« EelmineJätka »
Trotter, R.N., and others, and that in the opinion a skeleton figure of the predetermined shape. caisson being sunk over the spot where the tower of these gentlemen it had proved entirely suc- This framing is then covered with sheets of cast or is to be erected; the water having been pumped cessful, the impetus communicated by the pro- wrought-iron, which are riveted or otherwise out of the caisson, the work may be carried on pellers at the stern having been much greater secured to the internal framing: “The height with great rapidity if the several blocks of stone than that which could have been given by oars, and size of these towers 'must depend,” say the have been previously cut to the required shape on while the resistance offered to heavy seas on the patentees, “to a great extent upon the depth of shore. The open spaces between the contiguous boat's quarter was also much less.
water and the position of the work; we may, towers are filled in with open vertical frames E E, The model made by Mr. Wilson was deposited however, give as an example of a useful size for which serve to break up and divide the waves as in the rooms of the Highland Society, and was these towers diameter at the base thirty-five feet, they roll in, the water passing through the open destroyed by fire a few years ago when their tapering to a diameter of twenty-seven feet at the screens without hindrance, and yet in a comparamuseum was burnt. Another, but I believe upper part. The open bottom towers constructed tively smooth and untroubled state, and so as to smaller one, is still preserved at Thurston House, in this manner are taken out to sea in succession render the position of the shipping in the harbour near Dunbar, where it has remained for more than upon a powerful derrick or pontoon, or other suit- perfectly secure. These lattice screens are con. thirty years since the late Mr. Hunter first able floating apparatus, and are then sunk upon structed of balks of timber strongly bolted toencouraged Mr. Wilson to proceed with his ex the spot required; the towers are arranged in a gether, open rectangular spaces being left between periments. I believe that Mr. Wilson is about to straight or curved line at such a distance apart as the contiguous vertical and transverse beams of publish a detailed account of his plans, from to leave between each an intermediate space timbers. These lattice screens are by preference which it will clearly appear to what extent he is equal at the upper part to the smaller diameter constructed on shore, and in the opposite faces of entitled to claim the invention of the screw of the tower or thereabouts. The towers being such contiguous pair of towers, a deep vertical propeller. I am, Gentlemen,
disposed in this manner, the water contained groove is formed, either by bolting pieces of angle Your obedient servant, within each is then pumped out, and the in- iron to the face of the tower, or by casting the
W. S. W. VADX. terior of the tower is filled in with masonry, grooves in the plates of towers, or by securing British Museum, November 7, 1859.
the blocks of stone being previously cut to the pieces of timber thereto in a similar manner.
required shape on shore ; in this manner the These lattice screens are taken out in succession RICHARDSON AND JAFFREY'S IM
work may be carried on with great rapidity, on the derrick, they are raised thereby to a sufli
the cement used in the building operations being cient height to admit of their being lowered down PROVED BREAKWATERS.
meanwhile wholly protected from the wash of the into the grooves made for their reception on the MESSRS. THOMAS RICHARDSON and G. W. Jaf sea water. Instead of using stone as the material contiguous faces of the towers. Another mode of frey, engineers, Durham, have just completed a for filling in the towers, concrete, beton, or other constructing these screens is to form them of patent for an invention which relates to the hard drying plastic cement may be moulded into cast-iron pipes or of malleable iron tubes. The arrangement and construction of defensive and blocks of the required figure on shore and dried; vertical tubes are connected together so as to protective sea works of various kinds, such as these blocks when fitted into their proper places form a frame or lattice by means of transverse harbours of refuge, breakwaters, sea-walls, barriers, within the tower are to be cemented together bars of metal at the upper and lower parts, and, and other sea-board structures or contrivances in with a thin mixture of the cement or plastic ma if necessary, at intermediate distances. These tended either for the defence of the coast against teriel used for moulding the blocks. In some cases screens are fitted into the adjacent grooves in the the action of the wind and waves or for protecting we should give the preference to another mode of towers in the same manner as described in refershipping. Fig. 1 of the annexed engravings re- procedure, namely, to fill the whole of the in- ence to those composed of timber. In addition to presents in side elevation and partial vertical terior of each tower with beton' or hydraulic the protective action of these screens there is section a breakwater constructed according to this cement, as shown at B, which cement solidifying another and highly important advantage attend. invention, and Fig. 2 is a corresponding plan and within the tower, the whole forms a compact and ing the use of them in harbour and other similar horizontal section of the same. In carrying out solid mass capable of withstanding the waves of sea works, which is, that from their open con, the invention in the arrangement and construction the sea after the removal or wearing away of the struction they prevent the silting up or accumu. of a harbour of refuge for ships the patentees, in external plates of metal. In lieu of this solid lation of the sand inside the harbour, as the tide the first place, construct a number or series of mass of beton, a filling-in may be used composed has free access and egress through the open screen. iron towers 4 A, so that when these towers of beton, having a central mass or core of slag as so that the original depth of water is maintained, are deposited in the sca at the predetermined at C, the interstices of which may be filled up with and a prolific source of expense in the maintenance distance asunder, they extend outwards and par. the liquid, so as to form the whole into a solid of dredging apparatus is avoided. The constructially enclose the required extent of sea room. The operation of filling up the towers tion of harbours, piers, or quays upon this plan The towers are by preference made of a cir. with masonry or with plastic materials is mate- admits of vessels approaching close up to the cular figure in transverse section, wide at the rially facilitated by the convenience which the towers, thus avoiding the waste of room and inbase and tapering towards the upper part, sweep- summits of the towers afford for at once laying convenience attending long sloping sea-walls of the ing inwards from the base with a curve, or rising down a permanent gangway or road D from one ordinary construction. Even in situations where upwards with straight sides of a gradually tapering tower to another, along which gangway materials a rigid or impermeable sea wall would not be obor conical figure. These towers are by preference and implements can be conveyed with Dearly the jectionable, our system offers considerable advanconstructed of cast-iron or malleable iron, or same facility as on shore. In this manner the tages in point of strength, economy of first cost, partly of both kinds of metal, but in lieu of these expensive and costly plant required in harbour and and facility of construction. In such situations materials they may be constructed of stone or coast works of the ordinary kind are wholly dis- the towers are constructed and disposed as hereintimber, and made solid in the manner hereinafter pensed with, and the work is done at far less cost before described, but the intermediate spaces described. In constructing the towers of metal a than can be accomplished with the usual struc- between the towers are filled in either with a franing of perpendicular and transverse circular tures. In place of constructing the towers of wall of masonry as at F F, or are formed of blocks or cylindrical ribs is bolted together so as to form iron, they may be built wholly of stone, a suitable of "beton or concrete cemented together, and
defended or not on the outer or seaward side by nozzle may be contracted at the orifice to sharpen may be placed, so as to open inwards when exa lattice-work of timber or metal. For these the blast. The water may be delivered round or haustion is effected; or it may be effected by means structures the towers may either be the simple within the jet of steam, which in the latter case of stop-cocks, or valves, or intermittent pumps, iron tower sunk into its proper place, or it is annular, or there may be a series of jets in a actuated by the engine. By means of valves, also may be partially or wholly filled up with masonry, circle.
placed at any convenient part of the delivery pipe • beton,' or other suitable material. According to The heated water passes freely from the appa- or chamber, the supply-water may be sustained at this system of constructing harbours, breakwaters, ratus, and may be either pumped directly into the the level to which it is elevated by the inducing sea-walls, and other similar exposed works, it is boiler or reserved for use. A free vent is provided action of the steam. The whole of the steam from impossible to carry out such works in a manner for uncondensed steam. The supply of steam may donkey pumps used in feeding steam-boilers may more economical, for if properly conducted no be taken from the boiler direct, or from the ex. be condensed in this manner. The apparatus may portion of the materials employed need be wasted, haust passages of steam engines connected there be protected by a jacketing of steam from the which is far from being the case in structures of with, whether condensing or non-cordensing. For exhaust or otherwise, or by a coating of felt or the ordinary kind, however careful the contractors convenience the whole of the exhaust steam may other material, to increase its efficiency by the may be in the disposal of their materials.” be carried through the heating chamber, the sur. addition of heating surface, and to prevent loss of
plus or uncondensed steam being passed on to the heat. CLARK'S APPARATUS FOR HEATING
atmosphere or condenser, as the case may be. The annexed illustrations exhibit various forms FEED-WATER.
The apparatus may be made with parts readily of the apparatus. In the Figures generally, A is MR. DANIEL KUNNEAR CLARK, the well-known posits from impure water.
removeable and easily replaced for collecting de- the heating chamber; B is the steam pipe, from
The vent for steam which the steam for heating the feed-water is writer on railway machinery, has patented for may be closed, if desired. Air vessels may be discharged; C is the pipe, conduit, or vessel the above purpose an invention of which he gives applied where needed for equalizing the flow of which contains and conveys the water to be the following description :
water. The water may enter through the open heated. The water enters the heating chamber The invention consists in a simple and compact end of the heating passage or through perforations; through perforations or slots a, a, so as to meet method of heating the feed-water of steam-boilers and the heating chamber may be formed with one, and mix with the entering steam, and the heated by the forcible and immediate intermixture of or more contractions or strictures, so as to induce water is discharged into the cistern D, from which currents or jets of water and steam brought into more intimate mixture of the water and steam, it is drawn off by the pipe E to be pumped into direct contact and travelling together, as follows:- or with one or more bends or undulations.
the boiler. Any residual steam in the cistern D One or more jets steam are discharged The heating chamber or passage should be of may escape through the waste pipe F. freely and directly through a pipe or other passage sufficient length to effect the thorough henting of In Fig. 1 the heating chamber is enclosed in or chamber of suitable form, into which also the the water, but it may be supplemented where the water conduit, and is surrounded by the water to be heated is delivered, and through needed by one or more diaphragms placed within water. The tight air space at the upper end of which it is passed in conjunction with the steam; or beyond the passage, so as partly to baffle or the conduit acts as an air vessel. The steam in this confined passage the steam, in virtue of its divert the discharging currents of water and nozzle is fitted air-tight into the heating chamber, initial velocity, forcibly impinges upon, mixes steam, and further to intermix them.
in order to prevent the suction of cold air into with, and disperses the water, and is quickly con. When the steam is delivered intermittently at the chamber, and the loss of heat thereby, and to densed, and the water is proportionally raised in considerable intervals into the heating chamber, sustain the exhaustive action of the steam. In temperature by the heat of the condensed steam. as in the exhaustion of steam from an ordinary Fig. 2 the heating chamber and water conduit are When more than one jet of steam is used, the jets steam engine, the supply of the water to be heated placed side by side, and united at the upper parts may be placed side by side, or they may be placed may likewise be delivered intermittently, in order where the steam is admitted. In Fig. 3 the heatin succession. When the heating apparatus is that cold water may not pass unheated through ing pipe and water pipe are enclosed within a above the level of the source of water supply, the heating chamber in the intervals of the dis- chamber which contains the heated water. The the water may be raised to it by pumps or other charges of steam. The intermittent supply of the cold water is discharged into an upper chamber, external means. The jet of steam is so adjusted water may be effected in a self-acting manner by whence it proceeds to the heating pipe. In Fig. as by suction to draw and conduct the water into the exhausting operation of the steam inducing 4 there are three heating pipes and three steam and through the heating passage, thereby assisting a partial vacuum and a flow of water into the nozzles, one to each pipe, enclosed within the and, if powerful enough, superseding the use of heating chamber through the water entrances, water conduit. In Fig. 5 there are several steam external means for lifting the water. The jet against which flap or other simple acting valves nozzles placed in a circle, playing into an annular heating chamber placed within the water chamber.
THE STRENGTH OF WROUGHT IRON The cold water enters the annular chamber from
Proceedings of Societies.
AND STEEL. within and from without. In Fig. 6 the steam is admitted in several jets into the heating chamber, The following condensed abstract of a first set of
INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. which in this case is plain. In Fig. 7 the cold experiments, made by Messrs. Robert Napier and water is admitted in one or more thin sheets into sons, on the strength of wrought-iron and steel, Tic general meeting of the members of this the heating chamber. Fig. 8 illustrates the was communicated to the British Association at Institution was held on Wednesday, the 2nd adaptation of a ball-cock to the cold water supply the Aberdeen meeting by Professor W. J. Mac- instant, at the house of the Institution, Newhall pipe, to maintain the water at a constant level in quorn Rankine, C.E., LL.D., &c. :-The experi. Street, Biriningham, Henry Mandslay, Esq., Vice. the cold-water cistern, and is useful when the ments to which this abstract relates form the first President, in the chair. The Secretary (Mr. W. water is supplied from above the level of the heat- set of a long series now in progress by Messrs. P: Marshall) having read the minutes of the pre
vious meeting, held in Leeds, the chairman ing apparatus. Fig. 9 shows an application of Robert Napier and Sons, the details being conthe invention to a locomotive, in which the heat. ducted by their assistant, Mr. Kirkaldy. The alladed to the irreparable loss that had been sus. ing chamber is placed horizontally over the barrel whole results are now in the course of being tained by the profession and the world at large in of the boiler,
One pump may be employed to printed in extenso, for publication in the “Tran. the recent lamented death of Mr. Robert Stephen. supply the cold water, and the other pump to sactions of the Institution of Engineers in Scot. son; and desired to express, on behalf of the meetsupply the heated water to the boiler. When the land;" but some time must clapse before they ing, their high appreciation of his great mefeed pump is not in action, the heated water flows can appear, owing to the great volume of the chanical genius and their warm admiration of his freely back into the tank or tender. Figs. 10, 11, tables, and the number of particulars which they many noble qualities. Mr. Stephenson had taken
a strong interest in the development of the Insti. 12, 13, show various other forins of the apparatus. give. In Fig. 10 a core is introduced within the heating The present abstract is all that it has been tution in its earlier years, having succeeded in the chamber under the steam nozzle to diverge the found practicable to prepare in time for the presidency his father, the late Mr. George steam, and so to promote the mixture of the steam meeting of the British Association, and, notivith Stephenson, their first president; and both had with the water. In Fig. 11 the steam is discharged standing its brevity and extreme condensation, it counsel and assistance. A considerable number of
largely aided in promoting its welfare by their from an annular orifice near to the circumference is believed that the results which it shows will be of the heating chamber. In Fig. 12, also, the found of interest and importance. It gives the new members were elected; and the president, steam is discharged from an annular orifice, and tenacity, and the ultimate extension, when on the nominated for the next annual election.
vice-presidents, and members of council were the water is introduced against the steam from point of being torn asunder, of the strongest and within and from without the annular orifice. the weakest kinds of iron and steel from each of
The first paper read was a “DESCRIPTION of In the illustrations it has not been thought the districts mentioned. Each result is the mean
Oates's BRICK-MAKING MACHINE,” by MR. JOHN
In this machine, necessary to show in detail any of the obvious and of four experiments at least, and sometimes of E. CLIFT, of Birmingham. well-known modes of conveying steam to the many more.
which is the invention of Mr. J. P. Oates, of heater, or of inserting linings or vessels for the collection and easy removal of deposits from im- show many more particulars, and especially the made direct from the clay, without previous
The detailed tables, now being printed, will Erdington, near Birmingham, the bricks are pure water. It is obvious also, without further contraction of the bars in transverse area along crushing rollers when containing a mixture of
preparation beyond passing through the ordinary illustration, that by a suitable disposition of cocks their length generally, owing to "drawing out,". or valves the apparatus may be turned off at any and the still greater contraction at the point of vertical screw with a large flat blade, widened
stones. The machine consists of a revolving time and the engine maintained in working order. fracture. The experiments now complete were all conically at the upper part
, and working freely made with loads applied gradually. Experiments within a cylinder, at the bottom of which is the STEAM NAVIGATION ON THE RIVER on the effect of suddenly applied loads are in mould block, sliding horizontally, containing two AMAZON. progress.
moulds in which the bricks are formed. The upper MR. LAIRD, of Birkenhead, has just completed a TABLE A.-IRON BARs.
Ultimate part of the cylinder is expanded to form a hopper, vessel for a company formed under the auspices of
Tenacity in extension in into which the clay is supplied, and is then drawn the Baron de Mana, of Rio Janeiro, for the navi.
of length. down into the cylinder by the revolution of the gation of the river Amazon. This vessel is named Yorkshiro : strongest
screw and pressed into the mould below. The the Manàos, she is 255ft. long and 25ft. beam.
mould thus filled is then withdrawn horizontally, Her tonnage, old measure, is 681, and she is in.
(forged) Staffordshire : strongest
and the other empty mould brought under the screw tended to combine grent carrying capacity with
to be filled with clay;and the first brick is discharged speed. She is arranged something on the plan West'of Scotland : strongest
from the mould by a vertical piston pushing it of the American river boats, the decks being Sweden : strongest
through the open bottom of the mould on to an carried out to the extreme width of the paddle.
endless band, by which it is conveyed to the front boxes, and the whole of the accommodation for Russiä : strongest.
of the machine ready to be removed direct to the first and second-class passengers is in large deck
kiln for burning. The clay is supplied conhouses, leaving the holds entirely free for cargo TABLE B.-IRON Plates.
tinuously by the action of the screw; and, at the and coals. Her engines, also constructed by Mr. Yorkshire : strongest lengthwise
instant when the bottom of the clay cylinder is Laird, are of 180-horse power nominal, but
closed by the change of moulds, an outlet for the worked on the trial to between 950 and 1,000 in
strongest cross wise
clay is provided by means of a horizontal escape
weakest crosswise.. dicated horse-power. The paddle-wheels are on
Note.-The strongest lengthwise is
pipe, opening from the bottom of the clay cylinder, the feathering plan, and the boilers are fitted with the weakest trosswise, and vice versa.
and aoting as a safety valve to prevent any excess superheating apparatas, and other modern' im. TABLE C.-STEEL BARS.
of pressure in the machine or any risk of overprovements. In order to test this vessel's capa
straining. The outer end of this escape pipe is bilities for speed and seagoing qualities, she was
Steel for tools, rivets, &c.: strongest. 132909
open, and the friction of the clay against its sides despatched from Liverpool to Beaumaris on Mon Stcol for other purposes : strongest.
determines the limit of pressure in the machine: day last, and made the passage from the Rock
the clay is pushed forward in the pipe or an Light (a distance of 48 statute miles) in three TABLE D.-STEEL PLATES.
inch each time the brick moulds are changed, The hours, giving an average speed of 16 miles per Strongest lengthwise
bricks are completed at a regular rate of 12,000 hour. She returned from Beaumaris to Liverpool Weakest lengthwisc.
per day in ordinary work, or an average of twenty on Wednesday in 2h. 60min., being an average Strongest crosswise.
good bricks per minuto; and the machine is speed of 17 miles per hour. The Mandos was par. tially loaded, and had on board two large iron respectively the stronge
NOTE:- The strongest and weakest lengthwise are also minute.
capable of making as many as thirty bricks per
Several of these machines are at
and weakest crosswise. barges shipped in pieces, to be riveted together
work in the neighbourhood of Birmingham and on arrival at Para, besides a considerable quantity
elsewhere, some of which have been working of coal. The distance between Liverpool and
COINING BY CONTRACT.
regularly for three years. The crushing strength Beaumaris has never been accomplished in so short TO TIE EDITORS OF TIIE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” of the bricks has been found to double that of a time before. The vessel and mnchinery have been constructed, and the above trial of speed tract” in your last week's impression, you assume
GENTLEMEN,—In the article “Coining by Con-hand-made bricks of the same district; and their
transverse strength is also considerably greater made, under the superintendence of Commodore that we have obtained
a promise of contract for experienced from the bricks not having been dried
than that of hand-made bricks. No difficulty is Hoffsmith, a distinguished officer of the Brazilian the proposed new bronze coinage. navy, who was sent over by the company for that
We beg to state that we have received no such sufficiently dry on leaving the machine ; so that
before stacking in the kiln for burning, as they are purpose, and also to superintend another vessel now being constructed by Mr. Laird for the same are not in any way responsible for the paragraph bricks previous to burning is dispensed with. A
promise, either directly or indirectly, and that we the process of drying required for hand-made owners.-Times.
in the Manchester Guardian, from which the number of samples of the ordinary bricks made by
inference has been drawn. A number of additional hands have been set on
the machine were exhibited, and specimens made recently at Woolwich Dookyard and Steam Factory
Your obedient servants,
from different qualities of clay in different parts of Department, and riggers are still required, who will
RALPH HEATON AND Sons. the country; also a working model of the pressing receive a considerable advance of wages.
Birmingham, November 7th, 1859.
screw and escape pipe of the machine, showing the
0.141 0.131 0-093 0:076
action of the vertical screw in forcing the clay | lastly polished and case hardened. The trigger plate through the medium of the visible.” out laterally through the horizontal pipe. was of brass compound-as is all the brass portions eleven o'clock before the pleasant proceedings
The next paper was a “ DESCRIPTION OF A NEW of the furniture of the rifle-of a inixture of six- of Saturday came to a close, and it was only reCONSTRUCTION
HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM teen parts copper, ten of zinc, and one of lead. It gretted that employers—who, according to a BOILER," by Mr. J. FREDERICK SPENCER, of was passed through several milling, drilling, and contemporary, are afraid that "shop secrets” are London. This boiler, the invention of Mr. M. tapping processes, and edged by a machine which, divulged at their foremen's réunions—were not Benson, of Cincinnatti, U.S., is of tubular construc- originally of American origin, had been much im. more numerously represented on the occasion in tion, and is designed for the purpose of generating proved by Mr. Hague. Finally it was polishedon the handsome apartment in which this meeting steam of high-pressure without risk of accident to buff wheels and made ready for attachment. The was held. any portion of the boiler, by producing an artificial guard plates, also of brass, had to pass through a Messrs. Keyte (of Woolwich), Briggs, Ballard, circulation of the water in the boiler, by mechanical number of machines prior to polishing, and these the President, and others took part in the friendly means ; it is also intended to combine great light were described by Mr. Hayes. The butt plate, of discussion which ended the meeting, and all deness and compactness of construction. The boiler brass, thanks to the ingevious arrangements made parted with a high sense of gratification. consists of a series of horizontal tubes of small by Mr. Hague, who had been rewarded by the diameter, arranged in parallel rows over the War Office for his pains, was finished off much
WATCHMAKERS' ASSOCIATION, COVENTRY. furnace, and communicating at top and bottom more rapidly and perfectly than heretofore, the with a receiver placed outside. The mechanical machines used being admirably adapted to their on Tuesday evening, Nov. 1, a lecture on horocirculation of the water is produced by means of a purposes. The ramrod, of steel, except the logy was delivered by JAMES FERGUSON COLE, pump worked by the engine, which draws the rammer end, which was of wrought iron, had Esq., Vice-President of the British Horological water from the receiver and drives it through a to be clamp-milled, screwed, hardened' and Institute, London. Mr. Cole was accompanied by series of tubes, from the top of which it passes tempered, then ground, polished, tested, and Messrs. Brooks and Sheppard, members of the back into the receiver in the form of mixed water gauged. The nose-cap, of brass, was now, owing to
Council of the Institute. The attendance was and steam. The boiler is divided into separate important improvements made by J. H. Barton, very large, and amongst those present were some sections, each communicating independently at Esq., chief engineer at Enfield, finished with of the principal watch manufacturers in the
town. top and bottom with the receiver, and capable of great rapidity and consequent economy. The rodbeing readily removed for repairs; the series of spring, of steel, was forged by hand into a die, then The Lecturer said he had accepted the invitatubes in each section are connected alternately at bent into a spoon shape, and afterwards milled, tion to deliver a lecture, in the hope of being able the ends by semicircular bends, so that each section hardened, tempered, and polished. The rod-stop to submit a few observations referring to the presents a continuous passage for the water, which was punched out of a rod of iron, filed by band, the principle of timekeepers, but chiefly with reis driven through the tubes by the circulating and thus finished. The side-cups were punched gard to chronometers and pocket-watches, as pump at the rate of about ten times the quantity from sticks of cast-brass, then coned in dies, portable machines dependent for time-keeping evaporated. The power required to work the drilled, counter-sunk, milled to thickness, and effect on the vibratory motion of a balance pomp is very small, having merely to overcome the polished. Next came the bands for fastening the governed by the elastic resistance of a balancefriction of the water in passing through the tubes ; barrel to the stock, and in the mode of treating spring; while clocks, as fixed machines, depended and in first getting up steam the pump is worked these the chief engineer had recently devised con- upon the oscillatory motion of a pendulum, govby hand for a short time, until there is steam siderable improvements, principally in the forg- erned by the principle of gravity. With reference enough to work it. The quantity of water con- ing, and which involved the use of Nasmyth's to the "spring” or “ weight,” as the usual motive tained in the boiler is much smaller than in ordi. steam drops, dies, &c. By these means great power applied to the machines alluded to, he exnary boilers, enabling the steam to be raised in a economy of labour and of money were effected. plained that neither one nor the other of these much shorter time; while the mechanical circula. These bands were as neat when completed as the was of itself a power, and hence the mainspring tion ensures all the water being uniformly heated bracelets of a lady, and, as might be imagined, they as belonging to the class of timekeepers now throughout, and prevents any part of the tubes underwent much careful manipulation. The guard treated on might be considered as only a reservoir being burnt in consequence of deficiency of water. and band swivels were of wrought-iron, put through of the force exerted by the hands in the act of
The risk of explosion of any part of the boiler is numerous minute operations, and lastly “ blued.” Winding up the spring. Elasticity was not, theremuch diminished, the tubes being of great strength The screws, nuts, and pins for the whole of the ore, a power, but, on the contrary, a constant in consequence of their small diameter, while the furniture, although not attracting much attention principle of resistance, tending only to obstruct receiver is not exposed to the action of the fire. when in their places, were all prepared with such motion, and to remain, like the inert matter of a Several of these boilers have been at work for accuracy as to preclude the possibility of their weight, constantly in a condition of rest; but some years in America, where they are in use turning loose in action, and were indeed most when a spring was woundi' nto tension, its tensile principally for steam fire engines; for this purpose carefully fitted.
force would be given out in the way of re-action, their rapidity in raising steam is of great value, The back-sight was a most important piece of and whether it be a mainspring, a balance-spring. and steam of 60 lbs. per square inch pressure has furniture. By its means the rifleman regulated
or the tremulation of a bels, all were alike obedient been raised in as short a time as six minutes from the range of his rifle, and made sure of his mark to the great ruling principle of nature, in which cold water. The tubes are found to be very dura- whether it was at 100 or 1,000 yards distance! the deepest philosophical scrunity had never ble, and do not become choked with deposit, The “bed" of this contrivance, which rested on
detected the smallest error. Having described though the boilers have been worked for many the barrel of the weapon and closely fitted it, was
the construction of the chronometer or pocketmonths with water containing a large amount of of wronght-iron, forged firstly by hand, and watch, he proceeded to observe that escapements deposit ; the deposit is carried over continuously secondly struck between top and bottom dies generally adopted in the manufacture of watches
were of various constructions, but those most into the receiver, while the tubes are kept clear under Colt's screw drop hammer. by the regular flow of water produced through About fourteen or fifteen distinct processes the duplex, the chronometer detached, and the
during the last half century were the horizontal, them by the mechanical circulation.
were wanting before the back-sight with its gra- detached lever escapement. The meeting then terminated.
There was also duated guage, springs, and fitments was ready for another class of escapement, known as the Re
application to the breech of the rifle ; and lately montoire, but after many experiments, he found ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN ENGINEERS. a prize had been awarded to Mr. Williams, of the that the remontoire spring must always be fully On Saturday the 6th inst, the Association of Enfield factory, for certain improvements in some under control of the mainspring at its lowest tenForemen Engineers held their ordinary monthly of these processes. The slide, the leaf, the spring, sion as an arbitary condition, and that when the meeting at St. Swithin's Hall
, City, Mr. Newton, and the cap form parts of the back-sight, and each mainspring was fully wound to its highest tension President, occupying the chair, and Mr. John Jones, requires careful workmanship.
the pressure from the motive force to the scapeSecretary, the vice-chair. Soon after 8 p.m. the
It is needless to say that the above is but an
wheel locking was so great against the delicate business of the evening was opened by the reading abstract of the valuable and comprehensive paper remontoire spring which had to discharge it, that of the minutes of the previous meeting, the formal read at the meeting of Foremen Engineers on it required too nice an adjustment of the force electing of Mr. Ebbery as an ordinary, Mr. Saturday, and to the thorough comprehension of and resistance to be relied on. The same disad. Fowler as an honorary member , and the nomina- which Colonel Dixon, R.A., of Enfield, contributed vantage attended the remontoire in regard to tion of Mr. Hepburn, of the Small Arms Factory, largely by allowing speciinens of each article of fusee movements, where the maintaining spring Enfield, as a prospective ordinary member. There “ furniture' alluded to to be “laid on the table.”
was inferior to the mainspring; and although the was a goodly assemblage of foremen present, and The lock and stock of the rifle will form the con
same objection to the remontoire did not so the President next called upon Mr. C. F. HAYES cluding themes of Mr. Hayes elaborate disserta: strongly apply where the motive power was unito continue his series of papers on Tue ManUPAC- tion, and the manufacture of these will be explained form by a weight as in clocks, in this application TURE OF SMALL ARMS That gentleman at once at the ensuing December meeting.
of the principle, under the most favourable circumresponded to the invitation, and proceeded to Some beautiful LUNAR PHOTOGRAPHS and stances it was still open to objection, as the smaller describe in his usual terse and explicit manner, MAGNETIC DIAGRAMS, kindly forwarded from irregularities of power through the train of wheel. the various parts of the rifle musket which are the Royal Observatory at Kew, were, at the work, together with the impediment of thickened known as its “furniture.” The trigger was first conclusion of the above-named paper, handed oil, and the effect of various temperature on the spoken of. This was of wrought iron, roughly round and explained by Mr. Beckleigh. These spring, rendered this delicate winding action so very forged in the first instance, then struck, at a excited much interest among the numerous doubtful that he had long since given up the use proper heat, into a pair of dies, then put through auditory-who were anxious, as a gentlemin of the remontoire escapement. The principle a succession of milling, or drilling operations and happily expressed it, to “ learn of the invisiole | involved in all escapement mechanism in watches was in its general aspect of simply a mechanical
not provided for lowering it safely and expeditiously character, and, viewed in this light, must appear
into the water; I say, however incredible it may only as a means of transmitting impulse power to The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to seem, yet he will not find one ship in a hundred that the pallet plains. Such, however, was not strictly Post Office Orders to be made payable to 2. A. Brooman, at knowing them to be deficient, ever attempts to enforce
all subscribers of £1 Is. 8d., annually, payable in advance. complies with these provisions, or any officer who, the case, as any undue resistance arising from the Post Ofice, Fleet Street, London, E.C.
such distinct and positive rules, the wanton disregar) defective application, or from a want of correctness
of which his superiors knowingly wink at.” in the formation of the locking angles, &c., on
All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-column A correspondent of the Times writes as follows:whatever principle of escapement, was well known are charged at the rate of 5d. per line for any number of There are three great difficulties attendant on the use to affect both the mechanical result in motion insertions les than 13; for 13 insertions, 1d. per line; and of the “ rocket” in the case of shipwreck or vessels in
for 52 insertions, 3d. per line. produced, and also the isochcronous result on time.
distress:-1. The uncertainty that necessarily attenda With regard to the lever escapement now generally two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for
Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as its flight, especially in strong winds (times when it is adopted for ordinary pocket watches, the rudimen the space occupied.
most generally needed). 2. The impossibility virtually
of its always being on the spot where required. 3. tary principle was strictly that of Graham's
The impracticability of its rapid use on such parts of a pendulum clock, although ascribed to Mudge as its
coast as are rocky, inarshy, &c. Query.-Would not inventor, and it must be regarded in its present In addition to the numerous sums announced in our last
all these difficulties be removed and many other adshape as a valuable improvement for its greater number, we have received the following:-J. S. B., £2 25.;
vantages gained by the vessel itself carrying the rocket simplicity and ease of execution, and as effecting J, C., (2; C. S., 103.; R. L. T., 103, ; C. P. C., 105, ;
apparatus-a precaution quite feasible, at all events the important object of detachment of the balance. S, H. B., 55; An Inventor, (Glasgow) 23. 6d. The total
to large vessels ? 1. The difference between the acIn reviewing as he had done the various modes of sums received up till to-day, Thursday, amount therefore
curacy of its flight and that of the land rocket would construction of chronometers, pocket-watches, and to £22 53. 6d. For this we are requested to express the hitting a centre of a circle from its circumference and
be equivalent to the difference in the difficulty between other time-keepers, it was not his intention to heart-felt thanks and gratitude of the receiver. We need
the circumference from its circle. 2 and 3. Not only offer any rigid rule or process for the attainment not, we are sure, multiply words on this subject. We will
would it always be at hand and available, but it would of an end which practical watchmakers arrived at only say that the sum already equals our expectation, be equally eficacious on the shores of a desert island by their own peculiar modes established by custom seeing that the claim upon our readers was a remote one, as on the coasts of Kent; and, among many other and experience. What he proposed was a reduc- and supported by no recommendation save that of pure advantages which suggest themselves, its fire flight in tion of the proportions of the mechanical parts of charity. Of course if more is sent we shall be happy to the air (at night) would indicate to coastguards, de, the detached lever escapement to a rule, which, if receive and forward it.
the place where the rope was landed. This seems 80 correctly observed and adopted, must lessen or
simple as well as important an expedient that
. I can prevent the liability to failure in the ultimate Our Weekly 6,0ssip.
hardly believe that there can be any novelty in the
idea. As, however, I have never heard or read of this mechanical and time-keeping results when made
application of the rocket system, I beg to forward you consideration was, what should be the proper Well-known in more St. Paul's Churchyard, London, in your columns, by workmen of less mature experience. The first. The following suggestion from Mr. Chubb, of the the suggestion, should you think it worthy of a placa diameter and weight of the balance for the pro: should be attended to :
It is stated that the entire establishment composing posed watch movement; This, he need not say to the scientific watchmaker, was only to be ascer
GENTLEMEN, -The loss of the Royal Charter the Royal Gun Factories in Woolwich Arsenal is tained in the first instance by mechanical trial interested in the matter, to the improper method of casting guns of every description having been decided
should direct the attention of shipbuilders, and others about to be remodelled, an immediate cessation of and by the result in motion produced. That the constructing the bullion rooms on board ship. These on, in order to give place to the introduction of sin weight should bear some preferrable relation to the receptacles are usually formed by lining some nook or
William Armstrong's method on the most extended diameter could not be doubted, as either carried to corner with strong iron plates, bolted to and forming possible scale. Sir William Armstrong and Mr. an extreme must destroy the harmony of propor- part of the ship, so that if the vessel gets on shore and Anderson, conducting the rifled ordnance department tion. The lecturer here proceeded to detail at breaks up, the bullion room necessarily goes to pieces ened conference
with the Secretary of State for War, considerable length the mode by which he had that these safes should not be in any way connected
on the subject of transferring the whole of the Royal attained the object alluded to, and with the aid of | with or dised to the ship. In case of a wreck and the gun factories to that department which, it is expected, diagrams clearly showed to his audience the state breaking up of the vessel on shore, the safe would
will be put into effect by official announcement with.
go of simplicity to which he had reduced his principle. to the bottom, preserve its contents intact, and be
out delay. The casting metal on hand, as well as the In conclusion, the Lecturer urged upon all watch readily recovered. As a safe four feet square will unfinished brass guns, are ordered to be handed over manufacturers the desirability
of rendering the hold more than 2,000,000 sterling, very little space . One of the experimental cast-iron ordnance, termed a construction of chronometers, pocket-watches, and would be interfered with. other timekeepers as little complicated as possible, I am, Gentlemen, your obedient servant,
shunting gun, rifled on Sir William's principle, has
been tested at Shoeburyness, as we stated a week or remarking that all the varied and improved modes
two since, and burst under trial. This, together with of action described, by himn bad been found to
St. Paul's Churchyard.
other experiments entered into, has borne out the imwork well, and it was owing to their being based When the fleet was off the Eddystone lighthouse in 'pression made on the minds of the Ordnance authorities, upon the simplest form of the principle that be the lato galo, Admiral Elliott, with the true spirit of that cast ordnance are not of sufficient strength to gave them the preference.
a true British admira), decided åt once to “wear the resist the force exerted with the rifle bore, and that fleet together and stand off and face the gale," and wrought iron alone is applicable for that purpose,
while doing so a man fell overboard from the jibboom The casting furnaces recently erected will be emplosal INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.
of the Trafalgar, which with the Emerald and in the inanufacture of shells and other purposes ; and TUESDAY, Nov. 8.—The first meeting of the Aboukir formed part of the "sternmost line;” but the Artillery officers connected
with the department present session took place in the evening of this notwithstanding the violence of the gale and the heary will return to their military duties. day: previous to commencing the proceedings the
sea running at the time, one of the cutters with a full The Times of yesterday adds the following informspresident, Mr. J. Locke, M.P., offered a few obser
crew in it was instantly lowered by “ Clifford's" tion on this subject.-" The first step in advance vations as a tribute to the memory of Brunel and lowering gear, (as now generally fitted by the Admi- towards the long contemplated reorganizaticn of the Stephenson-two of the Institution's " most hon
ralty in the ships of the Royal Navy.) and the man important establishment oomposing the gun factories
providentially saved. The Times of yesterday con- in Woolwich Arsenal was yesterday taken by hand. oured and distinguished members.”
tains an important letter on this subject from Mr. ing over the direction of the department in due forma
Clifford, in which he very pertinently says :-“Now, from the military to the civil service, to be conducted MANCHESTER LITERARY
if a heavy man-of-war's cutter, with all its crew in it, in future under the auspices of Sir W. Armstron,
could be thus instantly and safely lowered in one of C.B., and the resident superintendence of Mr. John November 1st.–J. P. Joule, LL.D., F.R.S., may at once infor how much moro easily the same
the heaviest gales that ever broke upon our coast, we Anderson, late inspector of machinery. Great prepke Vice-president, in the chair. A paper was read by operation might be performed from a merchantman,
rations are made for manufacturing rifled ordnance
on Sir William's principle, calculated, according to Mr. JAMES G. LYNDE, M. Inst. C.E., F G.S., on where everything being on a less cumbrous scale ne- present arrangements, to bring out, at the loweat EXPERIMENTS ON THE STRENGTH OF” CAST IRON cessarily entails less risk or liability to accident. But computation, 1,000 guns a year, with the prospect of GIRDERS.
in how many of the ships, the harrowing recitals of a considerable addition to that number, in case of
the wrecks of which you have so repeatedly and so actual demand. A number of cast-iron guns will ho October 5th--MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL graphically chronicled of late, has anything of this made in the factories and by the trade for experimental SECTION. The following gentlemen were elected kind been on board? Was the Royal Charter so pro- use, to be encased in a kind of net-work, termed a officers of the section for the present year: vided, or do the owners of any of the hundreds of the chemise, composed of wrought-iron, which it is President, Robert Worthington, F.R.A.S., Vice huge passenger ships of her class that leave our shores suggested will add to the endurance of the inner presidents, J. W. Long, F.R.A.S., L, W. Binney eles pire met any one who doubts what I say take the ciently strong for the purpose. The new deparats post
metal of which the gun is cast, and render it suliF.R.S., F.G.S., Treasurer, Joseph Baxendell, E.R.A.S., Secretary, Mr. Thos, Heelis.
trouble to October 13th, 1859.—Mr. Baxendell read a paper be long in finding that, in spite of laws putting a fine elongated shot for field service in China, to be trans
ships all duly passed as ready for sea. He will not sible a batch of 40 6-pounder rilled guns to carry the ON THE PIENOMENA or GROUPS OF SOLAR of from £5 to £50 on the master of every passenger ported overland. It is stated that, as a necessary Spots. ship not having a longboat and a lifeboat fitted so as consequence of the whole
of the gun factories being A paper was also read by Mr. Thomas Carrick, to be most available for immediate service (18th and employed for the manufacture of Sir William's. guns, on the relation which appears to subsist be- 19th of Victoria, cap. 119), or the Board of Trade the shot and shell foundries will be ultimately handed tween ORBIT DISTANCES AND ORBIT INCLINA- Circular, No. 51, January, 1857, that surveyors are over to the same direction, and that the superinten. TIONS, when the latter are referred to the solar lifeboat is not in such a position as to be ready for gun factories, which will create a reduction of no, ja
to refuse declarations in future in cases in which the dence of the laboratory will merge into that of the equator as a fundamental plane.
uso in an emergency, or in which efficient means are significant importance in the general espenditure."