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hap-hazard for the sake of appearances, rather than | viously to be being burned; but it has been com- | happened that prizes at our agricultural shɔws have from any real desire to attain perfection ; but this pletely overlooked that quite as much it not very been, perhaps unwittingly, awarded to those who principle would appear to be held in very light much more time and expense are involved in pre- have simply adopted Messrs. Clayton and Co.'s esteem by Messrs. Clayton and Co., for notwith paring that clay before it is made into bricks, this principles in the construction of their machines. standing many hundreds of admirable machines preparation really necessitating great storage room, Lastly, we may as well state that Messrs. Clayton having during the last few years been constructed besides being very difficult, owing to the necessity & Co., besides manufacturing brick making and set to work by them, sufficiently perfect to for just so far drying the clay as to prevent it machines and brick factory fittings of all kinds satisfy the wants of those using them, we find adhering to the moulds, and yet not so far doing whatever, have snccessfully introduced a green crop every year changes made in their details which it as to deprive it altogether of a tendency to mower, which has given great satisfaction. The evince on the part of their constructors an abso cohesion amongst its particles. Space will not guide bars of this mower are very beautifully lute mastery over the subject which they have admit of our discussing the pros and cons of the formed in the shape of the letter Y, the upper made their special study-changes perhaps hardly dry and wet principles of brick making, but one portion not being solid as is usually the case, but noticeable by casual observers, but which, never point strikes us very forcibly, and that is that, consisting of two prongs with an open space theless, when cost of construction and durability from what we have seen the dry process requires between them, which allows of any matter which are concerned, are of the very highest importance, very powerful, heavy, and expensive machinery, becomes clogged to free itself immediately and 50 and deserve, especially at our hands, a careful in- costing to the tune of £3,000 or £1,000, for mak preserve the cutting edge of the knife. We will vestigation and favourable notice. To make a ing say 20,000 bricks per day; whereas, for about only add that the maufacture of bricks by means machine which will sell, and to call it the best that one-sixth of this sum wet brick machinery of the various machines now made to facilitate it is made, is one thing; but to make a machine can be had of equal productive power. In other (not forgetting an ingenious one for ridding the really as well as it can be made before it is offered words, by the expenditure of the above sum, wet clay of stones by a process of straining the clay for sale, is quite another thing, but one which we brick machinery may be procured (even after through a comparatively finely perforated platej fully believe Messrs. Clayton and Co. always allowing for additional labour) of five times the may be carried on as cleanly and as comfortably attempt to do.

productive power of that for making bricks on as the manufacture of bread might be. Those The points to which we now more especially the dry process. The problem Messrs. Clayton horrid red-headed and dusty, unrecognizable desire to call the attention of our readers, relate and Co. set themselves to work out was--to make individuals so frequently seen in ordinary brick first to the motle of driving the “ roller" dies of a clean and perfect block of plastic clay; and the fields are fast going out of date, and their places the brick machines. Until recently these dies were product of their machines is assuredly the Q.E.D. supplied by others inuch more human in appearance, driven continuously by means of straps, that is, It would be quite impossible in a notire like the who can perform their labour without literally they were in motion both when the clay was being present to do more than hint at the various wallowing in the mire. passed through or rather between them, and also machines Messrs. Clayton and Co. construct, when the clay was stationary, which caused them suitable for manufacturers of bricks, either on a

STEAM-SHIP ECONOMY. to be unnecessarily worn by their rubbing against large or small scale, whether the machines be it. Besides this, the straps frequently slipped driven by steam, water, animal, or manual power,

TO TIE EDITORS OF TIIE“ MECHANICS' VAGAZINE." when accidentally wetted by the water used for and whether intended for solid and hollow bricks GENTLEMEN,—The objection to the formala lubricating the surface of the dies, which caused alone, or for these as well as tiles, drain-pipes, and which Mr. Atherton and the committee of Section the dies to travel at different speeds, and which, similar articles. Suffice it to say, that at the pre- | G of the British Association have adopted as the to some extent, was injurious to the perfect forma- sent time, having devoted considerable time to test for economical performance in the steam mer. tion of the clay. The roller dies are now, however, the subject and liad much experience in fitting cantile navy, rests on the ground, first, that the driven by bevel-gearing, which is rarefully boxed up brick manufactories, these gentlement are i power of the displacement is improperly emup in order to keep it ciean, and which is actuated enabled to supply all and every requisite for ployed in place of the midship section-for that at proper intervals only (when the clay is in motion) the thorough organisation of brick or similar this is its purpose is now avowed by Mr. Atherton by a cam and lever worked from the main shaft. clay ware works, including plans for the —such factor being an imperfect factitious substi. Again, the dies which are covered with a porous laying out of the works, the construction tute thereof, a mere mathematical expedient in material (kept moist and clean by water supplied of the kilns, drying sheds, &o., and, moreover, lieu of the reality. It is true, as suggested by both to its back and face) were formerly entirely advise on the selection of the sites for the erection Mr. Atherton, that the one will be as proper as so covered, about one inch both at top and bottom of the works themselves. The production of the other, or that the midship sectional areas will continually rubbing against the ends of the upper “bricks, whole bricks and nothing but (good wet) vary exactly with the square of the cube root of and lower fixed dies, and which caused compa- bricks," has been the forın of asseveration made the displacement, when the bodies immersed are ratively rapid wear. This evil is now got over by by Messrs. Clayton and Co., any day these last similar in form and general proportions; but it is encircling the roller dies with brass hoops at top five and twenty years, and as brick and tile mas precisely because vessels are dissimilar in those and bottom, leaving the covering material only ters they still stick to their "leather.” of respects that any formula is of any use at all exactly deep enough to equal the thickness of the machines lately ordered of Messrs. Clayton beyond determining the comparative efficiency of brick. Lastly, the foundation of these roller and Co., we may mention as many as twenty propellers, engines, and boilers, instead of the dies on which the coating is lapped is now for the Government for India, while of those comparative inerits in the build of ships, and made of white metal which does not oxydise, even now exhibiting one is for Prince Bariadinsky, beyond ascertaining the effect of mere size. The although the machine lies idle for several months, another for Prince Potenkin, and a third for formula in respect tovits ostensible existence combut which would immediately result from the con- Prince Demidoff for his mines in Siberia. There mits through its accuracy a felo de se. Even as tact of the wet covering with the rollers were they is also a large machine for Venice, and an order of to its remote and limited ability, there would exist of iron. We now pass on to improvements made some 20 machines is shortly to be completed for no reason for preference, no difference in resalt for ensuring an uniform tension of the cutting Bombay. With respect to special machines we must between the formula in terms of midship section wires. Formerly a rigid bar carried the end of not omit to notice the new one for the manufac- or in terms of displacement, if this statement of these wires, which were quite independent of each ture of very large drain pipes or gas retorts. This substitution and identity be accepted. That Mr. other, and were tightened up by hand as equally machine is so constructed that the core or piston Atherton should have conceived the possibility of as possible; now, however, nearly perfect unifor- is not supported by any cross-bar, which would of my “questioning the geometrical fact" on which mity is secured by fixing the carrying bar rigidly course divide the stream of clay issuing from the the substitution is founded, could only have arisen at one end only, that is, by bending it at that end machine, and which strain would not completely from the printer's error, of making me say that in the form of a right angle, and then by the unite in a short distance, thus causing the pipes the 3 power of displacement is a fictitious instead tension produced in the wires, bringing the other to crack ; but the core or piston is suspended from of a factitious thing; but of course your correend (fitted with a friction roller) down about an a long rod attached to the upper part of the ma- spondent does not require to be told that such inch until it rests upon a curved cross-bar, and chine, thus leaving the clay undivided in its way substitution must necessarily be false and misupon which the friction roller travels as the wires through the die plate. Several of these machines leading, when the condition for the truth of the are moved from side to side. Another matter are at work,

We may also mention an ingenious "geometrical fact” is wanting, namely, that the which we may here mention is, that the small machine for making extra finished bricks by plac- bodies be similar. So much for the erroneousness pinions used in these machines are cut out of solid ing ordinary bricks when in a moist state under of the formula as being based on the midship blocks of wrought-iron, instead of being cast. The pressure (about 3 tons) given by a bob lever and section“ in terms of the displacement." importance of this can perhaps be appreciated only weight worked by hand, and which puts a fine But secondly, and principally, the objection to it by those who have worked machinery subject to the polish on the surface of the bricks, besides stamp: rests on the ground of its being wholly inapprosame rough usage as brick machinery is, and more ing any device upon them if required. The mould priate to the purposes which it professes to serve especially when worked abroad or even in some is in this case kept lubricated by a layer of cotton among merchant steam-vessels, namely, to test home districts where repairs cannot be readily saturated with oil

, being placed between two plates their carrying capacity in relation to speed and effected.

which together form the lower piston of the mould. power; and this objection is equally valid. Before concluding we would for a moment We regret to learn that many of the improve. although we base the formula on the true midship allude to the various attempts made to manufacture ments really invented and patented by Messrs. section, instead of making the power of the disbricks from dry clay, by means of pressure. This Clayton and Co., and so successfully introduced placement do duty for it. All the information mode of manufacture has been favourably looked into their brick machinery, have like many other that can be obtained by it is the velocity in reupon in some quarters, from the idea that a con- good things become imported into the produc. lation to power when the area of resistance is siderable saving both in time and money could be tions of rival manufacturers so soon as their constant, or the area when the velocity is constant, made from the bricks requiring no drying pre. I success has been established, and it has even of which the only item that is useful is the velocity. The carrying capacity in combination, then let the attempt be made to scuttle it during prove invaluable to many brave fellows who pass with speed is completely ignored, nor can it even a gale, fifty miles S.W. of the Land's-end, and if their lives on the ocean, too many of whom find be conjectared from the midship section, for the all attempts to do so should fail, then, and not till in it a grave. one might angment, or it might diminish, with then, will Mr. Atherton have proved the practica- I remain, gentlemen, very respectfully, the augmentation or with the diminution of the bility of adapting his invention for purposes of

JOIN DE LA HAYE. other. What, then, is the use of this formula as naval warfare.

Perth, November 18th 1859. applied to merchant vessels in their character of I have been engaged during some time in transports of merchandise ? Mr. Atherton says attempting to discover a plan for saving not ships, that I “admit the applicability of the formula but human life, when the destruction of a ship

SAILING. based on the midship section," which I certainly becomes inevitable. The small boats usually found

TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECIANICS' MAGAZINE." do, but only for the pupose I stated, namely, of even in large vessels are, in nine cases out of ten,

GENTLEMEN, -Suppose two ships sailing in the obtaining the comparative worth of the lines of useless. They founder, or are dashed to pieces same direction, with a strong gale on the quarter, vessels through the velocities attained with a against the ship, as soon as they are filled with

one of the old form aptly described as being built definite amount of power, and consequently the human beings. The plan which I propose as a by the mile and cut in lengths, the other of the comparative worth of merchant-ships, in their substitute for existing arrangements, is applicable modern clipper form. The former is under recharacter as passenger vessels primarily. Here to all existing ships, without incurring any great duced sail and goes ten knots, the latter carries the useful effect contemplated is merely velocity, expense. I would suggest that every ship should

on and goes eighteen knots; the spars of the and this the formula indicates, and this alone; but be furnished with an upper moveable deck, which former bend as though another foot of sail would if we would view it and value it conjointly with could be unshipped, and made to answer the pur break them, the latter shakes out the reefs as she the amount of goods carried, we must approxi. pose of a raft. This deck-raft, if I may so term it, gathers way, and sail is added without danger to mate thereto through a formula based on the dis- would be fastened to the ship only by means of the spars. If the pressure of wind at the time is placement simply, as I have heretofore explained. screw-bolts, which could be easily removed, but as ten pounds per square foot of stationary surface, Indeed I cannot think that the author of the for the masts would pass through it, it would at all the pressure on the former ship’s sails would be mula under animadversion, whoever he is, intended other times form an immoveable portion of the about six pounds per foot, while the clipper's sails merely " to express the midship section in terms of vessel. The bulwarks might be connected with would only have to sustain 16 pounds per foot, the displacement,” but wished, although making a the upper deck, but the rigging would be fastened her speed reducing the actuating force to that muddle of the thing, to mix up with it the element to the ship. After losing all hopes of saving a

extent; and this accounts for the fact that capof tonnage. Mr. Atherton does not attempt to vessel, the masts and rigging would be cut away, tains of clipper ships cart ing such a press of sail defend the appropriativeness of the formula; the screw-bolts removed, and the deck raft entirely as they do in favourable gales, every foot of canvas would it not then have been as well to have disconnected from the hull of the vessel; the added reducing the surface pressure, and adding acknowledged at once that it is indefensible? I waves would soon set it afloat, and it might prove

to the speed without unduly straining the ship. beg to assure him that I intended exoneration, a life raft capable of saving hundreds of lives. In

Two yachts of equal dimensions, differing in and not an inuendo, by saying that from what I the loss of the Royal Charter, we have a melan- form, but of equal spread of canvas, sail a match. could understand he was not the author of it. It choly instance of the want of provision for saving It is generally supposed that such a match is a seems I might have learnt in his own writings life ; and such tragedies may be soon repeated, for fair one, and that they both carry the same power. that he has disclaimed any such honour, but I cool heads and clear judgments are not always This, however, is a mistake, and it is, in most have not had the pleasure of other acquaintance the attributes of commanders of vessels. The form cases, very unfair to the fleetest of the two, for with them than through your pages.

of a vessel causes it, on drifting, to strike aground she has to win the match with less power than Yours, &c., BENJAMIN CHEVERTON. a few hundred feet from the shore; and it is in the slower vessel, for the reason shown above. that narrow space of water that thousands of lives

Supposing, then, that ships are provided with UNSINKABLE SHIPS AND RAFTS.

are annually lost. Is it too much to assert that ample canvas for favourable winds, with steam

had the Royal Charter been furnished with a deck power for calms and light winds, still there reTO THE EDITORS OF THE “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” raft none on board would have perished ? I think mains the fact that heavy adverse gales may and

GENTLEMEN, Mr. Atherton evidently imagines not. Several hours passed between the ship being do arise when steam and sails are almost useless. that in proposing to construct unsinkable ships run on shore and her breaking up. This would When I heard of the wreck of the Royal Charter, he has made a valuable discovery. He seems, have allowed the raft to be unshipped, and the pictured to myself a large ship in this very however, to be satisfied with the principle, apart passengers to be transferred to it; when being position ; yet I could not help thinking that the from any consideration as to the obstacle which may hat, it would have been thrown by the waves

hurricane which proved such an enemy to her stand in the way of its being practically applied ; within a few minutes high upon the beach.

might, by suitable means, have been converted and he leaves to others the task of maturing the invention, so that vessels may be built which will steamers, I would construct the deck-raft in two

In the case of large vessels, more especially into a friend.

Reverting to my first illustration, it is evident defy shot and shell, wind and waves. I presume sections, the division being near the funnel. This that the two vessels can carry canvas in the prothat those who will succeed in fulfilling these re would give great facilities for launching it on the portion of 1 to 3.75 with the same amount of quirements will deserve as much credit as the in, waves, and in many instances one section only strain on each, and the effective horse-power used ventor; possibly, however, Mr. Atherton will would be required. The raft should, of course, be in propelling two ships may be represented as compete for the prize which is to be offered by constructed

as firmly as any portion of the vessel, 1,000 in the case of the slow vessel, and 1,800 in the Society of Arts, and consequently may succeed but as it would form the real deck, the planking that of the clipper. in keeping all the credit to himself—and which he beneath might be thinner than usual. As, how

It is evident, therefore, that to obtain great will most certainly deserve. So far, the invention ever, it would be essential that water should never

power from the wind a certain amount of speed of has been but vaguely defined. In the first place, percolate between the two, I would propose to the propelled surface is necessary. A ship in a we are favoured with a ship which is to be a solid fasten some waterproof substance on the under hurricane with a dangerous shore under her lee mass up to the water line; and that such a ship part of the deck-raft. Vulcanized india-rubber, cannot, as ordinarily rigged, carry sufficient sail would float under all circumstances, there is no

or kamptulicon, would be unquestionably the best, to realise the power to gain an offing; yet power room to doubt; but what have we to prevent it but the cost might be too great; and in that case, is to be had in abundance, and to apply this power from floating keel upwards ? and from sending its

a rope matting saturated with tar might be used — revolving vertical wind-screws* should be used dead and living cargo into the depths of the ocean?

or better still some light, cheap, water and fire capable of ready hoisting and lowering, and geared We have an answer, or that which may be sup-proof substance, not yet discovered ; but in the dis- to either screw or paddle-wheels, by which an imposed to be intended as an answer, from Mr. covery of which we may receive some valuable

mense and cheap power can be applied, eclipsing Atherton, in the form of an explanation, in the assistance from the Council of the Society of Arts. both steam and ordinary sails, when working to last number of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE ;—the Such a deck would be valuable, independent of its windward in heavy gales. machinery is to be placed below the water line. ever being required for saving life, as it would

I have made some calculations upon the subThis I suppose includes the boilers, fuel, &c. muffle the sounds caused by dragging chains and ject, and I think that no vessel thus fitted need Perhaps it will also be found essential to make heavy weights-sounds so disagreeable to passen- be lost on a lee shore; in fact, a head-wind may room considerably below the water line for the gers, as any one who has passed a few nights at sea

be regarded as a very valuable propelling power, powder magazine ; for shot and shell; and by during a gale can testify. Various modes of con- instead of a hindrance to a vessel's progress. I this time we shall find the ship, the solid mass, structing the raft will suggest themselves to ship. propose that the wind-screws should be made to tolerably well ballasted. But will he not admit the builders, so that it might be converted into a ship take a convenient form for housing on deck when necessity of scooping out of the mass a spacious should occasion require ; and I hope that the idea not in use. “cock-pit," in which the surgeon will be in no will not be altogether discarded unless a more

Suppose the Great Eastern to be thus fitted, I danger of having his head knocked off by a stray effectual plan can be devised for preventing

the should make the radius of the wind-screw 40 feet, shot, while amputating the limb of a naval hero ? loss of so many valuable lives, frequently within the pitch 120 feet; the screw could be lowered on Clearly there is no necessity for building new a stone's throw of terra-firma.

deck and housed in a house built across the deck ships before adopting Mr. Atherton's invention. I believe Mr. Atherton's invention admirably 81 feet long by 10 feet wide and 6 feet high, and In order to test its value, all that is required is to adapted for fishing boats, but in its present form, could be hoisted in about 15 minutes. In a wind select a line-of-battleship-an old hulk; let it is not worth much. If his ambition will con producing a pressure of 33 lbs. per square foot of the hold up to the water line be filled up with descend to take a sufficiently humble flight, and stationary surface, every square foot of this screw some light, water and fire-proof substance, with mature his invention, he will accomplish as much

Many persons would call them wind-mills, but the the exception of the spaces above enumerated; I as if he had built an unsinkable frigate. It would I word mill is inapplicable.

of the receiver.


would produce about of a horse-power, and, as one tenth the pressure has at least ten times the

NOTICES. the Greate Eastern could couveniently carry 3 such velocity and expansion of the gases from gun. screws, from 5,000 to 8,000 horse-power could be powder ; this difference arises from the greater The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to obtained without burning a pound of coal. elasticity of steam. Atmospheric air underthe same all subscribers of £1 Is. 8d., annually, payable in advance.

I do not claim to be the inventor of" windmills pressure would have greater velocity andexpansion, Post Office Orders to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at on deck,” the plan was patented so far back as although not approaching to that of steam, water the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C. 1709, and most of the subsequent patents (many on the other hand being non-elastic would have of them very absurd) are therefore wanting in less velocity, and, of course, no expansion, and

THE APPEAL. novelty, and void. The plan is open to all, the therefore a discharge of water is greatly inferior to Since our fast notice on this subject the following sums wind is a cheap motor, the safety of lives and steam as a method of propulsion. Inattention to have from time to time been received, viz., T. B., £1; ships is important, and I believe the adoption of the differences in velocities of gases and their ex

J. N., 10s. ; J. T. 58.; II. O., 28. 6d. ; H. B., 2. 6d. For this mode of using adverse strong winds would pansion is, I believe, one of the principal reasons ench and all of these we have to express the warm thanks greatly reduce the chances of shipwreck, and why carbonic acid has not hitherto been worked with it the cost of insurance, and tend to increase to a successful result as a motive power. A steam the speed and economy of transit. rocket of 1 oz. propels a boat of 7 ft laden with

[ADVERTISEMENT.) I am, Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 20 lbs. With a properly constructed vessel I have TO THE EDITONS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." T. Moy. no doubt a speed of 30 miles per hour may be ob

Scottish Central Railway, Locomotive Department, 1 Clifford's-inn, Nov. 22, 1859. tained in smooth water.-Yours &c.,

Perth, November 21, 1859.


Dear Sirs, Will you oblige me by inserting in your two

next numbers that I do not claim the Originality of the TO THE EDITORS OF TIE“ MECITANICS' MAGAZINE."


Throttle Valve in the Blast Pipes in Locomctive Engines,

as a means of retarding railway trains, though patented by GENTLEMEN,,In last weeks MECHANICS' The following letter explains itself, and deserves me : for, since I did so, I have found it previoqsly patented MAGAZINE a letter appeared from Mr. Alexander attention :

by Mr. RUDOLPH BODMER, of London, to whom any merit illan of the Scottish Central Railway, disclaim


is due in introducing it in this country. ing the inrention the throttle in the blast pipe SIR, -As none of your correspondents have

I am, dear Sirs, yours truly, of the Locomotive Engine, and awarding the questioned the statements made by Mr. George

ALEX. ALLAN. whole merit of its introd ction into this country Shepherd, C.E., in his letter on the value of sew. to Mr. Rudolph Bodmer, of London. I cannot age to the farmers, inserted in the Times of the suffer that statement to pass without calling 16th inst., I would be glad if you would allow me

Law Cases. attention to a letter I wrote on the subject, Igned to make a few observations. The matter is im"A Constant Reader,” and which appeared in vol. portant inasmuch as the determination of what

CURTAIN'S PATENT CARPETS. 14, of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, No. 383, and is to be done with the sewage entirely depends Corrt of EXCHEQUER, Nov. 30. (Sitting at Nisi dared December 11th, 1830. As many of your on its value.

Prius, at Westminster, before the Lord Chief readers may not be in possession of the Magazine Mr. Shepherd says: “It is a fact that 750 tons Baron and a Special Jury.) of that date I give copy of the letter :

of the rich sewage of London can be delivered to “MEANS OF STOPPING LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. à distance of 100 miles round London, and on

Mr. Huddleston, Q.C., Mr. McNamara, and Mr. “SIR,—A few years since an accident happened every farm included in that area, at a less cost

George Shaw were counsel for the plaintiff. Mr. at a colliery where I was the engineer; the break than the farmer is now paying for 1 ton of guano, Atherton, Q.C., Mr. Montague Smith, Q.C., Mr. that runs up against the fly wheel broke, and it while the 750 tons. of sewage contains more Grove, Q.c., and Mr. Aston appeared for the was not in my power to stop the engine in time. fertilizing matter than 5 tons of guano."

defendants. A few weeks after I put a throttle valve to the If this were really the case our prospects for the

This was an action brought by the plaintiff, who eluction or waste pipe, where the steam escapes, utilization of sewage--as it is-by the farmers is the patentee of cortain improvements in the and by shutting both throttle valves together I would be very hopeful indeed, but I am sorry to manufacture of carpets, for an infringement of his managed to stop the engine immediately. The say it is far from the truth. According to Drs. patent by the defendants, who are the well knowa moment the steam in the cylinder could not get Hoffman and Witt, whose report on the nature, earpet manufacturers at Halifax, in Yorkshire. out, the engine ceased to move. Now, Mr. Editor, properties, and value of sewage, is the latest and The infringement complained of was the using by might not a contrivance of a similar kind prevent best (published in the blue-book on the main the defendants of a wire with a bladed end for such melancholy accidents as that which befel the drainage), the value of 100 tons of London sewage cutting the pile of Brussels pile carpets in the lamented Mr. Huskisson at the opening of the is only 178. 73. or a fraction over 2d. per ton, so

course of their manufacture in the manner pointed Liverpool and Manchester Railway. I am aware that it would require 1,700 tons of sewage to re- out by the specification of the plaintiff's patent. of the momentum acquired by an engine in motion, place 1 ton of guano. It follows from this that it was shown that the old method of cutting the and I do not say the means here suggested would instead of 750 tons of sewage containing more pile could not be applied to power looms, and there meet that difficulty, but we are bound to do all fertilizing matter than 5 tons of guano, it only was no question as to the fact of the defendants we can to lessen the chances of such disasters ; contains matter equal to about 9 cwt. The ques. having used the bladed wire. For the defence it and I am sure that were the steam only brought tion which next arises is, at what rate or price can

was proved that wire constructed on the same under such perfect subordination, those chances 1,700 tons of London sewage be delivered to the principle as that used by the plaintiff had been would be reduced tenfold. Your insertion of farmer at say 10 or 20 miles distance so as to re- used in the manufacture of pile carpets, velvet, these brief hints will much oblige,

place 1 ton of guano which costs him £15 per ton ? and velvet lace anterior to the date of his patent. “Your obedient servant,

Again, can the sewage be delivered to the farmers An extract was read from the Dictionnaire des “ A CONSTANT READER." at less than 2d. per ton, at say 10, 15, or 20 miles Arts, published in Paris prior to the plaintifos Since the above letter appeared the adaptation from London? If so, for how much per ton can patent, and sold in London, describing the raising of the throttle valve to the blast pipe has been it be delivered? There are other very pertinent of the pile of Gobelin tapestry by a process siunilar patented by Mr. Booth, of the Liverpool and Man- questions which might here be put, but I do not wish to that employed by the plaintiff in his manufacchuster Railway, whose attention I then called to to take up too much of your space ; and besides, it tures under his patent. the invention ; it appears also to have been since will be as well to obtain satisfactory answers to re-patented by Mr. Bodmer and Mr. Allan. Neither the above before proceeding further. It is neces

After Mr. Atherton had summed up his evidence, the invention nor its application is due to any of sary to repeat that this subject is very important, and

Mr. Huddleston replied upon the whole case, the three before-named gentlemen, but to your but the adoption of sewage as a manure must

The Lord Chief Baron, in the course of his obedient servant, J. HOPKINSON, Engineer. after all depend on its value as a fertilizer, and on sumıning up, told the jury that if they believed Britannia Works, Huddersfield. what it can be delivered to the farmer for,

the witnesses called for the defendants, they must

find their verdict for them.

I remain, yours, &c. STEAM ROCKET PROPELLER.


The Jury found a verdict for the defendants. TO THE EDITORS OF TIE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

Greenwich, Nov. 22, 1859. GENTLEMEN,Will you allow me a little space

TUCK'S PATENT PISTON-PACKING. to reply to inquiries of readers of the MECHANICS'


The Vicomte Marie de Botherel, who died the other MAGAZINE?

COURT. (Before Mr. Justice Blackbara and a day in very straightened circumstances at Dinan, for. The steam rocket at a pressure of 1000 lbs. per merly possessed a large fortune, but got rid of it all

Special Jury.) inch will, I believe, give more propelling power through his unquenchable love for commercial specu.

The Court was occupied the whole day in the than any marine engine from the same amount of lations. His chief folly was the building of an im. trial of " Tuck v. Silvers,” for the infringment of fuel. The rocket tube might be formed of the mense establishment, including 16 kitchens, and start- a patent for packing the piston-box of steam required strength by being made of small diameter, ing omnibus restaurants: 12 of these vehicles carried engines. and of a roll of metal welded together, or of thin hot viands, and 12 cold, all over the city; while 24

Only six special jurors answered, and the retubes fitting tightly one over another, and to allow wine and liqueurs. He lost all his fortune by this

more supplied all Paris–or would have done so--with mainder of the panel were fined 5l. each for 100for the expansion of the metal each tube should freak except 260,000 fr., and this he got rid of in a

attendance. be put on hot. The recoil of a gun is caused much very short time as a wine merchant on a gigantic

Mr. Bovill, Mr. Lush, Mr. Wilde, Mr. Webster, more by the velocity and expansion of the dis- scale

. He has left behind him a work, in 4 vols., on and Mr. Hindmarch appeared 28. counsel in the charge than from its immense pressure. Steam at ! " Human Infirunities !!”





Our Wechly Gossip.

The following suggests useful considerations, if it does no more :

Patents for Inventions. GENTLEMEN,-Although I highly appreciate the An American gentleman, Jr. Germain, of Buffalo, movement for promoting the object of educated | ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS proposes to build a ship 4000 feet long, 73 feet broad, good effected will fall far short of the present expec. Tus abridged Specifications of Patents given below are and having a long steadying fia 20 feet broad on each tations of the benevolent promoters, and even of your classified, according to the subjects to which the respective side of her. She is to be so sharp forward that she selves. There is at present a great amount of labour inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of shall taper only 6 feet in 100. The fins are to be as for females, but the competition and covetousness of order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with deep as they are broad, and to taper off to nothing in manufacturers turns into a curse that which might all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be the last 500 feet. The extreme end of the vessel is to female labour was once well paid for, and those em

be a blessing. Almost
every department of present understood that these abridgements are prepared exclu-

sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the be an upright wedge, with a sharp edge. Twenty-five ployed worked a reasonable number of hours, ob

Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie.

tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not feet of the aft end is jointed for a rudder. The fins tained good wages, and appeared, and were respect. to produce them without acknowledgement :moving continually in water, can be used for surface able. But their want of moral courage is taken ad.

STEAN ENGINES, &c., 1047. condensers, and having the air pumped out and the vantage of by their rapacious employers, and their

BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, &c., 1012, 1019. steam exhausting into a vacuum, the locomotive than starration. Poor girls now work at india-rubber ROADS Axu, Veurcles, including railway plant and car

, saddlery and c. engine may be used with the advantages of a con. goods for a penny an hour! These low wages gene

Sms AND Boats, including their fittings, 1020, 1023, 1037. densing engine. The bottom and side walls are rally lower the morals, and bring other evils in their

CULTIVATION OF THE Soil, including agricultural and hordouble, with their outer and inner surfaces three feet train. In the town of Locle, in Switzerland, females

tieultural implements and machines, 1027, 1041. apart, tied together once in three feet by iron walls, who work at the finest parts of watches earn five

Food AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing and braced diagonally with timbers. Each compart- francs a-day. An equal remuneration in London

food for men and animals. None. ment is to be water tight. The decks are to be of would be about pos. a-day. Now, what English Frenous Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibres, iron. " Careful cnlculations show," he says, “ that manufacturer would think of paying a female 103. a pulp, paper, &c., 1000, 1024, 1028, 1031, 1032, 1038, 1050. the greatest oceanic forces will not try the strength day, whatever the work? Instead of this I believe BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, of the vessel in any way to exceed ten per cent. of its they will be ground down to a condition little better drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., None. strength. A side wind of twenty three miles an hour than the shirt-makers, their Swiss sisters will be in- LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILA TING, 1009, 1021, 1052. will careen it less than two inches, and a tornado of jured, and then the cuckoo note will be repeated, “We FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, one hundred miles an hour, striking the whole side want employment for females.”

T. Moy. time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 1007, with a force of fifty pounds to each square inch of

1 Cliffords Inn, Nov, 29, 1859.

1013, 1014, 1015, 1019, 1035, 1043. surface, would careen the vessel only thirty-eight inches, or less than five degrees. If steel is used for provide by the third section of Lord Redesdale's

The standards which the Treasury were required to Metals, including apparatus for their manufac-ure None.

CHEMISTRY AND ProTOGRAPHY, 1045. its construction, it would give twenty-five acres of * Act for regulating measures used in sales of gas,"

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS. None. deck room. Compared with other vessels and their have been duly deposited, says the Journal of Gas work, its expenses would be exceedingly moderate, Lighting, in the office of the Coinptroller of the Ex. LETTEN Press Pristixo, &c, None. and at the same time it might carry two hundred chequer, No. 6 Old Palace Yard, Westminster.

MISCELLANEOUS, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1016, 1017. 1019, 1020, thousand horse-power: Its size, strength, and ve- ** They comprise a weight of 82-321 lbs. avoirdupois ; a

1022, 1025, 1026, 1033, 1030, 1033, 1036, 1039, 1010, 1048. locity would make it irresistible by crdinary vessels bottle containing that weight of distilled water at a of war. Cannon shot would glance unharmingly temperature of 62Fahr., and a barometric pressure

1007. E. LEWTHWAITE and G. AMBLER. “Im. from its oblique sides; during its approach it would of 30 inches ; and a king's cubic foot transferrer. The provements in clucks, watches, chronometers, and be directed with the precision of a rifle, and its blow whole have been prepared under the direction of and other timekeepers.” Dated April 21, 1859. would divide the largest line-of-battle ships as easily verified by the Astronomer Royal, assisted by Pro- This relates, 1, to the escapement, and consists in as a broad axe would an apple.” Where is the Great fessor W. Miller, of Cambridge. The weight is of dispensing with the pallet-wheel now used, and subEastern now?

brass, and has been made by Mr. L. Oertling, the well. stituting in lieu thereof a piece which is called a proWe do not remember to have said anything to pro- the cabic foot bottle is a copper cylinder with conical with one or more very short arms, pins; or radii

, known balance-maker of Storo-street, Bedford square. peller, which may be either of metal or stone, formed voke the following curious letter :

London, Nov. 25, 1859.

ends terminating in tubes, the bottom one being which act upon the pallet as a dead beat or otherwise. GENTLEMEN, --It has been stated in a public com

closed by a cock, and the upper one being open.

It By this improvement the patentees avoid to a great ex. pany that you had in the MECHANICS MAGAZINE the Old Jury, the hydrometer makers to the Excise ; perature expanding and contracting the pallet-wheel.

has been manufactured by Messrs Ladd and Co., of tent the variation in time caused by the change of temalluded

to my iuventions or system of telegraphing and the cubic foot transferrer has been made by It relates, 2, to the fusce, and consists in having the on the ocean or land by means of colours during the Messrs. Crossley and Co., of the Southwark Bridge driver or first motion wheel formed with inverted night or by day and

that my Lords of the Admiralty Road. It does not appear to be considered necessary cogs or teeth in addition to the cogs or teeth now had paid ine for them before using them on her Majesty's ships of war. Now, as this statement has mals of the cubic foot ineasure, but gas companies or spindle of the fusee, and gearing with a small

at present to prepare any standard multiples or deci- thereon, such said wheel to be loose upon the axis tures who abound about the Admiralty connected and others can have the indices of their own testing pinion working on a stud attached to the fusee, which

gears with another pinion fixed on the axis or spindle with the press, I beg to state that no payment has gasholders adjusted to the Exchequer standard, or

of the fusee. By the above means power or continuous ever been made to me directly nor indirectly for this ferrer and adjust the indices themselves. They may, action is maintained whilst winding up the timeinvention, nor any compensation whatever; and so far by adopting either of these courses, ascertain at once keeper. Patont completed. from doing that they in the most dishonest way what metres do and what do not comply with the have taken the advantage of all my inventions, tests prescribed by the Act, and thus mitigate to some chinery.” (A communication.) Dated April 21, 1859.

1008. E. CLARK. “Improvements in sewing mabecause I was poor and unable to defend myself in a court of law, and done everything to keep me

extent the inconveniences to which the further delay This consists, 1, in a method of securing two or from being paid. They have also invariably aided one

in the appointment of inspectors under the Act is now more needles in the needle carrier. 2. In sewing pirate after another, some from Englanıl, France, subjecting them.”

compound seams by the use in combination with two and America, to come forward to use my inventions A correspondent desires to offer the following or more needles, of one or more tongues of metal

attached to the bed of the machine, and one for each for telegraphing by colours, under other names, in suggestion and observations:order to evade paying me for an invention and code

Clifton Cottage, Montague-road, t'xbridge,

space between every two needles. Also in combining of signals so useful and complete that they have

November 24, 1859.

with the said tongue or tongues a concave bel piece, become now universal throughout the whole world,

GENTLEMEN, --The observations of two correspon- the object of the bed piece being to give support to both by steam and sailing vessels on the ocean and dents in your last number upon ships' chain cables the cloth on both sides. 3. In uniting compound on all railways by land; and because I would not

have suggested to me the desirability for some elastic seams, by combining with two or more eye pointed submit to the insolence of office, and be bullied by a

medium between the straining points of the cable. Of needles a vibrating thread carrier. 4. În guiding naval captain, and give a share of the money I was

its practicability I do not pretend to judge-whether the cloth to the needle in forming seams when one or entitled to receive for them. Ever since 1846 I have it would be feasible to pass the cable over or round a both pieces of cloth is or are lapped or folded over to been kept out of my just claims by my Lord John suspended pulley of proper dimensions. The bottom make a flat seam by the use of two guide plates Russell's Lords of Admiralty! These signal and tele- pulley being of solid iron, and sufficient weight to suitably arranged. š. In guiding the cloth to the graphs were brought out on the banks of the

overcome the average strain, yielding only to a sudden needle in sewing hems by attaching the tube guide Clyde by the late Earl of Laddington and Sir R.

or heavy one, that would be dangerous to the integ. for holding the hem to the bar of the presser foot by Peel's Government in 1813. The trials at Portsmouth rity of the cable. Perhaps the mention of the subject a yielding arm having sufficient space between the will be found in the Times and press of the day, and might bring forward a practical plan. I have also upper surface of the presser and the hem guide for in documents laid before the House of Commons.

seen a paragraph in last week's Builder, describing the passage of the cloth. 6. In operating the instruBut when the Whigs came into power in 1815 they

an improved propeller upon the principle of a duck's ment which feeds in the cloth by a single lever. Panot only set their own creatures to carry out my plan's motion in the water, which corresponds exactly with tent completed. and inventions, to the ruin of myself and family,

ono I have been endeavouring to mature so as to 1009. G. ROBERTS and J. BRIDGES. “ Improve. though they know I was promised by Sir R. Peol's allow of several fans working at the time, which ments in the manufacture of candles." Dated April Government pay and place to carry them out. Trust would be necessary to obtain an even motion for the 21, 1859. ing you will insert and counteract any such false keel, at the bows, or the stern, vertically or horizontain a certain substance, and after getting cool is thea

Here the wick is first dipped into the hollow to ob. to expect from your well-known wish to protect in- tally, and would doubtless with proper fans obtain a dipped into a composition of tallow, resin; and pitch, ventors. I am, Sir, yours obediently,

good hold of, and exert great power in, the water. or resin and tallow, or pitch and tallow, in the pro. R. RETTIE, C.E. I am, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant, portion of about eight parts of tallow to two or more

W. A. BENDELOW. The inventor of all the coloured signal tele

parts of the other material. When cool, it is again The screw stramer City of Baltimore, on her last | dipped into the tallow, and giving layer for layer as graphs by sea or land for night and day now voyage from New York, encountered the full force of required, until the size is obtained, invariably keeping in use throughout the world. the late storm without any material injury.

a layer of tallow on the outside surface. These can.

dles can be burnt with plaited or common wicks. hanging eye of which has a large nut in it for the diaphragm is also regulated by any suitable means. Patent completed.

reception of a vertical screw spindle terminating at Patent abandoned. 1010. T. S. TRUSS. “Improvements in the con. its lower end in a horizontal pressure plate. The top

1021. P. F. MUTEL and L. H. BLANCHARD. “Im. struction of pipes, and in the mode of joining the of the screw spindle has a horizontal wheel or weighted provements in gas burners.” Dated April 23, 1859. same.” Dated April 21, 1859..

arm upon it, so that the arrangement resembles that The inventors introduce and fix on argand burners The patentee claims the making of an expansive or adopted in fly or punching presses. Each piece of a plate, and in this plate at the required distances contractile joint by which pipes for the transmission wood to be branded is laid flat down upon the operat. apart small tubes of iron, or any other suitable metal of gas, water, steam, or other Auid are to be secured ing face of the branding die-plate on the open top of or material, and of the required diameter and length, together by means of a compressing or nut-coupling the gas-burner box, and the attendant then screws according to the size of the burner, through which strap, in two or more parts, with packing material down the pressure plate by turning the wheel or tubes the gas issues from the burner. Patent abas. upon, between, or around the ends of the pipes em. actuating over-head arm. In this way the wood is doned. braced by the strap. Also, the making of the junc pressed hard down upon the heated branding plate, 1022. P. L. M. DEBAIN. “ Improvements in tions of coupling straps with recesses and correspond the pressure being kept up for a longer or shorter making heat subservient for producing motive power.” ing projections or loose blocks. Also, the making of time. Patent completed.

Dated April 23, 1859. pipes with flanges at or adjoining their ends to be used 1018. J. ANGUS. “ Improvements in saddles." This consists in arrangements by which the heat with, or operated upon by a compressing or nut- Dated April 23, 1859.

obtained by causing compressed air to be injected, coupling strap with packing material upon, between,

and burned on a burner, or fire-place situate in the in. or around the same, and embraced by the strap.

This relates more particularly to those saddles employed for carting purposes.

In cart saddles the Patent completed.

terior of a suitable vessel, serves for evolving steam or 1011. J. H. PEPPER. Improvements in apparatus

trough of the saddle-tree is composed of four pieces of other elastic vapour from water, or other suitable for showing stereoscopic pictures.” Dated Aprile21,

metal, the bottom of the trough being made up of two liquid or solution contained in a boiler in which this

pieces of wrought iron, forming a but point at the burned air is allowed to enter, by which arrangement 1859. This consists in so combining apparatus that the

centre or crown of the arch. These two bottom pieces consequently the evolution of steam or rapour, and of metal are riveted to the convex side of an under

the concentration of the solution or liquid, are obtwo stereoscopic pictures shall be thrown side by side

tained simultaneously, while the steam or vapour is piece of wood correspondingly curved, and they are so on to a screen or surface by lanterns having suitable lenses, so that when seen by several persons through

rolled or shaped as to be thinned off at the contiguous further caused to act on the elastic diaphragm, with different lenses (having focal powers according to junction ends whilst they increase in thickness to the

which is provided & motive power transmitting

vessel. Patont abandoned. their several distances from the screen or surface)

usual external end plate pieces for the play of the
chain or back band. The sides of the trough are

1023. W. Gibsox. * Improvements in stecring each person shall see the two projected pictures as one

formed of two parallel flanged or vertical edge pieces apparatus.” Dated April 23, 1859. largely magnified stereoscopic picture. "Patent abanwhich are riveted through the main wood bottom by

This invention was described and illustrated at doned. 1012. H. Keace and G. H. FARRINGTON. “Im.

transverse rivets from side to side. The upper edges page 24, No. 28, vol. 2, of the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE

of these two side or flange pieces are turned over with (New Series). Patent completed. proved advertising circulars.” Dated April 23, 1859.

a moulding or head cover, and the forward flange is 1024. R. A. BROONAN. “ An improvement in the Here, a sheet of card, paper, or other material,

thickened at each end on the inner side to resist the manufacture of woollen cloth.” (A communication.) being folded in one or more folds, covering each other, forward frictional pressure of the chain or back band | Dated April 23, 1859. or in the manner of a tailor's pattern book, the in

on going down hill or backing. There are modifica. This consists in incorporating woollen waste, or the ventors draw or print on each side of the various folds tion included. Patent completed.

shearings produced in the shearing mill, with cloth, subjects or pictures, which may be embossed or not. They then cut out or perforate by dies, stamps, or

1019. W. Dicks and W. HOPWELL. “Improve. after the same has been woven, and during the fulling otherwise pieces of the folds in different shapes and

ments in machinery for making screws and applying thereof. The fulling bath may be composed of a sizes, which admitting some portion of the underfold them in fixing the soles of boots and shoes.” Dated mixture of soap and water, and of woollen shearings

, to sight, produces a scenic effect, developing a dif. April 23, 1859.

and while being filled the cloth becomes furnished ferent scene or picture as each flap is unfolded.

Here the wire or metal rod is fed into the machine with the woollen particles. Patent completed. Patent abandoned.

through a tube which receives rotating motion from 1025. J. MARSHALL, jun. "Improvements in fil. 1013. R. Gray. "Improvements in crinoline able train of wheels interposed between the main or

the main or shaft of the machine by the aid of a suit- tering and depurating fluids." Dated April 23, 1859. skirts." (A communication.) Dated April 23, 1859.

This invention is not described in detail apart from The inventor proposes to attach the hoops to the driving shaft and the tube, provision being made for the drawings. Patent completed. cords or tapes by metallic clasps or fastenings. length of screw produced by means of change-wheels. proved apparatus for raising or lifting and lowering

1026. W. Moxox, and J. J. Bennett. "Im. Patent abandoned. 1014. C. MANSEL. A folding travelling case.'

The main or driving shaft is put in motion by a heavy bodies.” Dated April 23, 1859. Dated April 23, 1859.

treadle, or by hand, or by other power. The wire as This consists in so arranging the apparatus em. This consists of a strip or longitudinal wrapper of it leaves the tube passes between two rollers placed ployed for effecting the above operations, that two or oilskin, leather, &c., provided with a transverse ar

at the front of the tube, and such rollers hold the more weights may be simultaneously lifted by the rangement of pockets or envelopes, of forms suitable

wire securely. The forward end of the wire is at all same motive agent. The invention is not fully for the reception of articles, together with bands of times between a pair of screw dies or cutters fixed or

described apart from the drawings. Patent completed. elastic material secured to the wrapper so as to retain held in front of rollers, so that as the wire is caused

1027. F. C. MAGUIRE. to rotate a screw will be cut thereon, and the end will the utilization of sewage manure.” Dated April 23,

“ Certain improvements in the smaller articles in their places upon the folding be caused to protrude more and more through and 1859. of the case, to which also an extensible action is given beyond the dies or cutters. In order that the act of This consists in raising by steam or other power variable capacity of the same, straps or buckles being making or cutting a screw or the wire may be the sewage to reservoirs of sufficient height and space for used for securing the case when folded. Patent com.

cause of its entering into the sole of a boot or shoe, the operations of machinery, to allow such sewage to pleted.

there is a proper table or platform used, on the boot 1015. J. EDWARDS.

traverse the various lines of railway or roaring in, or shoe is held up to the die or cutter in such manner through, or along stone, earthenware, or such other · Improvements in the manufacture of buttons.” Dated April 23, 1859.

that the screw as it protrudes beyond the dies or pipes or channels as may be most convenient and This relates to an improved method of rming the

cutters is caused to enter into the sole. When the economical for the purposes required, with inclosed holes in “sewn through” buttons. A hollow well is proper length of screw has been cut, and has entered receptacles at the various railway stations throughout formed in the centre of the button leaving a projec- the screw flush with the outer surface of the sole. In

the three kingdoms or depôts on the various roadways tion or other stop round the button on the inside ;

to allow of it being carried away from such stations or into this hollow well a bar of iron is inserted and

order that the motion of the tube and rollers may be depôts in manure distributers, or taken in pipes tu any forced down to the bottom, thereby forming the holes stayed whilst the cut is being effected, and the sole farm, homestead, hamlet, village, or town laid within by which the button is sewn on to the garment. moved a distanco equal to that between the neigh the three kingdoms for the purposes of irrigation and Patent abandoned.

bouring screws in the sole, provision is made to stop fructification. Patent abandoned. 1016. J. ARMSTRONG. “Improvements in drying

the formation of the screw for a time by means of a and preserving timber.” Dated April 23, 1859. cam and interposed mechanism whilst the cut is ning, doubling, and manufacturing cotton, and other

1028. W. Stevenson. “Improvements in spin. The timber to be dried and preserved is placed in a being made, and so soon as the cut has been made and

fibrous materials.” Dated April 25, 1859. suitable chamber, and is subjected to the direct and another screw, the gearing communicating to the frames that the present indirect drag upon the bobbin

the sole is again in a proper position to receive This consists in so arranging throstle spinning immediate action of steam, which both dries the timber and opens its pores for the reception of the into action till the proper length of screw has been effected by a special moveme tube and apparatus holding the wire, are brought

may be done away with, the winding.on action being creosote or other preservative. Patent abandoned.

for the purpose. For 1017. J. GILLIES. Improvements in branding again made and screwed into the sole, and another cut

tent completed. or marking wood for casks, barrels, and other pur- by the cutting apparatus is required to be performed.

1029. W. P. BALPERN and M. MCKAY. "The poses.” Dated April 23, 1859. Patent completed.

manufacture of sweet-ligged soft soap."

Datei The apparatus here used consists of an open cast

1020. P. L. M. Debaix. " Improved means for April 25, 1859. iron frame, on the platform or table of which is placed transmitting motive power to ships' pumps, and other

For the manufacture of this kind of soap the inan open-topped elliptical case of cast iron, perforated arrangements by which the displacement of Huids is

ventors first prepare caustic leys by mixing 100 parts all round for the admission of air, and for the escape effectuated.” Dated April 23, 1859.

of American potash with 80 parts of lime and a sutki. of the products of combustion. Within this case This consists in providing a vessel in the form of a ciency of water, and boiling the same until it becomes there are one or more vertical gas burners, adjustable hollow sphere, in the interior of which is situated a completely caustic. They then pour into the soap as to height. Each burner consists of an inner cylin. diaphragm formed of any suitable elastic material, from 200 parts of the prepared leys, at 18° Beame, and drical shell closed at the top, and perforated all round which diaphragm receives on one of its surfaces the bring it to the boiling point, when they add 14 parts the lower part for the escape of the gas. This inner impetus of steam, vapour, or other motive power, and of tallow. This being dissolved and the liquor boiled cylinder is surrounded by an outer and larger cylinder, by its opposite surface transmits this impetus to the for 15 minutes, they add 14 parts of oleine obtained also perforated, the flame rising up between the two water or other liquid to be actod upon, and which from palm oil, in the manufacture of candles or other cylinders. The same plays directly upon the lower latter at the required moment, and by means of proper wise. After a further boiling of 15 minutes they add plain surface of the branding die plate of metal, the valves, cocks, &c., is permitted to come in a proper 23 parts more of oleine, and so continue to add and upper working face of which is cut or cast with the situation for being acted upon by one of the surfaces boil until 100 parts of oleine have been incorporated necessary names or devices in relief. The platform of the diaphragm, whereas the action of the steam or and saponified. Patent abandoned. framing also carries a bracket pillar piece, the over. | other primo motor on the opposite surface of the 1030. J. HIGGIN. "Improvements in treating

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