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" height of the ordinary and highest waves, as | line and within the same interval. To the “interrupted by actual warfare, and the loom

they might be found to correspond with or to velocity of the waves, therefore, reckoned on "and the forge may pursue their wonted acti"intercept the sea horizon, could be satisfac- the ground of the ship being stationary-say“ vity even amid the din of arms." The past "torily measured.” In this way, ascending by 320 feet in nine seconds, or 35:56 feet per history and present position of our country steps, after a first position taken at a guess, he second—we add the advance of the ship, or alike impose on Englishmen, continued Sir found that with his feet on the seventh rattling 20-28 feet per second, in the same line of direc- Thomas, duties which cannot be evaded with he had the line of elevation of the prevalent wall- tion, and thus obtain for the actual velocity of dignity, and they surely may decide themselves formed waves. But he attained the interval be- the wave 55.84 feet per second, or 33-9 geogra- whether and when they will hold exhibitions tween the sixteenth and seventeenth rattling be- phical miles per hour—a result the more satis- of art and industry, although warlike preparafore he obtained the measure of elevation of the factory seeing that in making a like experiment tions may seem to occupy other nations. The waves of the maximum class. Of these, several on very high waves (30 feet) measured in the war in Italy having terminated, the Council rose still higher, but he kept his position till North Atlantic, in 1847, Dr. Scoresby obtained have anxiously resumed the consideration of one or more of great breadth and solidity of for these waves a distance from crest to crest of this important subject, and, notwithstanding mass was seen rising above the horizon along 559 feet, and a velocity of 32:67 miles per hour. the present aspect of continental affairs, which an unbroken extent of some hundreds of feet.

they do not regard as the most favourable to The height of the eye of a man of Dr. Scoresby's

arts, manufactures, or commerce, it is never

THE EXHIBITION OF 1862. stature in this position above the eye of a simi

theless the intention of the Council, interpreting lar person on the saloon deck below was 15} ft., Sir Thomas Phillips, the Chairman of the aright, as they believe, the feelings of their and the height of view on the deck, as other Council of the Society of Arts, in his opening countrymen, to originate measures for carrying wise estimated, was about 23 feet ; the sum of address, delivered on Wednesday evening. last, into effect an international exhibition of works 38} feet was therefore obtained for the maxi- announced the intentions of the Council in re- of art and industry, to be held in 1862; and mum class of the prevailing waves. But, as ference to the Exhibition of 1862. Before they propose to invite the manufacturers, merthe wave specially noted was more than two feet repeating the statements made by him, it may chants, public companies, and other capitalists higher than the horizontal level, its actual be well to go with Sir Thomas over the preli- willing to promote such an exhibition, to unite height could not have been less than 41 or 42 minary facts of this matter.

in raising a guarantee fund, not less in amount feet. But from the station of observation The subject of international exhibitions of than £250,000, to be vested in trustees whose several incidental peaks or points of waves, works of industry and art having been brought position, character, and qualifications will secure often thrown up by the intersections of cross under the notice of the Council of the Society the confidence of those capitalists who are preseas, were observed to exceed considerably the in the session of 1858, received their careful pared to share the responsibility of the underordinary maximum, whilst the tops of breaking consideration, and occupied much of their time taking. It is the intention of the Council that crests might be seen rising still higher, indi- in that as well as in the following session, and full and absolute power to originate and concating an ultimate maximum which could in the address of Sir Thomas Phillips's prede duct the exhibition shall be vested in such hardly be less, the Doctor thinks, than 50 feet. cessor at the beginning of last session, and in trustees, and that the permanent buildings

The next points of inquiry were the distance the report of the Council presented at its close, which may be found necessary shall vest in the of the waves from crest to crest, and their a narrative of the proceedings of the Council in Society of Arts, in order that such buildings general velocity. These measurements, how- relation to the subject was presented to may be devoted to future exhibitions, and ever, from the want of regularity in the sea-a the members of the Society. The Council when not so occupied may be employed for peculiarity of the waves of the Southern Ocean having bestowed on this question that grave purposes tending to the promotion of arts, -could not be so conclusively determined as attention which the importance of the subject manufactures, and commerce. The trustees the height; but proximately, the results were deserves, resolved, on the 14th of April, 1858, will doubtless seek the assistance of Her very satisfactory as compared with similar in- that the Institution of Decennial Exhibitions Majesty's Government in order the better to vestigations in the North Atlantic. The time in London, for the purpose of showing the pro- obtain the friendly assistance of foreign Governoccupied by the waves in successively passing gress made in industry and art during each ments and secure the co-operation of foreign the ship was found when the ship's rate of period of 10 years, would tend greatly to the exhibitors, and otherwise promote the success going was about 12 knots to be generally in the encouragement of arts, manufactures, and com- of the exhibition of 1862, and will also apply case of distinct series of heavy rollers) about merce, and that the first of these exhibitions, to the Royal Commissioners for the Exhibition 18 seconds. With this fact for his guidance, which it was then intended to hold in 1861, of.1851 to grant a convenient portion of the Dr. Scoresby ascended the main rigging to a should consist of works selected for excellence, ground purchased at Kensington out of the convenient height, where, being over the centre illustrating especially the progress of industry surplus funds of the Exhibition of 1851 for the of the ship, he could observe when the crest of and art, arranged according to classes, and not next and future exhibitions. a wave went beneath the stern and when it countries, and should comprise music and emerged from beneath the bow. This observa- painting. The investigations of the Council tion frequently repeated gave him, a pretty led them to conclude that an international ex- THE DRAINAGE OF LONDON. regular result (as shown by the counting of hibition in 1861 would elicit even more valuable In November last, we drew attention to an inseconds with a watch at his ear) of nine seconds results than had been achieved in 1851. for the interval occupied in the passage of the

teresting publication by Mr. Charles Glassford,

While the Council was actualiy preparing to of Greenwich, entitled "London Sewage, shall it ship’s length, say 320 feet, and of nine seconds originate the exhibition, hostile gatherings, of " be Wasted, or Economised ? Being a Plan more for the arrival at the stern of the follow- which Italy was the centre and object, threat- “for the Collection and Treatment of the Fæcal ing wave.

* This indicated plainly a distance ened to involve the principal continental States “Matter of Towns, for Purifying the Sewers and of just about twice the ship's length, or 640 | in active and protracted warfare. The probable “Rivers, and Removing the Chief Impurities, feet for the prevalent space, transversely to influences on an international exhibition of the which 'render them Dangerous to the Health their axes, from crest to crest of the waves. A tolerably correct estimate of the velocity tions of the States of Western Europe led the unexpected interruption to the peaceful rela- of Communities, with especial and immediate

“reference to the Metropolis, the River Thames, of waves became fairly deducible from these Council, in the month of May last, to deter- “and the Board of Works' Main Drainage data. A space was seen to be passed over by mine that the international exhibition proposed “ Scheme.” Since that period, several modificaany particular wave, with reference to the ship's to be held in 1861 should be postponed to a tions of Mr. Glassford's plan have been sugposition, of about 640 feet in 18 seconds ; but more favourable opportunity. That decision gested, which considerably affect the results. this was of course too small by the proportion was arrived at by the Council with much Before entering upon these, it may be advisable of the ship's retreat from the wave, or her ad

regret. “An exhibition,” said Sir Thomas, to recapitulate very briefly the chief points of vance in the same direction during the same “which should present an adequate picture the plan, as detailed in the above publication. interval. Taking the geographical inile at 6,075 “ of the progress of arts and industry, when Mr. Glassford proposed, first, to collect the exfeet, we find the quantity of 1.69 feet per knot "employed in extending the blessings of peace crementitious matter directly from the waterto be due to each second of time ; or 20:28 feet

"and promoting the progress of civilisation, closet, with such a limited and measured quanper second as the ship's progress when going "might prove of special utility at a season of tity of water as should make the subsequent 12 knots. This multiplied by 9, the number of strife and warfare ; and even if war were operations for the recovery of the fertilising seconds occupied by the sea in running the

" again to interrupt the peaceful intercourse of matter economically practicable. Second, to length of the ship, gives a product of 182:52

“continental States, it is obviously within the convey the excreta and water through a system feet for the advance of the ship in the same power of the United Kingdom, including the of pipes and supk vessels to large reservoirs at a • The length of the Royal Charter's keel was 3084 feet;

" colonies and dependencies of the empire, to distance from town, where it is to be deodorised, length over all 336 feet. But he estimated, as he believed, “ produce an exhibition deserving of national and neutralized with oi fof vitriol ; then allowed a medium of the rake and overhang, and therefore took about a mean measure or estimate of 320 feet for the ship's

patronage. The

progress of art and industry to subside for a few hours. The effect of this ength.

is not suspended, however much it may be treatment will be, that the whole of the nitro

Per annum.

genous matter of the urine--the most valuable increased, whilst the material products would re- 14th November, 1854, No. 917, by Mr. William constituent-is saved, and fixed in the form of main the same—the profits per annum would Woodcock, they will find the subject is there sulphate of ammonia. Third, the liquid portion be diminished. “For each addition of twelve fully explained. The modus operandi is simply is pumped into a system of boilers and evaporat- ounces of water thus employed in the closet, as follows :-Place immediately underneath the ing vessels, where it is concentrated into a “thore would be an addition of about fire-bars two Venetian blinds, made of hoop crystalline mass, which is chiefly sulphate of am-" £10,000 to the cost of apparatus (works), iron, the bars lying horizontally and parallel to monia, with all the other valuable salts con- “and a reduction of about £3,150 from each other in the direction of their length, and tained in the urine, the agricultural value of the profits, so that the employment of inclined at an angle of 45° to the horizon in which Mr. Glassford proposes now to reckon at one gallon of water per individual (or per the direction of their width. The bars of the £10 per ton. The more solid portion collected "delivery in closet) would have the effect only two sets must be inclined in opposite directions, by subsidence in the reservoirs is pumped up "of reducing the annual revenue by about and must be so close together that a vertical separately, and conveyed into a series of presses, “* £35,000.” As to the objections which may straight line cannot pass between any adjacent or filtering machines, which separate the solid be made in reference to the mechanical difficul- pair of them, and yet far enough apart to allow and insoluble portions from the liquid, and ties of the scheme, Mr. Glassford apprehends all cinders to fall freely through them. This finally present it in an almost dry, solid, and no difficulty that he would himself (although device will keep the air in the ash-pit cool. inodorous cake, containing the organic matter not a civil engineer) feel unwilling to under- Next, fasten upon the inner face of the fireand insoluble phosphates of the solid excreta, take. In this country especially, as he says, door a box made of angle iron, and projecting the agricultural value of which he reckons at we should be under no fear of easily overcoming about an inch and a half into the furnace when £4 per ton. any difficulties of a mechanical kind.

the door is closed. Let this box be fitted with These values are obtained by estimation of As the best method of determining the worth a few thicknesses of wire gauze, Nos. 8, 10, and the market prices of the constituents, in the of any scheme is to put it in practice, Mr. Glass-12, lying close together against its fire front, way usually resorted to by agricultural chemists ford earnestly urges the advisability of making and leaving a space of at least one inch opening in their estimation of guano and other manures. a trial on, say, 500 to 1,000 dwelling-houses, in the box between the gauze and the inner Mr. Glassford has estimated that the yield of grouped together in the same locality, so that front of the door. Further, let all that part of these manurial products from the London excreta all the products could be economically conveyed the door which is within the box be drilled as would amount to 1361 tons daily, from the and collected together at a short distance, and full as possible of -inch holes, and it will be liquid part; whilst that from the solid part there operated on ; and we would gladly support found that the door will by these means at all would amount to seventy tons daily. In his him in this request. The operations can be times be kept cool. The merits of this invenestimate for London, he assumed £15 per ton conducted upon any quantity and upon any tion belong to Mr. Burney, of Battersea. We as the value of the urine salts, but as this has scale, so as to yield results which would amply have now only the bulk-head of the boiler and been objected to as too high, he has decided test the value of the scheme, and enable a clear the smoke-box doors to deal with. In front of now to assume £10 per ton nett price, after pay- and practical judgment to be formed. To do these, and at one inch distance from them, ing charges of delivery, agency, discount, &c. all this, from one to two thousand pounds secure, so as to open and close with the doors, The other manure is not, he considers, too high would be amply sufficient, and in a few weeks a plate of iron or zinc; the latter will be better, at £4 per ton nett, after paying these charges from the commencement the experiment would as this plate must not be painted. Let the The result at these prices would thus be :- be in full work and yielding results. “I would upper part of the one inch opening communi

"be glad to assist with my services,” says Mr. cate directly by a pipe or otherwise with the For 1361 tons urine sulph. of ammonia

Glassford, “in carrying out the plan and bring- deck. No heat will then escape into the stokeper day, at £10 per ton £497,312 “ing it to an issue.”

hole from the boiler or from the smoke-box, 70 tons solid organic mamure, per day, at £4...

102,200 “If we consider for a moment,” says Mr. and an upcast will be established over their

Glassford finally," the vast sums of money front which will draw a supply of fresh air into £599,512 “which will unavoidably be absorbed in exe

the stoke-hole from any convenient source, or as nearly as possible six hundred thousand "cuting the very gigantic sewage works now in whether the vessel is in motion or at rest, and pounds per annum, after paying all agency,

course of formation throughont London, which the third and last source of heat in the stokecarriage, and discount charges. “I have esti

may absorb more millions than is now con- hole will thus be cut off. This is all that has “mated the annual costs of materials, such as "templated, besides the large annual sum

to be done. It involves the infringement of “coals and vitriol, and of labour, at nearly

“ required to keep the whole in good working no patent-right, and can be arranged for “ £237,000, and of interest on cost of necessary

"order—if we consider, also, the number of a very trifling expense by any intelligent en“works, tear and wear, &c., at £170,000, which years which must

must elapse before these gineer. sums together amount to £407,000 of total ex

"works are completed—and if we consider, Much has been written upon the combustion of “penses of all kinds, and, allowing very liber

also, that fertilising matter (worth to our smoke, and the respective merits of hot and cold "ally for every possible charge, leaves a sum of

“agriculturists a million sterling per annum), air. The truth may be, that both are required. “nearly £200,000 annual profit ; a sum which

"according to all our highest scientific autho- The above arrangement, if properly carried out, “would be found of enormous advantage in

“rities, including Liebig, Hofmann, and others, will be the most perfect smoke consumer, or “ carrying out the improvements-useful and is still, after all this great expense and years rather smoke preventer, known. It will also “ ornamental-s0 urgently required in this our

of delay, only to be thrown away into the save some small per-centage of fuel. Cold air “ crowded metropolis.”

Thames, a few miles lower down the stream, is required to enter through the bars in order It has been objected to the plan that Mr.

“ without the certainty of relief from the nui- to give direct to the fuel the largest amount of Glassford proposes to use a water-closet appara

sance or the shadow of a possibility of any oxygen in the smallest space ; this the keeping tus which is too complicated, which would be

“ return being ever obtained for all the outlay of the ash-pit cool provides for. Upon this all likely to get out of order, and that the quantity

and annoyance, we shall have a clearer per- are agreed. Warm air must also, many of water proposed by him is too little. To these

ception of the enormity of this Main Drainage believe, be administered to the gases distilled objections he now replies : First, that the “ Scheme.”

from the coal, as otherwise they may be reduced ordinary earthenware pan and syphon trap, so

We need hardly add that these views are our below their “flame points" of heat ; this is extensively and universally used, would answer

own. Mr. Glassford's proposals are consistent done by the respirator in the door, from the all the purposes required, so that there need be with good sense and the soundest science, and fact of the air passing through it having to imno alteration whatever in that part of the pre- blind they will lose no time in testing them, at

if our Metropolitan officials are not wholly pinge upon the heated wire gauze. No valve sent closet arrangements; the only alteration

or regulator is wanted, as the fine wire gauze least required would be the substitution of a regula

upon a small scale.

is found to check the supply when but little tor valve instead of the usual stopcock, or other

air is wanted, and to admit a large quantity water supply arrangement. This would avoid THE STOKE-HOLES OF STEAM-SHIPS. when that is required, i.e., directly after firing, great expense, and would be equally if not more No class of men suffer more from an over- and when the bars are covered with fuel. efficient than that previously proposed. Second, heated atmosphere than stokers, especially when We claim no novelty for these suggestions, instead of limiting the supply of water to the they are employed in steam-vessels, and yet the credit of which is mainly due to Mr. Woodcloset pan to twelve ounces per discharge, he there is none to whom relief can be more readily cock, the managing engineer of the London would now allow any quantity up to one gallon and advantageously given. The stoke-holes of Warming and Ventilating Company. We per delivery per individual—a quantity which all steam-vessels may be kept at within 5° of simply confine ourselves to recommending he considers far beyond what would, under any the outer atmosphere at an almost nominal ex- them to the notice of those engineers and circumstances, be required ; but in this case- pense, and the means of doing this are attended owners of vessels, many of whom are unhappily as the quantity of water to be removed, col- by other advantages.

content to keep their stokers at work in temlected, and evaporated, is greatly increased, the If our readers will consult a paper read be- peratures which no human constitutions can cost of apparatus, fuel, and labour would also before the Institution of Civil Engineers on the I long withstand,

THE FORM OF THE ROYAL CHARTER.

BOTTOMS.

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Another improvement, as it occurred to me, in a framework of the apparatus, to fall on the middle Literature.

fine instrument designed to be employed as a of the interior of the opposite side of the same

steering, azimuth, or 'swinging' compass, would circle (or to be put into position by using the Journal of a Voyago to Australia and round the be the adaptation of a small telescope, adjusted slit as sight vanes), by which the meridianal World for Magnetical Research. By the Rev. W. to the circularly-moving rim, for giving assistance circle takes the position of the true north and SCORESBY, D.D., F.R.S., etc. Edited by ARCHIBALD | in observations of objects or positions on shore, south. The difference betwixt this and the SMITH, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., &c. London: Longman, when, as in the case of our reciprocal bearing, the direction of the compass-needle gives, of course, Green, Longman, and Roberts. 1859.

place of the shore instruments could not be seen the errors of the compass observed with, in [SECOND Notice.]

through the sights. Such telescope, too, would whatever position it may happen to be placed, In our last number we promised some extracts of be of the greatest use when, as I repeatedly and by comparison with the steering or other interest from this work. The first shall be upon found, the shore object (its point, bluff, or other compass determines also its errors. My object

recognizable place) could only be indistinctly seen. being simply to test by experiment the perform"In regard to pitching and sending,' the In many cases whilst pursuing my observations in ance of the instrument, to this object I confined action of the ship was equally remarkable, both Hobson's Bay, the Saddle on the Dandelon, or the myself, by a series of trials carried on from about for the easiness of the motion and the smallness termination of the Red Bluff, could not be seen 2 to 3 p.m., and frequently repeated. The deviaof the inclination of the keel from the horizontal without the help of a glass (I usually employed an tion of which combined with the variation I had level. A forty feet wave, on its entrance below the opera-glass), leaving the bearing by the sights to ascertained to be 7° westerly, and appeared to stern or counter of the ship, whilst the bow was

be made out by various shifts, such as the inci. agree very well." (Pages 266-7.) "Repeated exactly in the lowest or most depressed portion dental proximity of some more visible point or trials of the ingenious contrivance of Mr. A. betwixt crest and crest, should raise the stern, as object--a boat passing, a rope on board the ship, Small

, Glasgow, for determining by inspection the from the simplest view of the case it might seem,

&c., for getting the bearing required. An at- direction of the true meridian, and from thence to at least its own elevation, or give an angle of tached telescope would have relieved me from all the compass errors in deviation and variation, inclination to the keel of about 70 ; but no such these embarrassments and risks of inaccuracy. It enabled me at length to form a decided estimate of measure of pitching or sending motion was might possibly be applied to one or other of the its capabilities. The result was, that for moderate ever observed-probably not above half as much. shifting rims at present adopted; but in any con horary angles froin noon the instrument acted For in no instance, in scudding, did I ever observe venient form it would be a valuable audition to the well, pointing out the true meridian generally to the bow of the ship plunge nor the stern rise to instrument." (Pages 179.80.)

within a degree or two, where the latitude and anything like the position apparently due to the The next quotation may consist of the follow- apparent time were pretty well known; but in elevation of the passing waves. The action, in- ing remarks on the fouling of the Royal Charter's the case of considerable intervals from noon, erdeed, was obviously of this nature : from the ad- bottom, and Dr. Scoresby's proposal for remedying tending, as in our circumstances, to upwards of mirable adjustment of the ship's lines of construc- the evil :

three hours from noon, the results become obvition forward and aft, the loftiest wave on its THE FOULING AND CLEANSING OF IRON SHIPS' ously erroneous to the extent, as at 7.30 a.m., of reaching the stern-post below exerts its lifting

about 10 or 12 degrees to the westward of the tendency, not abruptly or suddenly, as where the * Though the ship had made capital progress

truth, and at 5 p.in. to nearly as much to the quarters are heavy and the run thick, but very for the fluctuating strength of the wind, we could eastward. This tendency to error in large hour gradually, so that the disturbing force

, passing not but remark that her sailing in light and mode- angles I had suspected at an early period of my beyond the place of greatest influence before its rate breezes was, for a eship of her build, rather acquaintance with the instruinent, on account of due action is realised, becomes modified and re- heavy. This was ascribed to a disadvantage not

the results being obtained in dependence of a duced. These principles are no doubt in operation hitherto overcome in iron ships—the rapid and plane only proximately coinciding with the plane in every tolerable model of marine architecture, extensive fouiing of their bottoms by the adhesion

or cone of the sun's motion in the heavens. For but not to the degree of perfection in which the and growth of weeds, barnacles, &c., which observations, however, within moderate limits, the tendency to assume horizontality of position, and necessarily produce a deteriorating effect on a

instrument appeared to work well, and readily to receive the least possible disturbing effects ship’s sailing

qualities

. Various contrivances in gave the required information.” (Pages 273-4.) from the most formidable disturbing causes in the paint and chemical colouring have been resorted action of rough, irregular, or heavy seas, has been to for the overcoming of this evil, but hitherto

LIST OF NEW BOOKS. attained in the modelling and building of the without much success. Royal Charter; and whilst similar results in kind been devised for the clearing away of the fouling

Nor has any process yet Godfrey's Treatise on the Lunar Theory, 2nd edit., 5s. 6d.

O'Bryne's Naval Manual, 1860, ls. will be found to have been obtained in very many attachments without the costly and often imprac. or most of the scientifically constructed and splen- ticable operation of docking the ship. It has did clipper and other first-class ships of this occurred to me, however, that much of the disad

Proceedings of Societies. important age, I should much doubt whether in vantage might be overcome by a process of INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. any single instance the approach to perfectness of scraping, with no very complex arrangements for the model of the Royal Charter has been exceeded, the guidance of the apparatus by means of a President, in the chair.

November 8th, 1859. Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., or even, in all the elements of the perfect sea framework of changeable curvature guided by the boat,' as adapted for these southern regions, keel ; and an essential element in such arrange- AND ON HANGING THE BELLS, IN THE OLOCK TOWER,

The paper read was “ON THE PROCESS OF RAISING proverbial turbulent seas and boisterous weather, ment, it seems to me, would be the attachment to been equalled.” (Pages 125-6-7.) the scraping apparatus designed for the bottom of James, Assoc. Inst. C.E.

at the New Palace, Westminster," by Mr. Jabez The next extract shall consist of certain sugges- the ship of buoyant or water tight air vessels, by tions by Dr. Scoresby upon which any degree of upward pressure on the weighed upwards of 15 tons 18 cwt., and was cast

It was stated that the first large bell, which THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE ADMIRALTY STAN- scraper might be given. To the details of such by Messrs. Warner and Co., at Norton, near Stock

an apparatus-which might be moved by rope ton-on-Tees, was fractured while suspended from “Two improvements in the Admiralty standard forward and aft, as well as at right angles with

a staging at the base of the tower, during the compass, for its better adaptation to delicate the longitudinal motion by similar means -my

course of experiments on the tone of the bell. The observations or deviations, and for determining attention has not been directed, nor might my fracture took place on the opposite side from the true magnetic bearings of distant objects, habits of contrivance at all compete with

the in- where the bell was struck by the clapper, which were suggested by these and other observations genuity and invention of practical and ingenious weighed 12 cwt. It passed from the lip through made at Port Philip. The first was the adaptation engineers or artizans.”. (Page 262.)

the sound-bow, and extended up the waist of the of a much lighter card for being used under cir.

Our last extracts shall be on

bell, and was about 40 inches in length from the cumstances of great stillness and weak horizontal MR. SMALL'S INSTRUMENT FOR DETERMINING lip. The fracture seemed to be clean, and the directive force. Before I was aware of the defec

metal had a coarse dull appearance, and was fall tive traversing of the lightest of the two cards " Among the magnetical and compass observa. of minute holes, which were noticed in other parts usually supplied, though placed on one of the tions made in the course of the day, I made of the bell when it was afterwards broken up. finest points, I was annoyed by finding differences farther trial (having before had the instrument in the four quarter bells were also cast by Messrs. in observations repeated, and in all respects action) of an ingenious patented invention of Mr. Warner, but the third having been condemned as similar or analogous, sometimes amounting to 11° | Audrew Small, maker and adjuster of compasses, defective, had to be recast. The first, weighing or 2°, and in two or three instances of still more. of Glasgow, for finding by direct observation the rather more than 1 ton 1 cwt., was lifted in three Such differences, indeed, I might have been pre- true meridian, and consequently “the errors in hours; the second, weighing upwards of 1 ton pared to expect in a new ship recently launched, deviation and variation of the mariner's compass." | 5 cwt., occupied three hours and a half; the third, and when being swung in different directions, | The instrument consists of an attachment to a which weighed above 1 ton 13 cwt., took four especially under the vibration from hawsers em- compass on the ordinary principle of certain hours. These three bells were raised by means of ployed in heaving round; but in our case there moveable circles in brass-a true meridian circle, a single chain, made of bars 7-8ths of an inch were no such influences in operatiou. On tapping an hour circle, and an equatorial circle, on the diameter, and a crab with a double purchase. The the compass-bowl with the butt-end of a lead pencil, | adjustment of which, in reference to the latitude, fourth quarte bell, weighing more than 3 tons the discrepancies were sufficiently explained by declination of the sun and apparent time, proxi- 17! cwt.., was lifted in six hours by a similar observing frequently an immediate change in the mately, a stream of light from the sun's rays chain, reeved through a single pulley, and by : direction of the card. This precaution, therefore, passing through a slit in the moveable hour double purchase-crab. These bells were hang at was subsequently adopted on each observation. I circle is made, by the swinging of the interior | the four angles of the tower, around the large

DARD COMPASS.

COMPASS ERRORS.

bell, for the convenience of sounding, &c. The to its fracture. It was urged that the great uninhabited shore of King William Island, be second large bell weighed upwards of 131 tons, weight and fall given to the hammer must have neath the snow; but as it was most carefully exand was cast by Messrs. Mears, at Whitechapel. acted prejudicially. These were supposed to be amined three times over, he could not think that The best method for raising this bell in a safe and rendered necessary by the thickness of the metal, any conspicuous object, such as would be put up economical manner having been carefully con- which had been made considerable, in order to to indicate where records were deposited, could sidered, it was decided to use a treble-purchase guard against accident; but it was contended that possibly have escaped them. The summer at crab, with large blocks and a fall. A new chain, it had a contrary tendency.

Port Kennedy proved a warm one, yet the ice did made by Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, & Co., 1,500

not permit them to move until the 9th of August, feet in length, and tested to a strain of 10 tons,

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.

and the object of the expedition having been atwas employed. This chain, when reeved through On Monday night, at one of the largest meet- tained, they commenced their homeward voyage. two three-sheave blocks, and with a standing ings, perhaps, ever held of the Royal Geographical Sir Roderick Murchison said (among other chain, gave a power equal to about 70 tons. As Society, Captain M'Clintock, the distinguished things), to geographical science the results of the bell was 9 feet in diameter at the sound bow, Arctic navigator, read a memoir of his voyage on Captain M'Clintock's expedition were little less and 7 feet 104 inches in height, and the dimen- board the Fox in search of the survivors of the than glorious, for, among others, it had detersions of the tower were only 8 feet 6 inches by 11 expedition of Sir John Franklin. The meeting, mined for the first time the navigability of Bellot feet 1 inch, it was not possible to lift it by the convened at half-past 8 o'clock, and at which Sir Strait, and the northernmest part of the American crown, with the mouth downwards. Consequently, Roderick Murchison presided, was held in Burling. continent. In the forthcoming narrative (to be a cradle had to be constructed in which the bell ton-house, Piccadilly.

published shortly by Captain M'Clintock) the diffishould rest on its side. Friction rollers were Captain M'Clintock, who was cheered on present culties which those gallant men had surmounted attached to the cradle at the top and at the bottom, ing himself to the meeting, read his memoir of the would be presented to the world in detail. The which served us guides, and rubbed against balks incidents and results of his voyage, which, in point very first incident of their voyage in a little yacht of timber set upright in the shaft. The upper of fact, embodied the more interesting portions of of only 170 tons was that when they had nearly block was made fast, by a shackle and clip, to a his dispatches to the Admiralty published the day reached Baffin-bay they were drifted back 1,200 Alitch beam formed of two plates of iron fixed after his return to this country, and which are geographical miles into the Atlantic again. But between six timbers; and the lower block was still so fresh in the public recollection as to render they returned to the charge, and eventually sucfirmly secured to the cradle by massive bolts and a repetition of them unnecessary. At its conclusion, ceeded for the first time in revealing the fate of straps. The treble-purchase crab was fixed to a however, he said there were two important ques. the illustrious Franklin and his associates. There strong staging in the cast-iron lantern at the top tions which had been so frequently asked him that was no doubt that Franklin went further to the of the tower, in such a position as to leave a he gladly availed himself of that opportunity of north in a ship than any British seaman-he distance of about 19 feet between the bottom of offering some explanation upon so deeply interest. (Sir R. Murchison) was speaking of the search the crab and the crown of the bell, when the latter ing a subject. The first question was, whether made in Wellington Channel, and then he rewas raised to its proper position. As the single some of the 105 survivors might not be living turned, and performed that extraordinary voyage barrel of the crab could not take up all the chain among the Esquimaux ? The various families or round Cornwallis Island, by which, in the first without incurring the risk of surging, consequent communities of Esquimaux met with by Rac, year of his enterprise, he proved it to be an upon the coiling of the chain in so many thick. Anderson, and himself, at different times and island. nesses, several lifts were made, as stated in a places, all agreed in saying, “No, they all died.” An interesting discussion followed on the retabular statement given in an appendix, in which The western shore of King William Island, along sults of Captain M'Clintock’s expedition, princi. was also recorded the time occupied for each lift, which they were compelled to travel for two-thirds pally as determining the fate of Franklin, and and the fleeting of the chain. Aniron chain-stop- of their route, was uninhabited, and all that was also as it bore upon the progress of geographical per of special construction was made for the pur- known of the mouth of the Back River was discovery, in which several of the experienced expose of holding the chain during the fleeting on derived from the journeys of Back, Simpson, plorers of the Arctic regions present took part, the drum of the crab. The weight of the bell Anderson, and himself. None of them had met including Sir Edward Belcher, Captain Collinson, and the cradle and iron work, together with the natives there, consequently it was fair to conclude Captain Sherard Osborn, Captain Hobson, Captain chain, blocks, &c., was about 25 tons, exclusive of that the Esquimaux bat seldom resorted to so Snow, and Captain Kennedy. Captain Collinson friction. The process of raising commenced at six inhospitable a locality. In fact, their life was gave it as his opinion that after Franklin and his o'clock in the morning, and continued without spent in a struggle for existence, and depended comrades abandoned the ships, it was alınost imintermission, until voon on the following day, mainly upon their skill in taking seals during the possible, having regard to the question of prowhen the bell was safely landed on a staging in long winter-a matter which required such long visions, and to the probable rate at which they the clock room. The cradle was then disconnected, training that no European had ever yet succeeded would be able to travel, encumbered as they were and the bell was turned over with the crown up. | in acquiring it. His (Captain M'Clintock’s) two with sick, with boats, and facilities for prosecuting wards. An eye-bolt was passed through, and Greenland Esquimaux tried various methods at their journey, that they could have reached further being now clear of the shaft, the bell was lifted in Bellot Strait, yet did not succeed; and without than the bottom of the estuary of the Great the v.sual way from the clock room to the bell dogs trained to scent out the small breathing Fish River, and that they all perished. Captain charrber. The total height the bell was raised holes of the seals through the ice, and through the Sherard Osborn, as an Arctic navigator, said was 201 feet 3] inches, at an average velocity of snow which overlays the ice and conceals them he could not resist the conclusion that the abo‘at 6 feet 5 inches per hour. The paper then from observation, he did not think that even the search for Franklin was now closed. He had proceeded to state the experiments that had been Boothian Esquimaux could live. It required not read Captain M'Clintock’s journal, which ma.de before the weight of the hammer and the only that a man should possess a trained dog, but written from day to day, without any wish to di stance it should fall through were finally settled. that he himself should be so well trained in the arrive at a particular theory, and therefore on that The weight was decided to be 6cwt. 3 qrs. 10 lbs., only successful mode of seal hunting in this ground eminently valuable, and he felt that, whatwith a fall of 13 inches. This arrangement for locality in order to subsist. It was therefore ever the track Franklin and his comrades took striking the hours was continued until the bell evidently an error to suppose that where an after abandoning the ships, it was their last was discovered to be fractured in two places. One Esquimaux could live a civilized man could live journey upon earth, and that they must have of the cracks was precisely in the same position in there also. Esquimaux habits were so entirely perished. Captain Snow in an animated speech this bell as in the former one, exactly opposite to the different from those of other people that he stated the reasons for believing it possible that place where it was struck by the hammer, and the believed there was no instance on record of either some members of the Franklin expedition still other was about two feet away from it. The first a white man or an Indian becoming domesticated survived, which he has already propounded in the fracture appeared to be about 15 inches and the among them or acquiring tolerable expertness in public journals. He submitted that the evidence second about 24 inches long; but they did not ex. the management of a kayak. With regard to the was not conclusive that they were all lost, tend through the thickness of the metal, nor with probability of procuring the means of subsistence and that it would be to the honour of Engin 2 or 3 inches of the lip at present. The whole independently of the Esquimaux, he stated what land to make an attempt worthy of her of the works for raising the bell were carried out was shot by his own sledge party-and they never honour to ascertain their fate. He pledged his by Mr. Hart, assistant to Mr. James, under the lost a chance of shooting anything-during the word, if health were spared to him, and whether superintendence of Mr. Quarın, Clerk of the Works journey along the lands in question, which he was assisted or not, that he would depart next at the New Palace.

occupied them for 79 days and covered nearly spring, with the view of going over the whole In the discussion, it was remarked, that the 1,000 geographical miles of distance. The sum ground, and, if need were, would ally himself composition of the metal of the bell was not the total amounted to two reindeer, one hare, 17 willow with the Esquimaux until the riddle was solved. same as that usually adopted in this country and grouse, and three gulls. The second question was, Sir R. Murchison, in adjourning the meeting, said on the Continent, there being a greater propor. why had the remains of so few of our lost country, it was a great fact in which all those naval officers tion of tin than was customary. It was also men been found ? It was indeed true that only who had taken part in the discussion, whether thought that the use of charcoal-smelted copper, three of the 105 were discovered, but it was to be belonging to Her Majesty's service or to the mer. as was the case in Russia, was advantageous. It borne in mind that from the time they left their cantile marine, agreed that, although Captain was suggested whether the interval between the ships they were dragging sledges and boats, and M'Clure was worthily rewarded for making a blows of the hammer unight not have been too therefore they must have travelled almost con- North-West passage, Franklin was the man who short, and whether the chattering of the hammer, stantly upon the ice-not upon the land-conse- made the North-West passage. due to its not being cleared immediately after quently all traces or remains there vanished with A vote of thanks having been unanimously acstriking, might not have a tendency to produce the summer thaw of 1848. There was no doubt corded to Captain M'Clintock for his memoir, the pumbness, and hence stun the bell and contribute that many relics still remained strewed along the meeting separated at nearly 11 o'clock.

was

THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.

No. X.

COAL-BURNING LOCOMOTIVES.

RAILWAY COMPANY v. WOOD.

of this society was held on Wednesday evening dence the enjoyment by the plaintiff had not been / In the construction of ships there are, as we have ings at South Kensington would shortly be opened | be tried. Then as to Dry's patent, looking at the Fig. 19, included between 5! W. L. and the lower

stant use. The defendants also denied any in THEORY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. The first ordinary meeting of the 106th session fringement of the plaintiff's patent in the machines

sold by them, and contended that upon their evi. within their hall, John-. tendance was numerous. The chair was taken at so uninterrupted as to entitle him to an injunction already stated, two planes which may be made before bringing his action, although his right to first, that of the load water line, and the other a

use of as the horizontal plane of projection ; the 8 o'clock by Sir Thomas Phillips, F.G S. The Chairman, after numerous applications for

an account was not denied.
Sir Hugh Cairns and Mr. Jessel appeared in the rabbet of the keel. "When the plane of the

horizontal plane through the upper edge of admission to the membership of the society, and other routine business had been proceeded with support of the motion ; Mr. H. F. Bristowe op- load water section is taken as the horizontal by the secretary, rose, and after alluding to the posed the motion on behalf of the defendants. time-honoured custom of the society, that the

The Vice-Chancellor, after observing that even

plane of projection, the transverse sections being

drawn perpendicular to it, the same method of session should be opened by an address from the where there might be considerable doubt as to the calculation as that given in our first example chairman of the council , acquainting members validity of the patent, still where there had been

must be followed for obtaining that portion of the with the policy which the council designed to long and undisputed enjoyment the Court would displacement bounded by the extreme, horizontal follow during the ensuing session, proceeded to grant an injunction, though upon terms to be im and transverse vertical, sections; but since in notice the decease of several members

, the election posed on the plaintiff, said that the statement of ships which draw more water abast than forward of Sir William Page Wood to a vice-presidentship the defendant as to the want of novelty

in the the plane of the load water

section is not parallel left vacant by the death of Robert Stephenson, plaintiff's invention, which had been patented as

to the rabbet of the keel, the lowest section

If and the Exhibition of 1862. The progress of art and long ago as 1848, was entirely unsupported. ever there was a case of clear and undisputed exclusive of the keel; there will, therefore, be an

cannot be made to inclose the entire displacement the organisation of local boards were next re

Until the ferred to in the address. It was also intimated possession and enjoyment it was this.

appendage between the lowest section and the that the Turner and Vernon collections of paint matter had been actually tried at low he could not; bottom of the keel similar to that represented in

, say that there might not be a case to to the public during the evening. The present

of keel. Besides this the rudder and posts state of the law of copyright was next referred specification, anything more unlike it than the abaft the aftermost section must be taken when to, as well as another important matter which plaintiff's patent could not be suggested. . At pre. the ship is built of wood ; also where the stem had been brought before the society under the sent he was very far from feeling that it was a case of strong doubt, as had been suggested by before the foremost section at the upper part must

curves inwardly at the foot, a portion situated presidency of Dr. Whell

, and which had occupied the defendants, and the injunction must be be added, and as its lower part is inside the much of the attention of the council-that it was desirable to establish a uniform musical pitch. It granted, the plaintiff undertaking to bring an

extreme sections, and not terminated by them, remains with the committee appointed to consider action and abide by any order as to damages.

the space between the stem and the extreme secand report what pitch shall be adopted in this

tions is assumed to be of the same thickness as country. a large mass of correspondence has

the stem when measuring off the ordinates, and been collected during the vacation on the subject. Court of QUEEN'S Bench, Nov. 16.-(Sittings the portion thus taken in excess is afterwards The address concluded with showing the vast in in Banco, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn subtracted from the result first obtained. crease in commerce, arts, and manufactures that and Justices fill and Blackburn.)

Our former example and the above observations had taken place during a recent period. THE MANCHESTER, SHEFFIELD, AND LINCOLNSHIRE will

, therefore, be sufficient to explain the method Mr. Webster, who rose to move a cordial vote of

of performing the calculations in any case where thanks to the chairman for the address just delivered, expressed his fullest confidence that the

This was an appeal from a conviction by the the plane of the load water line is taken as the

horizontal plane of projection. announcement of the determination of the council magistrates of Sheffield, whereby they had con

The adoption of the plane of the load water to organise an industrial exhibition in 1862 would Railway Company of using upon their line a victed the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire

section as the horizontal plane of projection is be sympathised with throughout the country. He locomotive engine which was not a constructed obviously the most simple for making the ordinary felt confident that through the progress of art and science a quinquennial exhibition might now

upon the principle of consuming and so as to calculations, but it is open to the following objec.

consume its own smoke.” The case stated that tion :- When the building draught has to be be proceeded with, independent of the position of the engine No. 37 was seen emitting black smoke made it is necessary to take the horizontal plane foreign affairs. He urged the importance of cooperation, and, in conclusion, drew attention to

for four minutes at the Sheffield Railway station, through the upper edge of the rabbet of the keel at 4 o'clock in the morning, and afterwards, when

as the plane of projection, consequently there is the present state of the law of copyright and of it moved along the line, it was again seen for four

a large amount of labour necessary to shift the trade marks.

Sir W. Page Wood rose to second the motion, when summoned before the magistrates contended of taking off the planking; constructors, therefore, and return thanks for himself personally for the that the engine in question was constructed on minutes emitting black smoke. The company, planes of projection in addition to the operation

who have little time to spare, first complete their honour conferred on him by his nomination to fill the best known principle for consuming its own

building draught, and afterwards put on the the office so recently vacated by the lamented smoke; but the magistrates without entering into planking, for the purposes of calculation retain: death of Robert Stephenson.

this question considered that the fact that the ing the same planes of projection. It is evident, Several members next joined in a discussion engine emitted black smoke was conclusive that it therefore, that the curves drawn in the halfrelative to securing other premises, when, after was not “ constructed on the principle of consum

breadth plan are the projections of the several the presentation of medals to various persons, the ing and so as to consume its own smoke,” as

horizontal sections of the ship on a plane inclined meeting was adjourned until next Wednesday, required by the 114th section of the 8th Victoria, to their planes ; and further that transverse secwhen Sir John Bowring will read a paper on the cap. 20, and fined the company £5.

tions drawn perpendicular to the load water sec. arts and manufactures of China.

Mr. Quain, for the respondents, contended that tion would not be represented, in the half-breadth the magistrates were right.

plan, by straight lines perpendicular to the middle MEETING FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. Mr. Mellish, for the appellants, contended that line, but by curves, in obtaining which much time Tuesday.-—Inst. Ciril Engineers, Discussion “On the the magistrates ought to have gone into an in- would be expended. The projections of the Government Water-Works, Trafalgar Square," and, quiry as to whether or not the engine in question the purposes of calculation, and, as we shall prove,

horizontal sections are, however, made use of for if time permits, a paper “On Arterial Drainage and Outfalls,” by R. B. Grantham, Esq., M. Inst. C.E.,

was constructed on the principle of consuming at 8 p.m.

and so as to consume its own smoke. It might the displacement so found is essentially correct. have been that the only cause of the engine's projection are those generally made use of for the

We shall, therefore, assume that the planes of Law Cases.

smoking was the negligence of the engine-man.

Lord Chief Justice Cockburn said the Act did building draughts, and that the curves in the LIDWORTH'S PATENT BEATERS. not say that the company should be liable to a

half-breadth represent the projections of the VICE-CHANCELLOR's, Court, Nov. 16.–(Before this Court could not go beyond the Act of Par- the planking; And by way of example we will per:

penalty if their engines emitted smoke; and horizontal sections of the ship at the outside of Vice-Chancellor Sir W. P. Wood.)

liament. The fact that the engine emitted smoke form the calculations for a ship of war of the would be strong evidence that the engine was not

following dimensions :This was a motion for an injunction to restrain "constructed on the principle of consuming and

Length between the perpendiculars.. 180' 0" the defendant from manufacturing and selling so as to consume its own smoke;" but it was not

of the keel for tonnage

160 71 thrashing machines with grooves or channels in conclusive. The case must go back to the

Breadth, extreme

28' 4" the surface of the beater, in imitation of the magistrates to inquire whether or not the smoke

for tonnage plaintiff's patented thrashing machine, and gene arose from the defective construction of the en.

moulded rally from infringing his patent, which was taken gine. If the Legislature had intended to say

Depth in the hold...

160" out in November, 1848. The case set up by the that the company should be liable to a penalty,

Burthen in tons No.

670 defendants was that there was no novelty in the under all circumstances, where an engine emitted Draught of water

12 feet.

Forward. plaintiff's patented invention, which was in effect smoke, it would have used a more stringent

| Abaft ..

14 a mere colourable imitation of an older patent enactment.

Our object now will be to obtain the areas of taken out by one Dry in 1842, now expired, and Mr. Justice Hilland Mr. Justice Blackburn were the curvilinear figures on the half-breadth plan. of which there were several modifications in con- 1 of the same opinion.—Case remitted accordingly. For this purpose the foremost and aftermost seco

GOUCHER V. MIDWORTH.

28' 0 27' 6"

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