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“ The decime has never succeeded in supplanting The fourpence, the threepence, and the sixpence

UNSINKABLE SHIPS. the sous in retail transactions, although for all should be allowed to disappear as soon as conimportant calculations the franc and centime venient, and ultimately the peany also ; leaving

TO THE EDITORS OF THE “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." notation has become universal." Report, p. 9. the decimal scale composed of

Woolwich Dockyard, 8th November, 1859. At New York the price of a bottle of beer was £, florin, shilling, cent, and half-cent; to which GENTLEMEN,—My letter on unsinkable ships in called three shillings, although it was inserted in the chandlers' scale would only add the mite. the Society of Arts' Journal of the 28th ult., and the bill as 37 cents: and generally throughout The mite is used, principally, as a coin of tran- your editorial article thereon in your last week's America although prices are expressed in cents, sition; it enables the penny to exist in conjunc. number (No. 45), have already attracted the the number of cents employed shows that coins are tion with the decimal coins. The additional attention of inventors with a view to the producstill in use that do not belong to the decimal experience which the use of these coins afforded tion of materials suitable for the purpose to which system. Kelland, Report, p. 13.

would decide whether the mite should be perma- I have alluded, viz., the construction of unsinkable I assume, however, that the introduction of a nently retained. When it had discharged its ships; and from the nature of the communications good coinage of account is complete, when its function of introducing the cent without disturb- which I have received you will do me a favour, and notation is used " for all important calculations” ance to existing habits, it might be withdrawn, some of your inventive readers a service, by insert. and for lists of prices and tavern bills; although and the mil substituted; a complete decimal ing in your. Magazine my letter of the 11th ult. the word sous may still be used for five cents, system would thus be obtained.

in full as it appeared in the Society of Arts' and the confusions of American coinage may not To recapitulate: I propose that a cent and a Journal, excepting that I will thank you to place entirely disappear for ages; and that as decimal mite be coined forthwith, and that public accounts

the two extracts from the Times in juxtaposition. coinage does in fact make its way steadily and be henceforth kept in the £ and cent.

There is no part of your editorial critique to without recoil, its ultimate adoption is certain, That as soon as expedient a half-cent stamp be which I object, although evidently intended to although that adoption may never put out of use substituted for the penny one.

overrule my suggestion. The great use of such words as sous and shilling.

No coin need be actually withdrawn, but the publicity is to draw the attention of thinking men If the object were simply to obtain a good farthing, halfpenny threepenny, fourpenny, and to the subject that may be referred to, and as all chandlers' coinage, it would be necessary to sixpenny should disappear as soon as convenient ; your readers are of a class who think for themconsider whether it would do to leave the cent to and there should be no new issue of the penny.

selves, I am satisfied that only good can result be subdivided into binary fractions, to which it To make a bronze cent of a convenient size from any latitude of expression or forced construc. would have, in the opinion of the commissioners, would be a problem worth the best attention of tion of my views on which, as in some respects in a natural tendency (Report, p, 10); there are, the metallurgist; a silver cent would for size be this case, you may be enabled to advance some however, the difficulties of transition to be sur neither more nor less convenient than a three. sound and useful views of your own. "The mounted, and to meet these I thiuk that, penny piece.

practicability of the principle of my suggestion, The penny must be retained.

The extension of the common numerical scale namely, that ships may be made unsinkable, I propose, then, to coin a mite in value 3th of to weights and measures will result from the however perforated by shot, will, I have no doubt, a penny, and as the cent would contain 12 mites, operation of the causes which lead to its adoption be conceded; but the extent to which the adoption the coins of account and the chandlers' coins in the monetary system, but will not be a conse.

of this principle can be advantageously carried will would be connected, and every existing coin could quence of that adoption, nor necessarily connected greatly depend on the properties of the material be retained excepting the halfpenny and the with it.

that may be brought forward, including the few farthing and even these would be current when

The Report truly states that the weight of properties that I have enumerated to exemplify they made up pence.

scientific authority is in favour of the projected my views, and many others, such, for example, as It has been objected to the £ and cent as coins change in the coinage. It is undervaluing the being fire-proof, which it is hoped may be effected of account, that the cent is too large for a mini- authority of one of those who favour the change now that many preparations have been devised for

Bankers at present use a penny, and Pro. to call it simply scientific; the rare power of rendering even wood uninflammable. The comfessor Kelland says, Report, p. 28:

:-" It is only estimating the wants of non-seientific minds and parative expense of such unsinkable ships with by the universal consent of their customers that of bringing the truths of science within their reference to any other known mode of preventing they are now able to neglect sums less than a reach, gives to the opinion of one who so eminently accidental foundering, and setting Armstrong's penny, not merely in the totals of their accounts, possesses it a weight incomparably above that of ordnance and, I may add, thecontemplated Nasmyth but in every single bill of exchange or other mere scientific authority.

steam ram, at defiance so far as the absolute sinking separate item. It is impossible to guess when a The Report states also that there is an indiffer. of such ships is concerned, is essentially dependent similar agreement would be come to with reference ence to the change among commercial classes ; on the success that may attend the inquiries now to a new minimum."

the change appeals to the reason and the judgment, proposed to be set on foot, combined with the I believe that this is erroneous, and that a and will, therefore, never enlist enthusiasm in its plans that may be devised for the application of banker consents to borrow the money, and to favour. Commercial men have moreover the habit such material to the construction of floating bodies, transact the business of his customer, on the con of using the present system, or they employ those whether intended for the purposes of commerce or dition that he shall not be troubled with small who have; there is nothing to force on their at- of war. And here again, as you truly, though fractions, and whether 1 or .5 cents became the tention the advantages of a simpler one.

rather sarcastically, observe, is a subject for the minimum would be decided by bankers them Give the value of x + x2 + x +x+ when x=114d., exercise of inventors “worth a very handsoine selves.

and find the square of £19 19s. 11 d., are to be premium, and the Society of Arts would do well The minimum chandlers' coin would be the found among educational questions propounded to offer one for it before they offer the other." mite, and it would, as far as magnitude is con- during the present century; and they might be I concur, in this your recommendation to cerned, be neither better nor worse than the restored to their place as such without exciting the Council of the Society of Arts, only I would farthing; it would divide the penny by 5 only, indignation at Lloyd's.

prefer that the required material possessing in the but the cent by 2, 3, 4, 6; and, therefore, unless There is, however, a class neither scientific nor highest degree the properties of specific lightness, the value of this property has been overrated, it commercial; it consists of men whose education toughness, non-absorption of water, cheapness, unwould be a better chandlers' coin than the gives them a clear conception of the advantages inflammability, &c., &c., &c., be determined upon farthing.

of the decimal system; and one of this class who before the premium for its application to the A half cent would, I think, be an essential coin. has not the mechanical skill which a commercial purposes of naval architecture be offered ; also, as The coinage would then stand :clerk can acquire, nor the trick of memory which a

another preparatory step, I would suggest for conCOINS OF ACCOUNT.

calculating prodigy possesses, winds through the sideration this question—Where is this premium The £ and the cent only.

clumsy complication of a colmun marked £ s. d. to come from? On which point I may observe, COINS IN THE DECIMAL SCALE. with a feeling that the occupation is a degrading that if improvement in modern ordnance neces

sitated the introduction of iron-cased ships of war The coinages

whic the issue of the cent such as the Trusty, and if further improvements, Florin

would establish a community appear to be those such as the Armstrong gan, firing elongated bolts Shilling

of Venetian Lombardy, Austria, Holland, Prussia, of malleable iron or steel, has already rendered Sixpence...


and France, the franc being, very nearly, four iron-cased ships of the Trusty class no longer Threepence

cents. I am, Sir,

trustworthy, but necessitated further improvement Cent

Your most obedient and most humble servant,

in the hope of defying even the Armstrong system JOIN TOZER.

of ordnance; as, moreover, the steam ram is looinTHE ENTIRE OR CHANDLERS' COINAGE. 3 Inner Temple-lane, 18th Oct., 1859.

ing in the distance, and as it is difficult to see any

end to this rivaly of gunnery and rams persus A letter from Alexandria says :-The laying down iron-cased ships, or of the cost that it will involve, Florin

of the electric telegraph between Suez and Aden has, I would merely suggest that if for every one Shilling

in spite of bad weather, been accomplished by the million of money thus devoted by Parliament to Sixpence

Cyclops. From Aden the electric wires are to be the construction of iron-cased shipping with a Fourpence.

carried to Schugra, then through Hadramant, a pro- view to invulnerability, £100 only were awarded Threepence

vince of Southern Arabia, then to the isle of Socotora, Cent at 250 miles from the Straits of Babel Mandeb, and

as a premium to naval architecture, with a view cent, then by the isle of Ceylon and the Gulf of Bengal to

to promoting the efficiency of unsinkable ships Penny

Calcutta. When the line shall become completed, the of all classes respectively, it is probable that Mite

1 total length of cable submerged will be 3,750 miles. such rivalry between modern intellect and



cent ........





8 3



pressly for the service. On my return from the of large ships, as indicated by the progressively / the velocity should be taken; but what does the

modern ordnance would be conducive to public quantity. Equally irrelevant to the commercial should fix on the mathematical mind the work good and to the peace of the world. For excellence of the vessel is the point of recoaling done in the water, anl not tremically the cormy part I would have little doult of Britain being only at tlıe end of the voyage. That solely cou responding property of the ship. It is true we at peace with all the world if all ships were cerns the commercial in tilojement, and though cannot apportion the work between the useful effective for their respective uses and unsinkable. pnt forward as a desideratum, will, I hope, be and the useless, or express either in terms of Pertinent to this subject it may not be out of found otherwise, through a more valuable freight force and motion; but the useful effect is suffiplace that I here refer to a noble sentiment of than coal being secured.

cently tangible to be measured in a way to servo Admiral the Earl of Dundonald. It was my otlicial

The point, then, exclusively for discussion is the purpose of comparison, and therefore culie duty in January, 18 18, to test the performance of that which Mr. Atherton says is the subject of feet would stand as well as tons for the displaca, the Banshee, a vessel built by Governinent exhis Table No. 2, “showing the superior capability

It is of course necessary that tlie cube of trial, I found Admiral the Earl of Dundonald at Woolwich Dockyard; I told him of the unprece-creased displacement, the speed being constant," reduced ratio of power to å progressively in power of the displacement mean? We see that

looking at the physics of the subject in the dented steaming speed we had attained, namely, and requiring for decision the horse power as de water, we must either take this factor as it is, or 16 kinots per hour. The poble Admiral replied: clared by the indicator. In what degree this

discard it altogether, and accept the midship sec"Hilver the coinmand of each a ship in war, 1 superiority belongs to the Great Eastern will be tion instead thereof. Perhaps, however, it means would not encumber myself with guns - I would satisfactorily determined only when she is deeper this, that it does duty for the midship sectionun "p to and board, everything I could catch;" in the water than at present, until which time it false fictitious thing instead of the real

. In that Various essentials to the realisation of this noble will perhaps be better to wait ; but it is clear

case, perfect or imperfect, we wander from tlie sentiment, so characteristic of the man, are oba from the very nature of the subject, and from teet to the means; we lose sight of burthen vions; an unsinkable ship with machinery invul- these Mr. Athertou's own views of it, that her altogether, and velocity alone comes to be connerally cased in, the crew protected from the merits must necessarily be equally pre-eminent sidered as the useful effect. This limitation is Minić, and commanded by a Dundonald (and a

with her size, unless there is some aikward cir- indeed very desirable when we wish to take the thousand such men will be forthcoming when

cumstance in her build suflicient to neutralise all comparative worth of the lines simply of different required), would be an ugly customer, I guess. advantages. Her lines are admitted to be good, vessels, and the corresponding formula is very apBut it is not my purpose at present to go into any but Mr. Atherton thinks nntavourably of her propriate for the Royal Navy, or for mere pas. details of naral architectural construction in connection with unsinkablo ships.

small dianght in proportion to breadth. 'I confess senger vessels: But a factor avowedly standing

I will merely olsserve that the property of being unsinkable does ny incompetency to give an opinion on this point, for the midship section is one thing, and a factor not necessarily imply that such vessels shall have with by the practical man alone, but I must say I it is so much a question of compromise to be dealt virtually representing it, and labelled otherwise, is

another thing with another character. The forno stowage below the level of the load water line should be surprised if it were proved that any honest face; it talks of tonnage and displacement,

mula in which it stands does not present an which may be appropriated to machinery; and I thing in this circumstance adverse to her perform and makes' believe to be a true servitor of solid may further remark that, by the construction of only mbout one third of the internal cubical capa: due to capacity untonched. I think, indeed, it after other masters of the skip-jack race, serving line-of-battle ships, such as the Royal Albert, in proportion to length, thus having the balance commercial interests, but

under the guise of their city of the ship is below the level of the load would be surprising if it were not far more than them, by the bye, in the most slovenly manner water line.

compensated, when the great depth to which In the conclusion of your critique you respect otherwise slie would have been immersed is con

withal. fully invite me to tell you what I am thinking sidered, and the great resistance opposed to the but without any allusion to Mr. Atherton, who, a:

I cannot in conclusion refrain from observing.-of, and I as respectfully reply that since the translation of water at such a depthi. Mr. Atherton I understand, is not the author of this objectionintroduction of iron cased ships, and especially brings down the performance of the Great Eastern able formula—that it certainly justities to its own since the reported practice on the Trusty, I have to the rather low co-efficient 200, but then he gets extent the animadversions I have often committe? been occasionally thinking how ships of all classes at the horse-power

, not by means of the indicator; to your pages, concerning the frequent deficiency respectively may be rendered unsinkable com but through the consumption of coals, which is in mixed mathematics of a clear and sound unpatibly with the respective uses for which they unfair to the ship. Besides, the datuin of 3} lbs. derstanding of the physics involved in the subject may be designed; and this is the subject on which per indicated horse-power per hour is only a loose I now hope to interest the Council of the Society estimate.

investigated, by which pompous nothings are of Arts, and through them, and by the aid of the

enabled to gain, through a mathematical dress, a Society of Arts' Journal, and with the co-opera- radical fault

It was, however, to what I conceive to be a prestige which they do not deserve.

in the formula used by Mr. tion of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE and other Atherton, that I wished to draw his attention

Yours, &c., BENJAMIN CHEVERTON. publications usefully devoted to such inquiries, I whether my proposed correction told favourably hope to interest the public. I am, Gentlemen, or otherwise on the merits of the Great

Yours very obediently,
Eastern. Am I to understand that he maintains


the appropriateness of that formula, or even in. TO TIIE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

deed its correctness, relatively to its ostensible GENTLEMEN,—Having read in your last week's THE GREAT EASTERN AND STEAM SHIP purpose? or will he acknowledge with me, that paper a very interesting acconnt of the invention ECONOMY.

the simple displacement would be a better factor of a screw propeller by George Bloncowe, which TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECIIAN cs’ MAGAZINE." than any power thereof? It would in this form be I think may not improbably have been the real GENTLEMEN,--Mr. Atherton has been so oblig

a much more satisfactory criterion of the merits origin of the one now in general uso, I venture to ing as to favour us with his views on the above of a ship, in the matter of size and build purely send you a short notice of another inventor, sobject in reference to some remarks of my own,

as a scientific construction for a mercantile pur- whose discoveries were made a little earlier in and he includes a slight notice of the doubt I ex

posc, and yet for a criterion of practical commer time, but were not successful in obtaining any pressed in my last communication, as to the appro- take the actual weight of the cargo, by which ang

cial excellence it would be nearer the truth to public recognition after their first trial. V3 D

Between the years 1891 and 1828, Mr. James priateness of the formula

for determin. peculiarities of construction,' such as cellular Wilson, of Patricoft (subsequently acting-manager

sides and the like, would be eliminated. But in to Mr. Nasmyth) inade numerous experiments ing the dynamic performances of the Great respect to the formula as it at present stands, will with a view to the construction of a screw proEastern and of the mercantile marine generally any one speak up for it? In addition to what I poller for ocean navigation. After many triak: In order to come to a clear understanding on the have already said, let me ask--what is it that is he completed a small model (fitted with both buitable application of formula to this vessel, we

intende:l to be expressed ? Is it not the power on paddle and screw-propellers), which was tried withi inust diveat the subject of some extraneous consich.

one side and the elect on the other? But if the perfect success at Leith in 1828, in the presence rations to which "Mr. Atherton has adverted, entire effect was what is referred to, these quan. of Mr. Hunter, of Thurston, and other gentlemez although proper enough in their place.

tities would be always equal to cach other. It is well versed in mechanical pursuits. The result Now, it is the performance of the Great East.

the useful cfiect, then, that is meaat, and this a request from the Highland Society of ern as a ship, in the two aspects of velocity alone being divided by the power, gives us the compara- Edinburgh for a more complete series of experi: and conjointly with burthen, and as being the

tive worth of our contrivances for utilizing it as inents on a larger scale, together with the grant result of a definite annount of indicated horsepower, that we have to iuvestigate, and not any, the present case ?

much as we can. Now, what is the useful effect in of a small sum of money from the Society in nid

It consists in opening oat a of Mr. Wilson's undertaking. The first experimerit in the engines and boilers. It is with the passage in the water; its positive value depending ments were made on Marel 10, 1828, and subs": scientific application of the power as provided, and both on the extent and the velocity with which it quently in April of the same year, and a fill not with any development thereof, that we have is etizeted, and its comparative value in the report published on May 4th, 182%, by the

T3D? to do. The formula

must therefore be dividing and translating of the water, with the mittee appointed by the Socioty to witness them, Wt. of coal.

least possible velocity given to the least possible in which it is stated that a boat eighteen fet pat aside as irrelevant, however useful in other number of its partieles. Well, then, what need long had been constructed, and fully tried in the respects. I must, however, remark by the way, we else for the factors that are to express the open sea outside the pier at Leith, in a very heavy that it will ever be vitiated by the factor Di, if useful effect, but the quantities that constitute it sea and a stiff N.N.E. breeze, in the presence of that factor be, as I apprehend, a misleading -velocity and displacement ? The latter term | Admiral Sir David Milne, Captain Boswell and

Ind. h. p.


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Trotter, R.N., and others, and that in the opinion a skeleton figure of the predetermined shape. caisson being sunk over the spot where the tower of these gentlemen it had proved entirely suc- This framing is then covered with sheets of cast or is to be erected; the water having been pumped cessful, the impetus communicated by the pro- wrought-iron, which are riveted or otherwise out of the caisson, the work may be carried on pellers at the stern having been much greater secured to the internal framing: “The height with great rapidity if the several blocks of stone than that which could have been given by oars, and size of these towers 'must depend,” say the have been previously cut to the required shape on while the resistance offered to heavy seas on the patentees, “to a great extent upon the depth of shore. The open spaces between the contiguous boat's quarter was also much less.

water and the position of the work; we may, towers are filled in with open vertical frames E E, The model made by Mr. Wilson was deposited however, give as an example of a useful size for which serve to break up and divide the waves as in the rooms of the Highland Society, and was these towers diameter at the base thirty-five feet, they roll in, the water passing through the open destroyed by fire a few years ago when their tapering to a diameter of twenty-seven feet at the screens without hindrance, and yet in a comparamuseum was burnt. Another, but I believe upper part. The open bottom towers constructed tively smooth and untroubled state, and so as to smaller one, is still preserved at Thurston House, in this manner are taken out to sea in succession render the position of the shipping in the harbour near Dunbar, where it has remained for more than upon a powerful derrick or pontoon, or other suit- perfectly secure. These lattice screens are con. thirty years since the late Mr. Hunter first able floating apparatus, and are then sunk upon structed of balks of timber strongly bolted toencouraged Mr. Wilson to proceed with his ex the spot required; the towers are arranged in a gether, open rectangular spaces being left between periments. I believe that Mr. Wilson is about to straight or curved line at such a distance apart as the contiguous vertical and transverse beams of publish a detailed account of his plans, from to leave between each an intermediate space timbers. These lattice screens are by preference which it will clearly appear to what extent he is equal at the upper part to the smaller diameter constructed on shore, and in the opposite faces of entitled to claim the invention of the screw of the tower or thereabouts. The towers being such contiguous pair of towers, a deep vertical propeller. I am, Gentlemen,

disposed in this manner, the water contained groove is formed, either by bolting pieces of angle Your obedient servant, within each is then pumped out, and the in- iron to the face of the tower, or by casting the

W. S. W. VADX. terior of the tower is filled in with masonry, grooves in the plates of towers, or by securing British Museum, November 7, 1859.

the blocks of stone being previously cut to the pieces of timber thereto in a similar manner.

required shape on shore ; in this manner the These lattice screens are taken out in succession RICHARDSON AND JAFFREY'S IM

work may be carried on with great rapidity, on the derrick, they are raised thereby to a sufli

the cement used in the building operations being cient height to admit of their being lowered down PROVED BREAKWATERS.

meanwhile wholly protected from the wash of the into the grooves made for their reception on the MESSRS. THOMAS RICHARDSON and G. W. Jaf sea water. Instead of using stone as the material contiguous faces of the towers. Another mode of frey, engineers, Durham, have just completed a for filling in the towers, concrete, beton, or other constructing these screens is to form them of patent for an invention which relates to the hard drying plastic cement may be moulded into cast-iron pipes or of malleable iron tubes. The arrangement and construction of defensive and blocks of the required figure on shore and dried; vertical tubes are connected together so as to protective sea works of various kinds, such as these blocks when fitted into their proper places form a frame or lattice by means of transverse harbours of refuge, breakwaters, sea-walls, barriers, within the tower are to be cemented together bars of metal at the upper and lower parts, and, and other sea-board structures or contrivances in with a thin mixture of the cement or plastic ma if necessary, at intermediate distances. These tended either for the defence of the coast against teriel used for moulding the blocks. In some cases screens are fitted into the adjacent grooves in the the action of the wind and waves or for protecting we should give the preference to another mode of towers in the same manner as described in refershipping. Fig. 1 of the annexed engravings re- procedure, namely, to fill the whole of the in- ence to those composed of timber. In addition to presents in side elevation and partial vertical terior of each tower with beton' or hydraulic the protective action of these screens there is section a breakwater constructed according to this cement, as shown at B, which cement solidifying another and highly important advantage attend. invention, and Fig. 2 is a corresponding plan and within the tower, the whole forms a compact and ing the use of them in harbour and other similar horizontal section of the same. In carrying out solid mass capable of withstanding the waves of sea works, which is, that from their open con, the invention in the arrangement and construction the sea after the removal or wearing away of the struction they prevent the silting up or accumu. of a harbour of refuge for ships the patentees, in external plates of metal. In lieu of this solid lation of the sand inside the harbour, as the tide the first place, construct a number or series of mass of beton, a filling-in may be used composed has free access and egress through the open screen. iron towers 4 A, so that when these towers of beton, having a central mass or core of slag as so that the original depth of water is maintained, are deposited in the sca at the predetermined at C, the interstices of which may be filled up with and a prolific source of expense in the maintenance distance asunder, they extend outwards and par. the liquid, so as to form the whole into a solid of dredging apparatus is avoided. The constructially enclose the required extent of sea room. The operation of filling up the towers tion of harbours, piers, or quays upon this plan The towers are by preference made of a cir. with masonry or with plastic materials is mate- admits of vessels approaching close up to the cular figure in transverse section, wide at the rially facilitated by the convenience which the towers, thus avoiding the waste of room and inbase and tapering towards the upper part, sweep- summits of the towers afford for at once laying convenience attending long sloping sea-walls of the ing inwards from the base with a curve, or rising down a permanent gangway or road D from one ordinary construction. Even in situations where upwards with straight sides of a gradually tapering tower to another, along which gangway materials a rigid or impermeable sea wall would not be obor conical figure. These towers are by preference and implements can be conveyed with Dearly the jectionable, our system offers considerable advanconstructed of cast-iron or malleable iron, or same facility as on shore. In this manner the tages in point of strength, economy of first cost, partly of both kinds of metal, but in lieu of these expensive and costly plant required in harbour and and facility of construction. In such situations materials they may be constructed of stone or coast works of the ordinary kind are wholly dis- the towers are constructed and disposed as hereintimber, and made solid in the manner hereinafter pensed with, and the work is done at far less cost before described, but the intermediate spaces described. In constructing the towers of metal a than can be accomplished with the usual struc- between the towers are filled in either with a franing of perpendicular and transverse circular tures. In place of constructing the towers of wall of masonry as at F F, or are formed of blocks or cylindrical ribs is bolted together so as to form iron, they may be built wholly of stone, a suitable of "beton or concrete cemented together, and


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defended or not on the outer or seaward side by nozzle may be contracted at the orifice to sharpen may be placed, so as to open inwards when exa lattice-work of timber or metal. For these the blast. The water may be delivered round or haustion is effected; or it may be effected by means structures the towers may either be the simple within the jet of steam, which in the latter case of stop-cocks, or valves, or intermittent pumps, iron tower sunk into its proper place, or it is annular, or there may be a series of jets in a actuated by the engine. By means of valves, also may be partially or wholly filled up with masonry, circle.

placed at any convenient part of the delivery pipe 'beton,' or other suitable material. According to The heated water passes freely from the appa or chamber, the supply-water may be sustained at this system of constructing harbours, breakwaters, ratus, and may be either pumped directly into the the level to which it is elevated by the inducing sea-walls, and other similar exposed works, it is boiler or reserved for use. A free vent is provided action of the steam. The whole of the steam from impossible to carry out such works in a manner for uncondensed steam. The supply of steam may donkey pumps used in feeding steam-boilers may more economical, for if properly conducted no be taken from the boiler direct, or from the ex. be condensed in this manner. The apparatus may portion of the materials employed need be wasted, haust passages of steam engines connected there be protected by a jacketing of steam from the which is far from being the case in structures of with, whether condensing or non-cordensing. For exhaust or otherwise, or by a coating of felt or the ordinary kind, however careful the contractors convenience the whole of the exhaust steam may other material, to increase its efficiency by the may be in the disposal of their materials." be carried through the heating chamber, the sur. addition of heating surface, and to prevent loss of

plus or uncondensed steam being passed on to the heat. CLARK'S APPARATUS FOR HEATING

atmosphere or condenser, as the case may be. The annexed illustrations exhibit various forms FEED-WATER.

The apparatus may be made with parts readily of the apparatus. In the Figures generally, A is MR. DANIEL KINNEAR CLARK, the well-known posits from impure water.

removeable and easily replaced for collecting de- the heating chamber; B is the steam pipe, from

The vent for steam which the steam for heating the feed-water is writer on railway machinery, has patented for may be closed, if desired. Air vessels may be discharged; C is the pipe, conduit, or vessel the above purpose an invention of which he gives applied where needed for equalizing the flow of which contains and conveys the water to be the following description :

water. The water may enter through the open heated. The water enters the heating chamber The invention consists in a simple and compact end of the heating passage or through perforations; through perforations or slots a, a, so as to meet method of heating the feed-water of steam-boilers and the heating chamber may be formed with one and mix with the entering steam, and the heated by the forcible and immediate intermixture of or more contractions or strictures, so as to induce water is discharged into the cistern D, from which currents or jets of water and steam brought into more intimate mixture of the water and steam, it is drawn off by the pipe E to be pumped into direct contact and travelling together, as follows: or with one or more bends or undulations.

the boiler. Any residual steam in the cistern D One or more jets of steam are discharged The heating chamber or passage should be of may escape through the waste pipe F. freely and directly through a pipe or other passage sufficient length to effect the thorough henting of In Fig. 1 the heating chamber is enclosed in or chamber of suitable form, into which also the the water, but it may be supplemented where the water conduit, and is surrounded by the water to be heated is delivered, and through needed by one or more diaphragms placed within water. The tight air space at the upper end of which it is passed in conjunction with the steam; or beyond the passage, so as partly to baffle or the conduit acts as an air vessel. The steam in this confined passage the steam, in virtue of its divert the discharging currents of water and nozzle is fitted air-tight into the heating chamber, initial velocity, forcibly impinges upon, mixes steam, and further to intermix them.

in order to prevent the suction of cold air into with, and disperses the water, and is quickly con When the steam is delivered intermittently at the chamber, and the loss of heat thereby, and to densed, and the water is proportionally raised in considerable intervals into the heating chamber, sustain the exhaustive action of the steam. In temperature by the heat of the condensed steam. as in the exhaustion of steam from an ordinary Fig. 2 the heating chamber and water conduit are When more than one jet of steam is used, the jets steam engine, the supply of the water to be heated placed side by side, and united at the upper parts may be placed side by side, or they may be placed may likewise be delivered intermittently, in order where the steam is admitted. In Fig. 3 the heatin succession. When the heating apparatus is that cold water may not pass unheated through ing pipe and water pipe are enclosed within a above the level of the source of water supply, the heating chamber in the intervals of the dis- chamber which contains the heated water. The the water may be raised to it by pumps or other charges of steam. The intermittent supply of the cold water is discharged into an upper chamber, external means. The jet of steam is so adjusted water may be effected in a self-acting manner by whence it proceeds to the heating pipe. In Fig. 28 by suction to draw and conduct the water into the exhausting operation of the steam inducing 4 there are three heating pipes and three steam and through the heating passage, thereby assisting a partial vacuum and a flow of water into the nozzles, one to each pipe, enclosed within the and, if powerful enough, superseding the use of heating chamber through the water entrances, water conduit. In Fig. 5 there are several steam external means for lifting the water. The jet against which flap or other simple acting valves nozzles placed in a circle, playing into an annular




heating chamber placed within the water chamber.

THE STRENGTII OF WROUGHT IRON The cold water enters the annular chamber from

alroceedings of Societies.

AND STEEL, within and from without. In Fig. 6 the steam is admitted in several jets into the heating chamber, | The following condensed abstract of a first set of

INSTITUTION OF MECIIANICAL ENGINEERS. which in this case is plain. In Fig. 7 the cold experiments, made by Messrs. Robert Napier and water is admitted in one or more thin sheets into Sons, on the strength of wrought-iron and steel, The general meeting of the members of this the heating chamber. Fig. 8 illustrates the was communicated to the British Association at Institution was held on Wednesday, the 2n] adaptation of a ball-cock to the cold water supply the Aberdeen meeting by Professor W. J. Mac instant, at the house of the Institution, Newall pipe, to maintain the water at a constant level in quorn Rankine, C.E., LL.D., &c. :-The experi. Street, Birmingham, Henry Maudslay, Esq., Vic. the cold-water cistern, and is useful when the ments to which this abstract relates form the first President, in the chair. The Secretary (Mr. W. water is supplied from above the level of the heat-set of a long series now in progress by Messrs. P. Marshall) having read the minutes of the pre

vious meeting, held in Leeds, the chairman ing apparatus. Fig. 9 shows an application of Robert Napier and Sons, the details being conthe invention to a locomotive, in which the heat ducted by their assistant, Mr. Kirkaldy. The alluded to the irreparable loss that had been suso ing chamber is placed horizontally over the barrel whole results are now in the course of being tained by the profession and the world at large in of the boiler, One pump may be employed to printed in extenso, for publication in the “Tran the recent lamented death of Mr. Robert Stephen

and desired to express, on behalf of the meet. supply the cold water, and the other pump to sactions of the Institution of Engineers in Scotsupply the heated water to the boiler. When the land;" but some time must elapse before they ing, their high appreciation of his great me. feed pump is not in action, the heated water flows can appear, owing to the great volume of the chanical genius and their warm admiration of his freely back into the tank or tender. Figs. 10, 11, tables, and the number of particulars which they many nulle qualities. Mr. Stephenson had taken 12, 13, show various other forms of the apparatus. give.

a strong interest in the developinent of the Insti:

tution in its earlier years, having succeeded in the In Fig. 10 a core is introduced within the heating The present abstract is all that it has been chamber under the steam nozzle to diverge the found practicable to prepare in time for the presidency his father, the late Mr. George steam, and so to promote the mixture of the steam meeting of the British Association, and, notwith Stephenson, their first president; and both ha 1 with the water. In l'ig. 11 the steam is discharged standing its brevity and extreme condensation, it counsel and assistance. A considerable number of

largely aided in promoting its welfare by their from an annular orifice near to the circumference is believed that the results which it shows will be of the heating chamber. In Fig. 12, also, the found of interest and importance.

new members were elected; and the president,

It gives the steam is discharged from an annular orifice, and tenacity, and the ultimate extension, when on the vice-presidents, and members of council wer: the water is introduced against the steam from point of being torn asunder, of the strongest and nominated for the next annual election. within and from without the annular orifice. the weakest kinds of iron and steel from each of

The first paper read was a “ DESCRIPTION of In the illustrations it has not been thought the districts mentioned. Each result is the mean


In this macluine, necessary to show in detail any of the obvious and of four experiments at least, and sometimes of E. CLIFT, of Birmingham. well-known modes of conveying steam to the many more.

which is the invention of Mr. J. P. Oates, of heater, or of inserting linings or vessels for the

The detailed tables, now being printed, will Erdington, near Birmingham, the bricks are collection and easy removal of deposits from im- show many more particulars, and especially the made direct from the clay, without previous pure water.

It is obvious, also, without further contraction of the bars in transverse aren along preparation beyond passing through the ordinary illustration, that by a suitable disposition of cocks their length generally, owing to "drawing out,'

crushing rollers when containing a unixture of or valves the apparatus may be turned off at any and the still greater contraction at the point of

stones. The machine consists of a rerolving time and the engine maintained in working order. fracture. The experiments now complete were all vertical screw with a large Hat blade, widenel

made with loads applied gradually. Experiments within a cylinder, at the bottom of which is the STEAM NAVIGATION ON THE RIVER on the effect of suddenly applied loads are in mould block, sliding horizontally, containing two AMAZON. progress.

moulds in which the bricks are formed. The upper MR. LAIRD, of Birkenhead, has just completed a TABLE A.-IRON BARS.

part of the cylinder is expanded to form a hopper, vessel for a company formed under the auspices of

Tenacity in extension in

into which the clay is supplied, and is then drawu the Baron de Mana, of Rio Janeiro, for the navi

of length. down into the cylinder by the revolution of the gation of the river Amazon. This vessel is named Yorkshire : strongest

screw and pressed into the mould below. TI the Mandos, she is 255ft. long and 25ft. beam.

mould thus filled is then withdrawn horizontally, Her tonnage, old measure, is 681, and she is in

(forged) Staffordshire : strongest,

and the otlier emptymonld brought under the screw tended to combine great carrying capacity with

to be filled with clay;and the first brick is discharged speed. She is arranged something on the plan West' of Scotland : stronuest

from the mould by a vertical piston pushing it of the American river boats, the decks being Sweden : strongest

through the open bottom of the mould on to in carried out to the extreme width of the paddle

endless band, by which it is conveyed to the front boxes, and the whole of the accominodation for Russia : strongest.

of the machine ready to be removed direct to the first and second-class passengers is in large deck

kiln for burning. The clay is supplied con: houses, leaving the holds entirely free for cargo

Ibs. por


sq. inch,



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tinuously by the action of the screw; and, at the and coals. Her engines, also constructed by Mr. | Yorkshire : strongest lengthwise

instant when the bottom of the clay cylinder is Laird, are of 180-horse power nominal, but

Weakest lengthwise

closed by the change of moulds, an outlet for the worked on the trial to between 950 and 1,000 in

clay is provided by means of a horizontal escape dicated horse-power. The paddle-wheels are on

NOTE.-The strongest lengthwise is

pipe, opening from the bottom of the clay cylinder, the feathering plan, and the boilers are fitted with the weakest trosswise, and rice versa.

and acting as a safety valve to prevent any excess superheating apparatus, and other modern in


of pressure in the machine or any risk of overprovements. In order to test this vessel's capa. Steel for tool-, rivots, &c.: strongest.

straining. The outer end of this escape pipe is bilities for speed and seagoing qualities, slie was

open, and the friction of the clay against its siden despatched from Liverpool to Beaumaris on alon. Stool for"other purposes : strongest.

determines the limit of pressure in the machine day Inst, and made the passage from the Rock

the clay is pushed forward in the pipe forum Light (a distance of 48 statute miles) in three TABLE D.-STEEL PLATES.

inch each time the brick moulds are changed, The hours, giving an average speed of 16 miles per strongest lengthwisc

bricks are completed at a regular rate of 12,00 hour. She returned from Beaumaris to Liverpool Weakest lengthwise.

per day in ordinary work, or an average of twenty on Wednesday in 2h. 50min., being an average

good bricks per minute; and the inachine is speed of 17 miles per hour. The Manaos was par

capable of making as many as thirty brichs per tially loaded, and had on board two large iron respectively the strongest and weakest crossuise.

NOTE.-The strongest and weakest lengthwise are also

minute. Several of these machines aru at barges shipped in pieces, to be riveted together

work in the neighbourhood of Birmingham and on arrival at Para, besides a considerable quantity

elsewhere, some of which have been working of coal. The distance between Liverpool and


regularly for three years. The crushing strength Beaumaris has never been accomplished in so short TO TIE EDITORS OF TIIE “MECIANICS' MAGAZINE." of the bricks has been found to double that of a time before. The vessel and machinery have been constructed, and the above trial of speed tract” in your last week's inpression, you assume

GENTLEMEN, — In the article “ Coining by Con- hand-made bricks of the same district; and their

transverse strength is also considerably greater made, under the superintendence of Commodore that we have obtained a promise of contract for experienced from the bricks not having been drint

than that of hand-made bricks. No difficulty i Hoffsmith, a distinguished officer of the Brazilian the proposed rew bronze coinage. navy, who was sent over by the company for that

before stacking in the kiln for burning, as tbey are purpose, and also to superintend another vessel

We beg to state that we have received no such sufficiently dry on leaving the machine ; so that now being constructed by Mr. Laird for the same

promise, either directly or indirectly, and that we owners.-Times. are not in any way responsible for the paragraph brick's previous to burning is dispensed with. A

the process of drying required for hand-made in the Manchester Guardian, from which the number of samples of the ordinary bricks made bir

inference has been drawn. A number of additional hands hare been set on

the machine were exhibited, and specimens mule recently at Woolwich Dockyard and Steam Factory

Your obedient servants,

from different qualities of clay in different parts of Department, and riggers are still required, wlio will

RALPII HEATON AND Sons. the country; also a working model of the pressin. receive considerable advance of wages.

Birmingham, November 7th, 1859.

screw and escape pipe of the machine, showing oke


strongest crosswise
weakest crosswise





Strongest crosswise.
Weakest crosswiso



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