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necessitated the interposition of a screen between | tinct propelling means, it necessarily offers the a patent for cutting off the corners of the Car. the light and the face of the sitter, who afterwards opportunity of using either separately, but from lingford screw; but it is neither for the spherical remarked that the light was even with this pre. what has been shown, it has evidently not been boss, for that is only required when the part of caution very oppressive.

made available in this case.


the vessel where it is applied is not wide or large Your obedient servant,

enough to cover its front centre, to prevent that

part from presenting a flat surface to the water; FRANCIS H, BAKER.

LORD CARLINGFORD ON THE GRIFFITH'S nor is it the edges of the screw that is of so much im. Inland Revenue, Somerset House,


portance, but that which is of importance, and for 29th June, 1859 VISCOUNT CARLING FORD requests us to give place sally adopted, is that of the proportion of pitch from

which I claim the discovery of the screw now univerTHE ARMSTRONG GUN.

to the following letters, addressed originally to the extremity to its centre, which I discovered should

the editor of the Engineer. Our contemporary be one-sixth taken from its centre line, which you TO THB EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

doubtless had his own sufficient reasons for reject- published for me, and the problem of which you subGENTLEMEN, -As my son, Dr. H. Drake, has ing them, but as these reasons do not appear to us, mitted for me to the scientific world. All the other considered it right to call your attention to the and as we see nothing particularly objectionable details are not worth noticing, being very trivial to gan known by the name of the "Armstrong gun," in the letters, we willingly insert them, parti- the real discovery, which has re-established confidence I beg to request the favour of being permitted to cularly as Lord Carlingford deems their insertion in the screw-propeller, that had been totally lost up In your number 1779, of Saturday, September ° GENTLEMEN, --As a matter of justice I must beg | sidious replies to my letters, instead of inserting them, of importance to his claims as an inventor.

to the very time I presented my discovery to the TAI, 1857, a letter appeared from me in explana: leave to request you will give publicity to the letter 1 to be very unfair, leaving erroneous impressions of tim of the difficulties we had to contend with at addressed to you previous to your publication of the that which I had stated, but first insert them, and Woolwich relative to this and a number of guns 10th inst., * for I cannot submit to the insidious then reply whatever you please. I must still insist that brought under discussion by official authority, manner of attempting to supersede my discovery of the principle of “The Griffith Scrow,” which I read Tbetore Sir William Armstrong by his own state the true principle of the screw propeller, which I the account of, was experimented principally on its iment, to which Dr. Drake calls attention, had presented to the country and the world, and which has different variations of pitch, first on one pitch, then tandertaken to propose the one in question; con- caused a revolution in navigation, and has all but put on a sharper pitch, and finally to be tried on a medium quently, I will not occupy your space beyond down the paddle-wheels, except on rivers. The public pitch; this every person can see on referring to the necesity, in further explanation of those diffi- know its value, and I will not allow any person to report; but I say again publish my letters, and they ultes.

attempt to rob me of the honour of having dis- will speak for themselves, they are scientifie, and

In explain the true principle of the screw.propeller, Hiving so far made public the origin of his covered it without protesting against them. invention, I should advise Dr. Drake to hand you cal boss, which is one of the distinctive features understood, as seen by the account given of the late

your article on the subject you say, " The spheri- which has done wonders, and yet is still very little for publication a drawing in detail, as it will at of the Griffith propeller," this may be the case, trials with " The Griffith Screw.” once show the inventions to be one and the same but it is also the case with the Carlingford screw,

I romain, gentlemen, iin every respect—even to the forging-with the and to which I afterwards added a horn in con

Your obedient servant, excepion of the Swedish process of preventing tinuation, to be used when required to be placed in

CARLINGFORD, the esape of gas introduced in the Armstrong gun, front; so that the spherical boss is no novelty what

Swift's Heath; Kilkenny, 27th June, 1859. but nd so simple or effective as that previously ever, nor would the hour-glass shape of boss be submited.

either a novelty, while the contrivance to alter the As ny son had visited Woolwich three times at the screw altogether, as described in my letter above pitch proves a total ignorance of the principle of

Proceedings of Societies. a considerable disadvantage, I did not consider it referred to. So the mere cutting of the corners of the advisable to trouble him with the description of screw which I have done long since, and the mere in. tho Arnstrong gun when professionally made crease of size of the screw towards the centre cannot June 29.–At a weekly council held this day, Co. knawn to me in the early part of December; at constitute a right to a patent, for that does not touch Challoner, Trustee, in the chair, the names of candid The same time I was not unmindful of my duty in the slightest degree the real principle of the dates for election were read. Dr. Voelcker submitted in cikining the originality of the invention screw, which must be for ever adhered to whatever into the Council an analysis of a Mangel Wurzel which "instanter at the War Department and Horse crease or alteration is given to its edge or size at any was grown in 1857, and has been kept for nearly two Guarits; and I requested Major General Peel to part. I cannot admit the correctness of your remark years in an apparently

sound condition. A communicain reply to my letter, " that Mr. Griffith condemns tion was read by Mr. Charles Fulbrook, of Dallington, allow « to place before him the manuscript in the whole family of the feathering screws,” when he Hurst Green, giving the result of his investigations vention, which he declined to inspect or allow claims the improvement of making the ends of his of the laws governing the wet and dry seasons occait to be nspected by any one in his confidence at screw more feathered by clipping off the corners. The sionally experienced in this country. On the motion the War.)ffice.

account I read in the papers distinctly states that the of Lord Feversham, seconded by the Hon. Wm. I then proposed to place it in the hands of a invention principally consists in the power of altering Cavendish, this communication was referred to the committe of professional gentlemen, and named the pitch. Now the clipping of the corners is merely Journal Committee, and the thanks of the Council Sir Charps Fox, Mr. William Fairbairn, Mr.

to obtain a sharper or more obtuse angle to the edges were ordered to be conveyed to Mr. Fulbrook. M. Thomas Howard, and Mr. James Nasmyth, or any the most effective part of the screw, but which can be transmitted to the Council programmes of the special

of the blades, and it is done at the sacrifice of part of Tisserand, Inspector of the Imperial Farms of France, others whom the Secretary at War might suggest, better obtained by giving the edges the fish-bone or international competition of reaping machines, to take with perrission to pay all expenses out of any saw form to proceed through the water and leave it, place at the Imperial Farm of Fouilleuse, near St. award whch those gentleman might consider due which is without exception the principle of nature. Cloud, between July 20th and 25th next. The certiunder the circumstance of Dr. Drake having I therefore repeat, and request as a point of justice, ficates of entry to be sent by exhibitors to his Excel. officially sıbmitted his gun to the select committee that you will publish my letter here referred to, as lency the Minister of Agriculture, 78 bis, Rue de . before Sir Villiam Armstrong, but which was also well as this one, for of course the only object for the Varennes, Paris, on or before July 10th. The following refused ; ad this, it must be understood, was public is to know the truth, and the entire truth. communications were also received from Mr. Chas. before the Secretary at War had ordered it to be These attempts to deprive me of the honour of my W. Hamilton: a Schedule of Queries issued by the

discovery remind me of the fable of Florian, where Royal Dublin Society respecting the Condition of adopted in Her Majesty's service.

the butterfly is envied for his wings, yet the clipping of Farm Labourers; the Journal of the Agricultural I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, the corners will not destroy them.

Society of Alger, and the Journal of the Central • Your obedient humble servant,

I remain, gentlemen,

Agricultural Society of Belgium, for all of which the JOHN POAD DRAKE.

Your obedient servant,

thanks of the Council were ordered. Mr. H. Tucker, london, June 22nd.


from the New York States Agricultural Society, pre

sented a letter deputing him to attend on behalf of Swift's Heath, Kilkenny, June 18, 1859. THE GREAT EASTERN.

that Society at the Warwick Show. The Chairman

assured Mr. Tucker that the officers of the Society GNTLEMEN,—All those who feel anxious for the GENTLEMEK,–If you refer to my last letter you would afford him every facility in their power to tucess of such a gigantic structure as this vessel will perceive that you are mistaken in saying that I enable him to inspect the trials and general expreeats, naturally ask the question if the best claim the invention of the spherical bogs, one of so

hibition. ways and means are being employed to produce form as well as I did others; many

persons may have

little consequence; I merely said that I adopted that such i result ? As regards the propelling means, done so before me. I only stated my having given it

TIE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. such i most certainly not the case; in the first that form to show it was no novelty, and such

also chair. Adjourned MeetingThe following commu

June 22.-Sir C. Lyell, Vice-President, in the place, he employment of paddle-wheels destroys appears from your statement. Then, I ask, what nications were read :- 1. "Further Observations on her usculness as a sailing vessel; which is the novelty or what improvement has Mr. Griffith made the Ossiferous Caves near Palermo.” By. Dr. Falcomore to be regretted, as a ship of her size and for which he proposes taking a patent? I can only see structun might be expected to realize a speed the adjustable pitch, which, as I before stated to you, words the results of the examination of the bone-cave

at Brixham in Devonshire. 3. “ Observations on a vided wih any means of raising it out of the screw. It is not possible that he means to take Flint-implement recently discovered in a bed of Gravel water; sc that if the engine is at fault, or any • The letter in question states that any alteration of the

at Saint-Acheul, near Amiens." By John Wickham cate prevents its employment, it must be dragged pitch of the screw must destroy at once the required pro- Flower, Esq. (Communicated by Joseph Prestwich, onvards at a great loss of speed; if anything portion of pitch, as of course it would be diverted at the Esq., F.G.S.) The gravel capping a slight elevation fous or injires it, there is not any remedy, as the of pitch would consequently be lost, for it should be chalk-flints, and is about 10 feet thick; above it is a

centre as much as at the extremities; the due proportion of the chalk at St. Acheul is composed of water-worn dift:ulties of examination, without a trunk over the crew, and proper means of lifting, are neces

be impossible to accomplish,

and at the same time give thin band of sand, surmounted by sandy beds (3 feet sari increased from her size. Having two dis- / whatever. firmness to the screw, and even if accomplished of no use 6 in.), and brick-earth (11 feet 9 in.) In this gravel

the remains of elephant, horse, and deer have been

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found, with land and fresh-water shells of recent species. considerable extent, were the surest guides to me. He had no hesitation in declaring that but for the From the gravel Mr. Flower dug out a flint-imple-chanical men of to-day. The forms of boilers, areas of war everything was prepared and success was certain. ment, shaped like a spear-head, at about 18 inches fire-grate, and perfect and imperfect combustion of A guarantee fund to the amount of £250,000 was so from the face of the pít, and 16 feet from the surface fuel, occupied much of Mr. Stabler's paper. His con- far advanced that he felt certain it would have been of the ground. Mr. Flower in this communication clusions being that the “economical formation of completed immediately after the list had been made pointed out evidences to prove that this and many steam” depends on perfect combustion, and the public. Therefore, whenever peace should be happily other similar flint-implements obtained from the same absorbing and transmitting powers of boilers. Como declared, he trusted that whoever might be in power gravel were really the result of human manufacture, bustion might be perfect, but the absorption of a in the Society--for his term of office expired on the

a time previous to the deposition of the gravel in boiler might be inferior, and then the evaporation of following day-would bring forward this movement its present place. Mr. Flower's visit to St. Acheul water would be at a low rate as compared with the again, and that in 1862 or 1863 they would have a was made in company with Messrs. Prestwich, God consumption of fuel. To construct a boiler with Universal Exhibition, which would be equally if not win-Austen, and Mylne, with a view to verify the rapidly-absorbing materials was one of the great, more successful than that of 1851. discoveries made respecting the occurrence of fint principles aimed at by the engineers of our time. The Emperor Napoleon is making free (and fair) implements in the gravels and peat of the Somme Mr. Stabler spoke of the proportions necessary for use of balloons in his operations against the Austrian Valley by M. Boucher de Perthies, of Amiens.. [A boilers of marine, stationary, and locomotive engines, armies in Italy. This fact has called forth a letter large collection of Osseous remains and Flint-objects and ended his remarks by inviting his brother from Mr. Coxwell (to whom we made reference a few from the Grotto di Maccagnone, and others from San members to think out for themselves the great ques: weeks since), in which he says :—“Ever since the Ciro were exhibited; also specimens of Flint-objects tion of steam economy, upon which wide differences of Russian war, and, indeed, during that calamity, I from Brixham Cave, the gravel of Amiens, &c., and a opinion still existed. sories of Flint-implements from Arabia, North

have laboured single-handed in endeavouring to pro

A discussion followed, in which Messrs. Aydon, voke the attention of our Government, our scientific America, Mexico, &c.] The next meeting of the Briggs, and others joined; and after a vote of thanks men, and the English press to the importance of aërial Society will be held November 2nd, 1859.

to Mr. Stabler had been unanimously given, and an observatories. As the idea just begins to engage

announcement made of Mr. Galloway's intention to public notice at the present moment, it may not be ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.

read a paper at the August meeting on "The Super- uninteresting to simply correct one or two erroneous The closing meeting of the Session of this Society, heating of steam,” Mr. Newton declared the meeting notions as to the modus operandi with war balloons.

to be dissolved. numerously attended, was held on Monday evening at

In the Aërostatic Magazine for this year I devoze a Burlington Ilouse; the Earl of Ripon, President, in

chapter to · Balloons for Reconnoitring,' but as exthe chair. Presentations.-S.W. Silver and Chris.

tracts may be too lengthy I will briefly observe that tian Hellmann, Esqs., were presented upon their

Our Weekly Gossip. balloons may be used with long wire ropes attached election. Elections. - The Duke of Newcastle, the

(kite fashion) without being let go, which might Earls of Elgin and Airlie, the Hon. Robert Marsham, It is a singular fact that in giving the return of endanger their falling in an enemy's camp: 2. There Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson (Governor of Hong coinage executed during the year 1858, almost all our is no real necessity that the balloon should be within Kong), Major Henry Cracroft, Captain Phillip 1. contemporaries, from the Times downwards, fell into close range of large or small shot, as an angle of Margesson, R.A., George Barclay, Frederick w. error as to the quantities of pence, halfpence, and elevation proportioned to the distance would afford Bigge, II. Austin Bruce, M.P., R. A. Osborn Dalyell farthings produced at the Mint. Reference to the the required information. 3. Hydrogen gas, gene(Consul at Erzerum), George Fitzroy, William columns of last week's MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will rated by the decomposition of water, would enable Fryer, Charles P. Grenfell, M.P., W. Vernon Har- enable the public to correct that error. In ex amining balloons to be inflated in whatever locality desirable. court, and William H. Smith, Esqs., were eiected the Government report on the subject, it is evident Balloons may also be made the vehicles of laying a Fellows. Proposals.- Professor Otto Struve, of St. that other journals have mistaken the number of temporary electric wire or thread in any direcion roPetersburg, as a corresponding member; Lord pounds in value of copper coins struck, for the number quired. A large revolving drum beneath the car Henry Scott, Sir Edward Borough, Bart., the Rev. of pieces produced, a circumstance which of course might contain many miles of thin wire, and pay it out Charles Oakley, M.A., Henry Duckworth, George makes their statistics inaccurate, to the extent of as desired. Certain indications would be required to Gammie, Charles Marett, M.X., and Francis Tagart, several millions of coins.

mark its coarse, but this could be easily maniged. In Esqs., were proposed as candidates for election. Ec- The directers of the Great Northern Railway this way a network of electrical communication might hilitions.--Several drawings and photo-lithographs having consented, from the 1st of July last, to allow be established. Like spiders the balloon could spin illustrating the scenery and physical geography of the produce of the various South Yorkshire Collieries away in various directions, and if one part o' the web the highest parts of the Himalayas, by tho Messrs. to be sold with the name of the colliery, and unmixed gave way the main lines might be dependec upon to Schlagintweit ; and a mechanical and magnetic Com. with any other coal, the owners of the best coal convey intelligence.” pass, invented by Mr. Maillard, were exhibited to the naturally regarded this as a very great advantage, The following Minute has been recently passed by ineeting. Accessions.—Sir John Rennio's work on and resolved to celebrate this separation of qualities the Committee of Council on Education :-\sy Lords the “Plymouth Breakwater,” presented by the by conveying to their collieries and back eight hun proceed to revise the Minutes which have bien passed author; Humboldt's “Travels," “Cosmos," and dred members of the press, the London coal trade, and

in the Science and Art Department for the acourage“ Aspects of Nature,” presented by H. G. Bohn, Esq., others, in order to afford them an opportunity of ment of scientific instruction among the industrial F.R.G.S.; Dr. Lange's map of the Mediterranean, seeing the source of supply and the mode of working classes of this country who have alreacy received ond Stanford's library map of Australasia, were among the coal in the pit. Of this arrangement we availed primary education. I. All former Minu es relating the late accessions to the Library and Map-rooms. The ourselves on Wednesday last, proceeding from town to Science or Trade Schools, and Scientile class inpinpers read were:-1. Notes on a Voyage to New early in the morning, and visiting the Lund Hill, the struction, except those referring to Navigaion, Public (ininea, by Alfred R. Wallace, Esq., F.R.G.S. 2. Edmund Main, and the Oaks collieries, returning to Lectures, and the training of Teachers (ss hereafter Pumarks on Portuguese Journeys in Central Africa. town via Doncaster in the evening. The Lund Hill appended), are hereby cancelled, and the following 1}y James Macqueen, Esq., F.R.G.S. After some colliery we descended, (the depth being 660 feet) and regulations are substituted in their plac. II. The riservations from Captain Burton in reply to Mr. had the very doubtful satisfaction of marching, Davy Science and Art Department will hereafto assist the Macqueen, Major Palmer, F.R.G.S., read : 3. Notes in hand, through some mile or two of passages, mainly industrial classes of this country in suppking themon the Island of St. Helena,” to accompany his new

of about three feet in height. As our pace was some. selves with instruction in the rudiments (-1, Prac. map of that island. At the suggestion of Sir Roderick what rapid, and as it had to be kept up while we were Murchison, who introduced them with allusions to doubled down into the dwarfish height of, say, 40 Machine Drawing and Building Construction; 3,

tical and Descriptive Geometry, with Medanical and their travels, one of the brothers Schlaginweit offered inches, we did not find the visit particularly ex. remarks in explanation of their drawings in the hilarating. We subsequently descended the Edmund (applied to Mining); 5, Natural History, wy augmen

Physics ; 3, Chemistry; 4, Geology and Mineralogy llimalayas; and the President having proposed a vote Main, however, but finding the shaft wetter than was tation grants in aid of salary to competent Teachers, of thanks to the authorities of the University of Lon- agreeable, we declined entering upon further sub- and by payments and prizes on successful results

, and don and of the Royal Society for the use of their large terranean exploration, and allowed ourselves to be grants for apparatus, etc. III. Any School or Science hall during the past session, the meeting adjourned to run up to the sunshine again. Another short trip Class either existing or about to be established and November 14.

next carried us to the Oaks, the splendid winding duly approved by the Science and Art Department, engine of which attracted all our attention; and a

may apply, through its Managers, for a Certificcted still further trip delivered us at Barnsley, where wel. Teacher, or for the certification of any Teacher, ir any July 2.—The usual monthly meeting of the Associa- come ablutions and other creature comforts were tion of Foremen Engineers took place at their happily procured. Here Mr. Carter, of the well. Examinations for certificates of three grades ofcom.

oneor moreof the above-named branchesof Science IV. temporary rooms in the City. Mr. Joseph Newton known firm of Carter, Brothers, gave us a run through petency to teach any of the above-named Scienos will presided over a large assemblage of members, drawn their extensive linen fabric factory, in which wo were be held annually by the Department, in the las week together by the announcement previously made that so fortunate as to find in operation a loom which will of November, in the Metropolis, as follows : --Nos. 1, Mr. Stabler would read a paper on the "Economical make a fabric no less than five yards wide--the 2, and 5 at South Kensington; No. 3 at the Royal Formation of Steam.

largest loom of the kind in the world, we believe: College of Chemistry, Oxford-street; No. 4 at the The business of the evening commenced with the The shuttle seems fairly to tire in crossing it. We School of Mines, Jermyn-street. V. Annua grants, bringing up of the auditors' report for the half-year must not omit to state that Mr. Plimsoll, junr., of the in augmentation of salaries of Teachers so certified past, and its reception by vote on the part of the King's Cross Station, managed the whole trip with to teach in any of the above-mentioned Sciaces, will associates. Four committee-men were also elected in exemplary skill and suavity, and as the merits of the be given as follows :-For the 1st grade of coapetency, place of those who retired by rotation, and this, with South Yorkshire coal, both as a steam coal, a gas coal, £20; for the 2nd grade of competency, £b; for the some minor matters, brought 9 o'clock--the appointed and a house coal different kinds, of course-seemed 3rd grade of competency, £10. * Any Teacler holding hour for lectures and paper-reading, and when the to impress many of the visitors, we doubt not he will a certificate of competency to give primaryinstruction friends of members are also admitted. Mr. Newton find his anxiety and urbanity rewarded.

will receive, from the Science and Art Deartment, a having now called upon Mr. Stabler to proceed with In his speech at the anniversary dinner of the sum equal to the augmentation grant whih has been his task, at once commenced it. He said, in reviewing Society of Arts, held last week, the Chairman of attached to such certificate, in addition t the grants the numerous contrivances for the cheap generation Council (Mr. C. Wentworth Dilke), afforded some above-mentioned. of steam which had followed the wondrous inventions useful information respecting the proposed Exhibition made while the Teacher is giving instruction in a

VI. Such grants vill only be of Watt and of those unrecognised great men who of 1861. From his remarks, it appears that the pro- School or Science Class for the industrial classes, quietly assisted him in his study and in his workshop ject for that Exhibition was not stopped. Circum: approved by the Department. VII. The Department --that so far as the character and properties of steam stances over which they had no control had unhappily will require that suitable premises shall be founl and were concerned, little had been discovered that was produced continental war; but he ventured to say not known to Watt himself. His rules and data, to a l that the proposed Exhibition was simply postponed.

See Vol. I. (New Series), p. 352.


Patents for Inventions.

maintained at the cost of the locality where the window sashes, &c.; 2, in making chain for suspending other varieties may be obtained, which can be still further School or Class is held ; that the names of ten stu.

window sashes, &c., of alternate cast, single links, and varied as desired, according to the number of times the dents shall be entered whose fees for half a year shall wrought or stamped double links, the said links being fabric is allowed to pass through the machine. A bright

finish or lustre is given to the fabric by the rubbing action have been paid in advance; and that the local jointed together by pins. Patent completed.

2644. H. Swax. improvements in stereoscopes and other of the two surfaces of the roller and bowl, Patent comManagers shall guarantee, for the support of the optical instruments, and in stands or supports for stereo- pleted. Schools and Teachers, from fees or local funds, a sum scopes. Dated November 20, 1858.

2655. W. H. Dawes. An improvement in forge hamat least equal to the grants so long as they shall be

In arranging steoroscopes, the standard, which connects mers, and in the anrils used with forge hammers and paid. If at any time neither foes of pupils nor local

the stage of the instrument with the frame in which the squeezers. Dated Nov. 23, 1858. funds cover the requisite amount, it must be inferred glasses are fixed, is divided transversely into two parts, Here the patentee makes a series of channels or passages

and in one of these parts two projecting wires or prongs in the tools of the said hammers and anvils, the chambers, that there is no demand for instruction in the above- are fixed and these enter corresponding holes in the other &c., being made in a plane parallel to that of the working named Sciences in that locality, which the Govern. part. The holes are lined with cloth so that sufficient friction surface, and as near the surface as possible. By causing ment is justified in aiding; and the assistance of the may be offered to the sliding of the prongs in the holes water to circulate through the channels, &c., the forge Department will be withdrawn. VIII. Every School to retain them in any position in which they may be hammer and anvils are kept cool. Patent completed.

2656. W. GOLMAX. Imprurements in furnaces and in or Class having a certified teacher will be inspected placed. When the instrument is in use it is held by a and examined once a year by the Department, and adjustment of the distance between the picture and the

the combustion of fuel, and in apparatus connected there

with, Dated Nov. 23, 1858. Queen's prizes of an honorary kind will be awarded glasses is effected by placing the end of the thumb in a This relates to a process of burning gaseous fuel in to successful students. IX. Payments will be made to recess formed in the upper portion of the standard, moving draught furnaces, such as are usually employed for genethe teacher on each first-class Queen's prize obtained it up or down till the proper distance is found. The por: rating steam in steam boilers, and consists in preventing by the student, £3; on each second-class, £2; and on

tions of the standard may be either rigidly fixed to the air from getting up through the incandescent or highlyeach third-class, £1. X. A grant towards the pur- by hinges furnished with springs similar to the springs of stage and to the frame of the glasses, or may be attached heated coke lying on the grate bars when a fresh charge of

coal is laid on, and while the gaseous or more volatile part chase of apparatus, fittings, diagrams, etc., of 50 per a pocket knife. There are other arrangements included. of the coal is being evolved. The stopping or limiting of cent, on the cost of them, will continue to be afforded Patent abandoned.

the access of air to the coke undergoing combustion preto Schools and Classes in Mechanics' and similar In. 2645. H. BODEx and T. COOPER. Improvements in plat- vents the production of carbonic acid gas which ordinarily stitutions.

ting or braiding machinery. Dated November 20, 1858. mingles with and prevents or injures the combustion of

Provisional protection has not been granted for this in- those gases which are being evolved from the superincumvention. Patent abandoned.

bent fresh charge of fuel. The furnace is thus converted 2646. H. GARDINER. Improvements in the compound into a kind of gas retort, and it is only necessary to supply axle hub and wheel for railroad cars. Dated Nov. 20, 1858. sufficient air for the combustion of the gases arising from

This consists, 1, in having the joints of the compound the newly-laid-on coals by the heat of the coke. Air may ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. axle within the hub and within the line of pressure upon be admitted above the fire at the door, bridges, or sides

the wheel, and in constructing and arranging the parts of the furnace to assist in the combustion of the gases. PaTar abridged Specifications of Patents given below are

constituting the hub in connection with a cylindrical tent completed. classified, according to the subjects to which the respective

sleeve or case (also within the hub) over the joint, so as to 2657. J. FAIRWEATHER. Improvements in weaving bags, inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of

hold the parts together with sufficient strength, and so as sacks, and other tubular fabrics. Dated Nov. 23, 1858. classification adopted, the numerical and chronological

to permit the wheels to turn independently of each other This refers to bags or sacks for guano, grain, coals, &c., order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with

and of the main part of the axle, and for the most part to which are mostly made of "jute," or a combination of jute all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be permit the two wheels and the whole compound axle to with tow or flax, and frequently with coloured stripes or understood that these abridgements are prepared exclu

make their rotation together. 2. In constructing the hub cotton selvages. The inventor proposcs, 1, to employ two sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the

and combining the parts of the hub and the plates so that sets of warps, and to weave the fabrics double, and either Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie

the wheel plates are set into a mortice between the rings with or without a cord or cords or band of any kind being tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not constituting the sections of the hub, while the exterior or woven in the cloth at that part of it where the scam usually to produce them without acknowledgement :

edges of the wheel plates are upset so as to secure and hold exists. These cords or bands will give strength and shapo STEAM EXCIXES, &c., 2674, 2686, 2693, 2708, 2711, 2717.

the tyre very firmly. 3. In adapting a wheel constructed to the bag or sack, and they may be formed with loops for

of a solid hub to the compound axle with the joint within hanging or lifting the sack when full; or the cords may be BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, 2641, 2656, 2658. the hub. Patent completed.

used for tying the mouth of the suck. 2. He proposes to ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car- 2647. C. H. MELLOR. An improved manufacture of woven weave one, two, three or more sacks at the same time by riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 2646, 2701, 2709, 2710. fabrics. Dated November 22, 1858.

weaving a strip or strips of united cloth (that is, weaving SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings, 2640, 2651, 2671,

This consists in combining honeycomb weaving with the two warps together) between cach sack and cutting it 2699. CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL, including agricultural and hor- doned. plain, twilled, fancy, or double weaving. Patent aban- after it is woven. Patent abandoned.

2658. N. F. BOREIKO DE CHODZKO. A smoke-preventing tieultural implements and machines, None.

2648. R. NELSON. Inprovements in apparatus for apparatus. Dated Nov. 23, 1858. FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing raising and lifting water and other liquids. Dated This relates to an arrangement of coking apparatus to food for men and animals, 2652, 2665. November 22, 1858.

be applied to the upper portion of the front end or mouth Fibrous FABRICS, including machinery for treating fibres,

Here the patentee obtains a vacuum by the ignition of of a steam boiler or other furnace of a similar construction, pulp, paper, &c., 2647, 2654, 2657,

2661, 2677, 2679, 2684, heated hydro-carbon fluids, such as turpentine, naptha, whereby the fresh charge of green fuel is freed from its 2691, 2694, 2697, 2698, 2704, 2715, 2720.

and alcohol. The invention is not described apart from smoke and combustible gases and coked before being inBUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, the drawings. Patent completed.

troduced into the body of the furnace. The apparatus drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 2642, 2643, 2675. LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 2659, 2662, 2669, salts and products from the ashes of marine plants. Dated

2649. F. A. THEROULDE. Improvements in obtaining consists of a closed chamber placed at the upper part of the

front of the furnace, fitted with feeding doors, and supplied 2673, 2680, 2692, 2705. November 22, 1858.

with one or more reversing grates upon which the green PURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils,

Here a concentrated solution is prepared from the ashes fuel is deposited. These grates turn upon centres, and time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 2642, by causing successive quantities of water to pass through are each

provided with a hollow shaft which constitutes tho successive layers of ash. Patent completed.

turning axis of the grate. To facilitate the turning or reMETALS, including apparatus for their manufacture, 2700.

2650. S. W. JOHNson and J. VARLEY. Improvements in versing of the grates a handle is fitted on to the front end CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 2644, 2649, 2667, 2682, 2706. pressure and vacuum gauges. Dated November 22, 1858. of each hollow axis. The object of making the axis hollow ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 2670, 2714.

This invention was described and illustrated at page 74 is to enable a supply of air to enter through such axis into WARFARE, 2664, 2668.

of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. (New Series.) Patent the furnace immediately hehind the coking compartment, LETTER PRESS PRINTING &c. None. completed.

at which point a deflecting plate is fitted for deflecting MISCELLANEOUS, 2645, 2648, 2650, 2653, 2635, 2660, 2663, 2651. A. V. NEWTON. Improved apparatus for pro- such air with the smoke and gases from the green fuel

2666, 2667, 2672, 2677, 2678, 2681, 2682, 2685, 2688, 2689, pelling and steering vessels. (A communication.) Dated down on to the incandescent fuel in the body of the fur. 2690, 2693, 2694, 2695, 2696, 2702, 2707, 2709, 2712, 2713, November 22, 1858.

nace. The charge having been coked, the grates are re2715, 2716, 2719.

The object here is to effect the steering of the vessel by versed, whereupon it falls into the dead plate and is pushed

the propeller itself, the axis of which is made moveable for forward into the furnace. Patent abandoned. 2640. H. JORDAN. Improvements applicable to navigable the purpose. Patent completed.

2659. A. V. NEWTON. Improvements in retorts for genevessels. Dated November 20, 1858.

2652. E. H. BENTALL. An improvement in the construc- rating illuminating gas. (A communication.) Dated Nov. This comprises various novel features in the build and tion of turnip-cutter8. Dated November 22, 1858.

23, 1858. rig of iron and wooden ships, the details of which are too This relates to a method of discharging the dirt and the This relates to a novel construction of upright retort, voluminons to find space in our pages. Patent completed. chips made in turnip-cutters so that they may be collected which presents

a very large internal heated surface, so 2641. D. Evans. Improvements in tubular steam-boilers separately from the other and clean portions of the cut arranged as to cause the tuid substance from which the and fire-places or furnaces used therewith. Dated No- root or turnip. The invention applies chiefly to the gas is to be generated to be received on a portion of the vember 20, 1858.

gardener or barrel turnip-cutter, and consists in providing surface of the retort that is but moderately heated, and to In constructing a tubular steam-boiler, the patentee it with an additional spout or discharge to receive and be conveyed gradually from the coolest to the hottest part forms across the fire-box a horizontal or somewhat in- convey away those portions of the root that do not pass of the retort, thereby preventing the distillation of the gas. clined water-chamber, open to the sides of the fire-box and through the knives, and find their way into the barrel, but making material into volatile oil, and preventing in a also to the body of the boiler. Through this water-cham- lie outside the barrel until they are discharged. Patent great degree its carbonization on the surface of the retort. ber numerous tubes pass, the ends of which are respec- completed.

The retort is fitted with a helical or screw-like column, tively fixed in the upper and lower plates of the chamber. 2653. T. SPENCER. Improvements in the manufacture or having a central tube in which are lateral openings between The upper surface of the chamber is to receive the fuel, construction of springs. Dated November 22, 1858. the threads of the column. A case or cover fits closely to and the draft is caused to pass down through the fuel and This relates, 1, to "Baillies" volute springs, and con- and around the surfaces of these threads, and combines down through the tubes into a chamber below, and thence sists in forming the coils with ribs or projections upon theru with the column to make a helical passage. The column the products of combustion pass through numerous hori- for strengthening the coils and preventing them from pres- is supported upon feet which rest on the bottom of the rezontal, inclined, or upright tubes through the body of the sing or rubbing their whole surface upon each other when tort, and the case or cover has an opening or openings beboiler into the chimney. To heat water in a separate tank, the spring is being compressed. It relates, 2, to laminated tween it and the bottom of the retort. In the cover of the or in the tender of a locomotive engine, an arrangement springs, and consists in dispensing with the slits and studs, retort an opening is made and fitted with a lid, which is of hollow or tubular fire-bars is used. Patent completed. or ribs, by forming at the ends of the plates small hollow sealed or luted with fusible alloy, but which can be taken

2612. L. PERCIVALL and J. HOUGHTON. Improvements ribs or projections, the underside, or cavity, formed in off to admit air to the retort, to burn out any residuary in attaching knoos of glass, china, and earthenware, to making these ribs upon the upper plates fitting upon the matters which may be deposited on the interior surfaces of the spindles of locks and latches, and to drawers and ribs or projections upon the under plates or vice versa. the retort in the gas-making process, thereby obviating the other articles.' Dated November 20, 1858. Patent completed.

necessity of removing the entire head or cover of the reThe inventors make that part of the spindle which enters 2654. W. Ralston. Improvements in embossing and tort. Patent abandoned. the knob of any other than a cylindrical form. A screw finishing woven fabrics, and in the machinery or apparatus 2660. A. V. NEWTON. Improved machinery for sweeping passed from the front of the knob engages in the end of the employed therein. Dated November 23, 1858.

floors. Dated November 23, 1858. spindle, and fixes the knob thereon. A washer and socket The patentee employs a roller of wood or metal, and This invention consists in hanging a rovolving brush at may be put on to the spindle between the shoulder of the grooves or indents upon it any desired design, and causes or near one of its journals in a bridle, and attaching the knob and the lock or latch to prevent friction of the it to revolve with a bowl or bowls of paper, &c. He gives opposite end of the same bridle at such a point on the case shoulder of the knob against the door. There is also an the circumference of the pattern roller a quicker motion of the machine between the centre of the driving wheel and arrangement for attaching knobs when rotary motion in than the circumference of one of the bowls, so as to obtain the other journal of the brush as to make the machine the knob is not required. Patent abandoned.

a frictional action upon the surface of the fabric as well as self-adjusting, that is, so that the driving power applied to 2013. J. Young. Improrements in fastenings for window pressure, so that if the fabric is moved transversely when the wheel shall exceed under all circumstances the friction susher and casements, and in chain used in suspending. fed to the machine, an indefinite number of watering of the whole brush on the carpet over which it may be Dated November 20, 1658.

patterns may be given to the fabric at one operation or traversed, thereby enabling the machine to sweep as lightly This consists, 1, in applying locking mechanism to passage; but if two operations be given, moire antique or or as heavily as may be desired : the peculiarity of this arrangement being that whatever friction is received by the 2669. J. S. Nibus. Improvements in lighting, heating, | as to take it up uniformly as it is produced by the weaving brush is a little inore than equalled by the power applied and ventilating. Dated November 24, 1858.

action. This roller arrangement is disposed in the loom at to the driving wheel. Patent completed.

This relates, 1, to a mode of admitting air to the flame of the front or usual place of the take-up, it being preferred to 2681. W. WARNE, J. A. JAQUEs, and J. A. FANSHAWE. oil or spirit lamps by perforated plates inclined from the use a series of three rollers acting in concert. These rollers An improved fabric applicable for covering floors and walls perpendicular, and in connection with

other perforated are carried by their spindles in end bearings in the loom and for other analogous purposes. Dated Nov. 23, 1858. plates, whereby the air is divided into small streams, and framings, and they are placed one above the other, but so

This consists in the combination of a textile fabric with its force upon the flame considerably checked, at the same that a line drawn transversely through their centres will forin a compound of india-rubber or gutta-percha, mixed with time preventing the atmospheric air from coming in im- a considerable angle with the vertical line, say an angle of ground cork and other vegetable substances, such as saw

mediate contact with the wick of the lamp. 2. To a 45 degrees. As the woven cloth leaves the breast beam it dust, woody fibre, paper cuttings, or pulp, to which is to ventilating top applicable to ship, railway, and other lamps passes down beneath the lowest roller of the series and be added sulphur, sulphate of lime, sulphate of zinc, or

or lanterns, and gas stoves, by which the forcible ingress round it, and then between the upper part of that roller some equivalent compound combining sulphur. Patent of air is checked, at the

same time allowing a free egress and the lower part of the second roller. * From this part it completed. to the vitiated air, &c. Patent completed.

passes round or over the top of the intermediate roller, and 2662. R. H. HUGHES. Improvements in means or appa

2670. J. H. Johnson. Improvements in the employment thence between it and the top roller round which it is ratus employed when lighting by gas. Dated November of electricity as a motive power. (A communication.) wound. The gearing of the take-up motion may be of any 24, 1858. Dated November 24, 1858.

convenient kind, the motion from it being communicated to This consists, 1, in the prevention of accident from the This consists in the use of a number of permanent mag. the bottom roller of the series, which roller again is geared escape of gas through the hydraulic or such like joints of nets so disposed that no two similar poles shall face each by spur pinions with

the second roller. The third or top gas-burners by adapting thereto a whistle, &c., to indicate other. Between these magnets are fitted to play freely a roller runs loose, and is driven simply by frictional contact such escape. 2. In the application of spring or elastic number of soft iron electro-magnets, which will alternately with the

intermediate roller. Patent completed. oushions to sliding or hydraulic connections of gas-fittings be attracted and repulsed by the permanent magnets by 2680. F. Loos. Improvements in gas regulators. Dated to check momentum when too rapid motion has been given reversing their polarity. The electro-magnets may be November 25, 1858. to the parts in sliding them. 3. In the application of hinge- made to transmit their motions by any convenient ar- This consists, 1, in placing the valves in gas-regulators pieces to the underside of pendant-burners for supporting rangement of mechanism, when a simple electro-magnetic in an angular position, so as to maintain an equilibrium. the glass. 4. In forming globular or other formed glasses,

motion will be obtained. There are modifications included. 2. In making the spindle hollow so that it may serve as a capable for the most part of enclosing the light, with a Patent abandoned.

lubricator. 3. In making the larger sized regulators in two turned-over edge or projection at the upper part, adapted

2671. C. E. Amos. Improved apparatus for raising and or more separate parts, the annular groove for the recepto receive hooked supports. Patent completed.

supporting ships or vessels while undergoing repair, which tion of the mercury being attached to the chamber by 2063. R. A. BROOMAX. An improvement in cigar cases.

apparatus is also applicable for facilitating the passage of screws or otherwise. 4. In a lever hingo joint for steadying (A communication.) Dated November 24, 1858,

ships or vessels over bars, sandbanks, or in shallow waters. the disc. 5. In making an outlet for the gas througa a Dated November 25, 1858.

spindle attached to the flouting or regulating chamber, This consists in connecting two recesses or corrugated plates at the sides only to the inside of a case or pocket

This apparatus is composed of a number of tanks which chamber is immersed in an annular cup containing made of leather or flexible material and back to back, so

secured together, and being filled with water are sunk mercury or other suitable fluid. Patent completed. that the cigars may lie in the corrugations or recesses in

under the vessel , then by pumping air into these tanks 2681. C. MATHER. An improved steam trap or apprthe plates and between them and the case. Patent com.

the water is forced out, the tanks become buoyant and ratus for allowing the escape of water and air from pipes, pleted.

the ship is raised. The invention may be variously ressels, or chambers heated by steam. Dated November 25, 2664. Sir C. Shaw. Improvements in the construction of modified. Patent abandoned.

1858. ball and bullet-proof shields or mantlets. Dated Novem

2672. F. C. Calvert and C. Lowe. Improvements in the The patentee affixes to the end of a pipe a valve which, ber 24, 1858. manufacture of size. Dated November 25, 1858.

when the pipe is heated by steam, is kept closed by a This consists in constructing mantlets or shields of alter dissolving the gluten or protein matter contained in flour. but, if any water accumulates in the pipe, the decrease in

This consists in the application of caustic alkalies for weighted lever carried by a standard mounted on tho pipe ; nate layers of wire netting or gauze, or metal cloth, or metal rods or bars worked and tied together, and hair,

and amylaceous substances used in the manufacture of size. the temperature contracts the pipe, and causes a short arm

Patent completed. leather, cotton waste, tow, or other brous material.

on the weighted lever to come against an adjustable stop, Patent abandoned.

2673. H. EASTWOOD. Improvements in purifying gas whereby the weighted lever is raised and the water allowed 2665. W. E. NewTON. Improvements in mills for for illuminating purposes. Dated November 25, 1858.

to escape; but as soon as steam passes through the pipe, grinding corn. (A communication.) Dated November 24,

This consists in forcing gas through or in close contact the pipe again expands and moves the short arm of the 1858.

with either common spirits of wine or vegetable or mineral weighted lever away from the stop, and allows the lever Here there are, as usual, two stones, the upper one of naphtha, or a combination of these liquids. Patent aban- to close the valve. The valve also allows air to escape

doned. which is stationary, and the lower one moveable. The

when steam is first admitted into the pipe, vessels, or lower stone or runner is surrounded by a case fixed upon

2674. R. BODMER. Improvements in valves for regulating chambers after that they have been allowed to cool. This a cross-piece, which is attached to the fixed framing. A

the supply of steam. (A communication.) Dated No- valve also acts as a safety-valve, so that steam may escape cast-iron arched piece of framework carries a bearing

vember 25, 1858.
This is chiefly applicable to those valves which are in pipes. Patent completed.

if it is at a greater pressure than is desired in the steamwhich supports the spindle of the runner. The fixed stone rests upon the edges of the

case of the
runner, and three linders, where the object is to keep the steam in the ing

matter for dyeing. Dated November 25, 1858. tended to regulate the admission of steam to drying cy- 2682. W. Burrox. Improvements in preparing colourstone may be adjusted with nicety. The upper

part of the drying

cylinders as much as possible at a uniform pressure. case is closed, and made air-tight by a band of wood This is effected by causing the steam in the drying dries and reduces

to powder, and then boils or heats with turned and cut to fit. The runner is driven by a band cylinders and that supplied from the boiler to press in naphtha : afterwards he separates it by Altration, and passed round a large pulley on its vertical spindle, and

dries it. When this substance is used in dyeing, oxalie which spindle rests on the end of an adjusting screw, by working in cylinders, so that a preponderance of pressure

or other acid is used with it; or, in place of this process, turning which, by suitable gearing, the vertical adjustment in the drying cylinders will cause the smaller piston to

the preparation of orchid is treated with alcohol, ether, or move in one direction, and thereby close the orifice or

chloroform, which dissolves the colouring matter, and the facilitating the grinding and cooling of the

meal by valve through which the steam is supplied from the boiler, dye-bath is prepared from the extract thus obtained. driving in air by means of a fan blower between the two whilst a preponderance in the opposite direction will cause

Patent abandoned. surfaces where the grain is under operation. To cool and

the piston to move accordingly, and to open the said 2683. J. LUIS. A neio sort of drawers or trousers for

orifice. Patent completed. purify the air it is drawn through a wet sponge suitably

2675. J. Luis. A safeguard against burglars. (A com

ladies or children. (A communication.) Dated Novemplaced. Patent abandoned. munication.) Dated November 25, 1858.

ber 26, 1858. 2666. A. V. Newton. Improved machinery for making

The patentee claims the application of springs or any

The principle on which this invention rests is electrobolts and rivets. (A communication.) Dated November

other arrangement for retaining or giving form to the magnetism. It is by the interruption of the electric 24, 1858.

drawers or trousers. Patent completed. Here the dies and headers are combined in a rotary signal--that is to say, at all the places and objects, &c., current that an alarm of particular mechanism gives a

2684. J. HARRISON. Improvements in rollers applicable stock, so that they are all accessible for inspection and re- that are confided to the safeguard of the apparatus, the

to sizeing, dressing, calendering, and squeezing machines. placement whether at rest or in motion. The dies are fixed, the one half in clamps hinged to the periphery of

conductors are interrupted for the time when the places Dated November 26, 1858.
are no longer in a condition of safety, and where the con-

This consists in making these rollers of slate, marble, or the stock, and the other hall let into the stock while the ductors are united in a different manner when it is desired

stone. Patent abandoned. headers (one for each pair of dies) work in sockets in the rear of the dies, and parallel with the axis of rotation of ment, as soon as a hand touches a door or window, or that the places should be inaccessible. By this arrange

2685. E. Dixon and F. FISHER. An improrement in

the manufacture of welded iron tubes. Dated November the stock. Combined with the stock is a feed-rest and makes any attempt to open it, the electric current is

26, 1858. cutter, of such form as to facilitate in the feeding of the broken instantaneously, and the alarm bell commences

This consists in the use of two draw-benches. The rod to form the bolts, and to effect the severance of the ringing. Patent completed.

inventors place a second draw-bench near, and by preferrod by the rotation of the stock to form the blanks with

2676. C. F. VASSEROT. An improved petticoat and bustle.

ence parallel to the one situated opposite to the mouth of out expanding the rod at the point severed; and afford (A communication.) Dated November 25, 1858.

the furnace. After the partially-made tube has been support to the point of the boît or rivet during the process of heading. For releasing the formed bolt or rivet

This consists in forming a frame in the shape of a fan, drawn through one draw-bench, so as to effect the welding the articulations or ribs of which are made of steel bands

of the joint of the said tube, they transfer it to the second from the dies the hinged clamps are tripped up by a pro suitably covered; the

upper part of these ribs is bent in draw-bench, by the operation of which the final drawing jection on the rear end coming against fixed bowles, and the dies are thus opened. Sliding rods in the dies are then the shape of a spring-tong ending with a straight band, and completion of the tube is effected.

Patent comlikewise covered, the end of which reaches the bottom of pleted. thrust forward by springs, and the formed bolt is ejected the petticoat. The upper part of the tongs is fastened at

2686. A. Bowie. Improvements in governors for marine from one or other division of the die. The dies are further the waist by a moveable loop tied to the steel band so as

engines. Dated November 26, 1858. constructed so that a distinct part forming the shoulder,

to allow it to be lengthened or shortened at will. The The improved apparatus, which is more particularly against which the head of the bolt or rivet will be made,

open part of the frame is placed in front, and fastens with applicable to screw steamers, consists, under one modificamay be easily removed and replaced, and a lip at their buttons. The bustle, which forms part of the frame, is fixed tion, of a weighted lever, combined with a valve on the outer ends is provided which will not only facilitate the

underneath the ribs; it is composed of two circles of pipe conveying steam to the engines. The weighted lever severing of the blank, but leave the end of the formed different sizes kept together at a suitable distance by steel

is hung so that its tendency to hang plumb, or with its bolt or rivet slightly pointed. Patent completed. bands. Patent abandoned.

centre of gravity in its lowest attainable position, shall 2667. R. H. Hess. A new manufacture of articles, parts 2677. J. NUTTALL, G. RIDING, and W. COULTHURST. Im- cause the valve to close, to a greater or less extent, when of articles, parts of machinery, surfaces, and ornamental provement in sizes for sizing cotton, linen, or other warps

the vessel becomes inclined longitudinally with her stem works from tale, and other silicates of magnesia. Dated or yarns for weaving. Dated November 25, 1858.

elevated; and this action, by reducing or cutting off the November 24, 1858.

'I'his composition is composed of china clay one hundred supply of steam, will have the effect of preventing the The patentee takes certain silicates of magnesia, such as pounds, or Spanish white one hundred pounds, together engines from running away. It is preferred to make the tale, teatite, &c., which he reduces to a state of powder, with muriate of soda or common salt Afty-six pounds,

valve of the equilibrium class, or so as to be actuated with and presses the material into moulds of the shape of the alum fifty-six pounds, or nitrate of soda six pounds, and

as little force as possible, and the weighted lever may be article to be produced, adding colouring matter when re- farina twenty pounds (if about twenty pounds of flour be jointed to enable the weight to swing freely in a transverse quired for black, or various colours, or for staining to also used therewith) or farina forty pounds if flour is not direction without acting on the valve. The invention is imitate marbles, agates, or other substances. Patent com- desired to be used. Patent abandoned.

susceptible of being applied to vessels propelled by paddlepleted.

2678. F. H. MABERLY. Improvements in candlesticks. wheels. Patent abandoned. 2668. C. PETERSON. Improvements in the manufacture Dated November 25, 1858.

2687. M. MEYERS. Improvements in parasols. Dated of paper cartridges, and in paper applicable for water- This invention is not described apart from the drawings. November 26, 1858. proof purposes. Dated November 24, 1858. atent completed.

The inventor covers the ordinary parasol frame with a The inventor introduces a solution of soap into paper 2679. C. PARKER. Improvements in looms for wearing. cover of two pieces or two outside covers of different dipulp, after which he introduces in solution, which Dated November 25, 1858.

mensions: the same to be lined with cotton, linen, alpaca, combines with and decomposes the soap, and forms an in- This relates to the taking-up motion, and consists in the &c. The rims of the lining and covers are formed into falls soluble substance which extends throughout the body of use of plain rollers, which may be covered with woollen or flounces, having their edges pinked or cut into fancy the paper or cartridge cases when made, and renders cloth or other elastic substances operating by a combination patterns. The parasol is also furnished with an ornathem waterproof. Patent completed,

of tension and frictional contact upon the woven cloth so mental bow. Patent completed,

2688. M. A. F. MEN XONS. An improved manufacture the batten or lay, capable of being varied in power or pipe for supplying water which is intended to yield pure of leather. (A communication). Dated Nov. 26, 1858. degree. The links or arms which usually connect the lay hydrogen. These pipes each terminate in a pierced coil,

The object here is the production of a semi-transparent or batten to the crank or other means employed to and the coils are surmounted with scrap iron, &c., which leather susceptible of many of the applications of ivory, govern the extent of motion to the batten, in this case fills the retort about two-thirds full. Pressure being put bone, whalebone, and analogous materials. The raw hides connect the cranks, or equivalent to a separate arm or arms upon the fluids by the elevation of the water and hydroare soaked in a solution of lime to remove the hair, &c., rising from or near to the axis of the lay swords, so that carbon tanks a continuous supply is afforded to the retort. and are afterwards submitted to intense pressure. Patent the batten or lay may, except when otherwise controlled, These fluids flowing down their respective pipes and circuabandoned.

be capable of considerable vibration, and the connection of lating round the coil find an exit through the perforations 2689. G. RICHARDSON. Improvements in machinery or the batten or lay with the separate arm or arms, so as to in the coils in the form of fine streams of vapour, which oh apparatus for pressing bales of goods. (A communication.) cause them to move together for the time required, is coming in contact with the red hot scrap iron in the retore Dated Nov. 26, 1858.

effected by a lever or levers with catch or catches operated become converted into gas. The hydrogen gas obtained Here it is proposed to arrange any required number of by cams or tappets in such manner that the batten and by the separation of the water into its elements is generated presses below the roadway of a railway siding. These separate arm or arms moved together for a time, and then at the hottest part of the retort and travelling upwards it presses consist of rams or pistons working in chambers of by the batten being released, an elastic beat is obtained, meets with the hydro-carbon gas, and mingling therewith stone or wood and fitted each with a piston rod, the top of varying in power or degree with the time when, in the takes up and chemically combines with the excess of which carries an anti-friction roller, and projects, say rotation of the crank shaft, the batten becoming released. carbon that would otherwise be deposited in the retort. The feet above the level of the rails in the centre of the road- The separate arm or arms may be connected with or with- combined gases then pass off by a syphon pipe into a puriway. The chambers are fitted with side doors, and suit- out hinge joint, and a spring or springs may be employed fying vessel where they are cooled and made it for burning. able fastenings for the facility of introducing the goods and to aid the motion of the batten in beating up. Also the When manufacturing gas for heating purposes he dispenses removing the compressed bales, and the top and bottompress- invention relates to effecting the motion to beat up by a with the use of the liquid hydro-carbon and the apparatus ing surfaces are grooved to admit of bands being placed spring or springs, and in giving motion to the batten or employed in supplying it to the

retort and obtains the gas around the bales. The pistons of the presses are forced

down lay in the direction
from the cloth by means of cams or solely by the decomposition of water

into its elements. by the travelling over them and along the line of a loaded tappets acting upon links or connections from the batten Patent abandoned. truck having a bar or beam attached beneath it longitudi- or lay, the links or connections being attached to the 2706. L. A. Possoz. Manufacturing alkalies, and obnally in an inclined position, the highest end going first. As batten or lay at or near where the links are usually containing simultaneously other chemical products. Datcd the truck passes along, the inclined bar passes over the Dected when using the ordinary crank motion. The in- November 29, 1858. several piston rods and depresses them. The pistons when vention further relates to preventing the fabric from This consists principally in certain processes in which compressed are held down by self-acting catches, which, creasing as it is taken by the work roller, by stretching the soda or potash is employed in the state of chlorides, sulwhen released by hand, allow the pistons to rise again by fabric breadthwise by means of rollers with roughened phates, silicates, crude salts or other alkaline combinations. the action of counter-weights. Patent abandoned. surfaces, or with the peripheries provided with teeth. The salts being brought into the state of caustic potash or 2690. T. B. HUBBELL and G. J. Rollason. Improved | Patent abandoned.

soda, the alkali is heated with organic substances azoted or apparatus for brightening and polishing metal surfaces. 2698. R. ALEXANDER. Improvements in treating, pre- not, and if azoted he obtains from them ammonia, but in any Dated November 26, 1858.

paring, and bleaching testile fabrics and other materials. case he obtains oxalates, acetates, corbonates of potash or This consists in forming polishing apparatuses by uniting Dated November 27, 1858.

soda, which has not been hitherto accomplished. In this several discs of leather, felt, &c., by sewing them together Here the fabrics are passed in an open sheet form slowly manufacture he does not use again the acetates and carbonby one or more rows of stitches, the outer row being some through steam chests, instead of being subjected to the ates first used by submitting them each time to a new distance from the periphery of the discs, so as to leave

the boiling
process. Patent completed.

process of caustication to render them useful again, but he outer edges of the discs open that they may hold between 2699. F. C. KINNEAB and D. POSENER. Improvements in takes each time the caustic alkalie which he wants from them the polishing powder. Patent abandoned.

the means of preserving life and property in navigation. the low priced salts, and obtains by his process acetates 2691. J. B. BOOTH. Improvements in machinery or ap- Dated November 27, 1858.

and carbonates either by purifying them ready for sale in paratus for preparing, spinning, doubling, and winding This consists in the attachment of inflated air-tight a commercial form, or using them to produce cyanures or cotton and other fibrous materials. Dated Nov. 26, 1858. tubes or bags to the internal or external sides of ships, &c. other chemical products. Patent completed.

This invention is not described apart from the drawings. The material preferred for making the tubes or bags is that 2707. G. OATES. Improvements in the manufacture of Patent completed.

known as double texture or Mackintosh cloth. Patent scissors. (A communication.). Dated November 29, 1858. 2692. W. RICKARDS. Improvements in the construction abandoned.

This relates to the introduction of dies in the process of V gas-meters. Dated November 26, 1858.

2700. H. L. PATTINSON. Improvements in utilising the scissors making by which a uniform configuration of the This consists in constructing the measuring wheel or drum heat of slags of iron and other works. Dated November sides or bows may be obtained, and elaborate ornamentawith chambers having a diminished capacity near the axle. 27, 1858.

tion impressed upon them at a relatively small cost. The 'The patentee attains this end by forming the wheel with sides This consists in employing by the aid of suitable appa- invention is not described apart from the drawings. Patent inclining inwards towards the axle instead of making the ratus the waste heat of slags of iron in the heating of completed. sides parallel to each other; thus the great variation in the arciform and other fluids. The apparatus may be varied, 2708. M. STARBUCK. A static pressure engine. Dated measuring capacity of the chambers at present experienced but it is preferred that the hot slags should be caused to

November 29, 1858. by the alteration of water line will be reduced to an in- move through suitable channels, whilst the air or other This consists in the application of a static pressure to considerable amount. When using this construction of fluid is contained in other contiguous channels, and by produce a continuous movement from which the static drum-wheel the part called the hollow cover can be made preference caused to move in an opposite direction to that pressure (minus the friction of the engine) can be conflat or concave (the conical space at the inlet side of the in which the slags move. Patent completed.

tinually given off for moving any machinery to which the wheel allowing sufficient space for the insertion of the 2701. C. BURRELL. Improvements in traction engines engine may be applied. Patent abandoned. spout) and thus a broader drum than heretofore can be and carriages. Dated November 27, 1858.

2709. F. S. PERRARE-MICHAL. Improvements in the mounted in a given size of case. In addition to contracting In constructing the wheels which run on the portable manufacture of bridles (without bits and without curb the measuring chambers laterally near the axis of the railways trough or double angle iron is used, so that there chains) for riding, driving, or otherwise conducting horses. drun he proposes to place the cross partitions which divide are two rows of iron spokes to each wheel, the outer ends Dated November 29, 1858. the wheel or drum into chambers at a much greater angle of which are fixed to the trough iron or double angle iron This bridle is constructed as follows :- The head stall is to the axis than heretofore, in order that the resistance to ring, and there are openings or spaces through the trough the same as those now in use, except the part called the the water may be as uniform as possible, and he so or double angle iron for the passage between the two rows nose-band, which has on the inside a small piece of steel, arranges the inlet and outlet passages of each measuring of spokes of the A formed bars or projections which con

&c. ; it is placed in the centre

so as to press on the nose of chamber that the bulk of water entering by the inlet to nect the shoes constituting the portable railway with the the animal, the pressure being obtained by the connection displace the gas shall be as nearly as possible

equal to that of wheel, the shoes being each formed with two parallel rails it has with the apparatus intended to replace the bit, and gas replacing the water in the outlet. It further proposes on their upper surfaces on which the tyre of the wheel by which the animal is guided. This apparatus consists of to place a plumb valve at the back of the meter (the runs, the A formed bar or projection being fixed to the two pieces of steel, &c.,

connected together by a bar or bars opposite side to that at which the float is situated), which shoe between such parallel rails and the guide irons, for of the same metai; one of these bars passes over the will serve to prevent surreptitious abstraction of gas by such projections are fixed to the trough or double animal's nose, and acts as a lever lifting up and down; the the meter being tilted forward. Patent completed. angle iron so as to come on each side of the projec- other bar goes into the mouth, but does not in any way

2693. P. GRIFFITHS and J. BRENNAND. Improvements in tions. In gearing the main or driving shaft with the affect or press on the animal's mouth; the bar or lever lubricators for introducing lubricating matier into steam driving wheels pinions are affixed (one each passing over the nose has two rings to which are attached cylinders and other chambers or parts under pressure. end of the driving shaft) which when in action gear into the reins, and it is by these reins that the lever is lifted up Dated November 26, 1858.

the cog wheels on the driving wheels of the carriage, and or down, and consequently pressed more or less on the This invention is not described apart from the drawings. the boiler and engines are so carried by the axle of the animal's nose. The apparatus is fixed to the head stall by Patent completed.

driving wheels that they

may be raised or lowered thereon buckles, and at each side the branch of the apparatus 2694. J. ŚPratt. Improvements in the manufacture and by screws and levers, by which means both or either of the enters into a long loop on either side of the head stall. PRstrengthening of paper. Dated November 27, 1858. pinions on the main driving shaft may be put in gear with tent abandoned.

This consists in combining yarn or threads with paper the cog wheels of the driving wheels of the carriage, or 2710. G. COLLIER and W. NOBLE. Improvements in pulp while in the form of a sheet as it is formed in the both the pinions may be out of gear with these cog wheels means or apparatus for the manufacture of spokes for paper-making machine for adding strength to the paper. according as the end of the boiler is raised or lowered in carriage wheels, which improvements are also applicable In course paper wire is applied. Patent abandoned. respect to the main or driving shaft. Patent completed. to the cutting of wood for other purposes. Dated Novem

2695. J. TANGYE. An improvement in hydraulic presses. 2702. G. B. SANDEN. Improvements in jugs. Dated ber 29, 1858.
Dated November 27, 1858.
November 27, 1858.

Here the wood to be cut is held endwise as in a lathe, and This consists in making the cistern in the base of the This consists in applying to the covers of jugs a moveable so that rotary motion may be given to it, whilst it is acted press, the said base being hollow. The invention is not stop to prevent the cover rising further than is requisite to upon by two rotary and traversing cutters. One of these described apart from the drawings. Patent completed. allow the liquid to be poured out, but which can be turned cutters in its rotation during its traverse simply, acts to

2696, J. RAMSBOTTOM. Improvements in machinery or out of the way to allow of the cover being fully opened to reduce the outer surface of the wood to a cylindrical chaapparatus applicable to water metres, and to indicating fill or clean the jug. Patent completed.

racter. The other

cutter is also capable of a motion in a and regulating the flow and pressure of fuids generally, 2703. W. TILLIE. An improvement in the manufacture direction to or from the wood to be cut, and a projection or and in oblaining motive power from the same. Dated Nov. of shirts and shirt fronts. Dated November 27, 1858. follower from the sliding table supporting it is constantly 27, 1858

This consists in printing linen, &c., so that material for borne towards a model spoke or other form being copied, This consists, 1, in constructing the valve and water ways the whole front part of a shirt, together with wristbands and which is caused to rotate simultaneously with the wood so that whether the valve be flat, or plug shaped, relatively and collars may be furnished by one breadth of cloth, the to be cut, by which the article cut will by this second to each other the supply and exit ways shall be open whilst front being without folds, but printed with any suitable cutter be cut to the figure of the model. In order to give the valve shall traverse over one-third more space than pattern, and the collar and wristbands being likewise orna- steadiness to the wood being cut especially towards the was accomplished in the former mode of construction. 2. mented. Patent abandoned.

centre of its length, it passes through a fixed trace or supIn constructing the valve in a slightly different manner, 2704. S. DIGGLE. Improvements in pattern chains or port of a form suited to embrace the wood just after being and in using it inverted as a seating, upon which a boss other such apparatus used in uocaving. Dated Nov. 27, 1858. operated upon by the first cutter, and before being acted shall rotate containing

a cavity of suitable size into which This relates to the pattern chains or other such apparatus upon by the second. The cutters employed for cutting the fluid shall pass during a certain portion of the revo- used for shifting the position of the shuttles in what are spokes and such like articles are of a disc form with cutting lution, and out of which it shall escape for use during commonly called "rising box looms," and also to other edges formed across the periphery in an angular direction, another portion of the revolution, 'The boss must be pattern chains or similar apparatus used in fancy weaving and such cutting surface of each cutter is partly cylindrical suitably, ground upon the seating, and carry a wheel for shedding the warp, &c. The invention is not described and partly curved to a smaller diameter, so as to enable worked by a worm or pinion situated at right angles, such apart from the drawings. Patent completed.

them progressively to cut from the outer surface to the worm or pinion to be actuated by any motion, and the 2705. H. GERNER. Improvements in the mode of and depth desired, and the face of the cutter in the directiono arrangement thus made available for lubrication. 3. apparatus for manufacturing gas for illumination and its cutting is all round it, near its cutting edge, recessed or In an improved arrangement if actuating valves by the ex- heating. Dated November 27, 1858.

dished, so as to admit of sharpness at those parts. Patent pansive force of a series of two or more metals which are The inventor mounts by preference a vertical retort in a completed, acted upon differently by the same temperature. Patent furnace ond fits the retort with one or more pipes for con- 2711. W. E. NEWTON. Improved expansion or cut-off completed.

ducting thereto the material to be converted into gas. gear for steam-engines. (A communication.) Dated No2697. G. COLLIER. Improvements in means

or apparatus when making illuminating gas he uses a retort fitted with vember 29, 1858. employed in wearing. Dated November 27, 1858.

a pipe for supplying the liquid hydro-carbon to be conver- This consists in certain combinations of vibrating arms, The object here is the obtaining of an clastic beat up to ted into rich carburetted hydrogen gas, and also a second vibrating links, rods, and lifters, whereby the "cut off


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