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SOCIETY

On the Comparative value of Certain Sults for ren.
Literature.
dering Fabrics Non-inflammable. By FRED. VERS- Proceedings of

of Societies.
MANN, F.C.S., and ALPHONS OPPENIEIM, Ph. D.,
Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, anı Bines. A.C.S. London: Trübner and Co., 60 Paternoster MANCHESTER LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL
New Edition. Edited by R. HUNT, F.R.S., &c.

row. 1859. Part II., December, 1859. London: Longman Tais pamphet forms the substance of a paper Ordinary Meeting, Nov. 15th, 1859. Mr. J. and Co.

read before the British Association at the Aber-C. Dyer, Vice-President. in the Chair. Mr. John We observe now what we did not notice when the deen meeting in September last. An article, Atkinson made a communication respecting a first part of the work was recently before us, viz., which we recently published on uninflammable curiously-shaped fossil, found abont a month ago that this new edition is to be published in monthly fabrics (which was copied into most English news in the Upper New Red Sandstone in a quarry near parts. In a twelvemonth's time, therefore, the papers, and translated into several foreign journals), Runcorn. This fossił had been described in the re-issue will be completed. This is a most satis- and a letter from the authors which appeared in Athenaum of the 29th of October last by Mr. factory arrangement.

our “ Weekly Gossip" a week or two since, Henry Wilson, Surgeon, Runcorn, who pointed This part shows that the great improvements render further description of the pamphlet un- out its striking resemblance to the mullion and noticed in the first were not put forward as mere necessary.

tracery of part of an ancient gothic window, not beguilerpents to purchasers. The labour and ex.

merely in size and general outline, but in the pense bestowed upon the new edition are as Our Military Engineers ; being an Inquiry into the moulding upon it, as if of tooling by the hand of manifest here as they were in it, the 381th page of

Present state of Efficiency of the Corps of Royal some primitive mason. On the 5th instant the the present part carrying us only to the article.

Engineers. London: Judd and Glass, 382 Now Atheneum contained two letters on the same subBoras, which appeared on the 23 bth page of the

Bridge-street, and Gray's-Inn-road.

ject. Neither of the writers had seen the fossil. edition of '53. We have new articles on Artillery The conclusion at which the author of this Opinions being divided, Mr. Atkinson visited the (94 pages), the Atomic Theory (3 p.), Borwood anonymous pamphlet arrives, after giving the Rancorn Hill® Quarry, examined the fossil itself, 11 p.), Bells (1 p.), Benzole (14 p.), Boghead coal matter the fullest attention, is that the separation and found it to be a mass of fine-grained sandstone (2 p.), the commencement of an elaborate one on

of the Civil and Military duties of the officers of veins. These had been deposited in thin horizontal Boring, and some scores of shorter ones. At the the corps of Royal Engineers is unavoidable, if lamine and moulded in a system of cracks formed same time many of the old articles are extended- we wish to preserve the corps. They cannot exist by desiccation and subsequent modificationthat on Barley from 10 lines to 1$ pazes, on Bis.

as they are at present. muth from 2 to 8.1 pages, on Bleaching from 174 bangle over their civil duties with th: assistance probably by the action of water—in the bed of

marl (here eight inches thick) so celebrated as to 33! pages

, on the flowpipe from oʻlines to 3 of the civilians attached to the department, but being that on which the last of the Labyrinthodon pages, ou Boracic Acid from to 2 pages, on having no one to perform the military duty for order of animals have left their footprints in such Borax from 2 to 3, and so fortă. The article on them, their utter worthlessness as a professional vast abundance at Stourton, Runcorn, Lymm, and Bleaching deserves particular notice, as it contains corps will be fully exposed. How they contrived various other localities. Professor Roscoe coma large mass of new and valuable inatter, and is to hush up their deficiencies in the Criinea cammot municated a paper by W. S. Jerons, Esq., late illustrated by a truly beautiful display of engrav- be imaginerl, unless it is attributed to the unity Assayer in the Sydney Branch of the Royal Mint, ings on wood. We recommend readers—all who which prevails among them; for there is no body entitled, “Observations on the Gold Districts of can afford five shillings a month for the purpose of men who adhere so well to each other in con; Australia." At the close of the paper the author -to put themselves in possession of the parts of cealing their deficiencies from the authorities and considers the important question of the probable this edition of Dr. Ure's unexampled work without the public as the officers of the corps of Royal future yield of gold to be expected from Australia. delay. Engineers.”

He bolieves that no more very large or rich fields

Having in view the difficulty which might be of alluvial gold will be discovered in Victoria, but Stories of Inventors and Discoverers in Science and supposed to arise in the separation of the civil that the present “gold-cirift” has by no means

the Useful Arts. A book for Old and Youn. By and military duties of the corps of Royal Engi- been worked out; so that when capital and moro JOHN TIMBS, F.S.A., Author of " Cariosities of neers, the author believes that all difficulties may complete mechanical appliances are brought to London,” “Things not Generally Known,” &c. be got over by confining the corps to the practice bear upon the ground which the first gold-digger

With Illustrations. London: Kent and Co. (late of military duties—which would include the con has relinquished as worthless, a constant and remu MR. TIMBs has here contrived to put forward 350 strnction of works of fortification, the practice of nerative supply of gold can be relied on. It is pages on inventors and discoverers without once

military bridges, .pontooning, siege operations, otherwise, the author believes, with the true gold acknowledging (so far as we can observe) that he light infantry manæuvres

, &c... being under the mines, those in which the auriferous quartz reef is is at all indebted to the MECHANICS” MAGAZINE control of the Commander-in-Chief. The exclu- worked. Here the supply is, as far as we know, for any of his facts or statements. This will seem sively civil duties which they are now supposed to unlimited—the assertion that quartz reefs became a curious circumstance to those who know how perform, and consisting of the designing, exe

pourer in gold as they decend being as yet quite unprominent a place this Magazine has held for cuting, and repairing barrack buildings, store proved, so that when the due combination of thirty-six years past in connection with invenhouses, the management of War Office lands, science and capital has been brought to bear upon tions and discoveries in science and the useful &c., should be handed over to a civil corps analo- the subject, there seems to be no reason why the arts ;” and we may, without vanity, say that he gous to the Military Store Department, and sub: auriferous quartz reef should not be followed as might have avoided some errors had he given ject to the Secretary-at-War. This corps would far as any other metal-bearing vein, as in the greator heed to what has been published here. be available in time of war as a substitute for the Cornish tin mines or in the silver mines of Mexico But having intimated this we hasten to express late Army Works Corps, and could be made to and Peru. Hence the author concludes that the our sense of the great value of the volume before perform the professional duties required in con- supply of gold from Australia will probably conus. It is, indeed, "a book for old and young,"

nection with Quarter. Master-General's Depart- tinue to be large and regular. and such a book as no other compiler known to us

inent, thereby permitting the employment of the Mathematical and Physical Section, Nov. 10th, could be expected to produce. Mr. Timbs does corps of Royal Engineers solely in the military 1859. Mr. T. Heelis read a paper On Storms, not bestow his labour grudyingly upon these operations of a siege. The Civil Corps is to be with some attempt to ascertain their tracks in the volumes of his which are appearing every few composed of men who, previous to their appoint neighbourhood of the British Islands,

and their months. They are well thought over, and worked ment, have received a practical training in archi- analogy to other Cosmical Phenomena.” at energetically. This volume is one which no tectare, civil engineering, building, &c. man in England, be he ever so cultivated, need be

MEETINGS FOR TIE ENSUING WEEK. ashamed to peruse, or could peruse without deriv.

LIST OF NEW BOOKS.

Mox.- London Inst., "On the radiation and absorption of

heat," by Professor J. Tyndall, F.R.S., at 7 p.in. ing much instruction from it. Abercieen's Principles of Beauty in Grecian Architecturas.

TUES.--Nat. Ciril Engineers, Continued discussion on Mr. Donaldson's Architechera Numismatica, illust., 638.

Grantham's paper “On Arterial Drainage and The Gardeners' Year Book, Almanack, and Direc. Encyclopædia Brittanica, 8th edit., by Trail, vol. 19, 24s.

Outfalls.” At half-past nine the visitors will adtory, 1860. By ROBERT Hogo. London: Cottage Hogg's Gardener's Year-Book, Almanack, and Directory,

journ to the library, when candidates will be Gardener Office, 162 Fleet-street, E.C. 1860, Is.

WED.-Royal Inst., "On the Physical History, Structure, ME. Hogg—who is a Vice-President of the British Keith's Coming Events cast their Shadows Before, 2 vols., and Materials of the Earth," by E. W. Brayley, Pomological Society, author of “ British Pomo.

Esq., F.R.S., at 7 p.m. logy,” “The Vegetable Kingdom and its Pro- Smile's Self-Ikelp, with Illustrations of Character and

Society of Arts, "On the forces used in Agricnlducts," and co-editor of the Cottage GardenerConduct, Gs.

ture," by Mr. J. C. Morton, at 8 p.m. has here started an exceedingly useful and cheap Tennant's Ceylon, Physical, Historical, &c., 2nd edit., Tiw.- Royal Society; le on the Analytical Theory of annual. The number for 1860 contains 150 pages 2 vols., 50s.

of a class including the Ellipsoid,” by Prof.

Donkin ; II. Supplement to a paper on the Therof well-selected matter, and is so admirably edited that the success of the author's undertaking will Toulon at half-past 11 on the morning of the 24th The steel-plated frigate Gloire was launched at

modynamic Theory or Steam Engines with dry

saturated steam, and its application to practise,” be assured by it.

by Prof. Rankine ; III., "On the effects produced inst., in presence of an immense concourse of spec

in Human Blood by Sherry Wine," by Dr. Cassell's Illustrated Almanack for 1860. London: occupied every point from which the dockyard of

A vast multitude, anxious to see the launch,

Addison ; IV. *** Supplement to a paper on the

influence of White Light of the different Cassell, Petter, and Galpin, La Belle Sauvage the Mourmillion is visible. The harbour presented a

coloured rays, and of darkness on the developYard.

most animated appearance. This almanack abounds in exceedingly well. formed a line to hail the Gloire on her passage to

Thousands of boats

ment, growth, and nutrition of animals," by Mr.

II. Dobell, at 8.30 p.m. selected matter, is lavishly illustrated, and is the sea, which she accomplished with perfect

FRID.-London Inst., "On certain principles of regetable

and animal chemistry,” by F. A. Malone, Esq.y unexampled for cheapness. success. Times,

F.C.S., at 7 p.m.

balloted for.

21s.

tators.

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12 »

Tons. Cwt.

EXPERIMENTS ON THE STRENGTH OF

The actual breaking weight being 58 tons, it | the dodecahedron with rhomboidal faces is left, as CAST IRON GIRDERS.

would appear that the constant co-efficient assumed composed with 4 rhomboidal cubes. The solid

is in each instance too high for the quality of iron content of the dodecahedron is equal to two cubes, By J. G. LYNDE, M.I.C.E., F.G.S.

of which these beams were cast. This result whose side is equal to the shortest of the diagonal The following paper was read at the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Nov. 1, 1859. appears to have been anticipated by Professor lines of the rhomboidal face.

No. 2. The rhomboidal dodecahedron as comin number, and were cast by Mr. Mabon, at the for Messrs. Marshall and Co., of Leeds, he gives The beams experimented on were eighty-nine Hodgkinson in the case of large beams ; and in

ene of his experiinents, art. 147, on a beam cast posed with six octohedrons. Ardwick Iron Works, Manchester, from iron of "625 as the co-efficient, which agrees with the re

N.B. The cubic octohedron with which the do. the following descriptions :

decahedron is composed, is not the regular sult of this experiment. One charge of the cupola consisted of

platonic body with eight faces, which are 12 cwt. Goldendale, Staffordshire.

Applying this co-efficient to Professor Hodgkin. son's formulæ, they will be as follows :

equilateral triangles, and which may be ob12 Lane End.

tained by a partition of the tetrahedron ; but

2.05 a d 12 » Ormesby, Yorkshire.

First formula, W=

this cubic octohedron has each face with two 12 Blair, Scotch.

2

angles of 54° 44' 08", and one of 70° 31' 44", 12 » Calder,

.625 Second formula, W=

being, in fact, one-half the rhombus bon the All No. 3 hot blast iron.

di (bds—(6—6)d)

face of the dodecahedron. This octohedron is scrap. The first of these would give 58:2 tons, and the

composed of two of the six pyramids into The beams were cast on their sides, and were a second 58-31 tons, as the breaking weight; either

which a cube may be divided, as seen by the very good sample of workmanship. of which calculations would be sufficiently correct

model. The section of each beam was of the form re- for any practical purpose.

No. 3. Cube marked with lines to show its par. commended by Professor Hodgkinson, and upon

tition into six bodies. which his formulæ were based ; the total depth of ON THE ANGLE OF DOCK GATES AND

No. 4. Cube built up with the six bodies. the beam in the centre was 241 inches, and at the

THE ROOF OF THE BEE'S CELL.

No. 5. Two of No. 4. united to form one-third ends 20 inches; the bottom flange was 15 inches

of a cube. wide, and 2 inches thick ; the vertical part of the By CHARLES M. WILLICH, Actuary University Life Assu

rance Society,

No. 6. One of these bodies of which No. 4 cube beam was 14 inch thick ; and the top flange was 44 inches wide, and 14 inch thick'; the total The proper angle at which dock gates should be is composed, being one-sixth of a cube divided length of the beam was 34 feet 6 inches, and the placed, so that the timber employed should yield into two, A and B, each being one-half a pyramid the most favourable result, has often been discussed

or one-twelfth of a cube. distance between the supports was 30 feet 9 inches; by mathematicians, and determined as a problem

No. 7. A rhomboidal cube, composed of six half. the weight of the beam was 3 tons 8 cwt. 1 qr. One of the beams was tested up to the break- found to be 109° 28' 16" of maxima and minima. The angle has been pyramids. Seven of these rhomboidal cabes form

the bee's cell (see No. 1), and four form the dodeing weight with the following results :

A patient investigation of the properties of the

cahedron. With a load in the centre of cube has enabled me to succeed in dividing it into

No. 8. Pyramid, being one-sixth of a cube or Inch. 31 8 the deflection was •87.

several geometrical solids, with which many deti. one-half of the cubic octohedron. 42 16

2:00.

nite and regular geometrical bodies may be con- No. 9. Pyramid, divided into four bodies. 46 12

2.25.

structed. The dodecahedron with 12 rhomboidal N.B. No. 8 and 9 together form the cubic 50 8

2.56.

faces is composed of 2 cubes, 6 octohedrons, or 4 octohedron. 54 4

2:70.

oblique rhomboidal cubes. The obtuse angle on No. 10. One-quarter of a pyramid divided and 58 0 the beam broke, its face measures 109° 28' 16", being the same as

re-united so as to form one-third of a cabe, which the ends springing back from each other 2 feet that adopted by mathematicians for the angle of is one-eighth of the solidity of the cube from 3 inches, the fracture indicating a good sound dock gates ; and by Maclauren

in the beginning of which the pyramid was derived. casting.

the last century as the best for the angle of the There was no permanent set observable in ang the models submitted with this paper, that by

N.B. This body is of the same form as No. 5; roof of the bee's cell. It will be readily seen by

but only one-eighth of the solidity. No. 10 of the experiments, until the breaking weight was

may also be produced at once by dividing the applied, the beam being allowed to recover itself elongating the dodecahedron, it becomes the preon the removal of the load in each case.

pyramid into four of these bodies, by quar. cise form of the bee's cell, with angles measuring 109° 28' 16".

tering across instead of diagonally; so that Each of the remaining beams was tested with a load of 20 tons in the centre, the deflection vary cube in two different ways. I have succeeded in dividing or parting the

the one-eighth part of the pyramid unites

either way to form the quarter of the pyra. ing from fths to žths of an inch.

1st. By lines from The calculations for the strength were based on the centre to the 8 solid angles of the cube, which

mid, cut diagonally or across.

No. 11. To show that by the union of the halfthe following formulæ, given by Professor Hodg. will give 6 four-sided pyramids. 2nd. By lines kinson in his “Experimental Researches on the from one of the upper angles of the cube, drawn pyramids a prism may be formed. Strength and Properties of Cast Iron:"

diagonally to the 3 opposite angles, dividing the First formula, art. 146 :

cube into 3 equal and uniform solids. Each of THE INVENTION OF THE HOT-BLAST Let W=the breaking weight in tons placed on these solids being halved forms a left and a right

USED IN IRON-MAKING. the centre of the beam,

handed solid. These 6 solids, though equal in a=the area of the bottom flange in inches,

solidity, differ so far in shape, as 3 are left-handed The following history of the invention of the d=the total depth of the beam in inches,

and 3 right-handed, in the same way as the hands hot-blast used in iron-making was recently prel=the length between the supports in feet, of the human body.

sented to the Institution of Mechanical Engi. Each of the six bodies obtained by the second

ncers in a speech by Mr. Neilson, the inventor of 2:166 ad then W=

the hot-blast system :-
1
mode of partition may be divided into two of

Six or seven years before he brought out the a=36,

equal solidity and of similar shape. Two of these d=24.25,

bodies, each being one-twelfth of the cube, may be plan, he bad read a paper before the Glasgow l=30:75,

so united as to produce the pyramid obtained by Philosophical Society on the best mode of taking which gives 60'09 tons as the breaking weight of the first mode of partition. Six of these bodies, out the moisture from the atmospheric air in each being one-twelfth part of a cube, may be so

summer time, previous to its entrance into the the beam. the thickness of the vertical part of the beam, and one-sixth of the cube obtained by the first mode and he had become satisfied that the cause lay in The second formula, art. 147, takes into account arranged as to form the oblique rhomboidal cube. furnace through the tuyeres; for it was found It may also be observed that the pyramid, or

that the make of iron was much impaired in

summer weather both in quality and quantity, is as follows: Let W=the breaking weight in tons placed on

of partition, may be divided into four bodies, each the greater proportion of moisture contained in the centre of the beam,

of which is one-third of a cube containing one.
eighth of the mass of the cube from which it was

the air at that season. l=the length between the supports in feet,

His first idea was to pass = the breadth of the bottom fange in inches , and reproducing bodies of a similat shape,

and cined lime, so as to dry it thoroughly on its own

derived. So that, in fact, we may go on dividing the air through two long tunnels containing cal7 = the thickness of the vertical part in inches, still retaining the diagonal lines of the cube. How to the blast cylinder

of the blowing engine ; bac d'=the depth from the top of the beam to the how much farther than our powers of vision go, Ewing, of the Muirkirk Iron Works

, in regard to far this subdivision may be carried in nature, or

this plan was not put to trial. About that time

his advice was asked by a friend, Mr. James upper side of the bottom flange in inches, I will not at present venture an opinion. We can

2 then W= (bW—(6—6%)da);

a blast furnace situated at a distance of half-aimagine the commencing atoms may be infinitely 3 d 1

small, when we remember the wonders revealed mile from the blowing engine, which did not ob1=30 75, by the microscope.

tain a sufficient supply of blast at that distance, b=15,

and consequently did not make so much iron as W=1.5,

List of Models accompanying Mr. Willich's paper. two similar furnaces situated close by the same d=24:25, No. 1. Model of bee's cell, composed of seven

rhom- engine; and it then occurred to him that since d' = 22.03,

boidal cubes. By taking away 3 of these cubes, air increases in volume according to its temperawhich gives 62:19 tons as the breaking weight of

• Read before the British Association at Aberdeen, the beam.

• The publication of this article has been unavoidably September 20, 1859.

delayed for several weeks.

In this case

In this case

ture, if it were passed through a red-hot vessel | in this respect the case had much similarity to | fronting the sea, lately granted by the Town before entering the distant furnace, its volume that of his countryman James Watt, who, in con Council for the purpose, a building fitted with would be increased, and it might be enabled to nection with the steam engine, invented the plan baths and all other necessary appliances, to which do more duty in the distant furnace. "Being at of condensing the stenm in a separate vessel, and shipwrecked mariners can be brought at any hour that time engaged in the Glasgow gas works he was successful in maintaining his invention by not, of the day or night, and at which there will be made an experiment at once on the effect pro- limiting it to any particular construction of con- the certainty of finding all things necessary to reduced upon the illuminating power of gas by a denser. He was glad of this opportunity of store them to health and strength; and it is supply of heated air brought up by a tube close acknowledging how firmly the English iron firmly believed that by such ineans many a valuto the gas burner; and found that by this means masters stood by him in the attempts made in the able life (as has already been the case in three inthe combustion of the gas was rendered more per early time of the use of hot blast to deprive him stances) may be saved. At a public meeting lately fect and intense, so that the illuminating power of of the benefits of his invention ; and to thein he held in the town hall, it was determined to appeal the particles of carbon in the gas was greatly was indebted for the successful issue of the severe to the humanity and generosity of the public augmented. He then tried a similar experiment contest he had then to go through.

generally to assist the inhabitants of Great Yarwith a common smith's fire, by blowing the fire

mouth in establishing an institution which may with heated air; the effect was that the fire was rendered most brilliant, with an intense degree of

HELP FOR SEAMEN.

be considered as partaking of a national character.

The Mayor of Yarmouth, who has brought this heat, while another fire blown with cold air Ir being pretty generally known that wę include

subject to our notice, has generously offered to showed only the brightness ordinarily seen with a very many naval gentlemen and persons more or high heat. Having obtained such marked results less connected with the way, among our readers of ours will gladly aid a cause which, at the pre

receive donations; and we doubt not many readers in these small experiments it then occurred to him that a similar increase in intensity of com

nautical affairs. Among other objects of interest sent time especially, deserves the good wishes of bustion

and temperature produced would attend the sailors' home and refuge for shipwrecked gise for devoting a few lines to such an object. the application of the same plan on a large scale to mariners, at Great Yarmouth, has lately come the blast furnace; but his great difficulty in under our notice, and we think it not altogether further developing the idea was that he was only beyond our duty to say a word in its favour.

IMPROVEMENT IN THE VOLTAIC a gas maker, and could not persuade ironmasters In no part of the world are there so many ship

PILE. to allow him to make the necessary experiments wrecks as on the east coast of England. During It is well known that Bunsen's pile, which is but with blast furnaces at work. At that time there the year there were no fewer than 600 casualties a modification of Grove's, consists of a glazed was great need of improvement in the working of between Dungeness and the Pentland Firth ; being vessel

, containing a cylindrical element of zinc, blast furnaces, for many furnaces were at a stand for more than 50 per cent. upon the whole number on which surrounds a porsus vessel filled with strong want of blast, beingunable to maintain the necessary the entire coast of the United Kingdom. This nitric acid, into which a charcoal cylinder has heat

for smelting the iron; and unless as much as £6 very large proportion is attributable to the vast been introduced, the liquid in the outermost vessel per ton could be obtained for the iron no profit was number of ships passing and repassing along these consisting of water acidulated with about 10 parts realised, on account of the heavy expenses attend. shores. It is calculated that not less than 40,000 of sulphuric acid. Now, although this is a most ing the furnaces. A strong prejudice was felt sail

, exclusive of vessels engaged in our fisheries, powerful combination, and in general use, it has against any meddling with the furnace, and a annually pass and repass through Yarmouth Roads ; two great inconveniences: first, the quantity of kind of superstitious dread of any change pre

most of them being engaged in carrying the pro-nitrous vapour it evolves is highly unpleasant, vailed, from the great ignorance of furnace duce of our collieries to London and other markets. and may become dangerous ; and, secondly, the managers with respect to the real action going on This Roadstead is the only natural harbour of re

current produced is not of constant intensity. in the furnace, and the causes of the fluctuations fuge on the eastern coast, and it is not uncommon M. "Thomas has just communicated to the Academy that occurred; when a furnace was making No. 1 to see many hundreds of vessels there at the same of Sciences a modification which he has effected iron no one would be allowed to touch it, for fear time; whilst on some occasions a long continuance in this kind of pile, and which would seem to be that if any change took place it might be many of adverse winds, either way, will cause a much quite free from the inconvenience alluded to. weeks before the furnace got round again from larger number to remain at anchor.

M, Thomas, in fact, shows that the development white iron. He at length succeeded, however, in But Yarmouth Roads are surrounded by a of nitrous vapour is one of the chief causes inducing Mr. Charles MacIntosh of Glasgow and a natural breakwater of very ons sands, which interfere with the constancy of the current, Mr. Colin Dunlop of the Clyde Iron Works to which in foggy weather, or when heavy gales inasmuch as they attack the copper ribands formallow him an opportunity of trying the applica sweep the coast, occasion many fearful shipwrecks. ing the electrodes, and effect certain chemical tion of heated air for blowing a furnace; and During the last three years more than 500 vessels combinations, which give rise to counter-currents, though the temperature of the air was raised but were stranded, wreckod, or lost off this coast, or and thus impair the principal one. He therefore little, not more than about 50° Fahrenheit, he compelled to put into Yarmouth harbour with

causes these gases, as tbey are evolved, to pass was glad to be allowed to make a trial even with damage. As a necessary consequence the loss of into a porous vessel, where they are decomso small an amount of heat. This first imperfect life is also great ; and the number of shipwrecked posed. In this process a secondary current is protrial of hot blast, however, with a rise of tempera- mariners who are landed at Yarmouth, year after duced which, by the peculiar construction of the ture of only 50%, showed a marked difference in year, is very considerable. The benefits which apparatus, is turned to account, and tends to the scoria from the furnace, causing it to be less The Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' correct the inequalities of the principal current. black, or containing less iron ; and he was there. Benevolent Society” has rendered at Yarmouth This arrangement also prevents the pile from before anxious to try the plan on a more extensive have long been gratefully acknowledged, but it has coming dirty, as is the case with Bunsen's pile. scale, in order to satisfy himself as to the change also been felt that something more was required. in the make of iron, and to establish the correct- The survivors of a wreck or the crew of a foundered ness of the principle. He was still retarded by vessel, are brought on shore always wet and weary, COMPOSITIONS FOR COATING Inox Suur's the strong objections of ironmasters to any altera- frequently exhausted by cold and hunger--often Bottoms. The following paragraph has been tions in connexion with the furnaces, which pre- more dead than alive. There was no place to communicated to the morning papers : -“A vented him from making the necessary experi- which they could be carried but the public-house, number of gentlemen interested in shipbuild. ments for ascertaining the best way of carrying where it was impossible to obtain, on the instant, ing, assembled recently in the Southampton out the plan: in one instance where he had so far those appliances which were so necessary to restore Docks, to witness the result of an experisucceeded as to be allowed to heat the blast main, suspended animation, and such other remedies as ment which had excited some interest among he asked permission to introduce deflecting plates circumstances required. To obviate this evil an persons of that class. In the early part vi in the main, or to put a bend in the pipe, so as to Institution was founded at Yarmouth about twelve last May the Royal Mail Company's steamship bring the blast more closely against the heated months since having for its object the social and Atrato was coated on the starboard side with sides of the pipe, and also increase the area of moral improvement of the fisherme beachmen, M'Innes's green copper soap, and on the port side heating surface, in order to raise the temperature and seafaring population of the town; and com- with Peacock and Buchan's pink composition, for to a higher point; but this was refused, and it bining the advantages of a sailors' home (so far as the purpose of practically testing the relativo was said that if even a bend were put in the pipe they are required here) and especially providing a merits of the two articles in keeping the bottom the furnace would stop working. These prejudices place of refuge for the shipwrecked and destitute of the ship clean. On docking the Atrato proved a serious difficulty, and it was two or three mariniers of all nations. 288 shipwrecked and for examination it was found that the staryears before he was allowed to put a bend in the distressed mariners have already been received board side was covered with coral pipe, shells, blast main ; but after many years of perseverance and relieved. Of this number 204 were British and barnacles, with a good deal of corrosion ; at the suhject he was at length enabled to work seamen and 84 foreigners of all nations.

while the port side was perfectly free froiu coraout the plan into a definite shape at the Clyde The inadequacy of the present establishment line incrustation or barnacles, having merely a Iron Works, as had been so completely and cor- bas, however, been made most painfully apparent thin slimy unctuous coating upon it. The result rectly described in the paper that had been read. during the recent gales which have desolated our is considered as having incontestably proved that The invention of the lot blast consisted solely in coast. In twelve days only, 109 shipwrecked preparations of copper are of little value in prethe principle of heating the blast between the mariners were brought to the Home, and relieved venting incrustation or fouling on the bottoms of engine and the furnace, and was not associated so far as the present limited resources would per- iron ships, while their galvanic action must. with any particular construction of the inter- mit. In order, therefore, to meet the very urgent sooner or later, prove injurious to the rivets and mediate heating apparatus; this was the cause of demands now måde upon the committee it has plates. The green composition is now being the suecess that had attended the invention, and I been proposed to erect upon a most eligible site, scraped off the Atrato."

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manner.

CAPTAIN NORTON'S GOSSAMER CAR CHAPLIN'S STEERING APPARATUS.

vessels it was peculiarly fitted, for the screw TRIDGE FOR SMOOTH-BORE GUNS. At a recent meeting of the Institution of Engi- of any injury being sustained by one of the plates

,

could be fitted between the plates. In the event neers in Scotland, Mr. Neilson explained the con

it could be hoisted on deck without trouble and struction and working of Mr. Chaplin’s steering repaired. If the steering plates were projected, apparatus, several models of which were exhibited.

one at each end of the vessel on opposite sides, and The improved steering apparatus is more par

so as to be parallel to each other, the vessel would ticularly destined for flat-bottomed boats of light draught for shallow waters, The steering is

move in a lateral direction, and would be easily effected by means of vertical plates disposed ob- brought alongside of a pier. liquely at cither end, or at both ends, of the vessel, in the manner shown in Figs. 1 and 2,

AULD'S APPARATUS FOR SUPPLYING The above is a sketch of Captain Norton's gossa

STEAM BOILERS WITH WATER. mer cartridge, with spherical ball attached, in. tended to be used with smooth-bore shot guns,

MR. DAVID AULD, of Glasgow, Engineer, has just double or single, fitted with ordinary patent

patented the “automatic mechanical arrangement breeches, and so utilise arms of that description in

for the efficient supplying of steam boilers with

water, so as to ensure both a plentiful supply and case of emergency. The tapering form of the

certainty of action," which is represented in the cartridge allows it to enter freely into the chamber so as to bring the small end as closely as

annexed engravings. Fig. 1 is a partially sectional

elevation of one modification of the apparatus. possible to the communication from the nipple. Both the bullet and powder cartridge are covered

Fig. 2 is a partially sectional elevation of another with cotton net, and the stiffness necessary to

modification of the apparatus, in which the several preserve the general form of the completed car

parts are arranged in a somewhat different tridge is gained by pasting a strip of thin paper

In the first arrangement, Fig. 1, the around it in such a manner as to leave each end

water for the supply of the boiler fows into the

apparatus . from an elevated tank or reservoir exposed. Curtis and Harvey's improved “ Large

through the feed-pipe which opens into the valve grain powder" has been found to be best suited lo

chamber A, the eflux of the water being prevented these cartridges. The net surrounding the bullet

by the clack-valve B, which closes the entrance to will retain any lubricating matter which may be preferred, and so facilitate loading and prevent

the valve chamber upon the occurrence of back pres.

sure on the water. From the valve-box the water leading of the barrel.

flows into the chamber C, and thence upwards

into the cup-shaped chamber D above; the POUPARD'S IMPROVED WHEEL-SKID.

chamber C has two fanged tubular openings in MR. WILLIAM POUPARD, Engineer, of the Black

the lower part, which serve to connect the appafriars-road, Southwark, has lately introduced an

ratus to the steam-pipe E and the pipe F, improved wheel-skid or shoe, which many persons

through which the water flows into the boiler G. think highly of. He forms his skid with a tail

The steam-pipe E is carried downwards into the piece extending backward from the wheel-chamber

boiler to the proper water level, and the waterso as to form an inclined guide or path for the

pipe nearly to the bottom. The flow of steam wheel to follow on entering the skid. This tail

through the pipe E is controlled by the valve F1 piece may be carried entirely through to the which are respectively an elevation and the plan of pressure of the steam within the boiler, and is

which is pressed up against its seating by the front of the shoe, and he prefers to form it of the stern of a boat fitted with the plates. There are prevented from falling away too far therefrom by wrought-iron or steel, while the body of the shoe two steering plates, A, one on each side of the the small bridge-piece I, which extends across the may be made of cast or wrought-iron. He finds vessel; and they work in vertical casings, the steam-pipe. The inlet to the pipe F is in like the best results to be obtained when the project. positions of which are indicated by dotted lines at ing tail piece is curved upwards, but he does not B in the plan, Fig. 2. Each platė, A, turns on a

manner controlled by the valve J, which rests limit himself to so shaping it. Fig. 1 of the joint at its front end, and when not required to water is flowing into the boiler. The tubular

upon the bridge-piece K, during the time that the turn the vessel to the side it is on, is drawn up seating of the valve H is made conical at the FIG.1.

within its casing. Independently of their peculiar upper part to receive the lower extremity of the suitableness for flat-bottomed boats, these plates tube 1, which passes up through the chamber have a greater control and act more quickly than and D, and enters the copper globe M, terminatthe ordinary rudder, from their being placed on ing near its upper part. The tube L is fixed in each side of the centre line of the vessel

. A pair position by the angular stays N, the lower bent of the plates at one end is sufficient for ordinary extremities of which are bolted to the globe M, requirements, whilst for intricate navigation a pair. the bolts serving also to connect the globe to the at each end may be used, to be actuated either short flanged pipe 0, which slides loosely in the simultaneously or separately.

opening of the cap P of the chamber Ď. This Mr. Downie asked, at what angle the steering cap is bolted to the fange of the chamber D, plates were set, and whether they had ever been diaphragm of india-rubber or other suitable practically tried; and, if so, with what result? flexible material being interposed between the Mr. Chaplin said that whilst various angles might faces of the flanges; the inner part of this be adopted, he preferred that of 37° from the line diaphragm is held between the flanges of the of the keel. The plates had been successfully pipe O. With this arrangement the water cannot tried. He understood that seventeen boats were escape, at the same time the pipe 0, carrying tho being or about to be built in England with globe M, is free to slide up and down in the

steering plates on the same plan as that described, opening in the cap P. The globe M is formed in accompanying engravings is a side elevation of a being chiefly for the Government. On trying the two parts which are bolted together, and at the wheel-skid or shoe, constructed according to his steering plates in a small boat, it was found that upper part there is an eye by means of which it invention, and Fig. 2 is a section through the line when plates were acting on the same side at both is attached to the chain Q, which is secured by a ab of the same. A is the body of the skid or ends, the boat turned round on a radius equal to nut to the upper extremity of the segmental part shoe, which is attached in the ordinary manner to its length. Another modification had been applied of the balanced lever R. The segmental part of a chain B; B' B' are sides or side pieces forming to a vessel built by his firm, and sent to Java, con- this lever is hollowed out like a grooved pulley, a chamber for the wheel; C is the tail piece, made sisting of a simple conical shell oscillating on an and at the central part of the lever there are by preference of steel or wrought-iron, and axis, a piece being cut out of the cone, and one laterally projecting knife edges similar to those riveted or bolted to the body A, as shown by the side or other being made to project as required; of a scale beam. These knife edges rest upou a dotted lines in Fig. 2. He prefers to form the but this was only suitable for small vessels, where hardened steel plate, which is supported in slots tail piece of a curve to correspond with the con- the apparatus was not to project through the made in the forked extremity of the pillar 8; tour of a wheel, but this shape can be varied deck. The vessels which he mentioned as in this pillar is carried upon an overhanging bracket without departing from the essential features of course of building were to draw 2 feet water, to cast on the side of the chamber C. To the outer the invention. Fig. 3 shows a wheel just entering carry 1,000 men, and coals for a voyage of 50 part of the rocking lever R is fitted an adjustable the skid; to provide for this raise the chain B, miles. They were 220 to 240 feet long, and 35 counterweight I, which is fixed at the proper which brings the tail Aush or nearly so with the to 40 feet beam, and almost perfectly flat. They distance from the centre by the set screw U. ground, and allows the wheel to run in ; let go were, he understood, intended for the navigation of Arching over the centre of the lever R and its the chain, and the wheel comes to rest in the skid. the Ganges, and other rivers of India. The steering supporting pillar is a bridge-piece V, which is The improved skid is now being made in large apparatus was adapted as well for deep sea vessels bolted to the lever R; this bridge-piece has a quantities.

as for those of shallow drauglt; and for screw segmental slot made in it, in which are fitted two

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FIG.2.

B

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adjustable sliding stops W. These stops serve to up with unerring certainty, the filling or partial | until the weight of the vessel m is sufficiently recheck the lateral motion of the vertical swinging filling of the globe, and the discharge of its con- duced to admit of its being raised by the counterrod X, the lower end of which is carried on a stud tents into the boiler being regulated according to weight t, and thus restored to its normal position. fixed in one of the upwardly projecting ends of the evaporative power of the boiler.

The upward motion of the vessel m is followed by the pillar S; at the upper part

of the rod is fixed In the modification shown in Fig. 2 the water the opening of the valve b, and the closing of the the weight Y, which is fastened thereto by a set from the overhead tank or reservoir flows valves he and j, and the self-acting operation of screw. The weight T' is fixed at such part of the through the vertical feed-pipe a, the lower part refilling the vessel m again goes on. lever R, so that it counterbalances the weight of of which is closed by the valve b, which opens “By means of either of these modifications of the globe M and its appurtenances, together with into the cast-iron water-chamber c; this chamber my improved automatic feed apparatus,” says Mr. a certain quantity of water in the globe, the has fitted in the upper part a cock d, for the dis- Auld, the due supply of water to boilers is most upholding action being assisted by the overhang- charge of air from the chamber as the water flows efficiently provided for, at the same time the ing weight Y on the rod X. As the water flows into it from the feed-pipe a. The lower part of simple arrangement of the several parts almost in from the supply-pipe and-up into the globe M, the chamber c is cast with two flanged tubular precludes the possibility of derangement." when it reaches a predetermined height therein, openings, by which the apparatus is attached to the accumulated weight overcomes the gravity of the steam-pipe e and feed-pipe f, which project the weight I', so that the lever R turns upon its out above the boiler g. The steam and feed-pipes CLAYTON'S PATENT BRICK AND TILE centre, and the weight Y is thrown forward are fitted with valves h and j, which when open

MACHINERY. against the right-hand stop W; this action faci- rest on the bridge-pieces i and k in manner similar We have been invited, prior to the opening of the litates descent of the globe M, the short pipe o to the arrangement of the corresponding parts in Smithfield Club Show, to inspect the working of descending into the cup-shaped chamber D, at Fig. 1. The spindle of the valve h is prolonged some brick and tile machinery just completed by the same time the transverse pin at the lower part upwards so as to enter the lower extremity of Messrs. H. Clayton and Co., in accordance with of the tube L comes in contact with the upper the tube l, which is fitted in the centre of the their several patents, and which machinery will be end of the spindle of the valve A, and the end of cylindrical vessel m, the upper part of the tube exhibited in motion during the continuance of the the tube enters the conical part of the tubular being held in position by the transverse stays n. show, partly in Baker-street, and partly at Messrs. valve seating. The depression of the valve allows The vessel m is by preference made of copper, and Clayton's Atlas Works, Upper Park Place (within the steam to pass up the tube L into the globe it has at the lower part a valve o, by means of a few minutes' walk of Baker-street), where alone M, its pressure causing the air valve 2, which is which the contents escape into the chamber the larger machines can be shown; the space prootherwise kept open for the egress of the air as when the valve spindle comes in contact with the curable in the Baker-street building being too the water flows up in the globe, to shut. The bottom of the chamber. The vessel m is connected limited to admit of the exhibition of any of the pressure of the steam on the surface of the water by means of the bridge-piece and rod p to the machines, excepting one worked by hand power, in the globe causes the valve J to open, and the chain q, which is attached to the segmental ex. but which is yet capable of turning out several water tiows down the pipe F into the boiler, the tremity of the rocking lever r. The arrangement hundred bricks an hour, whether solid or pertosteam pressure serving also to close the valve B, of this lever and the parts connected therewith rated, or a proportionate quantity of tiles, drain which prevents the water being forced back are in all respects similar to the corresponding pipes, or similar articles. ^ Before describing in through the feed-pipe. The inflowing of the parts delineated in Fig. 1, and do not therefore detail the late improvements made in Messrs. H. water into the boiler continues until the globe M is require further description. The water from the Clayton and Co's machines, we think it well to so far reduced in weight that the counterpoise T'is tank or reservoir flows through the pipe a, and observe that much credit is due to these gentlesufficient to overcome its gravity and that of the falls into the vessel m, which when nearly filled men for their untiring perseverance in introducing weight Yin its overhanging position to the right of descends to the position shown in Fig. 2, the de modifications in the details of their machines, the centre of the lever R. When this takes place the scent causing the valves h and o to open. The steam which extended practice has from time to time globe M is raised by the motion of the lever R; having now free ingress to the chatnber c through suggested, and is ever certain to suggest when the valves H and K are closed by the pressure of the tube 1, its pressure closes the valve b, and there is any disposition to profit by experience. steam in the boiler, and the apparatus is again acting upon the surface of the water, the valve j The principle of "leaving well enough alone” is restored to its normal position. In this manner is opened, and the water flows into the boiler 9 doubtless, as regards many things, a very safe one, the due and effective feeding of the boiler is kept through the pipe f. The flow of water continues especially when changes are made, as it were,

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