reward the

Grove-end, Highgate, 15th Oct., 1859.

name; and yet I am within the mark when I say actual inventor, I respectfully pray for a committee

that he might by paying £? or £3 per ton of inquiry into the real origin of the aforesaid inven. tion, and to be examined with my witnesses upon it.


increased price upon the plates forming the outI offered my invention to the Admiralty before ever A MANCHESTER correspondent writes the following the vessel's strength and durability.

ward sheathing of his ship immensely increase meeting Lieutenant Carpenter.

letter :-Among the many and mighty inventions " Fully aware that few things are more perplexing and adaptations which have contributed to make of the iron is ductible and tenacious, and where

With good well-worked plates, where the fibre and disagreeable than to decide among rival claims of this country and this age famous, a conspicuous these plates are well and judiciously fastened inventors-positive, dogmatic, impatient, antagonistic, place must be given to the application of iron to together, no vessel, even if wrecked in such a gale often urging their claims with the heat of a monomania- the aversion to listen to them I know is very marine could scarcely have kept pace with the suddenly and so utterly as the Royal Charter shipbuilding. Without it England's mercantile

as that of last Tuesday, would break to pieces so great, and I am not very sanguine of success on account. Still somebody, after all , is the real inventor marvellous growth of her commerce, and oceanic

seems to have done. in all cases, and justice should be done to him for the steam navigation would yet have been in its in- But built of the “boat plates” of the present sake of scientif progress. In this belief i beg per. fancy. Even Brunel's genius would have quailed day God help the haman freight of the ship that mission to submit my statement to your friendly con- in attempting the construction of the Great Ship strikes upon the rocky shore ! sideration.

“WILLIAM FARQUHAR, in any other material ; and it is scarcely too much "10 King-street, Tower-hill, London."

I would therefore advise shipowners when conto say that the abundance and richness of tracting for new vessels, instead of being satisfied May, 1855."

the furruginous ores which are found in this with a specification which provides good ordinary island, and the facilities for their reduction placed “boat plates” to be used, and which are, in fact,

to our hands by nature, compelled our naval con"To the Honourable the Commons of Great Britain

about the most rubbishing quality of iron which structors to direct their attention to the use of is made, to insist that the sheathing should all be in Parliament assembled.

manufactured iron in building vessels. “The humble petition of William Farquhar, of No.

of best, or double-worked quality. In a vessel

The iron ship, when well built, is indeed of 1,000 tons it would not increase the cost 10 King street, Tower-hill, London, showeth :" That your petitioner was the inventor of the pros and yet if we search the records of those disasters strength and durability of the ship, and to say

stronger, safer, and more durable than any other 5001., and the value is gained in the greater Fater propulsion, of which propeller your petitioner to which all seagoing ships are exposed it will be nothing of the lives that it may possibly save. pade a working model in 1834. That your petitioner found that the most destructive and appalling Further, I would caution all well-disposed shiphowed the invention during a period of five years, have occurred in iron bottoms. I need only owners to look with great suspicion upon the nd offered it to many persons whom he thought call to mind the wreck of the Birkenhead, which cheap offers which are constantly laid before them apable of appreciating its value, but with little will find a place in history as the scene where the as temptations to order ships. To any one con

disciplined bravery and devotion of our soldiers versant with a ship’s value, what other construc" At length your petitioner having met in a public om in Gracechurch-street Lieutenant Carpenter, that awful and heartrending catastropnie which 1,000 tons with the most expensive outfit, for 131.,

were nowhere more conspicuously displayed, and tion can be put upon a contract for a vessel of tur petitioner described his invention to him. The id Lieutenant Carpenter took out a patent for the within the last few days has carried sorrow and

or 131. 10s, or even 141 per ton ineasurement me invention a few weeks afterwards. These facts anguish into hundreds of homes. Yes, while the ready for sent than that the builder means to ur petitioner can clearly establish, and he earnestly hearts of relatives are yet bleeding, and the public employ bad materials and scaip his work ? He d respectfully prays your honourable house to insti: I is stunned with the immensity and suddenness of begins upon such an order with a determination to an inquiry into the real original of the aforesaid its loss; while many would try to bury their grief either to cheat his customer or cheat his creditors. vention, and cause your petitioner to be examined in oblivion, and others would prefer to contemplate But such vessels are built on the Clyde, the ereupon. “ And your petitioner will ever pray."

in silence such an illustration of the mysterious Tyne, and elsewhere, and I maintain that the ship

end of Providence, I conceive that the lessons owner in buying them shares with the builder the Perhaps the following idea of the fans set at which the loss of the Royal Charter is calculated moral responsibility of a great griltiness, for they gles of 45° of each other, and coming as nearly to afford ought not to be overlooked, and that the

are deliberately launched and freignted to go to causes of a wreck so sudden and so complete the bottoin. "Inventions of this nature are properly called Screw should be most promptly and searchingly investi

I am, &c., opellers,' but as no part of a screw is employed in the

Your faithful servant, cessful invention adopted in the Navy, I adhere to my

gated. ginal plan, which is nearest the mechanical truth." I would, therefore, very earnestly and very

AMICUS. Manchester, Oct. 31.





and large coal-owners who wished to economise | profound secret. Its construction is now gene

the carriage of coals. A long, narrow screw- rally known. There was an error in the date of The following remarks on iron steam-ships, steamer was employed, and it drew a long train Colonel Beamish's letter to the editor of the by Mr. W. Litchfield, deserve consideration :- of laden coal-barges

, diminishing the number at United Service Magasine; it should have been of "The awful catastrophe of the loss of the Royal intervals. It was found that, whilst the amount August, 1852, and not 1859. Charter, and her speedy breaking up on the rocks of load made comparatively little difference in the

I am, yours obediently, in Molfre Bay, has recalled to my mind certain

J. NORTON. discoveries which have of late been made by the power of traction, the injury to the banks was

solely caused by the rate of speed, which it was Rosherville, 31st October. officials of Her Majesty's Dockyard at Portsmouth not safe to increase beyond a 'horse's walk. in relation to iron vessels, which I think cannot Nothing, therefore, was to be gained in speed,

THE STELLA LAMP. be too widely known, and may possibly have some connection with the speedy breaking up of the draw a long train of barges were less costly than of 150 Drury-lane, possesses several features of

and even if the employment of a steam-tug to Tois lamp, patented in 1857 by Mr. James Broad, Royal Charter. Iron steam-vessels have arrived the employment of horses, there still remained the interest which renders it worthy of the attention home from foreign stations to a certain extent difficulty of passing the locks, which would prove of those to whom a cheap light is of consequence. leaky, and after being paid off and cleared out

so serious a diminution from the saving on level in this category may be, of course, ineluded the have been taken in hand for the necessary repairs, water that the attempt was abandoned. On the insides of the vessel's plates being examined

whole race of economic housekeepers, and for that

There is nothing in the account of the experi- class it may be of service to add that it is of great it has invariably been found that the whole of the ments on the Bridgewater Canal which shows brilliancy, and that the “Stella” oil prepared for it rivet her ds, where the wash of the bilge-water that either of the difficulties I have alluded to is safe, clean, and healthy. This Stella oil, indeed, reached, had been worn off as cleanly as if cut by has been overcome, or even so great an advantage appears to us to be of greater importance than the a hammer and chisel. This has lead to a composi: gained as that by the screw-steamer. I am, &c., lamp itself, although there are curious mechanical tion or cement being used over the surface of the

BARNETT BLAKE. features in the lamp-and also in the method of plates of sufficient thickness to raise the surface

Leeds, Oct. 11, 1859. of the plate to an equality with the head of the

applying the wick, which is new, and extremely rivet, and in some cases bricks have been laid on

simple. Stella oil will not light like camphine or PATENT LAW.

naphtha, and other dangerous substances now the top of this cement, thus presenting a smooth surface to the wash of the bilge-water, and pre- TO THE EDITORS OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” used for burning, and hence one great element of

its harmless nature, to which is added the fact of venting its action on the heads of the rivets. In GENTLEMEN,—The question of the patent law the absence of odour when not inflamed (for then every case where this has been tried, the results is always unfairly argued ; if talent is to be pro- there is none) being of a healthful character. Nor have been perfectly successful, the heads of the tected as a stimulant to exertion, why is one rivets, after considerable service, being as sound description of talent, literature, to be protected

does it evaporate, freeze, corrode, or thicken, but as the first day they were made. On the contrary, for twenty-one years at a mere nominal charge, a its liquid character intact throughout all tempera

on the contrary, as far as experience goes, it keeps where the rivets have not been protected, but left few copies of the work, which is attended with no to the action of the water and grit, in every case greater outlay than the price of a few quires of result of experiment shows a saving of one half

tures. It, moreover, lights very quickly, and the have the heads of the rivets been destroyed, and paper on which the manuscript is written, while with nothing to prevent their falling ont the first the mechanician in many cases must expend large, after longer acquaintance.

over colza oil. We may have more to say of it severe strain the vessel should meet with at sea. aye, enormous sums, in making and remaking Her Majesty's troop-ship Magara, now in the models and experiments, to be repeated afterwards steam-basin at Portsmouth, and lately returned on a large scale, and even then, however successful THE INTENDED NEW COPPER OR BRONZE home from foreign service, is an illustration of he may be, though he attain the most valuable

COINAGE. what I have stated, and thousands of rivets are results, if its adoption depend on Government It is known that the Government intend to issue now in her bottom which can be knocked out by a officials or public companies, he may apply to a new coinage of a bronze alloy, to replace the common punch from the inside. The plates of the them in vain-insult will be his only recompense, existing copper coinage ; and we may now state Royal Charter may have been protected in a as he will, to a certainty, be treated with silent that the arrangements have advanced so far that manner that would preserve their fastenings, or contempt, even though the sacrifice of human life in Manchester there have been constructed the they may not have been. The fact could very depends upon their decision. And here is a case in engines to drive the stamping presses to be used, easily be ascertained, and its importance will, I point. Numerous lives have been needlessly sacri- and also the boilers needed for that purpose. The trust

, be sufficient excuse for my addressing you ficed at railway stations through travellers en- engines and boilers have been made by Messrs. on the subject."

tering or quitting the carriages while in motion, R. Ormerod and Son, of the St. George's Iron

for which there is not a shadow of excuse, because works, Chester-road, Hulme. The latter have STEAM TOWAGE ON CANALS.

I could easily and effectually prevent a repetition already been forwarded to their destination, and

of those fearful scenes; and yet on three different the former will follow next week. That destinaThe following letter relates to Mr. Spence's paper occasions I immediately wrote to the chairman of tion is the works of Messrs. H. Neaton and Sons, of on Robertson’s Chain Propeller published in our the company, stating that it could easily and Birmingham, who have, we are told, executed all last number :

cheaply be avoided, when they showed such a the copper coins struck for this country for many Sir, -- In your Journa? (of the Society of Arts brutal indifference to the excruciating agonies of years, and who also successfully competed for the of the 30th ult. is an article describing an inven: their victims that, will be believed, they did execution of the new French currency issued by tion by Mr. W. Robertson, of Strangeways, not even deign me a reply!

The same with Nepoleon III. The pair of engines are upon an Manchester for the traction of barges on canals, shipwrecks on our coast, the greater number of improved direct action principle, and . f 50 horses' and an experiment said to have been made on the which I could, to a certainty prevent ; but official power ; some patented arratigements of Mr. W. Bridgewater Canal. The paragraph states that indifference heartlessly consigns them, their crews

B. Johnson (who is connected with Messrs. various attempts have been made to employ upon, and passengers, tod s ruction. The plan I suggest, frames are vertical instead of horizontal; it being

Ormerod's establishment) being introduced. The canals steain-tugs propelled by paddles or screws, and no one could justly complain of such an in place of traction by horses, and says the arrangement, is a per-centage on the article sup

supposed that strength and some other advantages objection against them is always the same—that plied, when he, the patentee, would only pay in

are thus gained. The cylinders are of 20 inches the waves created by the propelling surface proportion to his gains, and at the close of, say has a diameter of 18 feet and weighs 13 tons; and

diameter, the stroke being 4 feet. The fly-wheel injure the banks, &c It then proceds to describe the seventh year, he might then be justly required the invention, and concludes by saying that the to purchase a renewal of his term, if just it be, the engines being intended to make from 36 to 10 experiments proved highly satisfactory.

or even politic, to tax science while literature is revolutions a minute. the wheel will be speeded In the first place, the experiment can hardly be free!


to 60 revolutioas. The power will be given off considered satisfactory when there is a loss of 25

from the axle, close to the fly-wheel, so that little

13 Carlton Hill, St. John's Wood. per cent. in drawing an empty canal-boat; but the

or no checking strain should fall upon the engines. chief objection is, that the difficulty of steam

But as the metal to be used for the new coinage traction for canals is not fairly stated. That the CONCUSSION AND PERCUSSION SHELLS. will be very much harder than copper, and as in waves created by the propelling surfaces injure TO THE EDITORS OF TIIE“ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” striking coins from the latter metal the resistance the banks, when the screw is used, is simply un. GENTLEMEN,–In reference to my communica- will sometimes check, and even stop, the ma. true. The injury to the banks is caused by the tion on the above heading in your number for last chinery, there have been special appliances added increased speed of the vessels, which, in a narrow week, I beg to add that the different inventors or to these engines, which, by means of levers, will canal, lowers the water when ench boat is passing projectors of percussion and concussion shells were

enable wheels to be slipped and the engines in about eighteen inches, and the sudden return of allowed to have a trial of their respective shells effect thrown out of gear, while other levers will this does the injury complained of. When the on board the Excellent, at Portsmouth. Captain enable the working arrangement to be gradually speed is less than four miles an hour it is not Moorsom, R.N., then lieutenant, was the gunnery and easily restored. The engines are beautifully observable, but beyond this the injurious effect is officer when the experiments were made; the finished. The two boilers are each 25 feet long very apparent, without any perceptible wave from plan of each projector was kept secret from all and 5 feet 6 inches in diameter ; with a 2 feet 9 the action of the screw.

but the captain commanding and Lieutenant inch circular flue, fitted for firing at each end, so Some years since an experiment was made on Moorsom After a time, when the different reports as to secure more rapid production of steam, and the canal between Wigan and Liverpool, in the were made to the Admiralty, a shell called the an almost complete burning of smoke. The steat presence of several of the directors of the canal Moorsom percussion shell was adopted, and kept a pressure is to be 60lb. It is estimated that two


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or three years, at least, will be needed for getting


ought immediately and generally to supersede the in and replacing the existing copper coinage.

use of any other hitherto introduced. I shall not fail Manchester Guardian.

The MECHANICS' Magazine will be sent free by post to to bear testimony to their pre-eminence, and beg of all subscribers of £1 Is. 8d., annually, payable in advance. you to receive the sentiments of high esteem and con.

Post Office Orders to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at sideration with which I ain, yours very faithfully, SIR HOWARD DOUGLAS'S SCREW PRO. the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C.


"11 Duchess-road, Egbaston, Birmingham, Oct. 25, We are requested to support the remarks already

TO ADVERTISERS. made by ourselves on this subject by the following All Advertisements occupying less than half-2-column

“Captain Norton.' “ Opinion on Sir Howard Douglas's claim to the In- Insertions less than 13 ; for 13 insertions, 4d. per line ; and skin cartridge, but found it liable to decompose and

“N.B. ---Many years ago I made what is called the vention of the Improved Screw Propeller," which is for 52 insertions, 3d. per line. identical with the opinion already expressed in our

All varnishes to prevent damp are worse than article on page 194 of our number for September 23, two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as useless,

as they clog the interior of the barrel.-J.N.” 1859:the space occupied.

Dr. McCormack, of Belfast, writes :—“The natural "I have very carefully examined into the claim Special Arrangements for larger or Serial Advertisements and pardonable solicitude of the country on the submade by General Sir Howard Douglas in regard to To ensure insertion, Advertisements must reach the Office ject of the national defences, has suggested to me his being the first to devise the screw propeller blade by 5 o'clock on Thursday evening each week. None cau the practicability and desirability of a description of of the particular form shown and described at page 61 be received after that time for the ensuing number.

steam floating batteries, of shallow draught, but of of his work on 'Naval Warfare with Steam. This

great beam, carrying heavy breach-loading ordnance propeller blade consists in a modification of the Ad


-- vastly superior, I conceive, to any in hand, or miralty screw propeller, each blade of which was We have to espress to several geatlemen the earnest and hitherto proposed. Compartments should be introformerly made of about one-sixth of a helix or com, grateful thanks of the person referred to in the appeal duced, along with every expedient calculated to pleto screw, with the forward or leading edge, and made at page 281 of our last number. To her thanks we ensure strength and safety. The upper or weather also the after edge, perpendicular to the shaft, conse- would add our own, for the prompt and efficient aid which deck should be arched somewhat, and otherwise quently, such a blade increased in width the further it several of our readers and friends have responded to our bomb-proof: the sides heavily platod with wrought proceeded from the axis, and was widest at its outer

statement. Among the sums already received are the fol- iron plates; the ends pointed; the rudder and steermost edge or periphery. “Sir Howard Douglas, as I understand his claim, lowing :-5. L., £1; L., £?; R., £2; 1. C., £2; T. S., ing, apparatus, with the high-pressure locomotive £1 Is. ; C., £1; B. N. and Co., 105, 6d. ; P. P., 10s.;

engines, so arranged as to permit the vessel to steer alters this propeller blade in respect to its leading or forward edge only; and he does so by removing parts B., 55.; T. L., 53. ; T. B. D., 5s. ; J. G., 5s.; J. P., 2s. 6d. W., 10s.; 11. A. G., 103. ; S. L. T., 103.; J. n., 108. either way with equal facility, the paddles or screws

working within a groove in the vessel's bottom. of such forward edge, so that, in place of its being a

Watson's ventilators would insure a supply of air ; straight line, he makes it into a convex curved line; Anon (Norwich), 23. We shall have others to announce

bull's-eyes set in the deck, and plate-glass sliding and he leaves the after edge of the blade as herenext week-we hope many others.

panes covering the ports or embrasures, when the tofore.

vessel was not in action, would yield light; otherwise, “ If the above be the correet expression of Sir Our deekly Gossip.

the ports should be covered with folding iron shutters, Howard Douglas's claim, I am clearly of opinion that

equally strong with the vessel's sides, to be closed at he was the first to devise and publish that particular form of screw propeller; and I am further of opinion

Mr. John Macgregor, of the Temple, Barrister-at- night, or in heavy weather and during action, only that, whatever be the 'advantages which may arise law, has published the following memoranda in the opening in full when the guns were run out for dis. from the use of that propeller blade, to Sir toward Journal of the Society of Arts - In the matter of brilliant light on the surrounding darkness, while, at Douglas will be due the merit of having originated it. the broken bell at Westminster

, perhaps we might the same time, it might be obscured on the side of "I am intimately acquainted with Mr. Griffiths possibly learn from the Russians what is to be done danger, or even extinguished at pleasure. These screw propeller blales; and I can only imagine that

in making a better job of the next casting. Every batteries would act à fleur d'eau, or at the water that gentleman, when he wrote the letter to the Times person knows how celebrated Russia is for the size

, level, the most efficient position of any; they would of the precise nature of Sir Howard Douglas's claim, weeks ago I was at Kimra, a small town on the Volga, By having a sufficient number," the crews of men or he would not have fallen into the error of suppos: had been lately consumed by fire, and the bell had and boys

would not be unduly harassed by too profiths) previous invention. It is of the essence of Mr. fallen from a height of fifty feet, and embedded its longed duty. As the present coast-guard, as at pre

sent arranged, would be no longer needed, the men Griffiths'invention and of his patent, that screw edge about two feet in the stone pavement below. propeller blades should become · narrower or tapered This bell weighs more than sixteen tons, that is, it is comprising it would go far to man the boats on duty

As the crews might spend half their time on shore, towards their outside extremities, in contradistinction two tons heavier than the Westminster bell, yet it

the men would not be too long separated from their to the form hitherto adopted of increasing the width survived this fall

, and is still sound, without even a of that part of the blade.' Now, sir Howard crack. Let us bring this bell to London, and let it toli families. They would be efficiently trained to the

use of heavy ordnance; and as the rafts or floating Douglas's propeller blade does go on increasing in the time until the clockmakers settle their squabbles, width as it proceeds outward from the axis, and it is and a better Big Ben is cast.” We must add, we do batteries, by telegraphic signals, could be concentrated widest at the periphery; consequently, his blade is not think it necessary to go to Russia for enlighten: would be an infinite improvement

on the heavy, lurn the reverse of that invented by Mr. Griffiths.

ment on this question, nor need we wait “ until the bering, inefficient ships of war on which we now alone “I would further state that the giving a convex curved form to the forward or leading edge of a screw

makers” have no squabbles to settle. The one thing too much depend, while a degree of security would propeller was not new either to Sir Loward Douglas to be done is to get the matter out of Mr. E. B. be realised for our shores, not neglecting

other effecor to Mr. Griffiths : Lowe and others having used Denison's

weddling hands, then all things will pro- force or wily snare on the part of any opponent or and published descriptions of screw propeller blades bably go rightly,

opponents whatsoever." with curved forward or leading edges; but these pro.

The same gentleman in the same place says :-"Mr.

The following note is curious :pellers differed in other respects both from those of J. W. Carlile calls attention to the large quantity of Mr. Grifliths and also from those of Sir Howard sawdust and wood-cuttings wasted or burned without

12 Newport Street, L Square, 1859. Douglas. effective purpose. This is an important subject, when

GENTLEMEN,—Will you be kind enough to accept * (Sigued) WILLIAM CARPMAEL,

we consider the enormous heaps of sawdust found the following supposition ? I believe that I have found “21 Southampton-buildings.

near in Europe and America, the danger out the means to take respiration under water, and ** 27th September, 1859.

from fire if they are left near the mills, the expense that I can remain any time I like; and also that the of carting them to a distance, the valuable space they

water will not affect any part of the body of the diver, occupy, the destruction of fish caused by casting the ---similar to the invention which enables a man to walk LIST OF NEW BOOKS.

sawdust into the rivers, and the trouble of burning thrcugh a flame of fire without receiving hurt. I Beale's Illustrations to “How to Work with Microscope,” | this material to avoid these disadvantages. I was intend to put it to the test, which if it answers to ls. 6.

much struck with this when passing through Sweden my idea, without doubt it will be beneficial to the F.ncy. Met., Rankine, on the Steam-Engine, 123. 6d. last week; and it occurs to me that it may be well to

divers. I spoke to Mr. Heincke of the Polytechnio Euclid's Elements, Books 1-5, by Playfair, 11th edit., by mention that I saw a boiler-furnace burning crude Institution yesterday on the subject.

Your obedient servant,
Fresenin's Qualitative Chemical Analyses, 5th edit., by sawdust, entirely unprepared and unmixed, in suc-
Bullock, 9s.
ceseful operation last summer, at St. John's, New

LAURO CECCONI. Journal of Royal Engineers in Crimea, by Elphinstone, Brunswick. I do not recollect exactly the construc- An old subscriber may fairly have space for the 4 vols., &£s.

tion of this furnace, but I think that Mr. J. Robinson, following letter :King's study-Book of Mediæval Architecture and Art, the proprietor of the extensive saw-mills where it is Vol. II., 3s.

Elm Cottage, Oct. 28, 1859. Marshall's ' Index Ready Reckoner, for Wages, 2nd edit., used, would gladly send a description to any person

GENTLEMEN.-I have just read in August 19, who may apply for it.” Mr. Macgregor deserves Page's Handbook of Geological Terms and Geology, 6s. thanks for these suggestions.

1859, No. of your Magazine p. 113, middle column,

from the bottom 13 lines, that many officers “ are inParkinson's Treatise on Optics, 10s. 6d.

Captain Norton writes :-" I beg leave to enclose Pepper's Boys' Play-book of Science, illustrated, 6s.

clined to recommend a recurrence to the old paddle the copy of a letter from the Count Stuart d'Albini, wheel.” I have taken the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE

on the subject of my gossamer cartridge, samples of from the very first number. I have for many years The splended show of chrysanthemums in the two which I had the pleasure of leaving at your office on frequently set forth what I consider a desirable alteTemple Gardons are now open to the public (free) the 24th instant :

ration; that is, placing the paddle wheels amid. every day from nine till dusk. Visitors are respect. “ Dear Sir,- I have the pleasure to acknowledge ships under an air-tight case, the float board fally invited to an inspection of the extraordinary your obliging letter, and the gratifying samples of working between an inner and outer bottom collection of pompones, a dwarf variety of this beautí. your admirable and valuable cartridges. I thank of the ship. Some of the first engineers in the king. ful autumn flower, in the garden of the Middle you very much for the opportunity of judging of dom have pronounced the principle sound if it could Temple; the entrance to this garden is from the broad them bý inspection. I perceive at once all their be reduced to practice. It occurred to me a few days flight of steps in front of the fountain, within a few value, and appreciate entirely their admirable inge: ago, when on board the Great Eastern, that to fill.) minutes' walk of the larger garden, and near Essex nuity, efficiency, and simplicity. Their practical 1 arge a space as the two paddle wheels would occupy, street,

operation in the field will be of the highest Falue, and with compressed air of sulficient elastic force to resist

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