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ship, freighted with thousands of lives ; and
part will, however, be most valuable in itself, and the huge rifle gun, throwing its fatal charge
manufacturers and others will be glad to secure across miles of earth or of ocean. New arts
each as it appears. too, useful and ornamental, have sprung up Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines. luxuriantly around us. New powers of nature New Edition. Chiefly re-written and greatly en.
Journal of a Voyage to Australia and round the have been evoked, and man communicates with
larged. Edited by ROBERT Hunt, F.R.S., F.S.S., World for Magnetical Research. By the Rev. W.
Keeper of Mining Records. Illustrated with nearly SCOREBBY, D.D, F.R.S., etc. Edite by ARCHIBALD man across seas and continents, with more cer
two thousand Engravings on wood. Part. I. Lon. SMITI, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., &c. London: Longman, tainty and speed than if he had been endowed don: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts.
Green, Longman, and Roberts. 1859. with the velocity of the racehorse or provided 1859.
The disturbing influence which the magnetism with the pinions of the eagle. Wherever we It is with the greatest satisfaction that we re. of iron ships exerts upon their compasses has been are, in short, art and science surround us. They ceive the first part of a new edition of the late Dr. illustrated by an amazing display of mathematical have given birth to new and lucrative profes- Ure's great work, and our satisfaction is height. symbols, but until the establishment of the Liver. sions. Whatever we purpose to do they help ened by an examination of its contents. Mr. pool Compass Committee in 1854 very little indeed us. In our houses they greet us with light and Robert Hunt is exceedingly well fitted to be its heat. When we travel we find them at every
was done in the way of experimental inquiry into stage on land, and at every harbour on our general editor, and he has associated with him a this important subject. This committee, which shores. They stand beside our board by day, staff of geritlemen thoroughly competent to help has rendered valuable services in this respect, was and beside our couch by night. To our thoughts him with the details of his great undertaking. No to a great extent due to the labours of the late they give the speed of lightning, and to our one can know better than ourselves how invaluable Dr. Scoresby, and for this, as well as for his own timepieces the punctuality of the sun; and, Dr. Ure’s volumes have been to manufacturers and individual exertions, we owe him a great debt of though they cannot provide us with the boasted
men of science generally; but it must be acknow- gratitude. The latest and most distinguishing lever of Archimedes to move the earth, or indi- ledged that of late years the progress of science act which he performed in connection with this cate the spot upon which we must stand could had carried us beyond it in many respects, and a compass question was that of making the voyage we do it, they have put into our hands tools of new edition, bringing its articles up to date, was to Australia and round the world of which we matchless power by which we can study the greatly needed. The part before us proves that here have the narrative. The ship in which the remotest worlds ; and they have furnished us the need is being most satisfactorily supplied. voyage was made was the Royal Charter, of which with an intellectual plummet by which we can The 192 pages of this part carry us only to the little now remains but melancholy memories. sound the depths of the earth and count the article “Artesian Wells,” which was reached on The volume before us comprises three parts. cycles of its endurance. In his hour of pre- the 87th page of the edition of 1853, so that the The first consists of an able paper from the pen of sumption and ignorance man has tried to do new matter is more than twice as voluminous as the editor, Mr. Archibald Smith, forming an inmore than this; but though he was not per- the old. This arises, to a great extent, from the troduction to Dr. Scoresby's remarks. In this inmitted to reach the heavens with his cloud-capt introduction of entirely new articles; but it is troduction the editor sets forth the objects of Dr. tower of stone, and has tried in vain to navi- mainly the result of the extension of the former Scoresby's inquiries, and then takes up and eluci
articles with modern matter. Among the many dates the nature of the differences which are well gate the aërial ocean, it was given him to
new articles the more remarkable are 8 pages on known to have existed between Dr. Scoresby and ascend into Empyrean by chains of thought Acidimetry, 2 on the Air-engine, 24 on Algæ, the Astronomer Royal, and which had reference which no lightning could destroy and no comet
on Aluminium, 71 on Chloride of Ammonium, chiefly to the mathematical, or, to speak more strike ; and though he has not been allowed to and 2 on the colouring material named Arnatto, exactly, to the theoretical phases of the compass grasp with an arm of flesh the products of Arnotto, or Annotto. Among the extended articles question. The second part consists of an elemenother worlds, or tread upon the pavement of the principal are, that on Acetic Acid, which tary exposition of magnetical principles, and of the gigantic planets, he has been enabled to scan, is extended from 12 to 19 pages, others on phenomena of magnetism and compass-action and with more than an eagle's eye, the mighty Alcohol and Alcoholometry, enlarged from 15 to disturbance in iron ships by the rev. doctor. The creations in the bosom of space-to march 23 pages ; on Aldehyde, from 7 lines to a page; third part is the journal of the voyage. intellectually over the mosaics of sidereal on Alkali and Alkalimetry, from 13 to 18 pages; In so far as the compass question itself is consystems, and to follow the adventurous Phaëton on Alloy, from 4 to 11 pages; on Alum, from 8) to cerned we shall deal with the results of Dr. in a chariot which can never be overturned. 18 pages; on Amalgam, from 2 lines to a page; Scoresby's voyage in the Royal Charter at another This is Sir David Brewster's language, not
on Ammonia, from 1 to 10 pages; on Anchor, time, and shall therefore avoid the discussion of ours; we are content to repeat it, and commend from 4 to 9 pages ; on Aviline, from 10 lines to them here. We must not omit, however, to ex.
2 it to our readers.
pages; on Anthracite, from 20 lines to 3 pages; press our sense of the great ability and admirable
on Antimony, from 1 to 3} pages ; and on Arsenic spirit manifested in the remarks of Mr. Archibald THE PATENT OFFICE LIBRARY. and its compounds, from 4 to 8 pages. We give Smith. The question with which he had to deal With reference to our last week's article on the these details to show the comprehensive manner was an intricate and difficult one, and therefore Great Seal Patent Office Library we are evabled in which the new
edition is being revised. Nor is required thoroughly scientific treatment; having to state that Mr. Edmunds, the Clerk to the any expense being spaced in the getting up” of also been the subject of a warm controversy
the new edition. The new woodcuts, which are between the Astronomer Royal and Dr. Scoresby Commissioners of Patents, avows himself most
numerous, are exceedingly well engraved, and it required impartial as well as careful discussion. anxious to obtain a suitable Library for inven- both the paper and the type are superior to those in neither respect has the editor failed. His tors and patentees, and is likewise desirous that of the '53 edition. We find great reason to paper, though short, is a very important one, and this Library should occupy a central position believe also, from a careful examination of this will have the effect of restricting future controin preference to any other. It appears that part, that perfect impartiality will be observed in versies, which must occur, to the considerations Mr. Gladstone, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the new and the re-written articles. The chief which are really the subject of dispute-a very is responsible for the present suspension of the editor himself, Mr. Hunt, has not scrupled, we necessary thing. arrangements which were in progress in the observe, to remove from the article on Actinism But the volume before us has an interest earlier part of the year. It is only fair for us to passages complimentary to himself, which formerly altogether apart from the question of the magnestate further that we find the land agency men- appeared in it. Dr. Ure gave Mr. Hunt credit for tism of iron ships. Strange as the assertion may tioned in the article referred to consists in nothing being the first discoverer of the actinic principle. appear, we have found more amusement in this book more than certain friendly offices confined to the Mr. Hunt“ remits” it-to use the French Empe- than in any
other which we have read for a long transactions of a single estate. We offer these ror's term—to M. Berard. Again, in the article time. Dr. Scoresby appears to have been one of
on Anchors we find a fair and honest account of those men who, while great upon some one subject, explanations with much satisfaction because we find in them ground for hoping that the Library posed in anchors from time to time, and are not science, and indeed in some other branches of
the various improvements which have been pro are small upon almost every other. In magnetical which is so much needed will ere long be ob- for once) surfeited with intemperate praises of science also, he seems to have been a strong, clear, tained. We need hardly tell our readers that the Trotman anchor. Indeed, the writer candidly original thinker. But this volume abundantly this is our only desire and object in connection says:
“Although for convenience Trotman's proves that in ordinary matters he was of the with this subject, and that we have no reason anchor is, as we have already stated, largely used Lilliputian type. His account of the manner in whatever for speaking of the gentleman before- by the merchant steamers, we cannot but feel that which he came to embark on board the Royal mentioned with anything but respect.
the separation of the fluke from the shaft, although Charter, and of the arrangements connected with
it may be in many cases unobjectionable, is that proceeding, is full of tiny details which no The trial of the new (French) field-pieces, to which attended with the risk that when, in an einergency, man can peruse with gravity; and throughout the the grooved principle has been applied, went off to the anchor is required, the means of connection voyage we have glimpses of him which are enough the great satisfaction of all parties. The experiment may be at fault." According to the announcement took place in the exercise ground at Saint Maur. The the work is to be completed in fourteen parts, Seven days after the ship had sailed from Liver
“ to shake the midrift of despair with laughter.” 2,000 metres—the target, consisting of a pole, sur: forming three volumes; the intervals at which pool (on her first voyage) she was found not mounted by a little flag, was scarcely visible to the the parts are to appear are not stated-probably only to be in bad trim,
but also to admit water naked eye, and yet, in spite of the high wind, every are not known, as they may be dependent upon through her sides and decks with a most pernicious shot told !-Vorning Star,
the opportunities of soine of the authors. Each degree of freedom. Th: captain was sick, and in doubt whether it were well to put back or not; Charter. He seems to have had a wonderful sense of facts of more or less value wbich we parpose exwherenpon the rev. doctor gravely undertakes to the importance of his services in this respect. We tracting for the benefit of our readers on a futare
go below into all departments of the passengers," find him continually offering to preach in all parts oceasion. as he puts it, and then report to him the results of of the ship; so much so that the passengers seem his " impressions." The examination occupied an to have been driven to great forgetfulness in the Patents for Inventims. Abridgment of Specifica. hour—" an hour of the most painful solicitude and matter of responding to his offers. He appears tions relating to Electricity and Magnetisk, their sympathy," and the doctor occupies more than a also to have had so strong a sense of the import
Generation and Applications. Printed by order of page with a narrative of what he saw-among ance of his part of the religious services that he
the Commissioners of Patents. London: Great
Seal Patent Office. 1859. other things, "wives, children, and young women had had several of them entirely to himself before wet throughout their dress up to the knees, he thought of asking the congregation to take We have here the most bulky, and perhaps the without possibility of drying their petticoats, or part with him
by singing a hymn, and then “the most important, of that series of abridged specie benefit from shifting them.” One“ very interest- possibility of their uniting in a song of praise fications of patents which the Commissioners of ing looking young person” was “reclining on her and thanksgiving was “suggested” to him after Patents are so wisely publishing. It comprises no bed” in “ this very condition," and so forth! In he had concluded” a certain service. This is not less than 830 pages, and contains short descripanother place we are informed that when the pas- a subject for us to dwell upon; suffice it to say sengers had nothing else to do they sat and that his congregations appear to have got a little tions of all the inventions ever patented in conchatted—a circumstance which our doctor of bored with the worthy doctor, for before the nection with electricity and magnetism, together divinity” puts on careful record! On another voyage ont is ended we find him complaining with a summary of the progress of knowledge in occasion he tells us that, the evening being warm, greatly of the insensibility of his fellow.passengers | reference to them up to the time of the com" most of the ladies sat upon deck under a cloudy to his ministrations, and learn that his audience mencement of the patents. The summary also canopy, lightly covered, and chiefly without has sometimes dwindled down to two-his wife bonnets.” At another time he gives us to under and her maid! He complains, too, that among us
embraces any discoveries, inventions, or applicastand that, becoming pained at the absence of Protestants "not only is no respect paid to the tions that are not treated of in the body of the everything but flying fish, he had a bucket of minister's official position, but not unfrequently work, at whatever date they may have been inwater drawn from the sea for him ; and he records a less value attached to his judgment, on subjects
, vented or brought into use. We are not, however, in his journal that on taking up a portion in a it may be, professional and critical, than would we must honestly confess, perfectly satisfied with glass he discovered "a variety of minute crea generally be conceded to a master in any other the manner in which this volume has been edited. tures" in it, "generally of the animalculæ size and profession, such as that of medicine or law." What Very many of the abridgments are much too long kind.”. Again, on drawing near the equator the a pity Dr. Scoresby did not live a few centuries –much longer, that is, than they need have been sun, of course, became nearly vertical; and as an earlier!
to answer their purpose, and to stand side by side illustration of the fact, the doctor tells us " that He seems, moreover, to have been slighted in with those put forth in previous volumes. We the shadows of the ladies, having on a popular other ways on board the Royal Charter. He pro observe one abstract occupying very nearly ten wide brimmed hat” (only conceive a shadow in a tested against the passengers shooting “with pages, and three and four pages are frequently popular hat] "were represented by a circular disc," rifles or other guns" at the “ unconscious elegant occupied with single patents. The consequence is except where “the amply expanding dresses birds gracefully hovering about our rear,” when the volume costs a considerable price-8. 6d. happened to distort the circle by spreading inci- " there was no chance of obtaining them as speci. Such lengths are altogether unnecessary for the dentally beyond it.” On another page we find mens for the museum ;" but no one seems to have purpose of these volumes of abridgments, which this entry:--"A cetaceous animal (which, how attended to his reinonstrances. On another occa- can never serve of themselves any other object ever, I did not see) was observed at some distance sion, when a flying-fish was caught and served up than that of acquainting readers in a general way to leeward.” But we must not multiply illustra- for dinner, the good doctor seems to have been with the nature of the inventions. We also observe tions of the worthy doctor's quasi-scientific jot. put off with a very small share of it, for he tells that the editor has made either more or fewer tings! Most of our readers will remember the us that “as far as could be judged from one verbal emendations than were necessary. It seems “elderly gentleman of scientific attainments” who morsel” it "seemed to be delicate eating.” And to us to be a little pedantic to make formal corsat in his library writing a philosophical treatise, even with regard to his specific business—that of rections of small and manifest misprints, and and who, in the agonies of composition, looked experimenting upon the compasses of the ship-he yet to find one word spelt in four different ways sometimes at the carpet, sometimes at the ceiling, did not always meet with the utmost consideration ;
without corrections (“ gimble," "giinboal," and sometimes at the wall; and when neither for several days after they sailed from Falmouth gimbal," “ gimbol''). But notwithstanding carpet, ceiling, nor wall afforded the requisite he had to complain that "iron-barred sheep-pens, these small faults, we cordially accept this book degree of inspiration, looked out of the window iron-bound trusses of hay, &c., were stowed round from the Coinmissioners of Patents. They are at the very time when Mr. Pickwick happened to about the instruments! Again, on arriving at doing a great and valuable work in issuing these be blazing away with his dark lantern in a certain Melbourne the worthy Doctor was unsuccessful in and their other publications, and if they would back garden at the interview between his friend seeing the bishop and other dignitaries quite as only give us a proper library to consult them in, Winkle and the lovely Arabella. The scientific often as he desired, although he was so fortunate we should be doubly grateful to them. gentleman saw most brilliant lights glide through as he does not fail to tell us) as to visit some of the air, at a short distance above the ground, and the principal public institutions in the city “in An Elementary Treatise on Logaritums, illustrator almost instantaneously vanish; and he began to Mr. Hart's carriage, and escorted by Judge by carefully selected examples. By the Rer. W. consider to what natural causes these appearances Barry.”
H. JOINSTONE, M.A., Assistant Professor of were to be assigned. They were not meteors- As to the style of Dr. Scoresby's writings in
Mathematics at the Royal Indian Military College, they were too low; they were not glow-worms- this volume, we may pronounce it wonderful. Mr.
Addiscombe. London: Longman, Green, Longman, they were too high ; they were not will-o'-the- Atherton's contributions will have familiarised
and Roberts. 1859. wisps; they were not fire-flies; they were not our readers with something striking in the way of As this little work answers faithfully to the fireworks; what could they be? On the mys- an elevated and complicated style of composition; author's intention, we need do. no more than terious light again appearing more brilliant than but we fear Dr. Scoresby will carry off the palm repeat what he tells us in his preface. We thero before-dancing up and down the garden, crossing even from him. Here, for example, is a specimen learn that the “recent introduction of logarithms from side to side, and moving in an orbit as passage - written on the arrival of the Royal into the test required for admission to Addiseccentric as comets themselves—the scientific Charter in southern latitudes :gentleman put on his hat and walked quickly out, "To us, inhabitants in previous life of northern combe has induced the author to publish the foldetermined to investigate the wonderful natural latitudes, a new phenomenon broke strikingly on lowing treatise. It will be found useful, he hopes, phenomena to the very bottom. None can forget our attention, viz., the appearance of the sun per- not only to those who are seeking to enter the how, in the course of his investigations, he un forming its daytime progress to the northward, Royal Indian College, but also to those who intend luckily peeped out of his garden gate, and received with the astronomical peculiarity of meridian upon his head “ a gentle tap" from the clenched observations being taken with the face of the to continue, or complete, their mathematical fist of the sagacious Sammy Weller; or how he observed turned towards the Arctic pole!” studies. The body of the work will be sufficient afterwards demönstrated in a masterly treatise In another place-to take a second example—he for students who wish to acquire merely the that the wonderful lights were the effect of elec- explains the vibration of the stern of the ship in power of applying logarithms to arithmetical tricity, and clearly proved the same by detailing the following manner :
operations. The appendices, at the end, are added how a flash of fire danced before his eyes when he “The disadvantage was ascribed to the fact of for those who are desirous of learning the process put his head out of the gate, and how he received the direct action of the engine with nothing of of constructing logarithms. For the understanding a shock which stunned him for a full quarter of intermediate and yielding contacts to break the of the entire work no more previous mathematical an hour afterwards. Well, somehow or other force of incongruous contacts and operation of the knowledge is demanded than that of arithmetic many passages in this journal by poor Dr. Scoresby water. The effect was often such as to cause the and the first principles of algebra. It is perhaps --notwithstanding his real scientific ability-has ship perceptibly to shake in the manner of an unnecessary to say there is no pretence of novelty brought that elderly gentleman of scientific elastic flexure as, apparently to sensation, of some in the proofs; but the author trusts that he has attainments very strongly to our mind.
inches up and down, giving correspondent vibra- arranged the subject clearly and methodically, and Perhaps the good doctor's peculiarities have tion in the spanker boom, as supported at the two that he has succeeded in furnishing a serviceable received a heightened colouring from the singuends, amounting to a spring-like movement of the and a sufficiently copious set of examples, about larity of the statements in which he refers to his intermediate timber up and down.”
the accuracy of which the utmost care has been functions as a clergymen on board the Royal But there are, even in the "journal” before us, 'taken, and to which there are given proper forms NOVEMBER
according to which the student may work. The solution of alum, or common salt. The expedient put to the witnesses by Lord Overstone, one of advantage, indeed, of cultivating a neat and con- is a simple one; but in practice is liable to objec- the commissioners, seem to raise all the objections nected style of writing out logarithmic calcula- tions which, more than any wilful disregard or that can be made to decimal systems, and show. tions cannot be too early insisted on. It will be carelessness, have prevented its general employ. an entire freedom from prejudice in favour of any readily admitted by all who have been engaged ment. The fabric which is soaked in common of them. either in teaching or in examining. The plan salt becomes crisp and harsh to the touch ; while The problem now to be solved is :adopted in these pages is one that has been recom- that which is saturated with alum is seriously How to take the next step toward obtaining a mended by a practical acquaintance with its use injured by the process, losing its strength by superior coinage, so as to avoid transitional dillifulness."
reason of the action of the salt upon the fibre. culties, and yet obtain a coinage which agrees, for The chemist was therefore called upon to discover
purposes of account, with the common numerical LIST OF NEW BOOKS.
a substitute which would exert no injurious effect scale, and which in its other conveniences is not Johnstone's Elementary Treatise op Logarithms, 2s.6d. up n the colour, the appearance, or the strength inferior to the present coinage. Manuals of Useful Knowledge. - The Gardener's Manual, of the material to be rendered non-inflammable. It is the solution of this problem which I here
Is. 6d. The Housekeeper's Manual, Is. 6d. The Youth's
The investigation-one of considerable research attempt.
Versmann and Oppenheim, to whom the thanks system has but two factors, affords the principal Oxenden's Labouring Man's Book, Is. 6d.
of the ladies are due for a long series of experi- argument against extending its use, and although Thompson's Gardeners' Assistant, 31s. 6d. ments made in their behalf. It was found that
some conveniences are alleged to attach to the borax exerted a powerful preservative effect; but binary scale, I believe it may be assumed that if NON-INFLAMMABLE FABRICS. that the combination of the chemical ingredient the base of the numerical system were 12, coins, It is but seldom we have the privilege of ad impaired, in some degree, the strength of the ina- weights, and measures, would, by common condressing the fair sex upon a subject exelusively terial operated upon. The effect of more than sent, be adapted to that system:
A sound distinction has been adopted by the regarding itself, and those who are most interested forty different salts was then tested in the laborain its welfare. Science, which benefits the ladies factories ; and a re-agent was at length discovered coinage is applied, as separable into two classes;
tory, the Royal laundry, and arious muslin manu, commissioners, in treating the purposes to which indirectly, can seldom claim a peculiar interest on answering in every respect the requirements of and coins as they are applicable to the purposes of their part for any of its wondrous processes and the manufacturer; who, it is to be observed, these two respective classes may conveniently be beneficial results. Indeed, were it not for the finishes his muslins without the application of á called Coins of Account and Chandlers' Coins. brilliant fabrics and multifarious contrivances hot iron. But more was yet required of the solely intended to minister to their taste, and to a chemist. The amount of the re-agent in question, agree with the common numerical scale, that is,
Coins of account, to be good, must necessarily desire to please which cannot be too highly ap: viz., the phosphate of ammonia, required for they must be decimal. preciated, they might almost accuse science of neglect. But every spring and every autumn the siderable; and, moreover, the salt decomposes which has, or bases which have, the greatest
a perfect preservative effect, was very con- Chandlers' coins, to be good, must adopt a base manufacturer delights in offering new and delicate under the iron of the laundress, rendering the number of factors that any number not greater products of the loom--the freshest and richest nuances of colour-at the shrine of beauty, which operation of ironing after its employment a than this base, or the product
of those bases, can matter of some difficulty. The sulphate of am. have. It is not an essential merit in chandlers' seeks his aid for its adornment. This aid may not monia, a salt only one-fourth the price of the coins to be decimal, but it is a collateral merit, be wholly disinterested—no more, perhaps, than the amiable desire to please to which we have phosphate, was found advantageously to replace because it makes them coins of account.
If 12 were the base of the numerical system, alluded; but it is not now our duty to inquire too the latter for the purposes of the manufacturer ; closely into the hidden motives and mainsprings
a similar preservative action being obtained with chandlers' coins and coins of account would which regulate the actions both of women and of a much smaller amount of the re-agent. Both be identical. The advocates of decimals may, I men. There is however one omission on the part of salts, however, are soluble in water, requiring re- believe, concede that to have a good chandlers' the manufacturer which, if not hitherto culpable
, newal after washing; and both are liable to the system is as important as to have a good system proves that his desire to please is not allied with A substance was therefore required to answer a same objection with regard to the ironing process. of account, or more so.
The merit of a sincere regard for the safety as well as for the domestic purpose, and which, while allowing the chandlers' system, consists in its having the fac.
our present system, as a appearance of his fain pratiques. In supplying hot iron to pass smoothly over the surface of the tors 2, 3, 4, 6 between the penny and the shilling, them with muslin and with gauze, which, like the prepared material, would afford a perfect and the factor 5 between the shilling and the £; flutter in the tepid southern winds, he forgets
to guarantee against the effects of fame, without in. but it is a defect to have the factor 4 encumbering label his gossamer wares with the warning the fabric. A salt fulfilling these conditions was The Austrian system of florin and kreutzer is
juring in any degree the strength or appearance of this 5, and making the product of the bases 210. " dangerous,” which accompanies less destructive ultimately discovered by the above-mentioned superior, as it introduces 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 in the and less fatal products of the druggist's shop. chemists in the tungstate of soda. This salt is now smaller number 60. And yet one second's contact with flame, the in constant use in Her Majesty's laundry at Rich. wafting of the fairy robe towards candle or fire, mond; and it is to be hoped that its application may 5 x 4 (Report, p. 27) to be worshipped with that
I leave the cabalistic symmetry of 1x 4, 3 x 4, element, and exposes her to a terrible death or to qnickly become general. It remains only for the of the seven planets and the seven perfect inetals, fearful disfigurement. Arrayed in such materials, their goods shall have undergone the preparation
wearers of light summer fabrics to require that to which it seems analogous. she is surrounded with danger against which no
Referring to what has been already done protection can avail; the merest chance, the coin
through which their wearers will be preserved towards obtaining a good coinage of account, it monest accident, is sufficient to occasion a sudden ignition, and that the laundress also shall employ
from the dangers resulting from accidental appears that and horrible fatality for which there is seldom help the tungstate solution of the domestic difficulty
The £ has been taken as the maximuunit.
The florin has been based upon it, or remedy.
We have no need to advert to occurrences of in obtaining the same desirable result of safety and the House of Commons has resolved, which the lamentable details are familiar to all, against fire.
“ That the initiation of a decimal system by the and by which some of our brightest and fairest ON THE FURTHER ADAPTATION OF THE and satisfactory," and
issue of the florin has been eminently successful have been removed from onr midst, in order to insist upon the necessity for some adequate safe
COINAGE TO THE COMMON NUMERI
“That a further extension of the system will guard against the danger in question. Many a
be of public advantage." household can tell of casualties which, if they By Joan Tozer, M.A., LL.D., Serjeant at Law, Senior Further, it has, I think, been sufficiently have not been fatal, were the cause of suffering
Fellow of Gonville and Caius College.
established by experience, that:and terror, mingled with thankfulness that a
“ The universal law of all decimal coinages is heavier calamity, which had been fully incurred,
to reduce themselves to two coins of account was yet escaped. But it is now in the power of SIR,—The final report made by two members of only, the one being 100 times the value of the every one to banish such danger from the list of the Royal Commission which has considered “ the other.” Report, p. 10. contingencies to which every household is liable ; practicability and expediency of introducing the It follows therefore that if the cent. or you part and it is our cheerful task to point out the means decimal principle into the coinage of this country, of a sovereign be added to the present coinage, which have been placed at our disposal to secure without contemplating any change in our present the coinage of account will be complete. the safety of those who claim our interest, and system of weights and measures, and without con- Turning now to the chandlers' coinage, this have a right to our protection. The practicability sidering the possibility or advantage of an inter- assumption seems to be warranted : and efficiency of these means have already been national system of coinage," although, as to one All the advantages of a good coinage of ac. tested on a large scale; and it is confidently an- particular scheme it concludes, that “it is not a count may be obtained, although some coins that ticipated that they will be adopted by all
, being well-assured or demonstrated improvement on our do not belong to the system are retained as attended with little or no sacrifice of time, present coinage,” will probably lead to the con. chandlers' coins. money, or appearance.
viction that the assimilation of our coinage to the This proposition appears not to be admitted, It has long been known that a material of common numerical scale which was begun by the when such facts as the following are found among cotton or thread could be in great measure pre-issue of the florin must now proceed ; and this the arguments that have delayed the adoption of served from the effects of flame by soaking in a conviction will be the stronger as the questions a good system of account:
TO THE RIGAT HONOURABLE THE CHANCELLOR OF
“ The decime has never succeeded in supplanting The fourpence, the threepence, and the sixpence
UNSINKABLE SHIPS. the sous in retail transactions, although for all should be allowed to disappear as soon as conimportant calculations the franc and centime venient, and ultimately the peany also ; leaving
TO THE EDITORS OF THE “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." notation has become universal." Report, p. 9. the decimal scale composed of
Woolwich Dockyard, 8th November, 1859. At New York the price of a bottle of beer was £, florin, shilling, cent, and half-cent; to which GENTLEMEN,—My letter on unsinkable ships in called three shillings, although it was inserted in the chandlers' scale would only add the mite. the Society of Arts' Journal of the 28th ult., and the bill as 37 cents: and generally throughout The mite is used, principally, as a coin of tran- your editorial article thereon in your last week's America although prices are expressed in cents, sition; it enables the penny to exist in conjunc. number (No. 45), have already attracted the the number of cents employed shows that coins are tion with the decimal coins. The additional attention of inventors with a view to the producstill in use that do not belong to the decimal experience which the use of these coins afforded tion of materials suitable for the purpose to which system. Kelland, Report, p. 13.
would decide whether the mite should be perma- I have alluded, viz., the construction of unsinkable I assume, however, that the introduction of a nently retained. When it had discharged its ships; and from the nature of the communications good coinage of account is complete, when its function of introducing the cent without disturb- which I have received you will do me a favour, and notation is used " for all important calculations” ance to existing habits, it might be withdrawn, some of your inventive readers a service, by insert. and for lists of prices and tavern bills; although and the mil substituted; a complete decimal ing in your. Magazine my letter of the 11th ult. the word sous may still be used for five cents, system would thus be obtained.
in full as it appeared in the Society of Arts' and the confusions of American coinage may not To recapitulate: I propose that a cent and a Journal, excepting that I will thank you to place entirely disappear for ages; and that as decimal mite be coined forthwith, and that public accounts
the two extracts from the Times in juxtaposition. coinage does in fact make its way steadily and be henceforth kept in the £ and cent.
There is no part of your editorial critique to without recoil, its ultimate adoption is certain, That as soon as expedient a half-cent stamp be which I object, although evidently intended to although that adoption may never put out of use substituted for the penny one.
overrule my suggestion. The great use of such words as sous and shilling.
No coin need be actually withdrawn, but the publicity is to draw the attention of thinking men If the object were simply to obtain a good farthing, halfpenny threepenny, fourpenny, and to the subject that may be referred to, and as all chandlers' coinage, it would be necessary to sixpenny should disappear as soon as convenient ; your readers are of a class who think for themconsider whether it would do to leave the cent to and there should be no new issue of the penny.
selves, I am satisfied that only good can result be subdivided into binary fractions, to which it To make a bronze cent of a convenient size from any latitude of expression or forced construc. would have, in the opinion of the commissioners, would be a problem worth the best attention of tion of my views on which, as in some respects in a natural tendency (Report, p, 10); there are, the metallurgist; a silver cent would for size be this case, you may be enabled to advance some however, the difficulties of transition to be sur neither more nor less convenient than a three. sound and useful views of your own. "The mounted, and to meet these I thiuk that, penny piece.
practicability of the principle of my suggestion, The penny must be retained.
The extension of the common numerical scale namely, that ships may be made unsinkable, I propose, then, to coin a mite in value 3th of to weights and measures will result from the however perforated by shot, will, I have no doubt, a penny, and as the cent would contain 12 mites, operation of the causes which lead to its adoption be conceded; but the extent to which the adoption the coins of account and the chandlers' coins in the monetary system, but will not be a conse.
of this principle can be advantageously carried will would be connected, and every existing coin could quence of that adoption, nor necessarily connected greatly depend on the properties of the material be retained excepting the halfpenny and the with it.
that may be brought forward, including the few farthing and even these would be current when
The Report truly states that the weight of properties that I have enumerated to exemplify they made up pence.
scientific authority is in favour of the projected my views, and many others, such, for example, as It has been objected to the £ and cent as coins change in the coinage. It is undervaluing the being fire-proof, which it is hoped may be effected of account, that the cent is too large for a mini- authority of one of those who favour the change now that many preparations have been devised for
Bankers at present use a penny, and Pro. to call it simply scientific; the rare power of rendering even wood uninflammable. The comfessor Kelland says, Report, p. 28:
:-" It is only estimating the wants of non-seientific minds and parative expense of such unsinkable ships with by the universal consent of their customers that of bringing the truths of science within their reference to any other known mode of preventing they are now able to neglect sums less than a reach, gives to the opinion of one who so eminently accidental foundering, and setting Armstrong's penny, not merely in the totals of their accounts, possesses it a weight incomparably above that of ordnance and, I may add, thecontemplated Nasmyth but in every single bill of exchange or other mere scientific authority.
steam ram, at defiance so far as the absolute sinking separate item. It is impossible to guess when a The Report states also that there is an indiffer. of such ships is concerned, is essentially dependent similar agreement would be come to with reference ence to the change among commercial classes ; on the success that may attend the inquiries now to a new minimum."
the change appeals to the reason and the judgment, proposed to be set on foot, combined with the I believe that this is erroneous, and that a and will, therefore, never enlist enthusiasm in its plans that may be devised for the application of banker consents to borrow the money, and to favour. Commercial men have moreover the habit such material to the construction of floating bodies, transact the business of his customer, on the con of using the present system, or they employ those whether intended for the purposes of commerce or dition that he shall not be troubled with small who have; there is nothing to force on their at- of war. And here again, as you truly, though fractions, and whether 1 or .5 cents became the tention the advantages of a simpler one.
rather sarcastically, observe, is a subject for the minimum would be decided by bankers them Give the value of x + x2 + x +x+ when x=114d., exercise of inventors “worth a very handsoine selves.
and find the square of £19 19s. 11 d., are to be premium, and the Society of Arts would do well The minimum chandlers' coin would be the found among educational questions propounded to offer one for it before they offer the other." mite, and it would, as far as magnitude is con- during the present century; and they might be I concur, in this your recommendation to cerned, be neither better nor worse than the restored to their place as such without exciting the Council of the Society of Arts, only I would farthing; it would divide the penny by 5 only, indignation at Lloyd's.
prefer that the required material possessing in the but the cent by 2, 3, 4, 6; and, therefore, unless There is, however, a class neither scientific nor highest degree the properties of specific lightness, the value of this property has been overrated, it commercial; it consists of men whose education toughness, non-absorption of water, cheapness, unwould be a better chandlers' coin than the gives them a clear conception of the advantages inflammability, &c., &c., &c., be determined upon farthing.
of the decimal system; and one of this class who before the premium for its application to the A half cent would, I think, be an essential coin. has not the mechanical skill which a commercial purposes of naval architecture be offered ; also, as The coinage would then stand :clerk can acquire, nor the trick of memory which a
another preparatory step, I would suggest for conCOINS OF ACCOUNT.
calculating prodigy possesses, winds through the sideration this question—Where is this premium The £ and the cent only.
clumsy complication of a colmun marked £ s. d. to come from? On which point I may observe, COINS IN THE DECIMAL SCALE. with a feeling that the occupation is a degrading that if improvement in modern ordnance neces
sitated the introduction of iron-cased ships of war The coinages
whic the issue of the cent such as the Trusty, and if further improvements, Florin
would establish a community appear to be those such as the Armstrong gan, firing elongated bolts Shilling
of Venetian Lombardy, Austria, Holland, Prussia, of malleable iron or steel, has already rendered Sixpence...
and France, the franc being, very nearly, four iron-cased ships of the Trusty class no longer Threepence
trustworthy, but necessitated further improvement Cent
in the hope of defying even the Armstrong system JOIN TOZER.
of ordnance; as, moreover, the steam ram is looinTHE ENTIRE OR CHANDLERS' COINAGE. 3 Inner Temple-lane, 18th Oct., 1859.
ing in the distance, and as it is difficult to see any
end to this rivaly of gunnery and rams persus A letter from Alexandria says :-The laying down iron-cased ships, or of the cost that it will involve, Florin
of the electric telegraph between Suez and Aden has, I would merely suggest that if for every one Shilling
in spite of bad weather, been accomplished by the million of money thus devoted by Parliament to Sixpence
Cyclops. From Aden the electric wires are to be the construction of iron-cased shipping with a Fourpence.
carried to Schugra, then through Hadramant, a pro- view to invulnerability, £100 only were awarded Threepence
vince of Southern Arabia, then to the isle of Socotora, Cent at 250 miles from the Straits of Babel Mandeb, and
as a premium to naval architecture, with a view cent, then by the isle of Ceylon and the Gulf of Bengal to
to promoting the efficiency of unsinkable ships Penny
Calcutta. When the line shall become completed, the of all classes respectively, it is probable that Mite
1 total length of cable submerged will be 3,750 miles. such rivalry between modern intellect and
modern ordnance would be conducive to public quantity. Equally irrelevant to the commercial | shoull fix on the mathematical mind the work good and to the peace of the world. For excellence of the vessel is the point of recoaling | done in the water, and not technically the cormy part I would have little donbt of Britain being only at the end of the voyage. That solely cou responding property of the ship. It is true we at peace with all the world if all ships were cerns the commercial muayement, and though cannot apportion the work between the useful effective for their respective uses and unsinkable. put forward as a desideratum, will, I hope, be and the useless, or express either in terms of Pertinent to this subject it may not be out of found otherwise, through a more valuable freightforce and motion; but the useful effect is susiplace that I here refer to a noble sentiment of than coal being secured.
cently tangible to be measured in a way to serve Adlwiral the Earl of Dundonald. It was my official
The point, then, exclusively for discussion is the purpose of comparison, and therefore cubic duty in January, 1848, to test the performance of that which Mr. Atherton says is the subject of feet would stand as well as tons for the displace; the Banshee, a vessel built by Government ex
ment. his Table No. 2, "showing the superior capability
It is of course necessary that tlie cube of pressly for the service... On my return from the of large ships, as indicated by the progressively the velocity should be taken ; but what does the trial, I found Admiral the Earl of Dundonald at reduced ratio of power to a progressively in power of the displacement mean? We see that Woolwich Dockyard; I told him of the unprece-creased displacement, the speed being constant," looking at the physics of the subject in the dented steaming speed we had attained, namely; and requiring for decision the horse-power a3 de water, we must either take this factor as it is, or 16 knots per hour. The noble Admiral replied: clared by the indicator. " Had I the command of such a ship in war, I superiority belongs to the Great Eastern will be this, that it does duty for the midship section
In what degree this discard it altogether
, and accept the midship sec
tion instead thereof. Perhaps, however, it means would not encumber myself with guns- I would satisfactorily determined only when she is deeper run up to and board everything I could catch" in the water than at present, until which time it false fictitious thing instead of the real
. In that Various essentials to the realisation of this noble will perhaps be better to wait ; but it is clear casc, perfect or imperfect, we wander from the sentiment, so characteristic of the man, are ob- from the very nature of the subject, and from effect to the means; we lose sight of burthen vions; an unsinkable ship with machinery invul- these Mr. Atherton's own views of it, that ler altogether, and velocity alone coines to be cow. nerably cased in, the crew protected from the merits must necessarily be equally pre-eminent sidered as the useful effect
. This limitation is Minić, and commanded by a Dundonald (and a
with her size, unless there is some awkward cir- indeed very desirable when we wish to take the thousand such men will be forthcoming when cumstance in her build suficient to neutralise all comparative worth of the lines simply of different required), would be an ugly customer, I guess. advantages. Her lines are
admitted to be good, vessels, and the corresponding formula is very apBut it is not my purpose at present to go into any but Mr. Atherton thinks unfavourably of her propriate for the Royal Navy, or for mere pasdetails of naval architectural construction in con. nection with unsinkable ships.
small draught in proportion to breadth. 'I confess senger vessels. But a factor avowedly standing I will merely
iny incompetency to give an opinion on this point, for the midship section is one thing, and a factor not necessarily imply that such vessels shall have with by the practical man alone, but I must say I mula in which it stands does not present an observe that the property of being unsinkable does it is so much a question of compromise to be dealt virtually representing it, and labelled otherwise, is no stowage below the level of the load water line should be surprised if it were proved that any honest face; it talks of tonnage and displacement, which may be appropriated to machinery ; and I thing in this circumstance adverse to her perform and makes' believe to be a true servitor of solid may further remark that, by the construction of line-of- battle ships, such as the Royal Albert, in proportion to length, thus having the balance commercial interests, but
under the guise of their only about one-third of the internal cubical capa: due to capacity untouched. I think, indeed, it
own livery, slips away from his charge to run city of the ship is below the level of the load would be surprising if it were not far more than after other masters of the skip.jack race, servit. water line.
compensated, when the great depth to which them, by the bye, in the most slovenly manner In the conclusion of your critique you respect otherwise she would have been immersed is con
withal. fully invite me to tell you what I am thinking sidered, and the great resistance opposed to the
I cannot in conclusion refrain from observing-of; and ! as respectfully reply that since the translation of water at such a depth. "Mr. Atherton but without any allusion to Mr. Atherton, who, a: introduction of iron cased ships, and especially brings down the performance of the Great Eastern I understand, is not the author of this objectionsince the reported practice on the Trusty, I have to the rather low co-efficient 200, but then he gets extent the animadversions I have often committe!
able formula—that it certainly justifies to its own been occasionally thinking how ships of all classes at the horse-power, not by means of the indicator; to your pages, concerning the frequent deficiency respectively may be rendered unsinkable com- but through the consumption of coals, which is in mixed mathematics of a clear and sound un patibly with the respective uses for which they unfair to the ship. Besides, the datum of 3} lbs. derstanding of the physics involved in the subject inay be designed; and this is the subject on which per indicated horse-power per hour is only a loose investigated, by which pompous nothings are I now hope to interest the Council of the Society estimate. of Arts, and through them, and by the aid of the
enabled to gain, through a mathematical dress, a Society of Arts' Journal, and with the co-opera- radical fault in the formula used by Mr.
It was, however, to what I conceive to be a prestige which they do not deserve. tion of the MeculaNICS' Magazine and other Atherton, that I wished to draw his attention
Yours, &c., BENJAMIN CHEVERTON. publications usefully devoted to such inquiries, I
whether hope to interest the public. I
my proposed correction told favourably Gentlemen,
or otherwise on the merits of the Great THE INVENTION OF THE SCREW
deed its correctness, relatively to its ostensible GENTLEMEN,—Having read in your last week's THE GREAT EASTERN AND STEAM SHIP purpose ? or will he acknowledge with me, that paper a very interesting account of the invention ECONOMY.
the simple displacement would be a better factor of a screw propeller by George Blencowe, wliich TO THE EDITORS OF THE “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." than any power thereof? It would in this form be I think may not improbably have been the real GENTLEMEN,– Mr. Atherton has been so oblig
a much more satisfactory criterion of the merits origin of the one now in general uso. I venture to ing as to favour us with his views on the above of a ship, in the matter of size and build purely send you a short notice of another inventor, subject in reference to some remarks of my own,
as a scientific construction for a mercantile pur- whose discoveries were made a little earlier in and he includes a slight notice of the doubt I ex
pose, and yet for a criterion of practical commer- time, but were not successful in obtaining any pressed in my last communication, as to the appro
cial excellence it would be nearer the truth to public recognition after their first trial. V3 DI
take the actual weight of the cargo, by which any Between the years 1821 and 1828, Mr. James priateness of the formula
for determin. peculiarities of construction, such as cellular Wilson, of Patricoft (subsequently acting-manager
sides and the like, would be eliminated. But in to Mr. Nasmyth) made numerous experiments ing the dynamic performances of the Great respect to the formula as it at present stands, will with a view to the construction of a screw proEastern and of the mercantile marine generally any one speak up for it? In addition to what I peller for ocean navigation. After many trials, In order to come to a clear understanding on the have already said, let me ask-- what is it that is he completed a small model (fitted with both suitable application of formula to this vessel, we intended to be expressed ? Is it not the power on paddle and screw-propellers), which was tried with must divest the subject of some extraneous consicherations to which "Mr. Atherton has adverted, entire effect was what is referred to, these quan. of Mr. Hunter, of Thurston, and other gentlemor
one side and the effect on the other ? But if the perfect success at Leith in 1828, in the presence although proper enough in their place. Now, it is the performance of the Great East- tities would be always equal to each other. It is well versed in mechanical pursuits. The result
a request from the Highland Society of ern as a ship, in the two aspects of velocity alone being divided by the power, gives us the compara- Edinburgh for a more complete series of experi: and conjointly with burther, and as being the tive worth of our contrivances for utilizing it as result of a definite amount of indicated horse much as we can. Now, what is the useful effect in of a small sum of money from the Society in aid
ments on a larger scale, together with the grant power, that we have to investigate, and not any, the present case? It consists in opening ont a of Mr. Wilson's undertaking. The first experimerit in the engines and boilers. It is with the passage in the water : its positive value depending ments were made on March 10, 1828, and subse; scientific application of the power as provided, and both on the extent and the velocity with which it quently in April of the same year, and a full not with any development thereof, that we have is effected, and its comparative value in the report published on May 4th, 1828, by the sub-com
T3 D3 to do. The formula
must therefore be dividing and translating of the water, with the mittee appointed by the Society to witness them, Wt. of coal.
least possible velocity given to the least possible in which it is stated that a boat eighteen fet put aside as irrelevant, however useful in other number of its particles. Well
, then, what need long had been constructed, and fully tried in the respects. I inust, however, remark by the way, we else for the factors that are to express the open sea outside the pier at Leith, in a very heavy that it will ever be vitiated by the factor Di, if useful effect, but the quantities that constitute it sea and a stiff N.N.E. breeze, in the presence of that factor be, as I apprehend, a misleading –velocity and displacement ? The latter term | Admiral Sir David Milne, Captains Boswell and
Iud, h. p.