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valve is opened, and subsequently tripped by a continuation This consists in the use of two machines, the first of NOTICES OF INTENTION TO PROCEED WITH

PATENTS. of the same movement by which the opening is effected. It which replaces the smith, and the second cuts the files. further consists in certain devices operating in combination The first is a species of rolling mill between the cylinders

(From the London Gasette, July 5, 1859.) with the lifting and tripping apparatus for rendering the of which the blank files are passed. When these blank

188. W. Gossage. Utilizing alkali-waste. trip motion variable to cut off the steam at different points files have passed through the cylinders, which have grooves 492. G. Davies. Evaporating saccharine liquids. A within the first half of the stroke of the engine. Patent in their surface, they are nearly ready to be cut. The communication. completed.

second machine consists principally of a slide rest on which 493. U. Scott. Carriages, 2112. G. HADFIELD. Improvements in the construction the

file is placed, and of a small hammer or stamper which 498. H. B. Barlow. Condensing steam. A communicaof car-boys, barrels, and other vessels of capacity. Dated strikes a chisel so as to cut the file. Patent abandoned. tion. November 29, 1858.

2720, C. BEDELLS. Improrements in the manufacture

514. R. Fielden, jun., and T. Fielden. Pickers for Не the patentee makes the vessel which is to constitute of elastic fabrics, and in the machinery employed in this

looms. the lining of any required shape, and surrounds it with manufacture. Dated November 29, 1858.

521. J. Hine. Joint. staves which are bound together by hoops, and into the TIere the elastic fabric is manufactured by inserting a 524. F. Brignoles. Alcohol. A communication. space between the inner vessel or lining and the casing or sheet of vulcanized india-rubber cemented on both sides

531. C. Hall and C. Hall, jun. Steam agricultural mabetween two other suitable fabrics. envelope he runs liquid asphalte, plaster of Paris, or other

The operation is chinery.

Patent suitable filling which will unite or cement the parts together, effected by suitably arranged rollers and drums.

534. 'W. Hodson. Rotatory engines. and thus form a firm structure. Patent completed. completed.

537. T. Cloake. Stopping carriages. 2713. W. PARSONS. Doing away with the smell arising

341. J. Edwards. Stacking ware for firing. from the melting fat, tallow, &c., and also for an improve- PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 554. E. Roche. Cigarettes. ment in stirring and straining the same. Dated Novem

557. J. H. Johnson. Grease boxes. A communication. ber 29, 1888.

Dated April 28, 1859.

579. J. M. Dunlop. Cleaning fibres. This invention is not described apart from the drawings. 1064. J. Kidd, of Birkenhead, Civil Engineer. Improve- 584. W. P. Savago. Excavating and depositing soil. Patent completed. ments in sewing machines.

585. F. Verdeil and E. Michel. Madder. 2714. C. IIANCOCK. Certain improvements in the iusula

Dated June 15, 1859.

599. J. L. Jullion and G. Pirie. Gelatine. tion and manufacture of electric telegraph wires and cables,

1438. E. Humphrys, of Deptford. Improvements in

653. W. Clark. Electric lamps. A communication. Dated November 29, 1858. marine steam-engines.

706. W. C. Cambridge. Chain harrow. The patentee takes two strips of india-rubber, and hav.

713. S. Leoni. Articles of tale. ing conted the inner surfaces of such strips with solution

Dated June 16, 1859.

739. J. Evans. Paper. of india-rubber, he lays between them longitudinally the 1446. N. C. Szerelmey, of Brixton. Improvements in 889. J. H. Young. Setting up and distributing types. conducting wire or wires, and then presses the solutioned preparing combinations of materials for preventing rust in 908. W. H. Barlow. Beams and girders. surfaces closely together either by the use of grooved iron and other metals, and decay in timber.

1272. N. S. Dodge. India-rubber. A communication. rollers or otherwise. Or instead of two strips he uses a

Dated June 18, 1859.

1274. N. S. Dodge. India-rubber goods. A communisingle strip of a greater and of sufficient width to enclose


1467. J. Luis, of Welbeck-st. A new system of windthe conducting wire or wires, and having solutioned the mill. A communication from B. Z. Lethiers.

1299. J. Reynolds. Propelling vessels. same he presses and closes the same together longitudin

1468. J. Cox, of Wenlock-road, City-road, Engineer. Im

1389. W. H Dorman and C. Cowper. Traction engines. ally upon and around the conducting wire or wires. The

1418. H. J. Nicoll. Trousers. provements in machinery or apparatus for cutting rags for patentee also insulates telegraph wires by laying upon them

1448. C. Wilkinson. Twisting yarns. paper makers. either spirally or longitudinally one or more strips, strands, 1469. A. Jeffery, of Commercial-road, Manufacturer. An 1454. A. y. Newton. Casting tubes. A communication. or coverings of cloth, calico, &c., rendered waterproof and improved mode of giving rotary motion to projectiles fired

1455. J. Harmar and W. Parsons. Fire-arms. airproof by the usual means. There are various modificafrom rified fire-arms.

The full titles of the patents in the above list can be astions included. Patent completed. 2715. J. Lea and W. A. SHERRING. Improvements in

1470. R. Bradshaw, of Camden Town, Dentist. Improve- certained by referring back to their numbers in the list of ments in rotary steam-engines and pumps.

provisional protections previously published. the treatment of vegetable fibres for the manufacture of 1471. R. Harper, Lace Maker, R. Stokes, Lace Maker, Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to paper, spinning, and other purposes. Dated Nov. 29, 1858. This consists, 1, in subjecting the fibres after they have

and T. Walker, Clock Maker, all of Derby. An improvement any of the parties in the above list who have given notice of in the manufacture of chenille bonnet wreaths, and bonnet

their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the been boiled in a solution of caustic alkali, soda, potash, feathers.

date of the Gasette in which the notice appears, by leaving &c., and before they are bleached, to the action of a solution of chloride of lime, &c., and of acids containing sulphur or

1473. G. J. Parker, of Stoke Newington, Carpenter. A

at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing of the chlorine with or without the addition of soda. 2. In sub

self-acting apparatus for giving alarm of fire, which is also objection to the application.

useful in checking the same. jecting the fibres, after being treated as above, to the 1474. W. Clark, of Chancery-lane. An improved method LIST OF SEALED PATENTS. action of a heating engine, and also to the action of a of supplying furnaces with hot air. A communication from

Sealed July 1, 1859. solution of caustic soda or potash. The fibres are then A. C. Fletcher and G. A. Redman. bleached by the ordinary process. Patent abandoned.

17. J. Harris.

97. T. Elwell. 1475. P. F. Aerts, of Brussels, Civil Engineer. Improved 2716. W. A. Henry Improvements in machinery or

19. G. Skinner and J. 150. P. A. Viette. apparatus for lubricating railway rolling stock, and the apparatus for attaching the soles and keels of boots and

Whalley. moving parts of machinery.

150. H. Gallon, J. H. shocs to the upper leathers, and in the fastenings employed 1476. J. Ransley, of Islington, Carriage Builder. An im- and w. Binns.

29. W. Renton, T, Renton, Bean, and S. Lumb. for that purpose. Dated Nov. 29, 1858.

168. J. H. Jobnson. proved brake for retarding railway and other carriages. The screw-inserting machine consists of a horizontal or

33. J. B. Joyce.

258. C. E. Amos and J. 1477. J. Ransley, of Islington, Carriage Builder. An vertical rotating spindle fitted with a driving pulley and

34. W. Hood.

Francis. improved omnibus, capable of sliding freely in a longitudinal direction within

35. A. Bedborough.

312. S. D. Davison. its bearings during its rotation. The front or lower ex

Dated June 20, 1859.

36. C. de Forest.

314. M. Smith. temity of this spindle (according as it is placed horizontally 1479. J. Cox, Saddler's Ironmonger, of Birmingham, and 38. W. Draper.

884. W. E. Newton. or vertically) is fitted with nipping mechanism for holding S. and M. Frankham, Spur Manufacturers, of Walsall. 47. W. Renton, T. Renton, 962. H. H. Vivian. the fastening to be inserted into the sole, such mechanism Certain improvements in spurs for military and general and W. Binns.

1056. J. and W. Stuart. being actuated by a pair of double headed slotted plyers

51. W. Spence.

1136. J. H. Johnson. which grip two collars carried by the spindle, one collar 1480. R. Laming, of Hampstead. Improvements in 79. E. Agneni.

1144. J. Frearson. being fast thereon and enabling the spindle to be slid to purifying gas, and in obtaining and reproducing materials

Sealed July 5, 1859. and fro in its bearings by hand, whilst the other collar is useful for that purpose.

42. W. Corfield, jun.

210. R. Mushet. loose and capable of sliding freely along and revolving 1481. C. L. J. Dierickx, Director of the Paris Mint. In

48. J. Aspinall.

251. E. T. Hughes. round the spindle. To this loose collar, according to one provements in coining.

52. I. and A. Holden.

294. E. H. Bentall. arrangement, is connected by a link one pair of the 1482. J. Edwards, of Aldermanbury. Improvements in

54. J. J. Florence.

372. W. E. Newton. nippers which hold the fastenings, the connection being so the manufacture of iron rails,

60. H. Harden.

910. W. Clark. arranged that on sliding the loose collar in one direction or 1483. A. V. Newton, of Chancery-lane. Improved ap

78. T. II. Toms,

1040. W. Warne, J. A. the other it will cause the nippers to open or shut. Or in paratus for blowing off water from steam-boilers. A com

148. J. Foster.

Fanshawe, J. A. Jaques, and lieu of the above an inclined sliding collar may be used munication from J. H. Washington.

190. C. O'Hara.

T. Galpin. worked by plyers for acting upon the nippers. A slotted 1484. A. J. Hawkes, of Jewin-crescent. An improved

198. B. Lauth. bracket serves as a guide to the plyers during its traverse triturating apparatus. by hand to and fro in following up the screw as it enters 1485. W. Rowan, Engineer, of Belfast. Improvements

PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP the sole, and in drawing back the spindle again to receive a in the generation of steam.

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. fresh fastening. The last is held by a screw spindle in a 1486. T. C. Clarkson, of Stamford-st., Blackfriars, Manu

1559. W. H. Hubbard.

1608. A. V. Newton. tubular support capable of receiving the leg of the boot. facturer. Improvements in the manufacture of boots,

1572. R. L. Howard.

1623. A. W. Williamson. This support turns in a collar in a sliding frame, which shoes, and other articles.

1582. T. Smith.

1632. P. Prince. frame works in a second sliding frame, the direction of

Dated June 21, 1859.

1591. G. Sampson.

1635. J. Fowler, jun., and motion of the two slides being at right angles to each other. 1487. A. P. How, of Mark-lane, Engineer. Improve- 1594. J. Horsfall.

W. Worby. A rotary motion is imparted to the tubular support by hand

ments in self-supplying distilling apparatus, and in ap- 1597. E. C. Healey and E. 1720. R. Richardson and direct, or by suitable gearing, and a stationary anti-friction paratus for cooking combined therewith.

E. Allen. pulley or fixed rest formed with a flange which bears upon

J. E. Billups. the face of the sole is forced against it by a lever

1489. E. Gwyn, of Islington, Gas Engineer. Improvements in breech-loading fire-arms. A communication from

LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, &c.., spring or weights so as to bring in close contact with each

H. Gross. other the outer and inner sole and upper leather at the

Published during the week ending July 1, 1859. 1491. W. E. Newton, of Chancery-lane. An improvepoint where the screw is being inserted. This arrangement also enables the sole when rotated in conjunction with the ment in tailors' and other shears. A communication from

No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pr.

No. Pr. J. H. Roome. slides above referred to, to present always the proper part to the action of the screw-inserting machine. One of the

1493. A. Parkes, of Birmingham. Improvements in the manufacture of cylinders and tubes of copper, and alloys of

s d s d

d fastenings used consists of a short length of wire twisted copper.

26610 3 26760 3 26900 327040 527180 into a helical form and has one end sharpened. Another

5 2732 0 3 Dated June 22, 1859.

2662 0 10 26770 326910 10 27050 327191 0 27331 1 form of fastening consists of a screw formed of wire slightly

1497. R. Smith, of Longridge, near Preston, Manufac

26630 626780 626920 10 27060 427201 tapering with a gimblet point. Patent completed.

2734|0 6

26640 turer. Improvements in apparatus applicable to looms for

26790 726930 7 2707 0 627210 2717. J. H. Johnson. Improvements in locomotire

8,273510 3 engines. (A communication.) Dated Nov. 29, 1858. weaving fancy fabrics.

26050 3||26800 10||26940 3 27080 3|27220 3 2736 0 10 1499. A. Barclay, of Kilmarnock, Engineer. Improve-26661

26810 5 26950 This relates to a construction of locomotive engines in

51270910 31127231 7273710 3 ments in steam hammers and pile-driving machines,

26680 326820 3269610 7127101 71 27240 3273810 tended for steep gradients and sharp curves, and consists

1501. C. Clarini, of New York. Making wrought metal

26690 1126830 6 26970 312711/0 71 272510 3 27410 principally of a novel combination of the axles with the nails by machinery.

26700 326840 3.26981 427120 9 272 10 3127 120 8 locomotive framing, and of an improved construction of framing whereby a transverse or lateral play is allowed to

1503. F. X. Kukla, Chemist, of Pentonville-road. Im- 2671 0 3 26850 3 26990 3127130 927270327580 3 provements in projectiles.

26720 4 26860 3 27000 the hind axles and wheels, whilst the leading axles and

3 27140 4||27280 32770'0 4 wheels are stationary as regards lateral motion of their

1505. T. Moore, of Pimlico. Improvements in knapsacks 2673 326871 327011 1 271503127290 6 27790 10

26741 and mess-tins.

026880 327020 10 27160 1127300 7 axle boxes. Patent completed. 2718. J. B. BLANJOT.

2675 0 10 26890 3 27030 3,2717 0 10 27310 3 Improred petticoats for ladies. Dated November 29, 1858.

PATENT A) LIED FOR WITH COMPLETE This consists in constructing flounces or puffs on a petti


Note.--Specifications will be forwarded by post from the coat made of horse hair, &c. These flounces or puffs are 1500. G. T. Bousfield, of Brixton. Improvements in ap- Great Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on refilled with down, feathers, or similar materials. Patent paratus for winding thread of cotton or linen, or other ceipt of the amount of price and postage. Sums exceeding abandoned.

fibrous materials, or sewing silk, or similar articles, upon 58. must be remitted by Post Office Order, made payable 2719. L. A. NORMANDY, jun. Improvements in manufac- bobbins or spools. A communication from L. C. Ives. Dated at the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr. Bennet Woodturing files. (A communication.) Dated Nov. 29, 1858. June 22nd, 1859.

croft, Great Seal Patent Office.


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Then comes, as the set-off to these four con- “unforeseen contingency should arise, there MECHANICS MAGAZINE,

verted ships, the following frigates and sloops, "would be built of line-of-battle ships 19,606 which ought to have been launched according frigates, 15,897 ; corvettes, 5,130 ;

to Sir Charles Wood's scheme of works, but “sloops and gun-vessels, 5,651 ; total, 46,284, LONDON, FRIDAY, JULY 15, 1859.

which were deferred on account of the men or more than double the tonnage built last

being removed by Sir John Pakington to con- year. During the present year we were conLAST YEAR'S INCREASE OF THE vert those four ships, viz:

verting five sail of the line and four 50-gun NAVY,

frigates. This was entirely exclusive of conThe best friends of the late Government can- The Bacchanto

of 51 guns and 600 I. P. tract built ships. Of marine engines we had not deny that Sir John Pakington displayed Galatea

at present in course of construction 14,570 too little regard for the reputation of his pre

horse power, and orders had been given for decessor. To those who know nothing of dock- The Charybdis of 21 guns and 400 H. P. 2,160-horse

power more, making a total of yard operations he successfully commended



16,730-horse power.” himself as a very remarkable contrast to Sir

Whether Sir Charles Wood will deem this Charles Wood ; and we doubt not many per- The Rinaldo

of 17 guns and 200 H. P. mysterious statement sufficient to “put an end sons even to this moment imagine that Sir


Pantaloon -


“ to these discussions " appears extremely doubtJohn gave us numerous line-of-battle ships as a clear increase upon what we should have had

Here, then, we find that, in plain language, ful. We are rather disposed to think he will had Sir Charles remained in power. But this

we have gained the St. George, Neptune, Tra- deem the statements which we have ourselves is an altogether vain belief. The work which falgar, and Queen, at the expense of the Bac- given above much more satisfactory and concan be done in the Royal Dockyards, with the Greyhound, and Pantaloon. In other words, convinced by Lord Paget's argument, for he

chante, Galatea, Charybdis, Jason, Rinaldo, clusive. Sir John Pakington seemed scarcely ordinary staff of workmen, does not vary

we have four converted line-of-battleships deemed it necessary again to repeat, by way of with changes at the Admiralty Board. If we carrying 356 guns, and engines

of 2,000 horse-reply, the oft-told tale of his own disinterestedput extra strength upon one class of vessels we must take it off another. This is very well un

power, in place of two frigates, two corvettes, ness and perfect freedom from everything like derstood by persons experienced in dockyard and three sloops carrying 164 guns and engines, self-laudation, and even from party feeling, in derstood by persons experienced in dockyard of 2,750 horse-power. We do not intend to connection with the great question of our economy—or dockyard extravagance, if any assert or imply that the exchange was unadvis

defences. better than by Sir Charles Wood himself. Norable, although, seeing that the French beat us was it to be expected that, with his knowledge battle ships, grave doubts may fairly be entermore in respect to frigates than of line-of


NAVY. of the subject, Sir Charles should allow himself tained on that point. But what we do wish to The promulgation of an official justification for to remain long under a cloud which a simple have understood is, that Sir John Pakington, the enormously increased navy estimates of the fact or two was amply sufficient to disperse. Hence we were not in the least astonished when notwithstanding all his boasting, has really ensuing year devolved upon Lord Clarence we had placed in our hands a printed official given us no miraculous increase of ships of war

. Paget on Friday last. Rabid reformers always paper entitled " A Return to an Order of the intelligence is propagated on this topic, that we jected into office ; consequently, we expected

So many mistakes are made, and so much false become the very worst red-tapists when pro"6th July, 1859," of the “ ships and vessels deem it proper to aid in dispelling all illusions but little from

the new Secretary to the Admithat hover about it. " added to the navy between the 31st March,

ralty, and we have not to complain, therefore, "1858, and 1st June, 1859, distinguishing those

There is, however, one fact which will diminish of any disappointment. " which were added in accordance with the founded upon this « Return”; and that is the in the subject goes - disregarding, as we neces

the strength of any argument which may be So far as our immediate professional interest "general scheme of works for the year, and fact that the general scheme 'of works got out sarily do, all considerations of the manning and " those which were added in

subsequent orders; and also of the frigates by the Admiralty is never fully carried out. In disposal of our ships—the tale is soon told. " and sloops which would have been launched theory the year's work is always greater than After informing us that the Government at this " according to the general scheme of works for it is in practice. This must not be forgotten, moment have 10 sail-of-the-line ready for com"1858-59, but which were deferred on account

or injustice will be done to Sir John Pakington. mission ; that they will have three more in the " of the men being removed to convert ships of debate of Friday evening last on the navy esti- that the total of the line-of-battle ships and

It might fairly have been expected that the autumn ; and that there is one under repair, so " the line."

An intelligent observer will see at a glance mates would have thrown a little additional screw-ships of the line now afloat was 40 ; and that this return must let the reader into the light upon this subject had any member less further,

that the Admiralty are building 10 whole secret ; for it tells us not only what Sir young in officialism than Lord Clarence Paget more ships of the line, and have six more in John Pakington gave us in his fourteen

months moved the consideration of the estimates in process of conversion, making a grand total of of power, but also what he deprived us of. Let committee. But his transition from the most 56 sail-of-the-line, of which there will be, at the us look at both.

extravagant of all fault-finders to that of chief end of the financial year, 50 sail-of-the-line The screw ships added to the navy between little was to be anticipated from him beyond an little from the rules of the Admiralty. He had

fault-defender has been made so recently that afloat, Lord Paget said he was about to depart a the 31st March, 1858, and 1st June, 1859, according to Sir Charles Wood's original scheme

attempt to get through his business as smoothly always observed that the Admiralty were willof works for 1858-59, were as follows :

as possible. The following is his curious way ing enough to look at the present, but that of settling the question :

they were always reluctant to say anything

“They had often heard little disputes between about the future. They spoke of the future in The Donegal of 101 guns and 800 H. P.

“high authorities as to the number of ships a guarded manner, as if they were afraid they ** Windsor Castle Revenge

" which had been built by this or that Govern- should not be able to do what they said they Edgar

"ment. He remembered that the right hon. would do. It was, of course, impossible for å

" baronet opposite (Sir J. Pakington) claimed Board of Admiralty to say positively what they Hero

some line-of-battle ships which were the pro-would be able to do in the course of the current London

"perty of his right hon. friend the Secretary of year. There were always various contingencies Lion

“State for India. They were built almost en- of repair that could not be exactly calculated ; The Topaze of 51 guns and 600 H. P.

"tirely while the latter right hon. baronet was but, as a general rule, he believed that if a little Forte

“in office; but, as they were finished under the more method were introduced, they would be 1,000 “ administration of the right hon. baronet the able to arrive at a very fair average of the 1,000 "member for Droitwich, he claimed them as number of men who would be wanted for

“having been built during his time. For the repairs, and that they would not be obliged to The Clio of 22 guns and 400 II. P.

“purpose of putting an end to these discussions, take the men who were building ships to repair SLOOPS: The Icarus of 11 guns and 150 II. P.

"and giving the House an idea of what build- others. This was one of the questions which The screw ships added in consequence of the

"ing was really carried on in our dockyards, he the noble Duke at the head of the Admiralty,

“had endeavoured to ascertain what amount of and the Board of Admiralty, would take into subsequent orders of Sir John Pakington “ tonnage was built there in a year. During their serious consideration. He (Lord Paget) were :

"the past year, 1858-9, we had built there of believed there would be no necessity to také The St. George

"line-of-battle ships 10,604 tons ; frigates, away the hands from the building departments 90 guns and 500 H. P. Neptune

"5,851 ; corvettes, 1,193 ; sloops and gun ves to the ships, which he hoped the Admiralty Trafalgar

"sels, 1,511 ; total, 19,159 tons. If the scheme would be able to build, and he trusted that, at Queen

600 “of the Government were carried out, and no l the end of the financial year, there would be 50

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ships of the line afloat, 37 frigates, and 140 | up to the month of October. It would be very | the disputants to facts, and made them the corvettes, sloops, and gun vessels—50 sail-of-the- unwise that that body of men should be dis- excited advocates of fanciful theories, rather line, independent of the block-ships.

charged, when the short days of winter were than philosophical students in search of the truth. But we are not, according to Lord Clarence coming on, when over the country work was calmly, and apart from any pugilistic thoughts, Paget, to suppose that our naval strength is scarce, and, moreover, when there would still would we touch the decimal question, and limited to these ships and vessels. From a re- remain in the dockyards a vast amount of work having last week given something like an histurn moved for by the hon. member for Penryn to be done ; and therefore the Government had torical résumé of the agitation in favour of it, a few days ago it appeared that the number of resolved to keep them on till the end of the now proceed to remark upon the report which, steamers over 1,000 tons was 159, that the total financial year, and to ask for an additional sum for the moment, seems to have extinguished number of registered steamers was 1,854, and of £100,000 on that account. This was a suffi- that agitation. that there were 231 steam vessels in the mer- cient answer to the statements which had been

In the first place, as it appears to us, the Comchant navy, any of which might be armed with made, that the present Government intended mission was far too limited as regards the number Armstrong's guns, and which would prove a

to cut down the expenditure in the dockyards, of its members. Three gentlemen only, however valuable addition to the defences of the country. and to cease the efforts which were being made talented, were not competent to deal with the There was another source from which the navy to put our navy upon a proper footing. weighty business intrusted to them, and the retireof this country might be very largely increased The new Secretary's speech was most meagre ment of Lord Monteagle before any but the preat any moment-viz., the ships from the mer- in reference to ships building by contract, and liminary report was agreed upon, made the chant yards. He produced a return which to new works, improvements, &c. The sub- court still more inadequate to the task. It is could not but be interesting to the House. stance of it was, “The sum taken in the original not likely that any disparagement of so eminent There were 10,000 shipwrights in Great Britain "estimates for ships building by contract was a man as Lord Overstone will find utterance in addition to those employed in the Royal £252,000, which was the first instalment for here. Noble by reason of his vast ability as by dockyards. Now, the old shipwright maxim two iron-cased frigates, one of which would his rank, his lordship's fame is beyond 'detracwas that 1,000 shipwrights would build eight “ be launched on the 18th of April next—the tion. We cannot regard Lord Overstone's re ships of 1,000 tons in 12 months ; consequently " total cost of which he was not then in a posi- port nevertheless—for virtually the final report of 10,000 men would build 80 corvettes of 1,000 tion to state. In addition to this sum there the Commission is his alone-we cannot regard tons each in 12 months, or between six and“.

was in the supplemental estimates a vote for his report as decisive of the fate of decimalizaseven corvettes per month. If we were pressed "eighteen gun vessels of a very superior class, tion in England. Unlike the Saturday Review, for ships there could be no doubt that, giving which were to be built by contract. With we consider the question of pound and mil the shipwrights a little while, say four months, “regard to vote No. 11 for new works, improve still as an open one, and shall endeavour, by to start with, they would be able to build half-“ 'ments, and repairs, the new Board of Ad- making some perforations in his lordship's rea-dozen very large corvettes per month in the miralty, having had no time to visit the port, to let in a little more light on the vexed merchant yards, and the steam machinery that different dockyards, had formed no indepen- subject. could be produced would be in proportion. His “dent judgment. Each year we built larger Perhaps there is no one man who has so (Lord Paget's) object was to show what the pub-"ships, and consequently had to enlarge our thoroughly considered the question of decimal lic were, he thought, anxious to know, whether

docks ;

and he supposed we should go on in coinage as Sir John Bowring, who, we rejoice to this country was really in a state that befitted “the same way until there came a change, and see, has returned home after the successful acits honour and dignity. He believed that the “ships were reduced in size.” From this we complishment of one of the most arduous tasks navy was now in that state.

conclude that a second “steam ram”-as news- which could fall to the lot of a statesman, and The next portion of Lord Paget's speech paper writers are so fond of calling the vessel who we trust will not fail to meet a due reward which invites our notice is that relating to the now building on the Thames—is not to be un- at the hands of his countrymen. Sir John employment of extra shipwrights in our dock dertaken this year. No further attempt is, it Bowring, it will be remembered, published in yards during the ensuing year. Besides the appears, to be made with the view of resisting 1854 a work on the decimal coinage, and the ordinary, wages of shipwrights there was an

those formidable "frégates blindées” which the amount of laborious research and of scientific extraordinary charge, called by him: the “reconFrench are building with all despatch.

acumen which his book displayed places its struction” charge. There was also a large sum

author almost at the head of the supporters of in the supplemental estimates under the head


the decimal system. Back to the very infancy of wages to artificers. He explained the history In pursuing further the question of a decimal of civilization in the nations of antiquity does of this transaction as follows :-Up to March coinage, let it not be supposed that we are

Sir John look for evidence of the superiority of last the men in the dockyards were working in wedded to the idea that its introduction is an the decimal scale of notation, whilst the Scripthe usual way on day pay. But in March the absolute necessity, because such is not the case. tures themselves are put under contribution in late Government thought fit to commence a It has been shown in these columns that there support of his arguments. With this ancient system of task and job work, and also to enter exists an urgent need of a mechanical reform in data we, however, are not intending to load our a considerable number of additional artificers

. regard to the silver and copper currencies of the columns. It will be enough for us to prove that, There were 1,484 shipwrights entered in addi- kingdom, and the consideration naturally arises, in the present position of commercial affairs in tion to a corresponding number of other work- “Is it not prudent in conjunction with that England, the introduction of a decimal system In April

, again, the late First Lord of mechanical reform, which must be effected, to of coins would be a boon. the Admiralty considered it important, probably reform altogether the scale upon which those

We have seen that the great arguments of from circumstances connected with foreign currencies are based ?" If it can be demon- most of those who are opposed to the reform or affairs, to make additional exertions ; and then strated by Lord Overstone, or Lord Anybody, remodelling of the coinage upon the decimal commenced a system of over-hours, that was that in making choice of a new metallic currency, system, are the amount of confusion which the to say, besides the institution of task and job and dismissing altogether prejudice, old associa- act of transition would create, and the vexation work, men were allowed to work over hours, tions, and habit from interference with the and loss which would fall upon the small shopand so the dockyards went on until May, when subject, it would be advisable to copy the keeping classes. In our opinion, these evils there came a large increase of no less than 1,350 present antiquated duodecimal system, and per- would be found more imaginary by far than shipwrights and other artificers and labourers ; petuate it—if we say this can be incontestably real. Those amongst us who have travelled on making a total of 17,690 workmen now em- demonstrated, then we duodecimalists the Continent are quite aware of the facility ployed in the dockyards against 14,128 em- too! Hitherto, this assuredly has not been with which one falls into the method of calployed in the month of March. This was a done, and, in spite of the final report of the last culating the cost of everything in the monies of very great increase, and he (Lord Paget) be- Decimal Coinage Commissioners, there are in the particular countries through which he passes. lieved that the increase was absolutely neces- both Houses of Parliament, and in the monetary Even our friends the “navvies,” that useful body sary. He thought that Sir John Pakington de and commercial sections of the community, of men, to whom not only England but the world served the gratitude of the country for having many who dispute altogether the superiority of is largely indebted, the “navvies ” have been taken this matter in hand, and for having come the existing system to that of the pound and found to possess, after one or two lessons, the to the decision of raising the amount of work- mil, as proposed by Sir John Wrottesley in 'cuteness necessary for preventing their being men in the dockyards with the least possible 1824, and supported by a long train of scientific victimised by the natives of those remote disdelay. The present Government, on coming men since. It is not in the spirit of contro- tricts of Europe where they have been eninto office, looked very carefully over this vote, versy that the matter is here introduced; there gaged in their useful occupations, and where and they sent for the Surveyor of the Navy, has been too much controversy already. Decimal decimal coinages existed. Engineers and conSir B. Walker, and asked very particularly for systems—for there have been several placed tractors have furnished abundant evidence on what period this additional expense would pro- before the public—were discussed, written about, this head. vide pay for the additional men ; and Sir B. and lectured upon with a species of literary and In the “draft report” of Lord Overstone, facts Walker stated that it would only pay the men mutual pounding and milling which blinded ) of this kind-which to our thinking are the



strongest proofs of the absence of difficulty in themselves of decimal calculation, whilst the and institutions, our independence of speech and making the change at home--facts of this kind, latter would save them time, which is money! thought; and that this, working and fermentwe say, are lightly brushed aside because the

There are many other points in regard to this ing in the best French minds of the 18th unit, or starting point, of those coinages is not important subject which ought to be touched century, was, more than anything else, the cause as it would in the pound and mil scheme be, upon ; but feeling assured that the present of the great Revolution. What had the railway the pound sterling. There is, no doubt, some Government will not rest satisfied with the and steamboat to do with this? Or, to take an inlittle ground for thus getting rid of the mass able but one-sided report of the last Commis- stance nearer home, has not the steam-engine been of evidence which travellers of every grade sion, but at once appoint another, of which Sir very busy recently in bringing French and will be willing to furnish in favour of John Bowring shall be a member, we reserve Austrians together, and was it then “the bond a decimal coinage, but indeed to us it them for consideration at some future day. of unity?" We would not be profane enough seems that his lordship was driven to ex- Our own decided conviction is that the further to ridicule a sacred fact. The steam-engine is tremities when he availed himself of that introduction of the decimal system has been too a divine element in the civilization of the ground. Without coming to the penny long delayed, and that the late Commission has world. But the writings of Locke and Shakscheme, which, though having some advantages rahsed about it a cloud of mystery and doubt speare are diviner than it ; and only in the over the pound and mil scheme, is yet admitted which one year's practical experience of the hands of a people transformed by thoughts like to be inferior to it in many other respects, pound and mil system would cause to vanish theirs can the steam-engine play its true part. let us deal at once with the latter. It was like the mists on the mountain tops on the ap- This is the one great defect of this “History of stated in the report of the Select Committee of pearance of the morning sun.

Civilization," that it overrates what is material and the House of Commons, dated August, 1853, So far from sweeping away the Aorin, of external. It makes the character of whole nations that that committee was “ unanimous in recom- which Lord Overstone, with a good old- depend upon food and climate. It sets up a doc“mending the pound sterling as the unit. Con- fashioned prejudice in favour of the half-crown, trine ofaverages drawn from statistics, as throwing "sidering," that report went on to state—“con professes himself tired, we hope to see the day more light on the moral nature of man than all "sidering that the pound is the present stan- when the supplementary coins alluded to shall the accumulated experiences of former ages. It "dard, and therefore associated with all our issue from the Mint, and prove themselves the traces to external accident what the inspirations “ideas of money value, and that it is the basis best arguers in favour of the decimal system. of individuals and races have achieved. It calls " upon which all our exchange transactions with

Cromwell's war a secular war; and Bacon's “the whole world rests, it appears to the com


and Shakspeare's books, secular books. It "mittee that any alteration of it would lead to


makes the superiority of Protestantism over "complications and embarrassments in our

Catholicism to consist purely of a superior commercial dealings ; in addition to which it In Mr. Buckle's “ History of Civilisation,” the

common-sense and wider tolerance of difference " fortunately happens that its retention would following bold opinion is expressed : That of opinion. It exalts tolerance above convic* afford the means of introducing the decimal the locomotive steam-engine has done more to

tion. It exalts common-sense above reason and “system with the minimum of change. Its unite mankind than all that philosophers, poets, imagination ; “ useful knowledges" above meta* tenth part already exists in the shape of the and prophets have taught from the beginning physics and poetry. And this, too, with a "florin, while an alteration of four per cent. in of the world, and this is so emblematic both of strange inconsistency; for the main higures of " the value of the farthing will serve

to convert the worth and of the defects of this noble book, this book are men of a metaphysical bent : Mon" that coin into the lowest step of the deci- that we give it in these pages as a sort of win- taigne, Descartes, Bichat, Locke, and Newton. “ mal scale which it is necessary to represent dow-peep into the whole. by an actual coin, namely, the thousandth

No doubt man is a unity ; and 'tis foolish to

This sentiment well expresses the writer's pit one faculty and possession against another. “ part of a pound. To this lowest denomina- healthy, brave

appreciation of things material But

'tis equally true that there are grades and “tion the committee purpose, in order to mark and secular. No doubt, in the theory of life stairs of existence. There are things for the

in " name of mil. The addition of a coin to be a most unholy divorce of the material life of power in us ; and there are things for belief, "called a cent, of the value of ten mils, and man from his mental life. In nature, in idea, wonder, and love. Adam Smith gave us much " equal to the hundredth part of a pound, would these two fare one; and to make them ane in Watt still more ; but Shakespeare, Homer, and "serve to complete the list of coins necessary * to represent the monies of amount, which street, the shop, or the cloth-mill is as holy a community of intercourse, community of know“ would accordingly be pounds, florins, cents, place as the church, if intelligence, heartiness, ledge and opinion are unspeakably good

; but and conscience be there. The steam-engine, community of perception, conviction, belief, "and mils." Such was the very distinct and unmistakelooked at as the product of mind, is as holy as

These come from

good - will, far better. able definition of the pound and mil scheme of for noble ends, performs a true divine service, tude in some races and ages than in others ; in

a prayer-book ; and when employed by mind within, not from without ; are in greater pleni1853, and such is a clear exposition of that In short, bring the whole man into any material scheme as it stands now, and was dealt with by act, interpenetrate it with energy, intellect, checked or furthered by innumerable conditions

some individuals than in others. They are Lord Overstone-we beg his lord hip’s pardon heart, conscience, and the act is no longer ma- and circumstances, but created or killed by none -by the Commission which has recently de- terial, but as divine as the breath of prayer

. livered itself of its final report.

of these. They do not quite depend upon

It is said of Dr. Arnold, that when he first We have not time nor space to follow Lord saw the railway-train shoot by, he exclaimed, Egyptian, or an Arabian, eating dates, surely, or

“ climate and food." They can come upon an Overstone's wanderings through France, Sardinia, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, same spirit is the locomotive the favourite of upon a Hindoo that subsists on rice, as upon a Russia, and America, in his search for condem- Mr. Buckle. He is the firmest, most entire, Their rise and decline are not calculable by any

European eating bread in his temperate climate. natory evidence of decimal systems in general

, and most pitiless foe of all artificial and false doctrine of averages. They come as the summer and of the proposed pound and mil system in restrictions. Undo every fetter you have laid lightnings and the summer

breezes, when and particular. It is quite certain that foreigners upon man, is the voice of his book from begin- where we cannot foretel. generally prefer the particular decimal plans ning to end of it. The inmost life of it is a which may be employed in their own countries ; protest against all false restraints. Thus Adam and there has unquestionably been much skill Smith, the father of our modern free trade, in THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL BENEVOemployed in framing many of them to suit the writing the “Wealth of Nations," is extrava

LENT COLLEGE. peculiarities of the peoples of those countries. gantly said to have given us, considering all its There is no greater characteristic of the preIt is admitted by his lordship that men of results, the most important book that ever was sent age than the rapidity with which longscience throughout England are almost univer- written. And just as inveterate is Mr. Buckle rooted prejudices have been removed, and their sal in their faith in the practicability of a deci- against false social as false fiscal restrictions. So places taken by well-grounded and enlightened mal coinage, as also of its great value and sim- democratic is he, it really seems a pure misfor- views. And in no one especial direction is this plicity as compared with the existing system. tune in his eyes to be born with a title and a more remarkable than amongst the agricultural Among these scientific men, indeed, may be name.

community of Great Britain. It is within the renamed the late, and the present master of the But, returning to our point, will the fondest collection of even ourselves that the farmers, as a Mint, Sir John Herschel and Dr. Graham, Pro- believer in machinery thus exalt the steam-en- body, persistently opposed every innovation fessor de Morgan, Sir William Hamilton, and gine above the philosophies and poetries of the against prescribed rules in reference to their soil many others. The scholastic profession, pro- world? Mr. Buckle has shown, towards the rules that were told off upon their fingers, and bably from their intimate acquaintanceship with close of his book, how the French, wholly ig- were revered and followed only because their decimal notation, are strong advocates of a de- norant of us English people during the reign of tathers revered and followed their fathers before cimal coinage. The coins themselves, they say, Louis XIV., after his death suddenly became them. When it was first made apparent that would teach the people generally how to avail acquainted with and enamoured of our manners the plough could be rendered less unwieldy, and




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do as much with two or even one as had before " per acre the same amount would be produced. | clusive evidence of the laborious detail with taken six horses to manage, the sharp edge of " It is a cause in which the humblest may do which the invention had been matured. Comimproved mechanical appliances entered not "good, the 50 pennies from the 50-acre farmer mencing with what are termed “large uses," only the earth, but the minds of the most im- will, in its proportion, do as much real good such as shanks, arms, rings, and palms of anportant members of the landed proprietors also. as the contribution from the 10,000-acre hold-chors, it describes the laying bars of iron of Prejudice, driven from the centre of the citadel, ing ; do not, therefore, permit a false delicacy suitable lengths, forged on purpose, and tapertook refuge in the outposts, and amongst the "to crush a good intention, but give it exist- ing, so as to be thinner at one end than the working men reigned triumphantly for a time. "ence in a cause that will bear you tenfold other, one over another in the manner of The destruction of machinery by the illiterate interest hereafter.”

bricks in buildings, so that the upper bars and ill-advised labourers perhaps hastened its

everywhere cover the joints of those underneath, development, inasmuch as opposition is a great THE CASE OF HENRY CORT,

and thereby make a faggot, two bars wider than element in producing the essentials of perseve

those which compose the beds, being laid at the rance in the English character. Chemistry fol- HIS INVENTIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE bottom and top and bolted so as to be better lowed close upon mechanics, and the wonders


laid on the anvil and receive the first strokes of worked in consort with agriculture are now be

the hammer ; the faggot is bound together as fore the world. It is not, then, a matter of THOMAS WEBSTER, M.A., F.R.S., &c., Barrister-at-Law. close as possible. The system here described surprise to find the trio in juncta linked and

No. V.

is now known by the technical terms of bound together as with one mind, and zeal- HENRY Cort, the author of these inventions " piling” and “faggoting.” The faggots so preously engaged in consecrating so great a victory. and of that system which has been described as pared by the system of piling to the amount of "The Royal Agricultural Benevolent College constituting the

third' epoch in the history half-a-ton more or less, are to be put into a “for the Relief of Decayed Farmers, their of the British iron manufacture, was born in common air furnace and usually called a ball“ Widows and Orphans," is the embodiment of 1740; his father was a builder at Lancaster. ing furnace, and there is brought to a welding a co-operative thankfulness for a grand and About the year 1765, Henry Cort had esta- heat at the same time with greater despatch continuous social progress. The thought, we blished himself as a navy agent in Surrey-street, than can be effected in a hollow fire with a believe, has emanated from Alderman Mechi, Strand, and in 1768 married Elizabeth Hey- blast. The giving this welding heat in a ballwho, it would seem, has by the application of a sham, the daughter of a solicitor in Stafford- ing furnace according to the method and prosimple, soul-stirring appeai from Tiptree, prac- shire; and steward of the Duke of Portland. cess specified, is stated to be part of the inventically effected the humane object of his advo- The issue of that marriage was as follows:

tion. The specification, after describing the cacy. Already the first men in literature and the

Henry Bell Cort .born 29th Dec., 1709. method adopted where several weldings are arts, whether in the ranks of wealth or genius, Conningsby Cort

12th Nov., 1770. to be made, concludes the part of the descriphave given in their adhesion to the proposal ;

William Thomas Cort... 16th Dec., 1771.

tion by stating as follows :-“The whole is

Eliza Jane Cort and so great has been the instant success

21st April, 1773. Harriet Ann Cort...

22nd April, 1775.

neatly finished under a large hammer without attendant upon the promulgation of the scheme John Harman Cort

Jany., 1777. the use of either chaffery or hollow fire. And that, strange to say, for once, it has left the Maria Cort....

13th June, 1778. I find that the largest uses thus finished by me important labours of the journalist far in arrear. Charlotte Cort

12th Oct., 1779. are in all respects possessed of the highest deThe pen has to record what has been done, not

Frederic John Cort

10th Oct., 1781.

gree of perfection. I also have found that the that which it is desired to do.

Caroline Cort...

18th Jany., 1783. Richard Cort...

20th April, 1784.

fire in the balling furnace is better suited for We cannot do better than reprint a few ex- Louisa Cort

21st June, 1786.

its regularity and penetrating quality to give tracts from the addresses of Alderman Mechi

Catherine Frampton Cort 24ht Feb., 1790. the iron a perfect welding heat throughout its upon this subject, and we do it not as a work

Of those thirteen, the son, Richard Cort, born whole mass without burning in any part, than of supererogation but as placing on record che 20th April, 1784, and three daughters, are the any fire blown by blast, insomuch that if bar or fact that, with energy and tact, great good may only survivors, their united ages being upwards other massy iron is bound into a faggot of five be effected, and that as the field of philanthropy of 290 years.

or six inches diameter by an old cask hoop the is by no means over-cropped, others may profit

After ten years of success as a navy agent, sixteenth part of an inch in thickness, the one by this example of the Christian farmer, who during which period he amassed a considerable will acquire a complete welding heat and the has left the gate open for those who would sum of money, Henry Cort was induced, about other not be burnt or wasted, and the iron is clean, and showed the way to yet further tillage the year 1775, to relinquish his navy agency welded to the centre instead of, as in the usual for the production and fruition of good works.

business and to prosecute a series of experiments method practised being covered only with an "If we reflect for one moment,” says Mr. in the manufacture of iron at Fontley, near Fare- incrustation.” In the above is the announceMechi, "wherein can we discover a reason why ham, Hants, in partnership with one Adam Jelli- ment of the system of piling, faggoting, and heat"the industrious farmer should be specially coe, of the Pay-office. He erected a forge and mill ing, in an air or balling furnace, of iron to be

screened from the frowns of fortune, or those on the estate of Mr. Delme ; he purchased the forged by hammers into various uses, as a means “vicissitudes which are the painful lot of every premises and the goodwill a business at Gos- of securing uniformity of constitution in opposi"other class? Why should he expect to be port, which, with the debts for iron supplied to tion to the old system of heating in a hollow fire

exempt from that stern misfortune and bitter the navy, were valued at upwards of £39,000. under a blast. The specification having repoverty which we see so frequently too pain- In his business of a navy agent, Cort had be marked on the imperfect removal by the forge

fully illustrated in every other department of come well acquainted with the inferiority of the hammer of the impurities--earth, salt, and sul“ daily life ? None can say that his risks are British and the superiority of the foreign iron, phur-describes a process of cleansing if the “less frequent, or his chances of success more and he entered with zeal and enthusiasm into iron be in a dirty state, as conducive to producing "certain. Why, then, should he in his suffer- the attempts to improve the home manufacture iron of purer grain and more perfect contexture "ing and his tribulation be shut out and ex-of iron, so as to make Great Britain independent proceeds to describe the working of the faggots

cluded from the enjoyment of that support of foreign nations for the supply of this most by passing through rollers, and states as fol" and sympathy which are diffused so profusely important article. It is much to be regretted lows :-"and by this simple process all the

throughout the length and breadth of the that no record exists of the steps by which Cort earthy particles are pressed out and the iron "land, for the benefit and solace of every arrived at the series of processes constituting becomes at once free from dross, or what is " suffering class but his own ? Let us remove his invention ; prudence would prevent the usually called cinder, and is compressed into a

this reproach. Let us assume that place in disclosure of the results of his experiments fibrous and tough state.”. Such is the simple "so noble and charitable a list which the in- until after the patents should have been cb- process of manufacture producing a result which “fluence and the dignity of agriculture demand, tained, and recourse must be had to the spe- is thus stated :-“ Accordingly, a bar of the " and I am assured the bare mention of such a cifications as the only authentic records of the worst ordinary iron in which the grains of metal project for the amelioration and relief of those invention.

are large and much separated by the impurities “who, while suffering, complain not, will Cort's first patent bears date the 17th with which it is impregnated being passed " speedily realize such a happy, and much- January, 1783. "It is for “A peculiar method through the simple operation becomes instantly "needed consummation. Towards the fulfil- and process of preparing, welding, and work of good quality, and two or more of the same ment of such an object, I have received ing various sorts of iron, and” of reducing bars or of any pieces of impure iron heated in promises of hearty and zealous support from the same into uses by machinery, a furnace the same manner, and passed through the some of the leading agriculturists and imple- and other apparatus adapted and applied to rollers together, become at once welded into ment manufacturers in the kingdom, who the same purpose.” The specification enrolled one solid body and meliorated into good tough

most cordially sympathize with the sugges- the 16th May, 1783, four months after the iron, without being previously cleansed in the * tion. One farthing per acre, on the 48,000,000 date of the patent, describes the process to scouring barrel or otherwise. If the iron to

acres farmed in this country, would produce be pursued in the manufacture of various be welded by this method is intended for plates £50,000, or, if one-fourth only gave one penny enumerated articles, and affords the most con- of any kind, it is bundled or laid together,

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