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madder and plants of the same family, and prepara- | machines.” (A communication.) Dated April 25, This relates, 1, to the production of nitric acid or tions therefrom." Dated April 25, 1859. 1859.

its salt by the decomposition of atmospheric air by The patentee claims, 1, the subjecting madder or a This invention is not described in detail apart from means of dynamic and static electricity. 2. The subpreparation of it to a prolonged contact with acid at the drawings. Patent completed.

sequent absorption of the nitric acid thereby produced the ordinary temperature of the air previous to 1039. H. C. HURRY. "Improved means of and by water so as to form commercial nitric acid, or by washing. 2. The drying a mixture of madder, or a apparatus for obtaining motive power.” Dated its combination with suitable alkaline bases to form preparation of it and acid, subsequently washing out April 25, 1859.

nitrous or nitric salts. Patent completed. the acid. 3. The use of corrosive metallic salts, as The chief object here is to obtain an effective motive 1046. R. MAIN. " Improvements in wheels for described in detail in the specification. 4. The manu power by the combined forces of attraction and repul. earriages.” Dated April 26, 1859. facture of an extract of madder from the rubian sion between a large number of magnets, whether According to this invention there is a hollow space contained therein in the manner described in the electro or other, with constant poles and other electro. formed in the felloe of the wheel, in which is inserted specification in detail. Patent completed.

magnets whose poles are varied, such large number a series of segmental links connected together by pins, 1031, G. WARD. “Improvements in machinery of small electro-magnets being made to act with con. and forming together a kind of chain all round the or apparatus for making healds.” Dated April siderable rapidity instead of a small number of large wheel. The inner side of this chain rests against 25, 1859.

magnets acting more slowly. Patent completed. springs fixed in the inner part of the felloe, and the This relates to certain improvements in Berrie and 1040. W. WARNE, J.' A. FANSHAWE, J. A. outer part of the chain is thus made to project beyond Anderson's machinery for making healds or heddles JAQUES, and T. GALPIN. “Improved compounds the tyre and form a projecting ring or flange on the used in weaving, and consists of an improved taking applicable for packing the joints of steam or other circumference of the wheel, so as to be capable of up motion worked by toothed gearing, instead of pipes, which compounds are also applicable for pack holding and guiding the wheel on a tram or rail. By worms and worm wheels ; of an arrangement of ing or lining parts of machinery in general, or parts this construction of the wheel, also, the weight of the guide and stretching pulleys for enabling the entire of ships, bridges, tanks, or railways.' Dated April carriage will be caused to press the flange inwards length of the heald to be formed without winding or 25, 1859,

against the springs; so as to admit of the wheels runtapping any part on a drum; of the employment of a In manufacturing their compounds the patentees ning on ordinary ground. It also consists in the concarrier wheel for giving motion to the pinions which employ caoutchouc, gutta-percha, bituminous, resin. struction of wheels intended to run on ordinary turn the bobbins containing the braid bands or tie ous, or gelatinous substances, metal filings, pulverised ground with elastic projections on their circumference. threads and also the revolving lappers; a mode of ores of metals, or oxide of iron or manganese. Sal. For this purpose a hollow space is formed in the felloe working the pusher for pushing off the eyes of the amoniac and other suitable chemical agents may be of the wheel in which springs are inserted, and proheald as they are formed, and of an arrangement for added. Patent completed.

jecting pieces are inserted through spaces in the tyre working the sliding bolts or frame for working the 1041. S. L. Taylor. “Improvements in agricul. at intervals so as to rest against the springs. Thus braiding needles. Patent completed.

tural implements, in obtaining motive power for the projections around its circumference will yield to 1032. J. OWEN and H. DUCKWORTH. "Improve. actuating such implements

, and in apparatus con. the unequal pressure of the ground. Patent comments in machinery or apparatus for leasing yarns." nected with the application of steam power.” Dated pleted. Dated April 25, 1859. April 25, 1859.

1047. W. MARSTALL. " Improvements in steam For sizeing warps the inventors place in a position This consists, 1, in arranging single or double-engines.” Dated April 26, 1859. beyond the rest-beam or bar of any suitable shape, breasted ploughs on a shaft or axis with the one of a This refers to a previous patent dated 19th Nov., with indentations cut in it of different dents or counts pair or half the number of a series arranged above the 1858, and consists in placing the high pressure, or according to the counts or qualities of yarn to be axis, and so that the one will plough in the one direc. smaller cylinder, inside the low pressure or larger operated upon, and at each side of the said bar they tion, and the other in the opposite direction. 2. In cylinder. These engines, as adapted for a screw place a comb with incisions of about of an inch in placing the jointed parers which are attached to the steamer, consist in each case of a pair of large indepth, so that at the time of casing one of the said sole of the plough on bolts or joints, on which they can verted low pressure steam cylinders supported upon combs will ascend and the other descend, thus causing move, so as to be set wider or narrower. 3. In suitable framing upon a bottom sole plate. Patent one-half of the yarn threads to rise and the other to arranging scarifiers, rakes, &c., on an axis which has abandoned. fall, by which the lease is made. They also use a a locking plate and a spring catch applied, which 1048. R. A. BROOMAN. “Improvements in vul. brush to straighten the threads when necessary in when let go allows the instrument to rotate on the canising and colouring caoutchouc, and in the prepa. taking the lease. Patent abandoned.

axis, and thus releases any matter that may clog their ration of caoutchouc paints, and colours.” (A com1033. T. A. WESTON. "A new or improved working. 4. It relates to implements dragged by munication.). Dated April 26, 1859. pulley.” Dated April 26, 1859.

horses, and consists in mounting and fitting the drag This consists, 1, in vulcanising caoutchouc by Here an endless chain is so applied to an axle of frame in the forewheels and carriages, so that it has passing it successively through baths formed, first, of two different diameters in the two parts to which the an oscillating motion in two directions, the one at benzine, cromate of sulphur, and red or black sulchain is applied, or to two pulleys of different diameters, right angles to the other. The invention also relates phuret of mercury, and, next, of chloride of lime that two depending loops are formed by the said end. to engines for actuating agricultural implements, and and water. 2. In preparing a colouring for caout. less chain, each of the said loops hanging from one comprises a variety of detail which we cannot par-chouc by first dissolving a portion of caoutchouc in side of one part of the axle or from one pulley. When ticularise. Patent abandoned.

benzine, turpentine, olive oil, or other solvent, and in pulleys are used they are made to rotate together by 1042. T. Holt and J. Brown. “Improvements in adding thereto suitable colouring matter, in certain being fixed together, or fixed to the same axis, the apparatus or an improved apparatus for heating proportions, according to the colour required to be pro. axis in this case rotating with the pulleys. Patent water for the supply of steam-boilers, which improve vided. Patent completed. completed.

ments or apparatus are also applicable in some cases 1019. R. A. BROOMAN. Improvements in steam 1034. T. BUCKHAM. “An improvement in railway for the prevention of incrustation in steam-boilers." boilers.” (A communication.) Dated April 26, 1859. switches." Dated April 25, 1859. Dated April 26, 1859.

This consists in protecting the body of steam boilers This consists in connecting the moveable switch rail This consists in a mode of rendering available for from the direct action of fire by a protecting chamber to the fixed rail by a hinge-joint " fished” to each the heretofore wasted heat, that is to say, in the use, placed behind the bottom of the boiler and the furside of the ends of the switch rail and head rail. One adaptation, and application of a vessel, tank, or cis. nace, through which chamber the feed water is made of the hinge-joints acts as the centre on which the tern placed in juxtaposition with that end of the to pass before entering the boiler. Patent abandoned. switch rail moves, whilst the other has the hole in boiler which is remote from the furnace, in such a 1050. J. H. JOHNSON. “Improvements in mawhich the pin fits, made oval, or slotted about one position as to be impinged upon by the flame vapour chinery or apparatus for combing wool and other eighth of an inch in the direction in which the rail and heated products of combustion proceeding from fibrous substances. (A communication.) Dated April moves, to allow of the required movement of the the furnace, and issuing from the said end of the 26, 1859. switch rail. Patent abandoned.

boiler through the mouth or opening of the first flue The objects here are the keeping the fibrous sub1035. J. HOLMES. “ Improvements in applying (or flues), and the said tank serving as a reservoir stance itself, whilst undergoing the process of eyelet holes to boots and shoes, and in binding boots through which the feed water before entering the combing, in direct contact with a heated surface, and and shoes." Dated April 25, 1859.

boiler is made to pass, and to have its temperature also the avoiding the circuitous path in which the Here metal eyelet holes are employed in fastening raised by the heat derived from the vapour or flame fibrous material in all other combing machines is the material used for binding boots and shoes at those intercepted by the said tank, or passing in contact made to travel. Patent completed. parts where laces are used, so that the same eyelet therewith. Patent completed. holes serve to attach the binding and also for the pas 1013. H. ALLMAN. “Certain improvements in the PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. gage of the laces. Patent completed.

construction of window-blind mountings, and in ap1038. A. W. GADESDEN. "Improvements in pro- paratus connected therewith.” Dated April 26, 1859.

Dated Aug. 12, 1859. ducing solutions of sugar.” Dated April 25, 1859. This invention is not described apart from the

1861. L. A. Possoz. Improvements in the manuThe patentee employs a vessel having a hemi- drawings. Patent completed.

facture and baking of sugars. spherical bottom to which heat may be applied either 1044. W. MACKENZIE. “An improved method of

Dated Oct, 15, 1859. by an internal coil of steam pipes, by a steam jacket, printing impressions upon an enlarged scale, either 2359. R. Smith. The purification of water and or other means; across the lower part of this vessel from engraved plates, electrotypes, blocks, drawings, other fluids. is a perforated false bottom or partition on which the or other surfaces.” Dated April 26, 1859.

Dated Oct. 25, 1859. engar is placed. Connected with this vessel is a The patentee claims the making of electrotypes, &c., cylinder of which the lower end descends below and upon an enlarged or reduced scale for printing or

2435. G. Canouil. New machinery for priming the upper end rises above the perforated partition or other purposes when such electrotypes shall have been percussion caps without danger of explosion, also a false bottom. In the cylinder a screw or suitable pro- made by the use of any elastic material transferred

new fulminate not hitherto employed. peller is applied, by which the water or liquor is con and prepared as described to give the necessary depth

Dated Nov, 2, 1859. stantly raised from the under to the upper side of the and arrangement of parts to produce the electrotype

2194. B. Browne. A self-heating ironing appapartition or false bottom, and is thrown on to the plato, block, die, or other printing surface. Also the

ratus. (A communication.) sugar to be dissolved. Patent completed. making of moulds and stereotype plates in place of

2496. R. H. Hess. Improvements in gas burners. 1037. E. HUMPHRYS. “Improvements in steering electrotype when such have been increased or dimi.

Dated Nov. 3, 1859. apparatus.” Dated April 25, 1859.

nished by the elastic properties of vulcanised india. 2498. J. Leeming and J. C. Ramsden. Improve. Here a cylinder is used in which a piston is moved rubber or other elastic substance. Patent completed. ments in looms for weaving. to and fro by the pressure of water. The rod of this 1015. W. E. Newton. Improvements in the 2502. W. Wilson. Improvements in machinery for piston is connected to an arm on the rudder-post. manufacture of nitric acid and its application for the the manufacture of felted fabrics, suitable for the Patent completed.

production of artificial nitrous or nitric salts." (A bodies of huts, caps, and bonnets. 1038. W. E. NEWTON. “Improvements in sewing communication.) Dated April 26, 1859.


Howard. Improved machinery for


moulding hollow bricks and tubular artieles. (A

Dated Nov. 12, 1959.

2121. A. L. Dowie. Gas burners. communication.)

2567. R. Lansdale. Improvements in machinery

2150, J. Armour. Measuring and regulating Dated Nov. 4, 1859.

or apparatus for washing and cleansing fabrics, which supplies. 2506. A. Binckes. Improvements in optical instru- improvements are also applicable to churning.

2187. L. Pohl. Fastenings. ments.

2563. W. Burgess. An improvement in mowing 2498. J. Leeming and J. C. Ramsden. Looms. 2508. G. N. Buller. An improved mode or method and reaping machines.

2528. A. L. Dowie. Signalling between parts of of ornamenting articles composed wholly or partially 2569. J. Scott. An improvement in anchors.

trains. of jet.

2570. A. Vickers. A method of opening and shut- 2536. A. Templeton and J. Lawson. Chenille. 2510. J. A. Maxwell. Improvements in hydraulic ting two or four gates or doors simultaneously, and 2540. J. Thomson. Carpet fabrics. engines to act either alone or in combination with for fastening the same when either open or shut, ap- 2550. G. and D. Spill. Bands for driving masteam and steam engines.

plicable to railway crossings and other purposes. chinery, &c. 2512. F. H. Holmes. Improvements in apparatus 2571. C. Norrington. Improvements in the pro- The full titles of the patents in the above list can be asfor transmitting light.

tection of ships or vessels, forts, or batteries, froin certained by referring back to their numbers in the list of 2514. A.V. Newton. Improvements in type-setting cannon shot, shell, or any other projectilo.

provisional protections previously published. and distributing apparatus. (A communication.) 2573. E. A. Burgess-Burgess. "Improvoments in

Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to any of the parties in the above list who have given

notice of 2516. W. Hill. Improvements in lightning con- the preparation of anchovies.

their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the ductors.

Dated Nov. 14, 1859.

date of the Gazette in which the notice appears, by leaving 2518. J. Chesterman. New and improved methods of and furnace for heating, hardening, and temporing apparatus for cutting wood. 2575. P. Graham. Improvements in machinery or at the Commissioner office particulars in writing of the

. clock springs, watch springs, band saws, steel for dresses, such as crinoline steel, and other like pur block printing. 2576. A. Applegath. Improvements in surface

LIST OF SEALED PATENTS. poses. 2577. J. Madin. Improvements in furnaces and

Sealed Yor. 25, 1859.
Dated Nov. 5, 1859.

appliances connected therewith, for hardening and 924. W. A. Martin and 1366. N. Penriće. 2520. C. Mackenzie. Improvements in machinery tempering crinoline or sheet steel, and measuring the J. Purdie.

1421. G. C. Asb. or apparatus for cutting and dressing staves for casks, samo.

1237. J. Harmer.

1425. A. Smith. barrels, and other wooden vessels. 2578. J. Walworth and R. Harrowby. Improve. 1289. R. A. Glass.

143), G. Smith. 2522. F. Pichler and H. J. Wigley. The arrangements in gmut machines or corn screens.

1291. A. Prince.

1491. L. D. Owen, ment and construction of wheeled carriages or other 2579. J. and G. Goldberg. Certain improvements 1311. W. Weild.

1555. R. Kay, J. Marock, vehicles or machines, in such manner that the occur in the construction of purses or “ porte-monnaics," 1313. P. Aitchison and J. Whittaker, & T. Booth. pant or occupants thereof may propel the same by and in an improved lock or fastening applicable to T. Binks.

2059. J. G. V. Alleyne. alternating the weight of the person or persons riding. purses, bags, or other similar receptacles.

1315. II. N. Nissen. 2073. M. A. F.Mennons, 2521. G. T. Bousfield. Improvements in ma- 2589. A. R. Arrott. Improvements in the manu- 1321, R. A. Brooman. 2137. J. Dales. chinery for grinding and polishing sheets of plate and facture of carbonate of soda.

132 1. M. Davis.

2201. D. Stewart. other plass. (A communication.)

2581. C. H. Brooks. Improvements in apparatuses 1320. W. Gossage. 2221. J. H. Johnson. 2526. W. Mannix. Improvements in the manufac. for paying out and lauling in telegraph cables.

Sealed Nov. 29, 1859. ture of manure. 2582. J. Holgate and J. Henderson. Improve. 1325. A. Smith.

1356. S. Bury. Dated Nov. 7, 1859.

ments in locomotive engines, partly applicable to other 1326. W. Grimshaw. 1357. S. Bury. 2528. 4. L. Dowie. Improvements in effecting steam-engines.

133). J. Fry.

1370. A. R. Arrott. communications or signalling between distant or dis.

Dated Nov. 15, 1859.

1333. I. and R. Black. 1377. G. Davies. tinet parts of railway trains. 2385. W. H. Word. An improved turn-table for burn.

1379. C. James. 2530. G. Pacey. A rein handle and holder applica- railways and other purposes.

1335. A. Mickelthwate, 1421. O. Maggs. ble for riding or driving, either for single, double, or 2686. E Borase. Improved apparatus for se- J. Peaco, and S. J. Hob- 14-16. N. C. Szerelmeg. team reins. parating metals and metallic ores, when mingled with

1452. H. F. Smith. 2532. H. Barker. An improvement in clay, meer. other substances in the state of slime.

1336. E. Leeson.

1450. T. Cattell. schaum, and other pipes. 2537. J. Donald and P. Smith. Improvements in 1339, W. Smith.

1457. T. Orrell, jun. 2336. A. Templeton and J. Lawson. Improve apparatus for raising and for extracting liquids. 1310, J. S. Cockings. 1639. W. E. Nowton. ments in the in inufacture of chenille or like fabrics 2588. C. Chalmers. Improvements in gas stoves, 1311. S. Carr and G. 1559. T. Bell. suitable to be used in woven and other ornamental for heating buildings, apartinents, and other similar Butterworth.

1599. J. Watkins and I. piled fabrics. places.

1313. J. Wansbrough. Pugh. Dated Nov. 8, 1859.

2589. W. Elliott. An improved method of raising 1318. F. and A. Ro. 1778. E. Merrell. 2540. J. Thomson. Improvements in the manufac. water and other liquids.


2170. T. B. Daft. ture or production of Brussels and velvet pile carpet

2590. C. P. Alvey. Improved machinery or appa- 1350. G. H. and H. R. 2267: J. Macintosh. fabrics and hearth rugs. tus for the manufacture of envelopes.


9269. J. Macintosh. 2512. J. II. Johnson. Improvements in watches er

2501. W. H. Ward. Improvements in tanning 1351, F. W. Saltonstall 2277. W. Macfarlane.

hides and skins. time keepers. (A communication.)

and A. Bush. 2541. T. $. Bottom. Improvements in the manu

2592. W. Wilkins. “A ridge trestle," or apparatus facture of chenille.

which may be employed on tho ridges of buildings to PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP Dated Nov. 9, 1859. support persons and planking.

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. 2593. A. V. Newton. An improvement in the 2767. J. Roberts, J. 2802. F. N. Clerk. 2516. J. Hamer. An improved material for inst. manufacture of hose or flexible pipe. (A communica- Dale, and J. D. Pritchard. 2810. W. Woofe. lating the wires of electric telegraphs, for lining arti-. tion.)

2782. J. Broalley.

2816. C. A. Tissot. oles of dress, for covering, clothing, casing, or lining

2591. T. D. Perkin. Improvements in the manu. 2788. C. E. Heinke. 9925. L. C. Stuart. steam boilers, pipes, cylinders, and other Fessels, con. facture of colouring matters. (A communication.) 2789. J. Orr.

2829. J. Brown. duits, or chambers, and for other similar purposes, to 2595. J. Grahim. Improvements in treating and 2793. H. Bougleux. 2510. G. Collier and J. which the said material is or may be applicable as a applying products obtzinál when galvanizing iron. 2798. A. V. Newton. W. Crossley. non-conductor, for preventing or diminishing the

2300. J. Brown and J. 2867. A. and W, Bal. transmission of hent or of the electric fluid. PATENT APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE Adin.

lough. 2548. D. Fulton. Improvements in cylinders or

SPECIFICATION. «ollers for printing and other purposes. 2550. G. Spill and D. Spill. An improvement in tion and arrangement of the boiler and working parts 2614. J. Willcock. Improvements in the construc- PATEXTS ON WHICH THE SEVENTI YEAR'S

STAMP DUTY NI.IS BUEN PAID. the manufacture of bands for driving machinery, and for various other purposes. of steam firc-engines, parts of which are applicable to 877. T. A. Cook.

919, J. Barlow.

(1 communication.) 831. R. B. Feather. 1015. II. Clayton. 2552. W. Clark. Improvements in the construc. engines for other purposes. Dated Nov. 19, 1859.

900), S. C. Lister and J. 1073. A. Cointry. tion and application of electric telegraph wires or conductors. (A communication.)

Datet Nov. 10, 1859.


LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, &c.g 2554. J. Edwards and J. S. Wright. Improve

(From the London Gazette, tor. 29, 1859.)

Published during the scoak ending Yop. 25, 1839. ments in the manufacture of buttons.

1695. W. E. Newton. Batteries. (1 communica2556. J. Tenwiek. Improvements in the construction.)


Pr. No. Pr. tion of street gutters.

1711. J. Todd, jun. Dressing seeds. 2500. W. Fletcher. Improvements in machinery

1714. C. and J. B. Tapp. Boilers and furnacos. for making looped fabrics.

1775. J. Mollady. Hat.

9670 10 9780 3 9390 31100010 S. 10110 3 102203 1800. E. J. Cordner. Saving life from shipwreck. 960 S 97903 9300 S 10010 3 10120 S 102409 Dated Nov. 11, 1859.

1957. J. T. Pitman. Lubricating. (A communi- 960 S9800 8| 9911 | 1020 319130 3 102/98 2362. F. D. Jones. A weaver's loom with combs cation.)

99:15 10000 C10110 01021') 10

9:10 9320 3 9930 2 10041 9013'03 10200 10 opened at the summit, and with moveable floating 1858. W. Bourh. Breaks, buffers, and couplings.

9721) 16 983.0 3930 3!10050 10 10160 S 1027/0 $ chains. (A communication.)

1891. A.V. Newton. Carriages. (A communication.) 97:20 3 980 31 9950 31000 310170 ; 10103 i 2503. T. Blinkhorn. Improvements in pumps. 1935. D. and J. Russell. Docking ships.

9710 $98.310 11 9960 2,100710 C1018 0 71 2564. R. A. Brooman. The preparation of a salt, 1999, J. Bernard. Boots and shoes,

9730 3 9860 09372 3 10089 11 1019 0 16 and means of combining, mixing, or applying the 2062. W. 6. Gedge. Nails. (A communication.)

977) 3 9870 71 939.0 3 1000 310290 3 977) 11 933)

3: 101, 10-19 3 same to render fabrics, pulp, wood, oil, and other sub- 21:2. A. Lamb. Heating fced water. stances uninflammable. (A communication.)

2245. R. Brenrley, jun. Raising the nap of cl 3:48. 2565. R. A. Brooman. An improved method of 2334. W. Prosser. Production of light.

NOTE.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from tào preparing plates and cylinders for printing from. (A 2358. N. Montanari. Aiding children in walking. Great Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on re: comunitation.)

2369. J. Bernard. Boots and shoes.

ceipt of the amount of price and postige.

Sumi exceeding

58. must be remitted by Post Office Onter, inde parable 2560. A. Jacquelain. Improvements in the manu- 2008, J. T. Pitinan. Mallcable iron. (A comacturo c# carbon and in apparatus employed therein.munication.)

at the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr. Bennet 'woude croft, Great Scal Patent Office.


No. Pr.





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by the conflicting testimony they could scarcely | which Mr. Fairbairn followed up by his letter

arrive at any conclusion. The Lord Chief Jus- -the one fact which touched Mr. Cobden's MECHANICS MAGAZINE.

tice said it was very difficult to decide between tenderness in this matter-was the pressure of

conflicting evidence in ordinary cases, but necessity under which the Cort family, all of LONDON, FRIDAY, DECEIBER 9, 1859.

especially so when the subject matter was not whom are very aged people, are labouring.

within their cognizance. A verdict was then Immediate and liberal relief was the prime THE TRIAL OF PATENT CASES. taken for the plaintiff, with the damages in the thing to be obtained. From our own intimate How long are we to continue to adjust the rights declaration subject to a reference. Mr. Knowles knowledge of the case, we can assert that at of patentees by means of incompetent tribunals? said that all parties ought to be obliged to his least £100 or £150 was most urgently reIt is notoriously true that a dozen men taken Lordship for making the suggestion. He was quired by Mr. Richard Cort, a man of 76 years hap-hazard, even when dignified with the name certain that this case could not have been satis- of age, in order to meet liabilities incurred in of a " special jury,” cannot possibly decide with factorily tried in any other way, and few patent prosecuting the case on behalf of his sisters and satisfaction upon the difficult mechanical, cases could be satisfactorily disposed of by a himself

. With these facts before them, then, the chemical, and other scientific questions which jury. The conversation was then concluded by Committee is formed, and £260 are, we are are continually claiming settlement in our law the Lord Chief Justice remarking that one officially told, at once subscribed. Here, then, courts. Why then does not the Legislature mind conversant with the subject is infinitely are the means of present and immediate relief

at once secured ; and the family will, of course, provide other means for settling the rival claims better than twelve or thirteen who are not. of inventors and manufacturers ?

These remarks, by one of our youngest and at once get the blessing of it. So every one We think there are signs that a change for the ablest judges, must not be lost sight.of. The would surely think; but not so think the better in this respect is approaching.


evil complained of will not be easily remedied ; Committee ! They give Mr. Richard Cort judges are getting disgusted with the trouble but a remedy must nevertheless be sought £30— which cannot have repaid him the occasioned by the present arrangement, and The difficulty to be overcome is manifestly that expenses incurred in soliciting the suns the annoyance of one judge would lead to re- of securing professional ability free from per- mentioned above--and put the remainder

bank! We do not see form sooner than the injury of a thousand sonal bias.

word about the immediate relief of the patentees. Men who have not been slow to accept the duties and the fees pertaining to

THE CORT TESTIMONIAL FUND. family, even to the extent of paying what little the patent system, both at the bar and as Her WHEN statesmen and others failed to deal debts they have incurred in endeavouring to Majesty's Law Officers, do not hesitate to de- even justly by the family of Henry Cort, Mr.

secure justice for themselves ; and as little do nounce the present mode of trying patent causes William Fairbairn, the eminent engineer, wrote

we hear about the relief of their pressing perwhen they get seated upon the Bench. We last summer to the Times, offering the hand-sonal wants... What we do hear is, that " when have a notable example of this sort of thing in some sum of £100 as a first subscription to a

the subscription list is completed"--and this the case of the present Lord Chief Justice of new Cort Testimonial Fund. About the same

may not occur for months, or even years ; inthe Court of Queen's Bench. Sir Alexander time the facts of the case came to the know- deed months have already passed then the Cockburn derived not a few emoluments from ledge of Mr. Cobden, M.P., and Mr. Bazley, of annuities," or something of that sort, for

sum raised “shall be invested in the purchase patent law cases, both as an advocate and as an M.P., and these gentlemen at once spontaner " the

comfort of the declining years of the surAttorney-General; but Lord Chief Justice ously offered to aid the movement for the relief Cockburn is, notwithstanding, greatly indis- of the family in every possible way. A com

“vivors." Really this is too cruel! Declining posed to sit idle for days on the Queen's Bench mittee was subsequently formed, having Mr. years! Why the people are all between 70 at. Westminster while “special juries” are Fairbairn for its chairman, and Messrs. R. and 80 now; to talk about their declining vainly endeavouring to master the mysteries of Cobden, T. Bazley, J. A. Turner, Ivie Mackie, years is almost to mock them. Declining gas apparatus, permanent ways, Jacquard ma- J. Whitworth, B. Hick, J. Penn, and J. Boyd days !---declining hours !--declining minutes, chinery, compositions for protecting iron, and for its members. This committee appointed we had almost said, are all they have to look .

Mr. David Morris, of Market-place, ManWe have had an example of the impatience chester, its Secretary, and several hand- shall have annuities purchased for them, and of his Lordship during the present week, at the some subscriptions were speedily obtained. meantime to lock £230 (which have been given sitting at Nisi Prius. An action was brought Mr. Bazley added £50 to Mr. Fairbairn's to them) up in a bank, is really to insult and by Messrs. Crossley, carpet manufacturers at £100; and Mr. Joseph Whitworth and wound them to the quick. Halifax, to recover £2,000 from Mr. Talbot

, Messrs
. B. Hick and Co. each did the same Fairbairn ample credit for meaning and pur-

Let us not be misunderstood. We give Mr. a carpet manufacturer at Kidderminster, as at Mr. Cort's personal solicitation. All this royalty for the use of their patents in con- was done many weeks since.

posing well. The whole thing of which we comnexion with the Jacquard loom. The royalty Thus far we have nothing but admiration to time we cannot help pointing it out and ask

plain is doubtless an oversight. At the samo was secured by a deed between the parties, express in reference to the proceedings of this ing to have it at once corrected. Matters cannot and the defendant, by plea, denied that in Committee. But a week or two since ive re- stand as they now are a single week after this making his carpets he had used any of the ceived an official circular which fills us with announcement without bringing odium upon plaintiffs' inventions, or any part thereof. surprise, and, as old advocates of the Cort case, the Manchester Committee. Before the case commenced, the Lord Chief we may even say with pain. This circular runs Justice said there was another patent case in as follows :“At a meeting of the Committee, the day's paper, and he really could not take "held 7th November, 1859, in the Town Hall,

LIFE OR DEATH IN COAL MINES. up the whole time of the sittings in trying “Manchester, the Mayor in the chair ; thé In 1857 the Lundhill Colliery exploded, and patent cases. The case was then proceeded " Secretary reported that the sum of £216 had blew 189 men into the next world. The acciwith, but Mr. Atherton, the plaintiffs' counsel,"been paid into the bank of Sir B. Heywood dent arose from the absence of efficient safety had not concluded the opening, when his Lord" and Co., and that £30 had been withdrawn lamps, the value of which was well understood ship suggested that it was a matter which“ and paid on account to·Mr. Richard Cort. at the time. Three months ago, during an night be much better settled by some scientific “ The total subscriptions to this date were excursion to Yorkshire, we descended this same person from an inspection of the machinery “reported as amounting to the sum of £260. colliery, and found in it an abundance of safety than by an inquiry in court, which would " Resolved—That a circular be prepared, and lamps of the right kind. The costly steed was occupy two or three days. Mr. Knowles, the signed by Mr. Fairbairn, as Chairman of the stolen, and then the door was shut! We note defendant's counsel, said he quite, concurred “Committee, appealing to all interested in the this fact on commencing a few remarks on this with his Lordship. At the end of two or three *** subject of iron manufacture, for co-opera- subject, because it indicates that some of the days the jury would not have arrived at the “stion and assistance to the Cort Fund, and worst colliery accidents even of the present day knowledge necessary to commence the investi- " that Mr. D. Morris, Secretary, issue such are preventable ; and this fact is a light which gation. The Lord Chief Justice then remarked ". circular, accompanied by blank forms for will greatly help to guide us aright in what we that these patent cases were nuisances. Lay- "subscriptions forth with, so as to complete have to say. men, perfectly unacquainted with the points ""

the labours of the Committee as early as which they were called upon to determine, ".

Mr. P. H. Holland, an Inspector of Burials

possible. That when the subscription list under the Home Office, was officially called were not, he said, in such an advantageous" is completed, the sum raised shall be upon to report upon the safest method of buryposition at the end of several days as a scien- " invested in the purchase of annuities, or ing the numerous victims of the great explosion tific person would be in as many minutes. A “ some other form of securing the comfort of at Lundhill. Two months elapsed before any juryman said he could confirm his Lordship's". the declining years of the survivors of the of the bodies could be removed, and at the end view. He had served upon a jury in the Court "Corr Family.

of five months some still remained in the mine. of Exchequer in a very similar case, and he Now, the very ground of this Committee's Of course the removal and burial of so large a believed that half of the jury were so confused formation, the very basis of the Times' appeal, I number of putrid corpses required the most careful precautions, but neither skill, care, nor naked lights, and that out of 1,154 deaths from About one-sixth of the deaths, or 166 a-year, expense was spared ; and the free ventilation explosions reported in five years; twelve only are caused by miscellaneous accidents, the secured, the use of McDougall's disinfecting occurred where safety lamps had been used, all chief of which are crushing by coal tubs, or by powder and Dr. Stenhouse's charcoal respirator, of which were in a defective state. Mr. Kenyon passing trains. Many of these are the conseand other precautions, were effectual in preserv- Blackwell's evidence confirms this. He says quences of bad discipline; the want of proper ing all the men employed in this difficult, dan- that “out of 1,099 deaths, seven only were with control to enforce obedience to rule. Some gerous, and disgusting work from any serious" safety lamps, and adds that no instance has happen because the galleries through which coal injury. But the matter did not end here. Mr. "been properly authenticated of explosion from trains pass are too low and too narrow. Some Holland's mind became impressed with the" a proper safety lamp; and in the most dan- by the employment of machinery and horses

, awfulness of such accidents, and their preven- “gerous mines of England, where the discharge where hand putting, though dearer, would be tion has since occupied his thoughts. The “of firedamp is greatest, but where locked safety less dangerous, and many, no doubt, from the results of his inquiries and reflections have “lamps are exclusively used, explosions are al reckless foolhardiness of the sufferers themlately been given to the public in a valuable most unknown.”

selves. The young seem to be the peculiar paper read at the Society of Arts.

But, to return, if the average loss of life were victims of this class of accident, partly because During the last eight years there have been reduced, as it might be, to the average of the they are chiefly employed in the galleries

, reported 8,015 deaths by colliery accidents, or north, instead of 1,984 killed during the last partly from their want of experience and cau1,002 a year, out of about 220,000 colliers, eight years, there would have been only 845. tion. About twice as many of the boys below showing a death-rate froin violence exceeding That is to say, 143 lives are annually thrown 15 are killed, as is the proportion to the numfour per thousand. We cannot calculate the away, because the precautions proved to be ber of them employed. exact proportion because we do not know the effectual in Durham are not observed in York- The systematic inspection of collieries by increase of the number of colliers since the shire, Lancashire, Staffordshire, Wales, &c. Government officers has, doubtless, led to the census ; but the death-rate by accidents among "Is it unreasonable,” asks Mr. Holland,“ to introduction of many precautionary arrangecolliers is at least from six to seven times as expect that the safety of all mines shall be ments, and caused hundreds of human lives to great as the death-rate from violence among “ raised to the standard of those of Durham, be saved ; but it has not produced all the imthe whole population, including suicides, homi- " which are naturally among the most danger-provement of which collieries are susceptible, cides, and the dangerous occupations. If these "ous ? Is it too much to require that the Act and from the very nature of the case, as Mr. were excluded it is probable that colliery work" directing due ventilation shall be obeyed, and Holland points out, it never can. It was never would be seen to be eight or ten times as dan- " that the possibility of having an unguarded intended that the Inspectors should be the gerous as the average. This is Mr. Holland's light in an explosive atınosphere shall be pre- substitutes for viewers, or mine engineers, who first great fact. In confirmation of it he states “vented ?”

are so constantly employed by the owners of that the charge of the insurance company Falls of coals and roof are the most frequent the northern mines (but not always elsewhere), against death by accident is for colliers eight cause of injury. The deaths from these acci- to direct the general mining operations. If the times the ordinary rate.

dents alone have been 2,971 in eight years, or Inspectors are to perform this duty, not only In order to show that this destruction of life 371 a year. Besides those killed by coal falling must their number be increased from 10 to at is not inevitable Mr. Holland has prepared a upon them, a very much larger number have least a 100, but they must be invested with very convincing table, which—as the accuracy of been maimed and injured, often very seriously. power enough to become in effect the real it was not questioned in a very sharp discussion It is probable that no reasonable degree of directors of the collieries in very important that followed the reading of his paper-we may care will completely guard against these acci- respects. Such an extension of the system of confidently assume to be correct. This table dents, but it is certain that they may be very inspection and of Government control would shows that in the Durham mines all the great much diminished, as is proved by the fact that evidently be highly impolitic, and quite at causes of accidents—explosions, the falling in in the northern district, which employs one- variance with our national feelings and habits. of roofs, and mishaps in shafts--and even the fifth of the men, there are only about one

All that can be wisely attempted by penal law minor and miscellaneous causes of accidents, eighth of the fatal accidents of this class. This is to enforce such general regulations, and to are guarded against with a degree of care which great difference appears to be chiefly owing to compel the adoption of such precautions, as is altogether unknown throughout the colliery the plan adopted in the north of employing will guard against evident and almost universal districts generally: in other words, that in the men for the especial duty of looking after the dangers, leaving the details of management and Durham mines, which are, to say the least, quite safety of the colliers. In the northern district, the discipline of mines to those who alone can as difficult and dangerous to work as others, about one in six of the men employed are what effectually execute such duties—those who emexplosions do not occur, roofs do not fall, mis- may be termed the safety staff, for superintend- ploy and pay the men. This is Mr. Holland's haps in shafts do not take place, and accidents ing ventilation, keeping up roads, setting tim-view; and it is ours also. At the same time generally do not happen, with anything like the ber, removing obstructions, and doing things the reports of the Inspectors give ample proof same average frequency as they do in other necessary for the safety of the others. În both that precautionary regulations directed to colliery districts. In the northern districts, in most other parts of the country, colliers are ex- be observed are very generally neglected, and which one-fourth of the

coal is raised and pected to do most of these things themselves, that a very large proportion of the thousand nearly one-fifth of the total colliers employed, and they are very much less properly done, with annually killed are destroyed in direct consethe deaths from explosions scarcely exceed one the effect of an annual loss of 126 lives more quence of such neglect ; and this is confirmed, twelfth, the average being only 21 out of 248 than there would be if the danger were reduced as we have seen, by the fact that in the northern annual deaths from this cause, and these may to the Durham standard ; and the northern districts, where precautions are best observed, be still further diminished by constant atten- mines are themselves susceptible of great im- the proportion of fatal accidents to the men tion to ventilation, and especially by the use of provement.

employed is very much less than that in the such safety lamps as the men cannot open The most dangerous part of the collier's em- whole country. without extinguishing the light. It is expressly ployment seems to be in the shaft, for though What, then, is to be done? Lives which enacted in the 4th section of the Colliery most of them pass but a small portion of their might be preserved by reasonable and mode Inspection Act, that "an adequate amount of time in or near the shafts, more than one-fifth rate precautions are now sacrificed ;. how shall ** ventilation shall be constantly produced in all of the deaths occur there. That many of these we mend this state of things ? how wipe away “collieries, to dilute and render harmless gases accidents may be guarded against, is proved by the reproach of it? It is not an easy thing to " to such an extent as that the working places the fact that many of them occur which the answer these questions wisely. But it is neverc of the pits and levels of such collieries shall, most simple precautions would certainly have theless very necessary to do so.

The one " under ordinary circumstances, be in a fit state prevented. În instancing this Mr. Holland explosion at Lundhill cost the proprietors " for working." And by the special rules, col-remarks, “men could not be killed by falling nearly £20,000, and their work-people 189 liers are forbidden to enter the mines until they “stones or coals if the cages were properly lives. If the families thus impoverished had have been examined by means of a lamp, and “covered. Few are thrown out of the baskets had annuities purchased for them, producing found safe. If the simple and common rule or skips, when cages with proper guide rods ten shillings a-week for ten years only for the were universally followed, of not allowing any “are used. Few are drawn over the pullies family of each man killed, such annuities, at unprotected light in any mine, until the part of “when

there are proper
indicators, signals, and £200 each, would have cost £37,800. 'Here

, the mine worked was found safe, there could, as “breaks, and when the engine driver's atten- then, was a loss of nearly £60,000 at a single Mr. Holland remarks, be no explosions except “tion is not distracted by other duties. To blow, to say nothing just now of the unhappy in those very rare instances in which an explo- "neglect such means of safety is penal, but they men the marks of whose dead bodies were sive admixture of gases and air is rapidly are neglected, because their observance

causes shown us in the pit in July last

. The latter formed. Mr. Mackworth reported that seventy- expense and trouble, and is not evidently and phase of the subject cannot be dealt with ; the two out of seventy-three explosions, and 171 out " directly remunerative, though indirectly pecuniary part of it can, and in reference to it of 172 deaths, were attributable to the use of “highly profitable,"

Mr. Holland makes the following proposals as a DECEMBER 9, 1859.)

basis for further legislative action in the mat- for them was pointed out by the Government bluntness of the pivot will prevent the card ter :-“ The cost of precautions, and of acci- Inspectors. We doubt this, and think it would from traversing freely, perhaps from moving at “dents which occur in spite of them, should be not be difficult to cite cases making strongly all until it is entreated at a large angle ; and " borne by the consumers of coal. The loss against it. If it be true, then the Inspectors then, by resting on the other side of the mag"occasioned by accidents which might be must be the persons principally to blame for the netic meridian, a report might next day arise "avoided but are not, should be borne by excessive number of accidents in Yorkshire, of a sudden derangment of the compass from "those whose culpable negligence or cruel Lancashire, Staffordshire, Wales, &c. Mr. the ship being found forty, or fifty miles on one “parsimony was the cause of them.” So far the Hedley, the Government Colliery Inspector for side of where she was expected to be. matter is plain enough ; it is very easy to re- Derbyshire, spoke at the meeting, and coin- The want of directive power on some courses cognise the justice of these proposals ; but to cided with Mr. Hunt's views, using like argu- in uncompensated compasses is thought to be give legislative effect to them is not so easy. ments with him. We dispute the reasoning of the strongest argument in favour of mechanical Mr. Holland, however, does not stop short of both; but we are willing to acknowledge that adjustment. The Committee's experiments on this.

their want of confidence in Mr. Holland's board the Royal Charter, with the deviations This just and beneficial result might be insurance scheme may, nevertheless, be well for her compasses obtained at Melbourne by attained, he considers, by one of two plans :founded.

the Rev. Dr. Scoresby, afford some interesting by a system of insurance against death by The whole subject requires careful and pro- data. The Committee investigate the case of accident, or by such an extension of Lord longed consideration. The expression of hasty this ship at great length, and among other Campbell's Act as would secure compensation and unstudied opinions upon it can do no good. things they have arranged tables so as to con. to the families of those killed apparently in Mr. Holland deserves our best thanks for his trasť the deviations of the two compensated consequence of the neglect of any of the pre-paper upon it, especially for the fair and care

compasses ith those of the Admiralty standard cautionary regulations legally ordered to be ful spirit in which it is conceived. Its delivery compass, both with and without magnets. observed, unless it can be proved that the and publication, with the interesting discussion After averaging the results of the three sets of death was caused by the deceased himself; in- that followed it, must do good. The whole experiments (not the most favourable mode of stead of its being necessary, as it now is, for may be read in the Journal of the Society of comparison for compensation by magnets), the the claimant of compensation to prove that the Arts for December 2, 1859.

ratios are:-death was caused by the direct act or default

For the steering compass,

21 :12) in favour of of the master, whereas it is generally the THE COMPASSES OF IRON SHIPS.

companion compass, 24 : 22 compen. neglect of some servant or fellow-workman, In completing our review of the Liverpool

Admiralty compass, 26 : 23 sation, who alone is pecuniarily responsible, but from Compass Committee's Report, we come next to

even without any attempt to correct the origiwhom substantial damages can rarely if ever be the subject of compass adjustment. Much dif- nal adjustment; and this is a new ship-one, obtained. He thinks that proved neglect, the ference of opinion has existed not only as to therefore, subject to extreme changes. It is probable cause of the injury, should be primâ modes of adjustment, but also as to the pro-worthy of notice, say they, that adjustable magfacie evidence that it was the real cause, and priety of attempting it mechanically in any nets were fixed to the steering compass, but that coal-owners should compensate for injury way. Although this question may be consi- their position was not altered during the voysuffered by those they employ, in consequence dered as settled in practice, the Committee age, and most fortunately so, fof otherwise the of breach of law either by themselves or their have not failed to give it their careful attention. comparison could not have been so perfect. agents. The object would, however, he con- They believed that in only one instance which The result shows that had the compensating siders, be much more perfectly attained if no requires to be named, besides that of the Royal apparatus been employed, as was intended, the one were allowed to work in any colliery with Navy, is magnetic compensation dispensed with whole of the adjustment which was required is out being insured

against death by accident, to in iron ships, and that is in a line of steamers the following 1. To screw the fore-and-aft a sufficient amount to secure his family from plying north and south for 1,200 miles on each magnets a fraction of an inch nearer the comdestitution ; which would have the effect of side of the magnetic equator on the west coast pass card at Melbourne, and to screw them compelling those to bear the loss who profit by of South America. The experience of the back again a little as the ship returned to the labour, and who can most control the Committee proves that magnetic compensation Liverpool. 2. To screw the transverse magnet result.

is seldom so perfect as to dispense with the (which was rather above the middle of its conMr. Holland contends for this proposition at necessity for a table of deviations even in short taining box) gradually lower and lower through great length, and with uncommon ability, He voyage ships, while in ships making long voy- the whole of the voyage until the ship's return did not, however, convince all who heard him. ages the change is frequently so great as to to Liverpool, when it would probably be at the Mr. Robert Hunt, F.R.S., Keeper of Mining make a deviation table worthless, except for bottom of the case. Simple as this appears, it Records, declared that he did not think a sys- first clearing the land. This more especially would thus have been possible to keep the tem of insurance would render the proprietors the case with steering compasses ; and here the steering compass correct,

and to give the needle of collieries generally more careful as to the mode inconvenience complained of is as often want the full effect of the earth's directive power. in which they carried on their operations. He of directive power in the needle as the extent of This is possibly an extreme case, and the rela“ believed the proprietor's greatest interest was to the deviation or the difference between the in- tively small change in the steering compass

preserve the lives of his men ; for he knew that dications of this compass and the standard. In may be due to its position so far forward as in "accidents happening in his mine were always almost all iron ships which sail round the Cape front of the mizen-mast. In another instance "attended with great cost to himself.” We of Good Hope, perhaps in, all which reach of a compass placed very near the stern-post of think Mr. Hunt in this observation begs the 40° south latitude and 20° east longitude, com- an iron sailing ship, where the adjustable magreal question at issue. No one doubts that it plaints are made of this. In the Great Britain, nets were also applied and actually used, the is “the proprietor's greatest interest” to pre- a temporary steering compass had to be fitted following movements took place :--The three serve the lives of his men, or that he is igno- much higher than the one commonly used. In fore-and-aft magnets had to be gradually rerant of the fact that accidents happening in the Sarah Palmer the binnacle compass was moved as the ship went south, and afterwards his mine are always attended with great cost quite useless, and a “vertical compass” fixed two were required placed the reverse way. In " to himself.” But what is doubted is, whether on the top of a companion, about seven feet this condition the ship rounded Cape Horn. mine proprietors really believe that to be to above the poop, had to be fitted with lanterns Before reaching Valparaiso

one of these

magnets their interest-so believe it, that is, as to act so as to steer by it instead. Reports of seven was again removed. On the homeward voyage upon their belief.

We know they do not. or more points of deviation are not unusual one fore-and-aft magnet, placed in the original The one fact of the Durham mines being so from ships traversing this part of the world. direction, was sufficient while within the tropica; much better managed than the others proves After deduction has been made for variation of and another was required on reaching 40° north. that the proprietors in general have no living, the same name being included with the devia- Only one transverse magnet was in place when operative conviction of this kind. They know, tion, as may sometimes be the case, sufficient the ship left Liverpool. While in the southern doubtless

, that accidents, when they occur, are remains to show that upon some courses the hemisphere, a second was required in the same attended with great cost to them ; but money earth's directive power must be most materially direction. On the ship’s return, one magnet loss from accidents may not be sustained, diminished. Statements of a similar kind have athwart-ship was found to be sufficient; but it whereas the cost of precautionary measures been made respecting some of the North Ame- had to be screwed to its highest possible posimust be borne if they are once adopted Mine rican steamers. In both localities the earth's tion in the case. In the previous voyage (the owners are like most other people in this re- directive or horizontal force is small, and when ship's first), before the captain knew how to use spect, and prefer the risk of a great loss to the it is further reduced by the opposition of the his adjusting magnets, the deviations were so certainty of a small outlay. Mr. Hunt further ship's magnetism, it will readily be seen how excessive that he had to remove the magnets stated that the proprietors were always, in his weak must be the directive power which re- altogether. opinion, open to conviction, and willing to mains. Slight causes will then turn the needle Though the various modes of compensation adopt real improvements when the necessity aside, or a small roughness of the agate or now in use are mostly founded upon the experi

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