Page images
PDF
EPUB

ments and instructions of the Astronomer way in the examination for a certificate of coin1"and incompetent alike, already suffer from Royal, the Committee regret to find that several peiency. In many deviation tables it is left to “imputations which do not attach to them.” modifications are made by adjusters, which be guessed whether “ship's head by compass A safficient degree of information on this intriappear defective, and in some instances liable or "ship's head true magnetic” is intended. In cate subject can scarcely be expected at present to produce much mischief. Some adjusters nearly every instance they are given for “ship's from the merchant captain, or he might superomit the chain-box or soft iron compensation "head true magnetic,” the reverse of the prac-intend and control the operations of swinging · for correcting the horizontal induced magnetism tice of the Royal Navy. The projection of de- ship and adjusting compasses in the same way of the ship, and thus ignore the quadrantal de viation curves is also useful to the initiated, as he does any other duty which devolves upon viation altogether. If tables of deviation were for the purpose of testing the probable accuracy him. Even where an interest is felt in the subalways given this would not be of much of the observations, and the care which has ject, the great demand on a captain's time, at moment, but captains are sometimes led to be been taken in swinging ship. Some examples the busy period of fitting for sea, usually prelieve that the adjustment is complete without are given of this by the Committee : one may vents him from doing more than inquire the it. Others attempt compensation who appear be taken as an instance. On noticing that the errors on one or two particular courses, and to quite ignorant of its nature, and make vain west deviations very much exceeded the east charge the adjuster "not to compensate her too efforts to correct a ship's attraction with per- deviations in amount, while the curve showed "much," as he does not like "too much commanent magnets only. Theory and practice general symmetry, it was conjectured that the pensation.” As to the general distribution combine to prove that when the chain-box com lubber line" was not towards ship's head. of the ship's magnetism, or the real nature and pensation is once properly applied, no further Examination proved this to be the fact, and direction of the force which will be constantly change in it is required whatever be the voy- showed that the binnacle (as in many other cases) pulling at his compass needle, perhaps neither age; and the Committee feel confidence in was only secured by lanyards, and that through he nor the compass adjuster has any adequate expressing the opinion that it should never be these having become slack “the standard conception. In some cases the captain will neglected. The chain-boxes at present in use bridge compass” was "considerably slewed.” stand by in a sort of selfish spirit and see thist are seldom large enough to correct more than It proved, too, that the ship had been swung everything is done which the compass adjuster 3° or 3° of quadrantal error. They may with with the binnacle in this position, and that she requires, but will anstain from making any advantage be made of twice their present had so made the voyage from Bristol to Liver- remark or expressing an opinion, so that if length. The increased length would also tend pool. This was also confirmed by a second perchance anything goes wrong afterwards the to correct a portion of the errors which gene- swinging under the direction of the Committee. whole of the blame may be thrown upon

the rally arise from heeling. In many cases the Though this careless mode of fixing a standard adjuster; or if this expression be too personal, Committee have observed the use of oblique, compass was pointed out to the captain, and he that the fault may be placed upon “the cominclined, and vertical magnets in positions immediately gave directions to the carpenter to passes.” Until masters are competent to which must necessarily produce large errors secure it with wooden cleats, the ship left Eng- attend fully to the subject, some kind of authowhen the ship heels. In one instance an error land for the first time without its being attended ritative supervision in this matter would unof four points was reported from this cause. to further than by “taking in the slack" of the doubtedly be beneficial ; but the Committee The Committee object to the ordinary use of lanyards. Similar cases have been observed. confine themselves at present to showing how any but the horizontal compensatiny magnets, Compass records from such ships are entirely proof of this may be obtained. Copies of all and would always have them placed fore-and- valueless.

deviation tables which may be given both for aft or athwart-ship-not only for the reasons Among the miscellaneous operations of the adjusted and non-adjusted compasses ; particualready stated, but also because the oblique Committee may be noted the distribution of lars as to the number

, direction, and distance positions render any attempt at change while circulars conveying information as well as ask- of the maguets which may be applied for coniat sea by the captain more difficult, and make ing for it. Copies of some of these, with new pensation; and the amount of original error on his attempts at compensation in the same way editions of old ones, are appended to their two cardinal points 90° apart, would afford almost hopeless. Horizontal magnets, if placed Report. The Committee have also examined ample information to any one competent to pear and below the compass bowl, may also as far as possible all new inventions relating to examine such retiirns on nearly all that requires hve an injurious action, and possibly have the compass or compass management, and have to be known on this part of the subject. Inforgiven rise to some of the fluctuations in the considered various suggestions for facilitating mation somewhat of this kind was collected deviations recorded of some floating compasses. the detection of compass errors at seil.

No for a short period by Mr. Towson, of the Local One captain, when spoken to on the proximity remarks have been made by the Committee Marine Board, and Mr. Hartnup, of the Liverof a compensating magnet to his steering com

upon the changes in the magnetism of iron pool Observatory, under authority from the pass, said he observed when it was first fixed ships produced by collisions at sea. Records Board of Trade. From such data correct inhow a small difference in its position affected of one or two cases have been obtained, and the ferences may be drawn as to:-1. General the compass needle ; yet he stated as a matter attempt has been made to get others. It is ability of the adjuster. 2. Whether the ship worthy of attention, that on one occasion when difficult to obtain reliable evidence-not so was properly swung. 3. Approximate amount water from a rusty tank was used to float the much personal, as respecting the previous con

and direction of ship's magnetism at the position compass bowl, the rust in the witter so changed dition of the ship's compasses. 'In some in- of each compass. 4. To what extent compenhis deviations that he was obliged to take it stances iron work, so near as to influence the sating magnets are placed in positions which out again. It had not occurred to him that compass, has been carried away; in others the are known to produce great and variable errors the difference in the level of the bowl might vessels have been in sight of port and the com on the hceling of the ship. 5. By returns from have been the real cause. In this, as in many passes were not noticed, while considerable the same ship each time she is swung or resimilar instances, the facts may be accepted repairs and alterations have been made before adjusted ; information as to the changes which when the explanations or alleged causes are the ships again went to sea. In another case may occur in her magnetism. Returns similar inapplicable

. When circumstances will not the steamer went her usual voyage in foguy to those which have been suggested can causa admit of the compensating magnets being placed weather after the collision, and nothing amiss no delay, or in any way interfere injuriously a sufficient distance below the compass they was observed. Another steamer, ever since the with the captain, the merchant, or the ship; should be fixed on the same level as the collision by which an iron sailing ship was sunk, owner, while they would afford some sort of card.

has been lying alongside other iron vessels, and guarantee to each that an important subject is The projection of deviation curves (to which the captain can offer no information.

being adequately cared for It must also be subject we next come) has been recommended The Liverpool Compass Committee, in con

evident that occasionally, in cases of accident, as a means of obtaining a table of probable cluding their able Report, delicately intimate these records would afford valuable evidence. errors on every point of the compass from obser- to the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council

In a future article on this subject we shall vations made on a few points only. Napier's for Trade that a better and perhaps more satis- complete what we have to say by a reference method of projection, or the modification of it factory view of one portion of the subject could to some facts recently made public by Professor by Captain Ryder, Royal Navy, is also ex be obtained in six months by the action of the Airy, the Astronomer Royal. tremely valuable for converting compass courses Board of Trade than the Committee could hope into magnetic courses, or the reverse. Sufficient to gain in a much longer period. “There is It is useless to discuss at present the question at attention to this, or even the knowledge that more than an appearance of unfairness," says issue between the directors of the Great Ship Coxit is necessary, is exceedingly rare in the mer- the Report, “in a number of private indivi- pany and Mr. Scott Russell, because the whole busi chant service. Few captains or compass “duals requesting copies of deviation tables ness is before the three gentlemen who were fised avljusters appear aware that considerable dif "and information of this kind from compass upon as arbitrators when the contract was andertaken. ference may exist in the deviation between "adjusters and others, and then using the infor- The Great Eastern is the first esample we have raet ship’s head by compass and ship's head true “mation thus kindly granted to prove the with of a costly ship being systematically and unjustly magnetic on the different points of the compass. incompetence or carelessness of some of the depreciated by those who should be the last to wder. It is neither taught to them nor noticed in any “donors. Compass adjusters, the competent | value her.

[ocr errors]

SOCIETY OF ARTS.

were

DECEMBER

had the opportunity of giving advice, that it 'is was, perhaps, scarcely a district in this country Proceedings of of Societies.

exceedingly important, now thatChina is likely to where one of two conditions did not exist ; either be opened to European inquiries, that intelligent the lands could not be drained at all, or they were

persons should be sent there, in order to see injuriously afi'ected by the drainage of those above Nov. 25.—The paper read was on “CHINA, and whether, from the experience of these forty cen- them. Instances were given in illustration of its relations to British Commerce,” by Sir John turies, something mignt not be gathered up that is these two conditions; and it was remarked that, BOWRING, F.R.S. After dealing at considerable of practical value. Intercourse may lead to the in many cases, a single person, who was unwilling length with the broal features of his subject, Sir removal of many of t!reir prejudices, but without to drain his property, might prevent any im. John proceeded to remark upon the stationary that intercourse it is impossible to alter the stereo provement by adjoining owners. character of the Chinese, and spoke as follows:- typted character of the Chinese. They treat us Owing to the extensive system of subterranean, " Lookisg into the early history of China, I find with disdain, and often with perfidy; but they or pipe drainage, and to the field drains and that 4,000 years ago the art of drawing was are all educated under the idea that we are no ditches being better cleared out than formerly, thoroughly understood, that mountains

better than "barbarians,' and that we ought to be there had been a large increase in the water flow, levelled, that valleys were raised, and that agricul. dealt with as if we were wild beasts. Such are ing down rivers, brooks, and ininor streams. The ture was carried on in a state of perfection, the teachings of their philosophers, who represent effect of this was, that the water was discharged in beyond which it has not progressed a step. I find that the world is divided into two great portions, a shorter time, causing more frequent floods, as that 2,200 years before Christ, the Chinese people that its centre is under the canopy of Heaven, the brooks and streams were of inadequate size ; were clad in silk; and there is a very ancient the ordinary name which they give to their coun- and at other times, tlie rivers and streams conproverb which says it is an opprobrium to a man try-all civilisation being under this canopy, and tained less water than formerly, in many cases not who, having reached the age of fifty, does not that besides this there is the barbarism which is sufficient for the supply of the towns and country possess a silk garment. I lately stumbled upon a beyond. We represent that barbarism; and independunt on them. To give some idea of the passage in a history of the second century, in discussing the matter with the Chinese, they say, magnitude of this system, it was stated that, which I found a description of the manufacture of You are great fighters; you have attended to within the last ten years, about four millions paper in all its detail, from rags reduced to pulp, the art of war, and we have not, but you have no sterling had been expended in the drainage of and which, by pressure, were made to give a paper civilisation ; you have no language that is intelli- 800,000 acres, under the control of the Inclosure upon which the Chinese were in the habit of gible. It is true, you are taught to write, but Commissioners of England; and it was estimated, writing, while it is notorious that in Europe the then we see a man who comes from a nation of that probably twice that umount had been laid manufacture of paper was contemporaneous with three or four millions of people, and on the other out by the Crown, by corporate bodies, and by the invention of printing, and, perhaps, more im- side of the water there is another nation of three private individuals. For full details of the progress 'portant than the invention of printing itself in

or four millions, and the writing of the inın on and results of the underdrainage of land in Great the advancement of civilisation. Many of the one side of the river is given to a man on the Britain, the members were referred to Mr. Bailey, discoveries which are modern in Europe are other side of the river, and he cannot make out a Denton's paper, read before the Society of Arts ancient in China. It is impossible to say when word of it.' They say, 'We are three or four in December, 1855. the Chinese had not the printing ar!. The hundred millions of people who cannot, indeed, The tendency of mills, weirs, dams, and other inariner's compass, it is notorious, was possessed understand one another's talk, but everybody un- obstructions in rivers, as well as the crooked and by them hundreds and hundreds of years before derstands what everybody writes. I never found confined channels of the rivers themselves, to imwe had any knowledge of it. There is a descrip. a Chinaman embarrassed when he met a man from pound the upland waters, was next adverted to. tion even of iron boats and rotatory padalles at a a distant province, for though their spoken icdions And, on the other hand, the injury which lands remote period. Every one knows of what antiquity are different, their written signs are identical. suffered, by being inundated by the drainage of is their beautiful porcelain. So far from progres. Failing to be understood in speech, the Chinaman the uplands, from the want of combination among sion, I am sorry to say that these arts are in a makes a mark on his hand, and he is understood the possessors of property, was shown. Both these state of decadence in China, and the value of immediately. The Chinese often taunt us with cases were illustrated by a proposed drainage in porcelain is now estimated by its age. In conse- the imperfection of our education and the narrow the vicinity of Wareham, Dorsetslire. quence of some porcelain having been found, scope of our language, and in this respect deem The impediments which at present exist, to either in the pyramids or in the ruins adjacent to us inferior to the natives of Japan, Corea, or Siam, prevent arterial drainage being carried out on a them, it was maintaiped that there must lave who can read the Chinese character."

combined system, were attributed mainly to the been intercourse between China and Egypt, and

state of the law; which required to be modified that these, bearing as they do undoubtedly

and changed, and its powers enlarged and liberChinese inscriptions, and being filled with cos

Nov. 22, 1859.- Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P.., which more immediately concerned the Engineer

alised, as had been previously stated. The points metics or perfumez, or with the valuable produce of the East, contained evidence of the existence, not President, in the chair.

The whole of the evening was occupied by the internal and tidal rivers, and the removal of mills,

were, the straightening and deepening both only of the Chinese language three or four thousand years ago, but of intimate relations between discussion, commenced at the last meeting, upon dams, weirs

, and other obstructions, in order to India and China. The fact led to investigation, and Mr. Amos' Paper, “ ON THE GOVERNMENT Water produce uniform inclinations towards the outfalls we were enabled to trace in the poets of China every Works, TrAFALGAR SQUARE.”

of streams. "The gradients, or inclinations, must inscription that was found upon these curious porce

Nov. 29, 1859.-Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., be adapted to the soil through which the rivers lain jars ; and this showed that they could not have President, in the chair.

How, to obviate the scouring action of the water had an earlier existence than the period at which The paper read was "Os ARTERIAL DRAINAGE on the banks and bottoms of their courses. It these poets lived, which was between the eighth AND OUTFALLS," by Mr. R. B. Grantham, was also necessary to impound the surplus water, and the tenth centuries, certainly a very curious M. Inst. C.E.

so as to preserve an uniform miniinum supply to and not uninteresting fact.

While I feel how The author cominenced by giving an extract the channels of rivers at all times ; to provide much backwardness there is in China, and that in form Mr. Simpson's address, delivered in January, works available to take off field drainage, and for many matters there is a great deal to learn, I 1851, describing the general state of many im. the irrigation of adjoining lands, for the re-conknow that we might communicate to them inuch portant districts, in which property to a large struction of bridges and culverts under public very valuable knowledge. The only instance in amount was rendered useless, from the want of a roads, and for the application of the water to the which, so far as I know, they have generally proper system of arterial drainage, and of the supply of towns and villages, which, in many adopted the improvements of the West, is in the improvement of the trunk lines, or principal instances, might be altogether deprived of their general use of fire engines, which are found in water-courses. The legal difficulties in the way of supply by any through system of drainage. many of the principal cities in China, and which carrying out works of this character, led the The arterial drainage and outfall works are worked with very great activity and dexterity. author to think that some general legislative executed in Ireland since 1816, the year of the China, I think, might teach us something in other measure was necessary-such as Earl Carlisle's famine, were then alluded to, as forming the best

In a collection that I made for the Bill, proposed in 1852, which, in his opinion, was examples of such works in the United Kingdom. town of Sheffield, it was discovered that they had the best that had been suggested-before the Probably the largest work in the world, in reclaimthe art. I believe wholly unknown in Europe, of great object of improved arterial drainage and ing an extensive area of country from the effects hardening brass to the consistency of steel; and outfalls could be attempted on a comprehensive of stagnant water and floods by arterial drainage, there are brass instruments made in China at this scale, or be effectively maintained in working was that in the Fen Districts, commonly called moment of exceeding delicacy, that have all the order.

the Bedford Level, to which attention was next power which we give to steel. I think also that The subject was treated under the following directed at great length. The author then something is to be learnt in the chemical field of heads :- First, attention was called to some of the referred to the means adopted by the Norfolk inquiry. Many of the colours of China are very evils arising from the want of a combined system Estuary Company for the reclamation of land ; superior to those of Europe. There is one colour of operation. Secondly, an account was given of and next to the Ancolme Drainage, an account of which has led to some curious investigations, the impediments which exist to prevent the adop- which was presented to the Institution in 1815, namely, a perfect vegetable green. They have a tion of arterial drainage. Thirdly, the class of by Sir John Rennie. In this paper, as well as in green indigo, which is a permanent colour. Now works necessary to be carried out was described. all that had been introduced relative to the Fen I believe up to the present time we have never And, lastly, some of the leading principles in the district, some of the leading principles of the been able to make a green which will resist all the construction of drainage wirks, to accomplish the drainage of level areas, and of improving rivers in changes of temperature and climate. I have sug object in view, were pointed out.

flat countries, were noticed. These were, first, gested, on two or three occasions, when I bave The paper then went on to state, that there I the formation of catchwater drains for intercepting

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS,

matters,

[ocr errors][merged small]

highland waters ; secondly, separating, as much as The paper concluded by noticing the Com Simms, were laid on the table. Sir Edward possible, navigation from drainage, in improving missioners of Sewers, first instituted in the reign Belcher and the Astronomer Royal of Cape Town rivers ; thirdly, the slopes, or inclinations that the of Henry VI., who were acting in every part of testified to the enormous distance at which heliobottoms of rivers, or newly cut drains, discharging the country, having jurisdiction on the borders of static lights were visible when employed in trian. into tideways, should be formed to; fourthly, the the sea or tidal rivers. Their duties were to repair gulating a country. depth at which the cills of outfalls into tideways sea or river banks, and to keep the main drains 2. Latest accounts from the Central Africa Es. should be laid ; and lastly, the formation of over and outfalls of level districts in repair, and clear pedition from Dr. Livingstone, F.R.G.S., with fall weirs and reservoirs, for the retention of mud them for the passage of water. Their powers Illustrations.—Dr. Shaw remarked that, as the and sand. Some large drainages in Yorkshire were not sufficiently extensive, and it was stated papers were very voluminous, a few only of the were then referred to, and it was mentioned that that their constitution would have to be remodeled more interesting extracts could be read. The an estate of about 2,250 acres, at Thornton, near in the event of any fresh legislative measure being first portion, dated May 12, 1859, and addressed Pocklington, was at this time suffering considerable carried upon this subject.

to the Earl of Malmesbury, gave an account of injury from the want of facility for draining the Dec. 6, 1859. — Joseph Locke, Esq., M.P., Dr. Livingstone's journey to Shirwa, a large inwater from it. When Hainault Forest, lately a President, in the chair. The discussion upon Mr. land lake. The lake in its wide part might be Royal Forest, was disafforested in 1853, the allot. Grantham’s paper “On Arterial Drainage and from 25 to 30 miles in breadth, and was of a pear ment made to the Crown contained about 2,000 Outfalls” was continued throughout the evening; shape; only the narrow portion 'was prolonged

acres.

.

This consisted of a level plain, part of which but, as it was not concluded, the publication of some 30 miles south of the body where the travelwas known as Fairlop plain, lying at the foot of a the abstract is deferred.

lers stood. There was an inhabited mountain ridge of land sloping towards the south. Another It was announced that the Annual General island near the beginning of the narrow part. Its ridge projected into it from the east, and at the Meeting would be held on Tuesday, December length might be from 60 to 70 miles, not includfoot of these ridges were valleys, which brought 13th, when the annual report would be read, and ing the southern narrow portion of 30 miles. The down the water from beyond the limits of the the ballot for the President, Vice-Presidents

, height of the lake above Chibisa Island, where Crown allotment. The first operation in the and other Members of Council, would take they left the ship, was 1,800 feet, and 2,000 feet reclamation was that of making the roads and place.

above the level of the sea. Mount Zomba, in its arterial drains. The three principal valleys were the Dog Kennel Brook, extending from Little

At the monthly ballot the following candidates neighbourhood, was 6,000 feet high. The whole

were balloted for and duly elected :-Messrs. A. region was well though not densely peopled. The Heath, on the southern boundary of the allotment, C. Crosse, w. H. Pyrdon, and W. Stanley, jun., Portuguese did not even pretend to know Shirwa. to the northern boundary, where it branched

as members ; Messrs. J. Aird, jun., E. Čottam, Frequent inquiries were made of the natives as to towards the north-east, the Well

Ridden Brook, W. H. R. Curll, J. B. Dunn, 1. Evans, J. Fisher, whether any white men had ever visited them a-mile from Little Heath, and towards the north-jun., F. Jenkin, J. Kimber, I. H. Latham, J. F. before, and they invariably replied in the nega.

tivę. Dr. Livingstone, therefore, claimed the first east—and a main drain, on the opposite side, which Stokes, J. Taylor, and I. Thwaites, as Associates.

discovery for himself and party, althongh the received the drainage of the west and north-west

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.

Portuguese took the honour for themselves. The parts of the allotment, and of the lands to the north of it. In each of these valleys, regular open drains

A crowded meeting of this Society was held on

Manganya cultivated the soil very extensively,

and more men than women were sometimes seen had been formed, into which all the pipe drains were

Monday evening, at Burlington House ; Sir discharged. The Dog Kennel drain was 6 feet Roderick I. Murchison, Vice-President, in the chair. at this occupation. The soil was very rich, the

grass generally from six to eight feet long. A wide at the bottom, and from 4 feet to 5 feet deep

Presentations.—The Hon. Robert Marsham, few yards' distance often completely hid a comat the outlet; the bottom width, diminishing William Fryer, and George Lee, Esquires, were panion, and guides were always necessary. Cargradually to 2 feet at the upper end. The inclina presented on their election. Numerous noblemen dens were common high up the hills and on their tions were 1 in 528 for the lower part, and from and gentlemen were elected fellows, and others tops. Cotton was cultivated extensively, and the 1 in 125 to 1 in 200 for the upper part. The proposed. The chairman announced that he had farther they went the crop appeared to be of the natural fall of the valley was steeper than this. that day received from the Duke of Newcastle a greater importance. The women alone were well Therefore overfalls, varying from 3 feet to 10 feet notification of the safe arrival of the British North clothed with the produce, the men being content in width of opening, and from 3 feet to 5 feet rise, American Expedition under Captain Palliser at with goatskins and a cloth made of the bark of were constructed of brick-work at different points. Fort Colville.

certain trees. Every one spun and wove cotton. These were capable of being made into dams, by Sketches in Burmah, Punjab, Himalayas, and Even the chiefs were to be seen with the spindle inserting boards into grooves, for storing water in Kashmir, by Captain H. II. Godfrey Austen, and distaff. The process of manufacture was the dry seasons, for cattle or other purposes, aud for F.R.G.S.; Sketches of the Scenery, &c., on the most rude and tedious that could be conceived. irrigating the land on both sides. The system Zambesi, by Thomas Baines, F.R.G.S.; Photo Almost every village had a furnace for smelting adopted was to have as few open drains as possible, graphs of Ancient Hindoo Temples, by W. H. black magnetic iron ore. A people to the N.N.W. and large mains. The area of land gained for Purdon, F.R.G.S.; Sonnenstern's Map of Central had manufactured a rude imitation of a pistol, profitable cultivation was thereby increased, and America, &c., were exhibited to the meeting. which they fired only on occasions of mourning. the labour of tillage reduced. It was found The papers read were :

They were not aware that it could propel s that the agriculturists neglected the mouths of 1. Sun Signals for the Use of Travellers. By ball. under drains, if they were numerous, so that it Francis Galton, F.R.G.S.-If a piece of looking Another paper was also read on the navigation was good economy to reduce the number to a mini- glass be held in such a position that a person at a of the Zambesi

, which he stated to be narigable

. mum. This forest, which, from time immemorial, distance can see some portion or other of the sun's In ascending the river they burned no less than had been almost a waste, was now a valuable disc reflected in it, it assumes the appearance of 150 tons of lignum vitæ to generate steam, the farm; and what was formerly a refuge for thieves an exceedingly brilliant star of solar light. The value of which, at London prices, was £900. In and poachers, now afforded the means of profitable object of Mr. Galton's invention has been to pro- the midst of great disadvantages they had travelled employment to many persons,

vide an optical arrangement by which the signaller upwards of 2,350 miles of river. From October, 'i'he author then proceeded to refer to the may know whether he is holding the mirror aright. 1858, to June, 1859, 5,782 elephants' tusks had manner of dealing with rivers in India and in the smallest size of hand heliostat can literally be gone down the Zambesi from Tete alone. TwoNorthern Italy, quoting, principally, from the carried in the waistcoat pocket, yet, by its means, thirds of these were large, or upwards of 30ib. published works of Capt. Baird Smith, M.E., and whenever the sun is shining, a signal can be in each, and the weight of the whole was 100,000lbs. Paul Frisi. The tanks or reservoirs which stantly made that shall be visible to the entire The inerchandise was conveyed in unwieldy canoes, abounded in the Madras Presidency might, it was neighbourhood of any given spot within sight. A which cost from £60 to £70 each. The Americans believed, be connected with arterial drainage distance of twelve miles, on a day of average clear. were absorbing all the trade of the east coast be works, especially in rapidly inclined countries, and ness, is well within the power of this little instru. low Zanzibar. be useful as aids to agriculture, and for the supply ment. If the flash be replied to, a regular com The President also read extracts from letters of towns. In upland or internal rivers and munication can be carried on, in which the signals which had been addressed to himself, and an. streams, such as those last alluded to, the leading are varied by gentle movements of the hand that nounced that he had the assurance of Lord John principles to be observed in their improvement causes the flash to be seen and to disappear; Russell, the Foreign Secretary, that every aid were-first, straightening the channels from the alternately words and sentences are communicated which he could afford would be given to Dr. source to the outfall; secondly, making them of by a notation of long and short flashes identical with Livingstone. sufficient width to include all the flood waters, the notation ot long and short beats that is used An animated discussion followed the reading of having regard to the inclinations; thirdly, the in Morse's electric telegraph ; but, independently the paper, in which the Astronomer at the Cape, formation of shallow, rather than deep drains, in of this more refined sort of telegraphy, the mere Mr. Crawfurd, Mr. MʻLeod, and Captain Bedingnearly all kinds of soils; fourthly, the regulating power of calling attention from great distances, field joined; and or adjusting the inclinations of the bottoms, so and of conveying three or four simple signals, The chairman, in adjourning the meeting to that the velocity of the water might be checked, such as a series of single flashes for affirmation, the i2th December next, stated that there was to prevent the erosion of the sides and bottoms, and of doubles for negation, is of the highest con. another and very important paper on the list, on and the removal of the gravel, sand, and mud to the sequence to a traveller. The principle of the in “The Trigonometrical Survey of Kashmir," the lower levels; and lastly, providing the means of strument and the intensity of the Aash, under original MS. of which, by Captain Montgomerie. storing up the water in reservoirs or tanks, apart varying circumstances, were explained in detail, F.R.G.S., was suspended in the room ; but as the from drainage, at convenient points, for agricul- and a number of hand heliostats, some of them hour was already advanced, the subject would be tural and industrial purposes.

made for Mr. Galton, by Messrs. Troughton and postponed until the ensuing meeting.

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

MANCHESTER LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL

SOCIETY

Total pressure

of steam in inches.

Author.
639.13
611.77

partial nature of the security afforded by the pro- sharp in outline, the objects losing their characterNov. 30, 1859.— Prof. John Phillips, Presi. posed plan, but lays stress on the fact that it istic appearance by over definition. dent, in the chair. Sir Walter James, Betshanger appears adapted to eliminate all the risks of the

ASSOCIATION OF FOREMAN ENGINEERS. Park, Kent; George Dawes, Esq., Milton Iron- manufacture, except those which are inherent in works, near Barnsley, Yorkshire; the Rev. Julian the nature of the material operated on, and there. The ordinary monthly meeting of the Association Edmund Woods,, Penola, South Australia ; fore essentially incurable.

of Foremen Engineers took place at their rooms

“SUPPLEMENTARY Bassett Smith, Esq., 1 Elm Court, Temple ;

A paper entitled

RE- in the City of London on Saturday night last, and Captain · Hickens, Bengal Engineers; Lionel

SEARCHES IN THE HIGHER ALGEBRA," by James was very numerously attended, notwithstanding Brough, Esq., one of H.M. Inspectors of Coal-Cockle, M.A., F.R.A.S., was read by the Rev. the inclemency of the weather, and the fact that its mines, Clifton; John Studdy Leigh, Esq., St. Robert Harley, F.R.A.S.

members are located-many of them-at consider. Stephen's Terrace, Bayswater; and John Pope F.R.S., entitled " EXPERIMENTS On The Total assembly. The minutes of the November meeting

A paper was read by J. P. Joule, LL.D., able distances from their very central place of Hennessy, Esq., M.P., were elected fellows. The following communications were read :HEAT OF STEAM."

were first read and confirmed, several elections 1. “On some Bronze Relics from an Auriferous

The author showed that what is called the total followed, and after the reading of a letter from Sand in Siberia.” By T. W. Atkinson, Esq., heat of steam, or the quantity liberated when Colonel Dixon, of Enfield Lock, expressive of his F.G.S. 2. "On the Volcanie Country of Auckland, steam is condensed into water of 0° centigrade, high regard for the Association, and his regret at New Zealand.” By Charles Heaphy, Esq. Com

consists of, 1st, the true heat of evaporation; 2nd, not being able to attend this particular meeting, municated by the President. 3. “On the Geology the heat due to the work done on the steam Mr. C. F. Hayes proceeded with his concluding of a part of South Australia.” By T. Burr, Esq. during the condensation; and, 3rd, the heat paper on the manufacture of the Enfield rifle. From the Colonial Office. 1848. 4. “On some

liberated by cooling the water from the tempera- | He said that he had on previous occasions Tertiary deposits in South Australia.” By the ture of condensation to the freezing point. The endeavoured to explain the mode of preparing the Rer . Julian Edmund Woods. Communicated by made the object of a very careful and elaborate Enfield rifle and of the bayonet, and that he had

determination of the total heat of steam had been various components and furniture of the long the President.

research by Regnault, but it appeared to the now arrived at the lock and stock of the weapon. author that independent experiments conducted Upon the table lay the various parts of a rifle lock

in a different and more direct manner would not in the forged and finished stages, and a walnut. Ordinary Meeting, Nov. 29th, 1859.—Dr. R. A. be without interest. The following is a summary wood stock, as it left the machines which had Smith, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair. A

of the results obtained by him compared with those shaped, mortised, drilled, and grooved it. These, letter from Mr. Dyer was read relative to Mr. of Regnault :

together with some of the standard gauges used at Jevon's paper. Mr. Dyer is led to conclude, from

Total Heat in Degrees Centigrade.

the small-arms factory, and soine exquisite photothe facts which have been ascertained respecting

graphs of the various machines at that place,

Regnault. the distribution of gold, that that metal forms a

assisted Mr. Hayes materially in his explanations. 37.25

638.77 The hammer was the first item alluded to; this great part of the material of the earth's crust now

57:52

612-87 in an incandescent state.

was of wrought-iron roughly forged by hand, and 111.58

655.45
619.06

then struck by force of a Nasmyth steam drop Mr. F. O. Ward laid before the Society an in A paper was also read by Dr. Joule, entitled into a pair of dies; afterwards it was annealed and strument tèrmed a PSEUDO-DIASCOPE, and a paper “On A METHOD OF TESTING THE STRENGTH OF forced through a cutting-press, which removed the setting forth its construction and use, and the STEAM BOILERS."

superfluous metal squeezed out between the principle it is designed to illustrate. By means The author adverted to the means hitherto forging dies. A series of operations followed of this instrument an aperture transmitting light adopted for testing boilers.. 1st. That by steam amounting in all to twenty-six, and in each of is made to produce on one eye an isolated impres. pressure, which gives no certain indication whether which great care had to be observed. The locksion, while the other eye is directed to an opaque strain has not taken place under its influence, so plate was of wrought-iron. It was brought nearly body, such as the hand held before it. The image that a boiler tested may subsequently explode to its proper form in a rider forging machine, and of the aperture is then found to be transposed, and when worked at the same or even a somewhat less then struck at a welding heat into a die. Next, its perception ceases to be assigned to the eye by degree of pressure. He trusted that this highly eight holes were drilled through it for the purpose which it is really seen; the effect being that a reprehensible practice had been wholly abandoned. of attaching to it the various pins, springs, &c., perforation appears in the opaque body, through 2nd. That by hydraulic pressure obtained by a which go to make the lock complete. Jaines which the light seems to shine upon the eye by force pump, which does not afford an absolutely Gunner, Esq., had greatly improved the apparatus which this is viewed. The principle illustrated reliable proof that the boiler has passed the ordeal used in shaping and finishing the lock-plate, and by this instrument, according to the author's view, without injury, and moreover requires a special | he very deservedly filled the post of inspector of is the essentially goniometrical and deductive na apparatus. The plan which had been adopted by small arms at Enfield. Very soon the lock-plate ture of the visual act, whenever the distances of the author for two years past with perfect success would be finished from the anvil without the inbodies are perceived, and their relative positions was free from the objections which applied to the tervention of hand labour at all. After casein space assigned. A Pseudo diascope was pre- above, and is as follows:-The boiler is entirely hardening, the plate is tested by standard gauges, sented to the Society by the author, and the filled with water. Then a brisk fire is made in to be assured that there is no distortion, and, if singular illusion produced by it was verified by or under it. When the water has thereby been found perfect, is ready for “assembling,” that is, the members present.

warmed a little, say to 70° or 90° Fahrenheit, the for being united with its fellow-portions of the Mr. F. 0. Ward subsequently laid before the safety valve is loaded to the pressure up to which rifle. The tumbler was a very important part of Society a plan of his for diminishing THE LIABILITY

the boiler is to be tested. Bourdon's or other the lock, and was made of cast-steel. Much attenOP POWDER MILLS TO EXPLOSION, and referred to pressure indicator is then constantly observed; tion was requisite on the part of the workers in a correspondence between himself and Dr. Faraday and if the pressure, occasioned by the expansion of dealing with this, lest the heats taken upon it on the subject. The plan in question consists in the water, increases continuously up to the testing should alter and deteriorate the character of the supplying to those portions of powder mills in pressure without sudden stoppage or dimination, metal used. Improved copying machines were which the powder is treated dry, an atmosphere it may be safely inferred that the boiler has stood

now employed in the completion of this portion of incapable of supporting combustion-preferably it without strain or incipient rupture. carbonic acid gas—so as to obviate the danger of

the weapon, and after a variety of minor but

In the trials made by the author, the pressure yet consequential processes, it was finally harexplosion so far as it arises from chances of igni. rose from zero to 62 lbs. on the square inch in dened and tempered. Mr. Hayes here explained tion ab extra—as by the spark from a workinan's five minutes. The facility of proving a boiler by that the labour-saving machines invented by himpipe, of which an example was cited. The danger this metliod was so great that he trusted that self, and pertaining principally to the construcof explosions from the liberation of oxygen from owners would be induced to make those periodical tion of the several parts of the lock, had saved the powder itself, by friction or otherwise, would tests, without which fatal experience had shown from two to four thousand pounds per annum to of course reinain; but this the author inclines to that no boiler should be trusted.

the country—a rather important announcement. believe is a less frequent cange of explosion than Microscopical Section, Nov. 21st, 1859.—Messrs. The sear and the sear spring were next referred ignition ab extra occasioned by the carelessness of J. Lynde and A. Brothers exhibited the process of to, and the manipulations necessary for their perworkmen rendered indifferent to risk by long photographing microscopic objects as used by fecting-minute and numeroas-were explained habit and emboldened by impunity. Dr. Faraday, them, and which, from the specimens produced, with an elaborateness of detail which prevents in his comments on this plan, approves it as appears very excellent. Mr. Parry described a our following the reader of the paper through his adapted to cut off one class of risks, and so to re: simple form of camera which he had used, and in account of them. Finally, the sear spring is move the point of danger further off, and also as which he dispensed altogether with the use of the tested by pressure in a Salter's spring, and if found not likely to deteriorate the quality of the powder microscopic body, simply inserting the object satisfactory, passed for service. The swivel is a immersed in the protective atmosphere. He points glass into the lens aperture, and fixing a suitable small affair, but of some moment to the action of out, however, as a source of danger usually unsus- stage to support the object. ' Messrs. Lynde and the lock. It is cut from a bar of 5.16th square pected, the possibility of the ignition of the gun. Brothers stated their intention of attempting to steel, and after being milled, and faced, and drilled, powder dust which collects on the beams of powder | photograph thicker and more opaque objects; and and hardened, and tempered, it takes its place as mills, and by which, he believes, explosions may Mr. E. W. Binney promised to supply them with a finished article. The bridle governs the movebe originated, as well as by the heating of the sections of fossil woods, which he said had been ment of the lock, and is of great consequence, grains actually under trituration in the mill. Mr. drawn by artists, but with poor success, as the therefore, to the rifle. It is of wrought-iron got Ward, in reply to Dr. Faraday, recognises the tendency of draughtsmen was to make them too I up by stamping, and milling, and cutting, and

WEAVING CARPETS.

trimming, which, aided by some excellent gauges | Wild on the 16th of March, 1853, for “ improve. | rosion,” by using a mixture, before applying devised by Mr. Barnes, enables the workman to ments in fishes and fish joints for connecting the asphalte, not distinguishable from what is known turn it out of hand expeditiously and well. The rails of railways." The action had been already commercially and scientifically as " black varnish”) main-spring was of the best cast-steel, and it was once tried, when the defendants obtained a verdict, was brought to a conclusion this morning. The needless to say, observed Mr. Hayes, that the but the Court subsequently granted a new trial mixture was applied to two of the company's skilled workman must exercise his utmost skill upon the ground of surprise. It appeared from vessels, and they defended the action under an inand judgment in dealing with it. This brought Mr. Wild's provisional specification that his inven- | demnity from Messrs. Miller. the reader of the paper to the manufacture of the tion consisted in forming a recess or groove in The jury found their verdict for the plaintiffs stock of the rifle, which was of walnut wood-a one or both sides of each "fish,” so as to reduce -Damages £150. material imported largely from Lombardy for this the quantity of metal at that, and be adapted to particular work. Copying machines, the idea of receive the square heads of the bolts, which were CROSSLEY'S PATENT JACQUARD MACHINERY FOR which was no doubt gained originally from Mr. thus prevented from turning round when the nuts Blanchard's lathes for turning irregular figures were being screwed on. In his specification COURT OF QUEEN'S Bench, Dec. 5--(Sitting at in wood, such as boot trees, &c., &c., were the subsequently filed on the 19th of September, 1853, Nisi Prius before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn principal media employed in converting a roughly Mr. Wild, after minutely describing the invention, and a special Jury.) sawn piece of walnut tree into a handsome and stated its advantage to be that “the groove

CROSSLEY AND OTHERS, U TALBOT. mathematically true-shaped bearer of the barrel, renders the 'fish' lighter for. equal strength, or lock, and other fitments of the rifle musket. stronger for an equal weight of metal, than a fish

Mr. Atherton, Mr. Grove, Mr. M. Smith and Space forbids our going minutely, as Mr. Hayes which is made of equal thickness throughout.” Mr. Webster appeared for the plaintiff's ; Mr. did, into the action of the shaping and cutting Having described the nature of his invention, and Knowles, Mr. Hindmarch, and Mr. Thruff for the machines used in the preparation of stocks for in what manner the same was to be performed, he defendant. The action resulted in a verdict for muskets; we can only say that they do their claimed,—"1. The constructing fishes' for con

the plaintiff (without the case being gone into at work with nnerring accuracy, and that there is no necting the rails of railways with a groove adapted length) with the damages (£2000) in the declarachance of any portion of the steel, iron, or for receiving the heads of the bolts or rivets tion subject to a reference. brass attachments misfitting their places after the employed for securing such fishes, and the applicamachines have done their offices. The interesting tion of such fishes for connecting the rails of rail. PRESS'S IMPROVED QUICK ACTION paper was brought to a conclusion by a summary ways in manner hereinbefore described. 2. The

DRILL STOCK. of the number of operations performed in the constructing fish-joints for connecting the rails of Provisionally Registered June 30th, 1859. perfecting of a rifle musket being given, and these railways by means of fishes applied to the joints of This improved drill stock will drill holes in annount in all to 769! A vote of thanks, proposed divided or split rails, in manier herein before metals and other substances with greater ease and by Mr. W. Keyte, seconded by Mr. Briggs, and described. 3. The constructing fish joints for con rapidity than is attainable by the use of any de strongly advocated by the President, Mr. Joseph necting the rails of railways with fishes, secured scription of drill stock hitherto made ; so, at least, Newton, of the Royal Mint, was next given to by three or more bolts and nuts or rivets, of which says the inventor of it. Mr. Hayes, who expressed his acknowledgement of the central bolt or bolts, or rivet or rivets, is or are In the drawing A 4, A' A' is the frame of the the honour conferred. The announcement of a of greater diameter than the extreme ones, as paper for the January meeting-Saturday the herein before described. 4. The constructing fish7th proximo-by Mr. Beckley, on “The Instru: joints for connecting the rails of railways with ments used at the Royal Observatory, Kew,” grooved fishes fitted to the sides of the rails and closed the proceedings.

secured to them by bolts and nuts or rivets, and

having projecting wings firmly secured to and MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. resting upon the sleepers or bearers, so as to supMon.-London Inst., “On the Radiation and Absorption port the rails by their sides and upper flanges, in

of Heat," by Prof. John Tyndall, F.R.S., at manner herein before described.” A great many 7 p.m.

scientific witnesses were called on the part of the Royal Geographical Society, I., " Kashmir, on the Physical Contiguration or the Valley of," by w. plaintiffs to prove the novelty of the invention. 1. Purdon, Esq., F.R.G.S., Excentive Engineer, They admitted that grooves had been in use for drill stock ; a a is the spindle carrying the drill D, Punjaub, communicated by Sir Chas. Wood, India the purpose of preventing the heads of bolts from Each end of the spindle a a bas å spiral external Office ; 11., ** British Columbia, journeys in the turning round, but they denied that grooved iron thread, as shown at E E. On the frame are tised Districts bordering on the Thomson, Frazer, and Harrison Rivers,'' by Lieuts. Mayne, R.N., and

or timber had ever been employed in the manner Palmer, R.E., and Chief Justice M. Begbie, com of a “fish” to unite two pieces of iron or timber. that part of the frame marked A' A', so that it

two sinall pullies F; a handle G is attached ta municated by the Duke of Newcastle, Colonial

On the part of the defendants, several scientific Office, at 8.30 p.m.

slide from end to end upon it. To the inner' Tues.— Inst. Ciril Engineers, Annual General Meeting, witnesses were called, who gave contrary testimony, side of the handle is fastened a gnt or string at 8 p.m.

and the model of a bridge, called the Hackney- marked b, which passes over the pulleys, and from WED.- London Inst., “On the Physical History, Structure, bridge, on the South Devon Railway, was pro; thence around the spiral threads, where its ends

and Materials of the Earth,” by E. W. Bradley, duced, in which they said a grooved or channelled Esq., F.R.S., at 7 p.m.

are fastened. By working the bandle G froin end iron was used as a “fish" to strengthen and supSociety of Arts, On the Great Eastern," by Mr. port a scarf-joint in the tie-beam. The plaintiff's very quick motion is imparted to the spindle and

to end on that part of the frame marked A' A', a Royal Geological Society, 1., « On some Bones of witnesses denied that the channellediron in question Arill by means of the gut or string passing over Polytychodon, from the Chalk of Dorking," by so used, and thus the question at issue resolved the pulleys and in the grooves or spiral guides

, Prof. Owen, F.G.S.; II., On some new Reptiliun itself chiefly into an inquiry as to the precise which may be large or small in diameter accordRemains, with Shells of Pupa and an Iulus from the Coal-measures of Nova Scotia," by Dr. Daw

William Hawes.

wa

functions performed by the channelled iron in the ing to the kind of work for which they may be son, F.G.S.; III., “On some Fossils from Bahia,”

Hackney-bridge. by S. Allport, Esq.; IV., “On some Cheirotherian

required. Tracks in the Upper Keuper of Warwickshire," strengthening, and also for keeping in place bolt

The jury found that channelled iron for by the Rev. P. B. Brodie, F.G.S.

BLACKBURN'S PATENT TRACTION Tuv.-Royal Society, at 8 p.m. heads, was in use before the patent, but that the

ENGINE.
Fri.- London Inst., On Certain Principles of Vegetable combination in Mr. Brunel's bridges was accidental, The Smithfield Club Cattle Show and Implement

and Animal Chemistry,” by s. A. Malone, Esq., and they did not deem it “fishing.”
F.C.S., at 7 p.m.
The Lord Chief Justice said that would be a

Exhibition of 1858 were open to the public, when verdict for the plaintiffs, with leave to the

we promised to publish a description of the patent Law Cases. defendants to move to enter the verdict in their Blackburn, of Long Eaton; but the Smith tield

traction engine of Messrs. Isaac and Robert favour, should the court above be of opinion that show and 'Exhibitio of 1859 have come round WILD'S PATENT PISHES FOR RAILWAY JOINTS. the transfer, as it might be called, to“ fishing," before the promise has been fulfilled. The cause Court op QUEEN's Bench, Dec. 3.-(Sitting at and the counbination therewith, would not support of the delay is to be found in the fact that after

Nisi Prius, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn the patent. and a Special Jury.)

Verdict for the plaintiff's accordingly.

our announcement was made last year, we learnt

that Messrs. Blackburn had under consideration HARWOOD AND OTHERS V. THE GREAT NORTHERN Court or Queen's Bency, Dec. 6.-(Sittings at and it was not until recently that these improve

several inportant improvements upon the engine, RAILWAY COMPANY.

Nisi Prius, before Lord Chief Justice Cockburn ments were perfected. We are now enabled to Mr. Knowles, Q.C., Mr. Grove, Q.C., Mr. Hind.

and a Common Jury.) march, and Mr. Webster appeared for the plaintiffs;

lay before our readers careful engravings of the and Mr. Bovill, Q C., Mr. C. Pollock, and Mr.

BECKFORD AND ANOTHER V. THE ROYAL MAIL tinished engine in its most improved form, and Horace Lloyd for the defendants. The trial of

we hope shortly to give a detailed account of its this cause, which has occupied the Court three Mr. Serjeant Petersdorff and Mr. Webster ap- operation on the road and in the field. days, was this day brought to a close.

peared for the plaintiff's, and Mr. Wilde and Mr. Fig. 1 of the accompanying engravings is a side The plaintiffs were the executors of the late Murray for the defendants.

elevation, and Fig. 2 is a plan of a locomotive or Charles Heard Wild, and they sued the Great This case (involving a question whether Messrs. traction engine constructed according to Messrs. Northern Railway Company to recover damages Miller, of Glasgow, had infringed “Westwood's Blackburn's invention. A A is the large travelfor the infringement of a patent granted to Mr. | patent for protecting the iron of ships against cor- ling drum, which is connected to trunnions ' 4';

STEAM-PACKET COMPANY.

« EelmineJätka »