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PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 2549. M. A. F. Mennons. An improved means of their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the destroying insects in grain and other organic matters.

date of the Gazette in which the notice appoara, by leaving Dated Sept. 13, 1859. (A communication.)

at the Commissioners' office, particulars in writing of the 2132. H. J. Warlomont. Improvements in ap

2551. J. Dales. Improvements in applying deo objection to the application. paratus to be einployed in the manufacture of zino. dorizing fluids to sewers and other receptacles of Dated Oct. 19, 1859. sewage.

LIST OF SEALED PATENTS. 2388. G. Gregg An improved method of dyeing

Dated Nov, 10, 1859.

Sealed Nov. 13, 1859. leather black.

2553. E. T. Hughes. Improvements in railway 12 13. H. Newman. 1319. J. F. Miquel. Dated Oet. 27, 1859. breaks, also applicable for arresting the rotary motion 1250. J. P. Budd.

1403. W. Burress. 2458. P. R. Hodge. Improvements in the process of wheels and cylindrical bodios in general. (A com. 1253. J. R. Scartlift. 1511. E. T. Hughes. of brewing fermented liquors, and in apparatus con- munication.)

Sealed Nov. 22, 1859. nected therewith, and in preparing and separating the 2553. R. A. Brooman. Improvements in mills or

1261, J. Knowles.

1328. J. Bruce. materials, and the manner of using them in producing apparatus for extracting oil from seeds, and for other

1262. R. V. Leach and 1332. W. Groen fermented liquors. purposes. (A communication.)

T. W. Willett. 2557. A. J. Melhuish. Improvements in the con.

134. G. H. Smith. Dated Oct. 29, 1859.

1284. G. Burnell. struction of cameras for obtaining photographic pic

1346. J. J. Lundy. 2472. J. Mascord, J. Bonner, and F. Viner. Im

1268. C. P. Moodly. 1388. J. H. Johnson. tures. proved machinery or apparatus for cutting up and

1269. R. A. Brooipan. 2559. G. Seymour. Improvements in insulating

1406. T. Greenshields. pulping or reducing vegetable and animal substances. and protecting electric telegraph conductors.

1277. G. Davies.

1450. T. W. Jones Dated Nov. 2, 1859. 2561. W. Day. Certain improvements in propelling

1279. G. D. Jones.

1756. P. Robertson. 1280. J. Gibbs.

1819. F. L. Lawrenea. 2495. J. L. Budden. Improvements in forming vessels, which said invention is also applicable for

1984. A. J. Sax.

1958. E. Rettig. and driving piles for the construction of piers, jettios, converting the force of the wind into a motive power to

1292. A. Prince.

1970. J. H. Johnson. viaducts, bridges, or other works where piles are le used in any convenient way either for stationary

1300. H. W. Patrick. or moveable purposes. usually employed. (A communication.)

1978. J. Cowgill and J.

1304. G. F. Chantrell. Stocks. Dated Nov. 3, 1859.

1314. L. Farrene and 9034. A. V. Newton. 2107. J. A. Turner. Improvements in rendering PATENT APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE B. Subia.

2073. M.A.F. Mennons paper waterproof.


1316. G. Hadfield.

2104 J. P. Clarke. 439. I. F. Delavier. Improvements in coffee pots, 2574. M. A. F. Menncms. Improved apparatuscs tea pots, and other culinary or pharmaceutical vessels for the concentration, distribution, and application of PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP of the same nature. the heat evolved by gas, oil, and other lamps. (A

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. 2501. C. Bacon. Improvements in globes and communication.) Dated. Not. 14, 1859.

9705. G. Davios.

2797. J. Marshall, jun. shades for gas-lights, and oil or other lamps. 2503. C. W. Siemens. Improvements in insulating

2717. E. Blanchon. 2815. J. Higgin. NOTICES OF INTICNTION TO PROCEED 2741. S. Fos.

2018. J. M. Saunders, electric telegraphie conductors and in battery arrange

2743. J. M, Gilbert. WITH PATENTS.

2858. M. Towigend. inents connected therewith. (Partly a communication.)

(From the London Gazette, Nov. 32, 1839.)

2767. J. W. Claro. 2991. W. H. Bowers.

2758. C. Tooth 2505. G, Wemysỹ. Improvements in ventilators. 1657. C. S. Walker and R. Hoyle. Furnaces and Dated Nov. 4, 1859. boilers.

PATENTS ON WHICII THE SEVENTH YEAR'S 2307. E. Juzet. Improvements in lubricating ap1692. J. Taylor. Sto tes and fire places.


1066. J. Atkinson. Sire-arms.

767. J.' Ramsbottom. 1671. C. Kingsford. Fuel.

780, J. Potter. 2509. A. P. Boothby. Improvements in travelling and such like bag

1672. W. Clark and IV. Williams. Woven fabrics.

771. J. T. Way and J. 785. P. Carmichael. 2511. L. Koch. A moving tread power.

1676. J. P. Farrar. Tron.

M. Paine. 2513. C. Brook, jun. Improved arrangements and

1681. H. Cunnew. Illastic bands. apparatus for folding, tieing, and labelling hanks of

1886. O'D. Grimshaw, Letter boxos.

LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, & yarn or thread, 1689. T. Carliell. Vent pegs,

Published during the week ending Noo. 25, 1559. 2516. W. Clarke and J. Gee. Improvements in

16.2. H. C. M. Cranır. Bedsteads. the manufacture of looped fabrics.

1697. A. V. Newton. India-rubber fabrics. (A

No. Pr. No. Pr. No./ Pr. No. Pr. I No. Pr. i No. Pr. 2517. R. A. Brooman. Improvements in brcech communication.) loading ordnance and other fire-arms, and in projce.

1700. J. Shanks. Mowing machines. tiles to be used therewith. (A communication.)

1702. J.C. Riddel. Stalls, loose-boxes, &c.

900'0 3 9130 3 9250 3 9360 C 947.0 3 9520 10 Dated Nov. 5, 1859. 1703. J. Erskinc. Fi;e arms.

9010 31 9140 3 9200 937 S 998 71 93910 3 1706. T. Curtis and J. Haigh. Finishing cloths. 0081 915 0 8 927 0 3 9330 IC 9470 36 2521. D. Joy. Improvements in machinery for the 1723. H. N. Harrop, jun. Cigar lighter.

9500 3 9610 10 manufacture of telegraphic cables. (A communica- 1728, J. Rowland, juil. Sizing yarns.

9010 3 917,0 89290 9400 3|| 951 tion)

1735. J. H. Johnsori.

9050 691610 9300 Slide valves. (4 com

9410 3|| 9530 69610 8 2523. B. A. Cucho. Improvements in galvanizing munication.)

900 €! 919.0 10|| 9310 3 9420

953,3 393) metallic wires.

907197 920 0 319320 6 943 0 3 3510 9600 $ 2525. T. W. MeCallum and L. Woodward. In1758. I. V. Lindley. Cop tubes.

9090 5| 9210 3931 49410 953/6

1761. A. V. Newton. Revolvers and bullets. (A 911) 9: 9220 39340 101 9430 493010 provements in frame work knitting machinery communication.)

9120 5 923 0 8 9330 € 9161. 1 Dated Nov. 7, 1859.

1781. W. E. Newton. Salinometer cases. (1 com2527. P. Dietens. A system of letter-paper, letter-munication.) Invoices, letter-circulars, prices-currents, inemoran- 1786. B. Donkin. Valves. (A communication.)

Nore.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from the

Great Scal Patent Office (publishing department) 0 dumns, and other missives.

1818. A. F. Delannoy. Lubricating.

ceipt of the amount of price and postage. Sunt exceedin 2529. J. A. Clarke. Improveinents in extracting 1826. L. B. Ollivier. Stoppering bottles.

58. must be remitted by Post Office Orier, made payable sceds or stones from fruit.

1834. N. Kenward. Tubular steam boilers.

at the Post Office, Ilig) Holborn, to Mr. Bennet Word2331. H. Charlton. Certain improvements in the 1989. R. A. Broomrm. Treating ores.

croft, Great Scal Patent Otice.

(A com. method of navigating steam ships or vessels, and in munication.) the apparatus connected therewith.

9031. R. K. Geldard. Making infusions.

LIST OF DESIGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITI 25:35. G. Deline. Improvements in mills of what. 2081. W. B. Adams. Permanent way.


Hates of Nos, in ever kind.

2116. J. Luis. Automaton bell. (A communica

Registra- Re- Names and Addresses,

Subjects of Design 2535. W. E. Newton. Improvements in promot. tion.)

gister. ing or accelerating combustion in furnaces or fire.. 2183. P.J. L. Chauriont. Fire-arms.

J. Murrhead, Regent's- !

Battery. places. (A communication.)

Oct. 23, 4208
9:32. W. E. Newton. Spinning. (A communica-

Datod Nov. 8, 1859.

Sor. 3, 4209 J. S. Margetson, Cheap- Wristband.

side 2537. H. B. Powell. The protection and preven. municátion.) 2383. W. E. Newton. Combs or gills. (A com

5, 4210 J. Vedwin, Rogent-st. Boot. tion of fouling or injuring by foreign matters the

7, 4211 G. P. Ivelyn, Brompton Belt. screws, paddles, rudders, and storn posts of steam and printing. 2330. A. Scheurer-F'ott. Fixing colors in dyeing

E. and 1. Ludlow, Bir- / Cartridge care mingham

ricr. ships or other vessels, 2530. O. Green. Improrements in the manufac2389. J. Gordon. Palping coffee.

16, 4213 8. and T. Carrington,

Rim for hats.

Stockport ture of tubes suitable for locomotive and other stean.

2413. J. Avery. Platform scales. (A communica. boilers tion.)

» 19

, 4214, C. H. Purter, Wigton.. ( leleted distribu2541. J. H. Johnson. Improvements in "

24'36. W. C. Day: Stockings and drawers. “passe

Bowley & Co., Charing2012. A. McGlashan. Refrigerators.


Cross partouts,” or mounts for pictures. (A communica. tion.)

2190. J. Ingham and G. Cnllier. Weavings. 2543. G. Hadfield. Improved machinery for cut2193. J. L. Butliien. Piles. (A communication.)


Nov. 11, 1115 W. Vincent, Dublin. ting staves for casks and barrels.

2503. G. Wemyss. Ventilators.
2545. W. Clark. A compound applicable for the
9511. L. Koch. Moving tread power.

15, 1116 3. B. Boway, bud)
1 brooke

Plough. manufacture of manure, the preservation and disin

2331. H. Charlton. Navigating vessels.

,, 17, 1117 'C. Speed, Exton Corn guard. faction of organio matters, and for other purposes. 2501. W. Day. Propelling vessels.

( H. J. & D. Nicoll, Ne- stud and battua (A communication.) 2574. M. A.' F. Mennons. Heating. (A com


| combined. munication.)

, 19, 1119 E, S. Brooks, Lenton

Shutters. Dated Nov. 9, 1859.

Sands The full titles of the patents in the above list 'can be ns2547. G. White. Improvements in the manufac certained by referring

bagk to their numbers in the list of

21, 1120 `J. S. Cooke, Colchoster Distance gauge, ture of endless leather bands, straps, or belts for provisional protections previously published.

JJ.M.O. Reilly, Upper

Rathmines... driving machinery, and in apparatus for effecting the Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to

Bowley& Co., Charing-) Knoc-cap. same. (A communication.) any of the parties in the above list who have given notice of

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steadily went through Plane and Spherical | expect too much of them, and to forget what MECHANICS MAGAZINE.

Trigonometry, Hydrostatics and Hydrodyna- they would have been if left untrained. We mics, Theory of Equations, Co-ordinate and are apt, moreover, to exaggerate the defects

Descriptive Geometry (the latter being a most which we see in them, and to lose sight of the LONDON, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1859.

valuable subject of study, which Dr. Woolley merits which they have no opportunity of dis

may be said to have almost introduced into playing. This is particularly true in the case under THE TRAINING OF SHIPWRIGHT English science), the Differential and Integral notice, for up to the present moment not one of OFFICERS.

Calculus, Differential Equations, Snowball's and the young men trained in the late school has Taz Admiralty have at various times attempted other works on Mechanics, Moseley's “Engi- ever yet been examined in the sciences which to train superior shipwright officers for the Royal

“neering and Architecture," all that is known they spent most of their time upon at Portsdockyards. The School of Naval Architecture, (both published and in manuscript) of the mouth. The Surveyor of the Navy has never in which the present assistants to the Sur- Theory of Naval Architecture, Theory of the given them the slightest chance of exhiveyor of the Navy and most of the present Steam Engine, Chemistry, and some other sub-biting their higher qualifications, but has kept master shipwrights were trained, was their jects; and the course of study was so con- them strictly to competitions in which higher great effort. Nor, notwithstanding Sir James ducted by the Principal that, as the students studies have played no part whatever. When Graham's animus against it, was it by any thrown, wherever practicable, upon the pro- impossible for young men

to acquire the higher

we add to these facts the further one, that it is means an unsuccessful one. Naval Architecture for the first time taught


for which they were in training. education of the naval architect without being the Government—and many others beside the In order that the general edncation of the injured somewhat, for a time, in respect of his Government--that it was possible for efficient young men might not be neglected, the Rev. practical skill, it would not have been surprisshipwright officers to be gentlemen. It did not, Dr. Woolley taught all of them at least one ing had the dockyard officers generally formed of course, make every man who passed through foreign language, and some of them as many as a low estimate of the value of the training it a genius, or even a clever mechanic; no sys- three such languages ; and likewise caused the which the members of the late school undertem of education will ever do that.' But it whole of them to study, and pass examinations went. This very thing happened, as is well produced several men of eminent ability in in, Jewish History, Logic, Mental Philosophy, known, in reference to the first Portsmouth their profession, and it made most of those who Paley's “Evidences of Christianity,” Butler's School—the School of Naval Architecture vere trained in it men of taste and culture. It

“ Analogy," and Pearson on the Creed. One

---and its members endured much undeserved was to one of its members, Mr. Abethell, that half of their day time was also bestowed upon neglect in consequence of it. But we find, as Her Majesty, at the launch of the Victoria a actual shipbuilding and laying-off. Such were we have intimated, that a favourable view of few days since, showed marked consideration the studies pursued by the members of the the members of the late school is entertained by by repeated acts of grace and favour. All who School of Mathematics and Naval Construction, the principal officers of the dockyard. Mr. studied in this school had to encounter opposi- which school, like the former, perished at the Abethell, the first Master Shipwright examined tion and to sustain neglect ; but they, for the hands of Sir James Graham.

by the Committee, states that he thinks the most part, met the first with firmness, and bore Now, one part of the business-a voluntary continuance of the late school was desirable in the latter with dignity. If we contrast the part, it should be observed-of the recent the absence of any other institution for training present race of master shipwrights with master Committee on Dockyard Economy was to sug- professional officers. "I think,” he says, “its shipwrights of what was called the “old gest some means of fulfilling the object with continuance would have held out good pro“school"--good " practical” men-we have which these abolished schools were established, “mise to the service, as far as a supply of scienindeed reason to be thankful for the School of viz., that of providing a class of persons to “tifically educated officers is concerned.” Mr. Naval Architecture ! The writings of Mr. whom the superior offices of the dockyards Cradock, the first Assistant-Master Shipwright Abethell

, Mr. Chatfield, Mr. Read, Mr. Creuze, might be fitly committed. As a matter of examined by them (now Master Shipwright of and other members of the school, in the “Papers decency, before recommending a scheme of Pembroke dockyard), stated that there are "on Naval Architecture” and elsewhere, suffi-| their own, they felt bound to inquire into the young men from the school who have shown ciently attest the fact that with the qualities of nature and effects of the training imparted at that their superior education tends to the adgentlemen they combined an amount of profes- the school which was in existence seven years vantage of the service; and when asked if he sional ability never before attained by any class ago. In doing this they subjected but one of considered there were instances of young men of shipbuilders in this, or indeed in any, the late members of the school to an examina- educated at the school whose attainments would country.

tion, although there were several others who qualify them for being raised to the rank of After the School of Naval Architecture had might readily have enlightened such men as master shipwrights, he answered, “I think that been abolished some years, a new school having Mr. Bowman, Mr. Murray, and Mr. Laws. Mr. "there are, including those who have left the similar objects placed before it was established William Owen, an Inspector of Shipwrights in service ; and even without them.” Even Mr. about 1848. "It was at first intended that Chatham Dockyard, was the officer selected for Moody, who never had the advantage of a spethis should be named the “Central Mathema- interrogation, and, if we are not mistaken, his cial training himself, and who (therefore) prides "tical School,” but the more fitting designation answers display much better sense than the himself on being an eminently practical officer, of "School of Mathematics and Naval Con- questions which were put to him. For—will goes so far as to say in reference to the mem"struction” was given it on its establishment. it be believed 2-some of these brilliant Com-bers of the late school, “Out of nine whom I The latter name is that by which it is officially mittee-men gravely inquired of Mr. Owen who know, there are three fully competent to fulfil known, although the Committee on Dockyard made his bed at Portsinouth? who cleaned his “their duties in their present positions ;" and Economy, for a reason which may easily be con- | boots ? who cooked his dinner? and who that "there is no doubt of the mathematical ceived, used the former throughout their in- carried it to him when it was cooked? Indeed, “ attainments” of the pupils generally. The quiries. The pupils for this school were one of them, after the rest of the Committee opinions of these three gentlemen may be taken selected by competitive examination from had turned from these to weightier matters, as fair examples of the prevalent views of dockarnong the most promising apprentices of Her actually broke in upon a series of professional yard officers. We may add to them the fact Majesty's dockyards, and the Admiralty were inquiries to ask the witness-first, who cleaned that three of the members of the school have 80 fortunate as to secure as a Principal for it the college knives and forks ? and, secondly, been employed for several years in the Surthe Rev. Joseph Woolley, LL.D., F.R.A.S., who did his washing ! Will Mr. Murray kindly veyor of the Navy's department, and that they formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cam-inform us whether it was or was not Mr. Bow- there perform duties which demand the very bridge, now one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of man who put these questions? When the highest qualifications of the naval architect. Schools. The improvements which this gentle-Committee put away childish things, and made

Despite all adverse influences, therefore, the man has introduced into the modes of calcula- sensible inquiries, Mr. Owen acquitted himself late School of Mathematics and Naval Contion adopted by naval architects—the writings in a manner which deserves commendation, struction answered its end satisfactorily, by on naval architecture which have proceeded and gave a pretty correct account of the studies giving to the service a class of men fit, for the from his pen--the high professional attainments pursued in the School of Mathematics and most part, to rise to the superior ofices of the with which several of his pupils came forth Naval Construction.

dockyards. In the hands of most men it might from the school-all these prove that the Rev. The opinions which the most enlightened of have proved a failure ; and its success was Dr. Woolley brought to his office precisely that shipwright officers of the dockyards expressed doubtless due to the distinguished ability of Dr. combination of ability, energy, and teaching- to the Committee respecting the late school Woolley, its Principal. Had the practical part of power (if we may so speak) which was so neces- were, it seems to us, even more favourable the pupils

' education been as well attended to by sary in an institution of this kind. The pupils than could have been anticipated. For it is the gentleman who had the responsible charge entered the school with a knowledge of Euclid, not an easy thing to estimate the merits of of it (and who is too old and too afflicted to be Algebra, and some other subjects ranging with young men impartially, especially when they mentioned here), there would have been no these in scientific studies ; and while there, have undergone a special training. We are apt to room left for censure, or even for cavil, of any

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kind. The men who passed through it have but | as Mr. Beattie's coal-burning locomotive, the adjuster stated on the last occasion, that he to be patient, and they will doubtless rise in furnaces of Mr. Williams, Mr. Yarrow, Mr. had not known any ship which, after the lapse time to the highest posts in the service. Clark, &c., and other inventions which have of three years, required so little alteration. The

In a future article we shall consider the been described over and over again in publica- Captain informs the Committee that after each scheme proposed by the Committee of Economy tions; we have also the reports of several more time she has been in the graving dock, head for the training of professional officers. or less desultory discussions in which other im- N.N.E., for a few days, to be scraped and

provements are mentioned. But we think it is painted, he has observed her to deviate conTHE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS IN perfectly fair to say, that the whole second siderably to the north of her course, both in SCOTLAND.

annual session of the Institution produced no going to and returning from Ireland. He could When our eyes light on an admirable youth, sional papers from all the engineers of Scotland. occasion of his noticing it he sailed in company

more than half-a-dozen good original profes- not offer any reason for this. On the first full of various faculty and energy, we naturally desire that the best may be made of him—that of young societies, and we should be sorry parallel with her, as had been usual, he re

Now, we know something of the difficulties with another steamer; instead of keeping all his manly attributes may be fully and har- indeed to speak hostilely of the Institution

now marked that her Captain had changed his moniously developed. We should grieve to see his reasoning powers over-fostered till he lost remind our Scotch friends that they are doing himself that had done so, though he appeared

under consideration. But we must faithfully course ; eventually he discovered that it was. all fancy, or his imagination cherished at the less at present than will speedily be expected of by compass

to be steering as before. After dulged in to the injury of his morals, or his them. The name of their body is dignified, and making a few voyages this extra deviation dismoral nature strained to the detriment of his itself challenges comparisons with other bodies. appeared, and he was able to steer his accus

These deviations indicate freedom, or any one part of him duly expanded That which would be accepted, therefore, as tomed courses. at the sacrifice of the others. The fact of his ample from a local Institution, will be held increased attraction aft, and would probably existence with a certain set of special capa- meagre coming from them. And it will not do arise from the ship's northerly position when in bilities is of itself sufficient to assure us that before us bore the title_“ Transactions of the lookers of several steamers trading to the Medi

(3.) The captains and overthere is special work, which requires all his en, Glasgow Institution of Engineers," it would be terranean state that while in this sea they make dowments, for him to do; and it is this special deemed a most creditable production. But of certain courses very correctly ; in attempting work which we desire to see him prepare for, the engineers of Scotland more is expected. It the same after leaving Cape Finisterre, with Institution. When we see a Society'established is in all friendliness that we tell them so; and ship’s head northerly and easterly for two or with a unique name and novel functions, we

we trust their next yolume will prove that a three days, they get to the north of their

word to the Scotch is enough. can have no pleasure in it unless it performs

course. Thus, in the run from Point Lynas to unique and novel duties, and this with the full

the N.W. light-ship, or the Bell buoy, course force of all its various powers.

THE COMPASSES OF IRON SHIPS. about E.S.E., they sometimes get so much as We have been led into these reflections by an In pursuing our review of the Liverpool Com-six, eight, and nine miles to the north. The examination of the second volume of the pass Committee's Report on this subject, we

cause already spoken of appears an adequate Transactions of the Institution of Engineers come next to the changeable portions of the the captains of iron steamers on the North

(4.) Similar experience is reported by ance of this body in 1857, we understood that horizontal inductive—the latter being now

very towards Newfoundland,

they get to the N. (or in Scotland. When we hailed the first appear-ship's magnetism, the vertical inductive and the

American lines. On the homeward voyage, its objects were in no way inferior to those of frequently termed a ship's quadrantal mag- the left of their course), after making what is similar bodies in England ; and these we know netism, from the change in the direction of the are not merely to edify the engineers of a deviation, due to it in each quadrant of the considered to be ample allowance for deviation single town, or a few towns only; but first to compass as the ship is swung

round, It is not their variation. (5.) The captain of the Laconia bring together into a centre, and thence to dis- required that a ship should change her geogra- steam-ship, trading to the Mediterranean

, perse over the world, professional information phical position to show the existence of either stated that in two or three successive voyages

, which would otherwise be inaccessible to all but of these effects

of the earth's inductive action; in departing from Cape Finisterre for the Irish a few. The Institution of Civil Engineers and though it is only by such change that the full Channel, he had kept the ship in the same the Institution of Mechanical Engineers most effect of the former can be properly estimated. direction throughout by the mast compass, and assuredly do this; and we did hope that the By experiments with the vibration needle, a Institution of Engineers in Scotland would do change in the value of the ship’s magnetic force had found its deviation gradually increase as

narrowly watched the steering compass ; he the same. The volume before us, however, will be observed as she is turned with her head he came northwards till,

on reaching the Smalls, valuable as it is—for it is valuable— has lowered in opposite directions. Two values are thus it amounted to three-quarters of a point.

All our expectations of what the latter body is des obtained, which give the sum and difference of these cases show a deviation to the north of tined to do for us. We begin rather to fear the ship's permanent magnetism, and that due the usual courses after the ship’s head has been that this youthful Institution, in which we saw so much promise, is getting unduly developed in changing horizontal, for the place of the

experi- northerly, for a short time, and they require some of its parts. Its printing and publishing ment. The Astronomer Royal has shown that

some explanation of a general and comprehen

sive kind. faculty is expanding wonderfully. It has here the chief feature of the ship's vertical induced produced more than 150 pages of matter in magnetism, in this hemisphere, is to constantly In this place may be introduced some partibeautiful type and on excellent paper, with diminish the earth's directive power on the culars of the Committee's vibration experitwelve lithographic plates of considerable compass needle. There is reason to believe ments, as bearing especially upon this topic

, beauty, and thirty pages of the most exquisitely that it is also, or rather that it gives rise to, a They show fluctuations both in the amount and printed tables that the eyes of ordinary readers Auctuating quantity which is liable to influence direction of a ship's induced magnetism of conever perhaps beheld. But, on the other hand, the deviation tables of ships that change their siderably greater extent than is generally sup the Society's power of producing valuable pro- latitude only to a small extent or not at all, by posed to exist. These fluctuations do not fessional papers seems to have been unhappily a portion of it being retained for a time.' In appear, however, to affect practically an anthoneglected. Scottish engineering seems rather a amount it appears to vary with the position of ritative statement, which has already been barren field in this respect. We look in vain the ship, the time during which she remains in supported by the Committee, and which, as it into the volume for any considerable display of a given position, and the circumstances to forms the key to the correction and calculation Scotch engineering works, like that with which which she may be subjected while maintain of compass deviations, cannot be too earnestly the two English Institutions before-mentioned ing it.

repeated-namely, that a ship's magnetism for supply us. We have descriptions of Professor The following facts, with some experiments to any given place may be very closely represented Thomson's centrifugal pump, Mr. Bell's ship be afterwards described, are offered by the

Com- by a permanent polar magnetic force in combidocks, Mr. Carmichael's steam experiments, a mittee in support of this position:-(1.) Devia- nation with a quadrantal force, or one changing smoke-preventing apparatus or two, Messrs. tions observed with the Admiralty compass on its deviation in each quadrant as a ship is swung Napier and Sons' experiments on steel and board the Royal Charter, after she had been lying round. wrought iron, a note on certain chemical fur- forsome weeks head to N.N.E., differed by several In reference to the disturbance of the comnaces, and a couple of theoretical papers by degrees from those observed after she had been pass due to horizontal induction or quadrantal Professor Rankine and Mr. Lawrie. This in- for ten days with her head to W.N.W. (2.) deviation, the Committee remark that its pecucludes, if we mistake not, all the novelties Captain Toker, of the Drogheda paddle-wheel liar character is too frequently overlooked

. which are the subjects of papers, if we except steamer, plying þetween Liverpool and Ireland, This is the more to be regretted as in all the Mr. Hunt's on Patent Law Reform, which can states that he has commanded her for seven iron merchant ships and steamers which have hardly be deemed an engineering document. years, during which time she has had her com- been examined in Liverpool it forms an imporWe have, it is true, other things described, such passes adjusted twice or thrice. The compass | tant feature. Unless its character be under


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stood and its value estimated, an approximate | courses. 3. That when iron ships have heeled | Dr. Scoresby's observations in the Royal Charcurve of deviations cannot be projected, from over for a considerable time upon northerly ter (which were extensively published soon after four observations, with any chance of success. courses, they have been found to windward of his return), he (Professor Airy) recommended Two cases have been named in which it ex- their dead-reckoning. To these may be added, to the Admiralty that such a mounting should ceeded a point ; on board the Royal Charter it the existence of an impression among compass be tried in the Trident, and in a recent number amounted to six and seven degrees. In such adjusters and others who have paid attention of the Athenæum he communicates the facts of instances it might give rise to an uncertainty to the subject (among the latter may be named the case. Among the places which are left at in the deviation of twice this amount.

the managing owner of the Cunard Company, liberty by the rigging of the ship, the best in a While the deviations arising from permanent Mr. Charles M’Iver, a gentleman of great ex- magnetic sense) was, he says, selected ; and magnetism and vertical induction vary as the perience in iron ships), that iron deck beams great care was taken to mount the compass in sine of the angle of direction of ship's force, at are a chief cause of compass disturbances. an unexceptionable manner. It was, however, the station of the compass, with the magnetic The following may also be quoted from a totally useless

. Its deviations meridian as indicated by the disturbed needle, number of other cases :--Captain Bonfellow of large that it could give little assistance in the quadrantal deviation has been shown to the steam-ship Laconia states, that the same interpreting the indications of the compass vary as the sine of twice the azimuth of ship's course which, with an even beam, would make below; and when compared with a corrected head by disturbed compass very nearly. In the Smalls from the coast of Spain, with wind compass, and above all with a corrected adjuspractice these two deviations are combined in at N.W., would make the Tusker to windward, table compass, it was of no use whatever. The every conceivable manner. With the excep- and on the opposite side of the Irish Channel

. Astronomer Royal further remarks that the tion of one or two cases of elevated compasses, The captain of the Sarah Sands states, that his deviations of the mast-compass of the Great the whole of the deviation tables which have compensated steering compass has acted re- Eastern are large ; that that of the Royal been obtained in Liverpool by the Committee markably well, except when his vessel has Charter became useless from sluggishness, prohave exhibited plus quadrantal attraction. heeled to some extent. This compass is placed duced, he conceives, by the injury done to the Perhaps a minus deviation of this kind would over, and comparatively near, large masses of pivots and bearings by the tremor of the mast; be found to exist in a compass placed within a vertical iron. Captain "Leitch, of the City of and that he does not think the method will skylight, in which the iron deck beams are cut Baltimore steam-ship, has favoured the Com- ever be extensively used. off on each side of it, or in an iron ship with mittee with observations made during several We now come to the question of the best wooden beams.

voyages. In every instance the north end of modes of swinging ships. Undoubtedly, the Following the remarks of the Committee we the needle has been attracted to the high, or easiest and best mode of ascertaining the devianext come to the following practical topics : weather side of the ship. This is the most ex- tions of a compass is by reference to the bear1. Errors induced by heeling in iron ships. 2. treme case which has been recorded. From ings by it of a distant object, whose true magElevated or mast and standard compasses. slight list to starboard to slight list to port, the netic direction is known ; but, in a river or 3. Modes of swinging ship. 4. Modes of ad- standard compass, placed about five feet above a confined dock, such distant object is seldom justing compasses. 5. Projection of deviation the deck-house, has been observed to change attainable. Next to this, the Committee aptables by curves. 6. Miscellaneous operations eight degrees. The apparent cause is the iron prove of the system of fixed magnetic bearings of the Committee.

beams of the deck house. There seems reason of a conspicuous object, which has been The errors arising from the heeling of iron to suppose that when the deck beams are adopted at Liverpool. The principle is the ships are among the most perplexing which divided to make space for a skylight, a position same as that of reciprocal bearings, with the deinand a captain's attention. As a number of for a compass may be found in which the errors two advantages of freedom from error in the causes may conspire to produce, modify, or from heeling might naturally compensate each shore compass, and saving the time usually lost cancel their effect, it is not surprising that the other. The errors from vertical induction of in repeating and deciphering the shore signals

. evidence before the Committee on this branch deck beams would certainly vary with change There is another mode sometimes adopted in of the investigation was not very complete. in geographical position, or with the earth's Liverpool and at other places——that of carrying Among such causes may be named the follow- vertical intensity. Thus, in the City of Balti- the shore compass round the dock, so as always ing :-. The rising or lowering of the attract more, Captain Leitch mentions variations in to be in a line with the ship’s masts, and by ing mass, causing its magnetism to act with the deviation of three-quarters of a point while preconcerted signals checking the ship as she more or less leverage as it approaches to or his ship was in the Mediterranean; but in the approaches the true points of the compass. recedes from the plane of the compass card. North Atlantic, as he approached America, he This plan does not admit of accuracy, even 6. Vertical iron or magnets below and near the has noticed an extreme instance of more than a when pains are taken to insure it. To an adcompass. c. Induced vertical polarity in iron point and a half

. The Committee are anxious juster who understands his business it must deck beams, increasing as they incline from to collect all the information possible on this be tedious, while in the confined situations, in their usual 'horizontal position. d. Proximity intricate and important section of the compass which only it can be employed, the shore comof badly proportioned and badly placed chain- inquiry, as it is felt how very imperfect must pass is liable to varying disturbances, which boxes. e Action of horizontal compensating be any deductions which may be made from give rise to most inconsistent tables of deviamagnets when they are placed below and too the evidence which Iras to this time been placed tions. In some cases it has occasioned serious near the compass card. The last, though par

before them. tially corrective of some errors from heeling, in Great variety of opinion prevails as to the At this point we must pause for the present. certain positions of the ship, appear to aggravate utility of mast compasses. Though in some them in others. ships they have been discontinued after a trial,

THE CASE OF HENRY CORT, The three first-named causes are described as their use is becoming very general, although tending to attract the north end of the needle they certainly are not always free from a con

HIS INVENTIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE to the weather side of the ship in north mag- siderable amount of error. In moderate

OF BRITISH IRON. netic latitude, and to leeward in the south weather and large ships, mast compasses are magnetic hemisphere, and as increasing or de stated to act well ; but in small ships, where THOMAS WEBSTER, M.A.F.R.S., &c., Barrister-at-Law. creasing the usual deviations, according to their the motion is greater, the oscillation prename and the direction of the ship’s head. vents their being of service, except in fine During the period embraced in the account of These three may act in the same direction and weather. In nearly every case they show an Cort's invention, and its introduction already in the same ship. It is difficult to estimate attraction to ship's head in north magnetic given, everything had gone on with greater their separate effects, but the last is supposed latitudes (giving east deviation with ship’s head success than had attended any inventor. The to be most prejudicial

. The great expense east, and west deviation with ship’s head west, merits of the invention were not only placed attendant on heeling and swinging ship in port, taking ships to the south of their course), and beyond a question, but the merit of the invenand the delay caused by such an experiment very little quadrantal deviation. The usual tor was universally acknowledged. The mill where every hour is valuable, have prevented plus quadrantal deviation is found to decrease at Fontley was in full operation, and visited the Committee from directly testing this. as the compass is carried aloft, and is believed, by the large manufacturers anxious to be Dedactions can only be made, therefore, from in some cases, to change to minus quadrantal informed as to the best means of practising the the evidence afforded by various captains and after a certain elevation is attained. The effect new manufacture. Licences were taken at an inspection of the arrangement of the iron of the transverse iron, and iron placed before royalties estimated to yield £250,000 to the near the compasses of their respective ships. and aft the compass, appears to be cancelled, owners of the patents. Evidence from a number of captains shows : and in some cases exceeded, by the action of At this crisis, 1788, Adam Jellicoe, the part1. That in a large proportion of iron ships the the ship, as a long bar placed below the com ner of Cort, committed suicide, under, it would compasses are affected by heeling. 2. That pass. The Astronomer Royal has, however, appear, the pressure of dread of exposure of errors from heeling are generally most com- exceedingly little faith in the use of compasses being a defaulter to the amount of £27,500 of plained of when ships are on or near four-point at the mast head. Relying on the result of public money entrusted to him, and for which





he was responsible, for wages of seamen and paid by the deponent as Paymaster of His only £13,895 had been placed by Mr. Trotter officers of the navy.

Majesty's Navy unto Adam Jellicoe, late of to the credit of the alleged default. “EveryThe following letter, found in the iron chest Highbury-place, in the county of Middlesex, thing available having thus been turned into of Adam Jellicoe by G. Black, an accountant Esq., the chief clerk in the pay branch of the money and paid in diminution of the debt," the employed by Mr. Trotter, the Paymaster, to office of the Treasurer of His Majesty's Navy, mendacious memorial continues : " the patents schedule Jellicoe's effects preparatory to the for the purposes of his paying and applying the granted to Mr. Cort were also secured, and for extent, in 1789, dated 11th November, 1782, same in discharge of the wages of the officers a long time hopes were entertained that Parlia throws some light on the causes of the act :

and seamen of His Majesty's Navy, but which ment would, by rewarding so beneficial an in“Ever since I have had public money in my and apply for the purpose for which this depo- lessening the debt,” (i.e. the balance of the

said sum the said Adam Jellicoe did not pay vention, have provided a further fund for have the value of it in Navy bills in the iron nent paid him the same, but which said sum he £27,500 and upwards sworn to by Mr. Trotter);

“but that, notwithstanding the great merit of chest, that in case of my death the balance the said Adam Jellicoe at different times lent might be immediately paid in ; and I have and advanced unto the said Henry Cort, from the invention

and the use of it to the country

same now remains justly due remains uncontested---no compensation has always had much more than my balance by me, and owing; and this deponent saith he verily ever been made.” If it be fair to interpret till my engagement about two years ago with believes that the said Henry Cort is much de- men's words by their actions, there can be Mr. Cort

, which by degrees has so reduced me, ciyed in his credit and in very embarrassed little difficulty in reading what was in the minds I expected, that I have been obliged to turn circumstances, and therefore this deponent of Mr. Dundas and Mr. Trotter, when they most of my Navy bills into cash, and, at the verily believes that the aforesaid debt so due ruined Mr. Cort. At the date when he was same time, to my great concern, am very defi- and owing unto His Majesty is in great danger turned out of his own works and other free cient in my balance. This gives me great of being lost if some more speedy means be holds in Hampshire, and his partner, Jellicae uneasiness, nor shall I live or die in peace till not taken for the recovery than by the ordinary the younger, snugly installed in them, the the whole is restored. process of this Court.

Treasurer of the Navy had no greater difficulty “ ALEX. TROTTER."

(Signed) “But should my death be sudden, and before

before him in the way of obtaining payment

either of the sworn debt of £27,500, or of the I can make up the public balance, I hope I The action taken on this affidavit was most balance of it, than to carry the contracts “ he had shall not be reflected on, as I have always remarkable. The then Treasurer (Mr. Dundas) secured” to Mr. Richard Crawshay and others, meaned honestly and justly; and I must adopted a liability for which he was in no and demand of them a payment of 103. per earnestly entreat the Treasurer, Paymaster, or way honourably or otherwise liable, as more

ton of puddled and folled iron, secured whoever is most concerned, not to be severe in than £20,000 of the sworn debt had been ab- under their hand and seal, to the holders requiring the balance to be immediately re- stracted eight years previously, during the trust

of those contracts. The Treasurer had stored, lest my character should be traduced, of Mr. Wellbore Ellis. Between 1781, when the legal power to exact dues amounting and my son Samuel (who I hope is in a way to Mr. Ellis left office, and 1789, there had been between 1789 and 1798 to nearly £200,000

. make a comfortable provision for his brothers and four surrenders of trust in the office of Trea- | What he did receive could not be ascersisters) and my family be ruined.

surer ; as it was incredible, not to say impossi- tained from the ashes of burnt documents, “I have considerably more than £20,000 ble, that all these four persons could succes- and he refused any personal information to the engaged in the business with Mr. Cort and my sively have overlooked Jellicoe's current Commissioners in 1803, and to a Committee of son, and have paid almost all my engagements defunt, so well known in the office, there must the Commons in 1805 ; but, according to the and acceptances. I expect the returns in bills have been some strong consideration moving memorial quoted, he had received nothing, for for ironmongery wares will now come in very Mr. Dundas and Mr. Trotter to have induced the balance of A. Jellicoe's default remaining fast ; besides which, General Tenyn owes Mr. them to incur the risk of perjury in order to unpaid in May, 1800, is stated in that docuCort nearly £3,000, which Mr. Wilkinson, in assume unnecessarily a debt to the Crown of ment to be £24,846, which, subtracted from Abchurch-lane, assures me is as safe as if I had £27,500 and upwards. In the previous year, the sworn bt, leaves £2,654 and upwards it

. Mr. Morgan, the Purser (whose name is in 1788, Mr. Dundas had called upon A. Jellicoe the contract for iron wares), owes Mr. Cort to restore his defalcation, and make good his as the total realised in eleven years to the near £3,500. Both these debts are assigned to balance, to which intimation Jellicoe replied, effects, and the peculiar surrender to his private Messrs. A. and S. Weston, 31 Fenchurch-street, July 10th, 1788: “. But in the meantime) partner of the freeholds seized under a Crown for my use. Messrs. Weston have also in their in case you should think a security necessary writ for the discharge of a public debt. When hands monies received from Captain Wm. Hay for the responsibility of the situation which I and Captain O'Hara, in the Royal Navy, due have the honour to hold, I beg leave to offer of demanding of the contracting iron-masters

we consider how very simple was the process to Mr. Cort and assigned to me.

the enclosed (bonds and assignments of Mr. the patent dues, which for the year 1789, at “Mr. Sykes' agent, in Crutched Friars, has Cort's patents) amounting to a larger sum than the date of the extent, amounted to £15,00), a Navy bůl of mine, value £2,800, with interest | I can at any time hope to have in my hands £15,000 more in 1790, and £25,000 inore in due on it, on which I borrowed £2,000 of him. unemployed. — (Signed) A. Jellicoe.” That Mr. 1791, and which demand might have been enMr. Weston above-mentioned will, in case of Dundas thought very highly of the value of forced by the same legal process used to ruin my sudden death, assist in raising money for these securities at this time is shown by his the inventor, it is not difficult to surmise the me, as I doubt not Messrs. Bennett and Cure, memorial to the Treasury, May 1800, in which; motive for abstaining. Mr. Whitbread with Fenchurch-street, to save me from any imputa- referring to Adam Jellicoe's connection with tion, and my family from being hurt; and Mr. Cort, the patentee of an invention for Lord Melville, upon this memorial (the prayer

great, but surely not undue severity, charged they may be sure of being repaid by remittances making wrought from unwrought iron,” he of which was 'acceded to without examination) from Mr. Cort and my son, so that I hope my proceeds: “The sanguine hopes that were enbalance will shortly be made up ; and as I have tertained of Mr. Cort's inventions becoming Treasury for this £24,846, “ under false pre

with obtaining a receipt or discharge from the ever meaned to deal justly and honestly with productive, and the inefficiency of harsher

tences." the public and every private person, I again measures being considered, it was determined entreat that some favour may be shown to the Mr. Jellicoe should not be immediately sús

Such is a brief outline of the facts connected family of one who has served faithfully for pended, but that he should be pressed to use

with the lamentable sucide of Cort's partner, above forty years, and that it will not be in- every exertion to pay up his balance." He and the conduct of the authorities, which was sisted upon that the balance be immediately then gives an account, wholly false, of the ex- made the subject of further investigation in

(Signed) “A. JELLICOE. tent subsequently issued, immediately after A. 1805 on the question of the impeachment of "P.S.--I have also a mortgage of £4,000 on

Jellicoe's death, for he states that all his Lord Melville. the estate of Mrs. Catherine Dent, and above effects were turned into money and paid in £800 interest due on it."

diminution of the debt,” whereas it was dis

covered by the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry Her Majesty's ship Wrangler returned to Wool. The following affidavit in the Exchequer of that Mr. Cort's freeholds in Hampshire had not wich yesterday from an experimental cruise to try Mr. Trotter, shows the liability thrown on Cort been sold, but that Samuel Jellicoe, the son of the 40 lb, and 80 lb. Armstrong guns at sea. A by the proceedings of his partner :"Alexander Trotter, of the Navy Pay Office, them, under the extent, and had continued Wiseman, Vice-President of the Royal Ordnance

the defaulter, had been put into possession of most complete course of experiments was carried Esquire, and Paymaster of His Majesty's Navy, peaceably to enjoy them without any process of Select Committee of Woolwich Arsenal

, and Lieut. maketh oath and saith, that Henry Cort, of the Crown up to the date of that report in Thomas L. Ward, of the gunnery-ship Excellent Gosport, in the county of Southampton, iron 1803, a period of fourteen years ; and the Com- Sixty rounds of ammunition with the elongated manufacturer, is justly and truly indebted unto missioners likewise ascertained that out of the shot were fired with perfect success, and every His Majesty in the sum of £27,500 and up- effects of Adam Jellicoe, scheduled by George equipment pertaining to the gun was prononnced wards, for so much of His Majesty's money Black, under the extent, at £89,657, a sum of faultless. -Times of Saturday last.

paid up.

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