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hy means of arms or spokes B B meeting in cen- | L L of the engines;. M M are the piston-rods, plied with water through the trunnion A", tral bosses Bi B" through which the trunnions which are jointed to the cranks N N that drive opposite to that which supplies the cylinders with 4'4" pass. The extremities a' a" of the trannions the main shaft 0, which carries at its ends bevil steum ; Z is a water-tank which receives the steam pass through and support the frames C C, to which wheels P P, that gear into the bevil wheels Q &, from the 'exhaust, and contains a supply of water are firmly secured the longitudinal beams OC which communicate rotary motion to the bevil for the boiler ; Z' is a coupling chain for conon which the engine rests. The beams are pinions I I, which gear into the toothed wheel necting implements of culture or other apparatuses strengthened with iron plates, and the drum A is attached to the travelling drum, and so cause it to to the engine. strengthened by the T rings E E, which pass revolve; R R are clutches provided with hand As an implement of culture the patentees ementirely round it. The boiler E' is supported by levers R' R' for throwing the pinious I I in and ploy a cylinder fitted with scarifying or digging the inner ends of the trunnions, as shown in Fig. 2. out of gear, in order that the engine may be em. tines, which cylinder is fitted to the afterpart of The surface of the drum is composed of corrugated ployed for other purposes than driving the drum; the engine, and is caused to revolve by teeth metal plates D D, the spaces formed by the S is a pipe leading to a guage S' for indicating the formed on or attached to its sides, into which corrugations being filled in by timber, GoG, in height of the water in the boiler E'; T is a foot teeth pinions gear, receiving motion from the order to strengthen the metal corrugations, and plate or platform, which is supported by the main travelling drum of the engine. The depth at prevent them from collapsing; H / are bevil. frame and the guide wheel U. In addition to which the tines work in the ground can be toothed wbeels bolted on the exterior iron ring this guide wheel they use a roller or cylinder regulated at will, and arrangements are provided of the drum, into which toothed wheels bevel when travelling over soft land. This guide wheel for raising the cylinder wholly out of the ground. pinions I I gear, which cause the drum to revolve, is connected by a frame U' with a vertical shaft as will be hereafter described. E is a boiler which that carries a cog-wheel V into which a pinion W

The submarine telegraph between Victoria and is supported upon the trunnions A' A" in the gears. This pinion is attached to a vertical shaft Tasmania has been successfully submerged, and middle of the framne; K is a pipe by which steam X, which carries a hand wheel Y, by which the Hobart Town is now in direct telegraphic communicais let through the trunions A to the cylinders whole machine is guided. The boiler E' is sup- tion with the other colonies,

masses

PROVE
DISCOVERED TO

DE ABSORBED

DURING THE

A PECULIAR PROPERTY WHICH SEEMS TO BE
DEVELOPED IN WATER AND MANY OTHER

snow

ON HEAT.

cherry took only thirty minutes to melt. Larger that it does not act. solely in the mechanical way

of snow (if round) take far longer, supposed by Thomson is proved, I think, by the EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS TENDING TO because the heat of the external air cannot come in cold produced in many of these cases being far THAT THE HEAT WHICH DR. BLACK contact with the centre portions.

greater than is necessary to form ice. In many of

In confirmation of Black's theory of the great these cases there is clearly a production of cold LIQUEFACTION OF ICE, AND WHICH HE CALLED degree of heat absorbed by the liquifaction of ice, far beyond what this latent heat theory of 140° can LATENT HEAT, IS NEVER GIVEN OUT AGAIN ON

I may also state that when I mixed intimately two account for, and that, too, when no snow or ice at THE FREEZING OF WATER, WITH REMARKS ON tea-spoonfuls of snow with one ditto of muriate all is used; for when phosphate of soda, nitrate of

of soda, the temperature very soon sunk to 4°, (an anmonia, and diluted nitric acid are used (pro

experiment well known-Thomson, p. 169, says it portions, 9, 6, 4) a cold of 71° is produced within FORMS OF MATTER ON CHANGE OF STATE.

sinks to 5o.) But in 45 minutes it rose again to 38°. a few degrees of that produced by snow and muriate By Horatio PRATER, Esq.

Although in this experiment nearly šrd of the of lime. Now, here is cold produced far greater I HAVE repeated the experiment three times of mass remains solid as'muriate of soda, yet enough that when water gives out, according to the premixing two parts by measure of mow and one liquid is produced rapidly in order to produce vailing theory, its 140° and becomes snow and ice, part of water at 172° F., and I never found the cold of 4 below zero, and hence Thomson and that, too, without any assistance from snow thermometer fell lower than 36° (even when I (op. cit. p. 172) says, "snow and chloride of cal- or ice! diminished this water to ļ a part), and before it cium which liquify immediately on mixture, pro. A point worthy of remark is that the cold pro. fell thus low twelve minutes had elapsed, and the duce a much greater cold (viz., from +32° to -50%) duced is very transient. Thus, inomy experiment

was then only just melted. The almost than snow and salt, which liquify very slowly.", with snow and salt, I think it may be said to have sudden fall to 32° F. which some experimentalists “Very slowly,” perhaps, when taken and compared lasted only while liquefaction and the peculiar speak of to prove a loss of 140° in this experi- with chloride of calciuın, but taken by themselves I motion accompanying this was going on, for in 45 ment, doubtless arises from the difficulty there is thought they liquified quickly. While I admit, minutes the thermometer rose actually as high as to prevent the actual contact of snow or ice with therefore, that Thomson's explanation is right as 48°. The secret of the production of cold, even in the bulb of the thermometer. To prevent this I regards the main point (viz., rapidity of liquifac- this case far beyond what the absorption of 140° tied two folds of fine linen round it ; and even then tion), I am inclined to think that other causes also can account for, is

, I believe, to be ascribed to the we must remember that a stream of very cold assist in causing so vast an increase of cold in one natunat, action of liquefaction being interfered with, water will be apt sooner or later to flow directly of these cases beyond the other.*

and to its being MUCH HURRIED by the addition on it, since the snow is constantly moving in the That sudden liquefaction is the main cause is, of the salt.* water. However, in my experiments the whole however, shown by mixing a teaspoonful of snow In the great proportion of frigorific mixtures bulk of the water certainly (sooner or later, accord water at 32° and one of salt, when I found the two crystallised soluble salts are used ; but that ing to the temperature of the room) fell to 36°, thermometer remained without falling at all, and chemical affinity is little concerned in the effect is and as the temperature of the room was as high was not long in rising even to 36° ; the tempera- shown by the solution of one salt only in simple as 58°, this may probably be the reason- ture of the air in these experiments being, as water producing much cold. Thus, for instance

, allowing for difference in thermometers, and above, 48°—a point to be attended to, says nitrate of ammonia and water lowers temperature adding, perhaps, the fact that I used snow Thomson (note p. 168). I am inclined to draw from + 50° to + 4°. (Thonison, p. 168.) Now, I and not ice — why it never fell to 32', as in the following inference (in addition to Black's in- infer from this fact, and others above quoted, that Dr. Black's experiments. He took equal weights ference) from this experiment with snow water at the supposed conversion to water of the solid of water and ice, but as I found snow thaws 32°, which I believe has never been tried before. water of crystallisation and the necessary absorp, into between ths and {ths its bulk of water, I This inference is, that some of the effect depends tion of 140°, does not explain the production of took an overweight of snow. I found the very not only on repid liquefaction (strictly so called), this very great degree of cold, and consequently I sudden fall to be to about 44°; in seven minutes but also on the sudden production of a nisus, or infer that this is produced by the RAPID SEPARATION more it stood at 38°, at which time the snow was power of resistance, from the, so to call it, un of the atoms of matter by solution. In this way not quite melted ; and in ten minutes more at 36”, natural state in which snow is thrown when heat is absorbed, and consequently cold produced when the snow was only just melted. The long mixed with salt or chloride of calcium, and also in by the nisus of the atoms of matter to KEGAIN the time (viz., on an average twenty minutes) that the former experiments when mixed with water at quantity of beat by which they are naturally snow in the above proportion took to melt in 172. Even Thomson liinself has unconsciously surrounded or with which they are combined. water at 172°, is worthy of remark, and proves introduced a physiological cause, in addition to that this is the true theory seems to me to follow Thomson's statement (On Ileat, p. 163), that Black's mere mechanical theory of 140, into this from reflecting that the COMPRESSING oj homo.

snow instantly melts" in such circumstances, to discussion, wheti he is obliged to admit RAPIDITY geneous atoms together (as in the compression of air) be erroneous.*

OF Action counts for so much ; for it makes one produces heat ; as also of heterogeneous atoms by the When I mixed equal bulks of water at 32 and 1400 more than another 140 when the action is action of chemical affinity ; thus when oxyde of at 172°, the point to which the thermometer came quicker.

zinc, &c., is formed by the action of dilute sulphuric suddenly was 110°; it then continued to sink, but Again, is not the production of cold in this case acid, or when iron wire burns in oxygen gas and very gradually, for even after 45 min. it stood at (though in others of heat) in overcoming The co-produces the oxyde. Thus, compression and che70°, the room being 58° as in the former experi. HESION of ice entirely overlooked in Black's mical affinity act in the same way in regard to ments. When I took two balks of this ice water theory? Is not this cold produced on the spot- their tendency to force the atoms closer together. and one of water at 172', in three minutes it “then and there"-by this struggle of ice to

(To be continued). stood at 78°, and then very gradually (viz., in four retain unmolested its state of ice ? Accordingly minutes) fell to 76', and in eight minutes more to when water at 32° is substituted, we find (strange 70°, and thure remained, as in the former experi- to say) that no cold whatever is produced-clear OPENING OF THE VICTORIA-BRIDGE,

CANADA. ment, a long time.

proof that at least, in the case of salt, Thomson's These experiments sufficiently confirm Dr. theory of the solid water of crystallisation absorb. Alt Canada was rejoicing on Thursday, the 24th Black's great discovery, viz., that an equal pro. ing 140° in order to become water (and thus of November last, as the great Victoria Tubular. portion of ice, or snow, mixed with water at 172 causing cold) does not hold. He gives (p. 172) bridge, the most stupendous work of the kind in makes the thermometer fall far lower than when this as the theory for the production of a cold of the world, and the connecting link between two mixed with water at 32'. That in my experiments 49-5° (viz., from 54-5° to 5°) when 500 grains important sections of the Grand Trunk Railway, it never fell below 36° is a difference too light to sulphuric acid are mixed with 333 grains water, was being opened on that day.

The first train merit attention.

the mixture allowed to cool, and then 10-40 grains consisted of an engine and single car, containing I found that snow water at 32° took 57 minutes of crystallised sulphate soda finely powdered put in. about 50 persons. The time occupied in passing to gain 12° of heat, and still continued to rise Again, says he, “Chloride of calcium in crystals con

• While I assert this, I by no means wish to deny that very slowly, the temperature of the air being 48o. tains more than half its weight of solid water," in this hurried action” does not act mechanically by causing

În 34 minutes it rose from 32° to 36°, in 23 reference to the cold of 82° produced when this salt such a sudden loss of heat that air, &c. (though at 50° or minutes more (total 57 minutes) to 41°, and did is mixed with snow.

more) cannot restore it with sufficient rapidity to prevent

a great fall in the thermometer. Thus, says Thomson, not rise to 46° for nearly two hours.

Now, in reference to these experiments of "Mercury may be frozen even in a warm room by snow and The very slow rise of the thermometer depended Bischof and Walker, who assert the cold is not chloride of calcium, and water may be frozen in a red-hot on the external air being only 48°, but the produced except the salts contain their water of crucible, as Boutigny has shown, by anhydrous sulphurous same quantity of snow would doubtless have crystallisation, we are hence clearly obliged to that these and other marvellous facts stated in the volume taken very

far longer to melt and rise at the same admit that this is concerned in the effect; but just quoted, depend more or less on the fact that heat, les point; though at the same temperature I observed

to itself undisturbed, moves much less quickly than elec

• The reason why the thermometer falls to-4o or-5° in tricity, and always requires a certain amount of time to that a piece of snow of about the size of a small this experiment, and when ice is simply melting remains establish its equilibrium. The long time the thermometer

at 32', is no doubt to be ascribed to an excess of cold pro- often takes to rise or fall shows the truth of this statement; Professor Thomson often speaks of the slowness with duced above the 140° which Black rightly inferred do not but it is not easy to believe this at first, as we are generally which ice melt and attributes it to the necessity for ab- affect the thermometer, because they combine with the accustomed to observe heat when circumstances oblige it to sorbing 140°, but I believe the real cause to be (and this water formed. Bat in the snow and salt experiment pot move very quickly. cause applics equally to the slow melting of snow in water only are the 140° absorbed, but as they also must be insenat 172°) that heat has not merely to be absorbed, bat the sible to the thermometer, the fall to – 5° must be caused

by heat and electricity

is, that the former seems to be able to

I may here add that another grand distinction between coursion of the ice or snow has also to be overcome, for an extra portion of heat to that extent absorbed from surwe know that ice can't remain ice, and absorb heat above rounding bodies, which not being able also to combine with with

difficulty, including even ice (a non-conductor of elet

move through all kinds of matter, though through some 32. If it could, these 140° could

be absorbed as quickly in the water and salt, thus becomes sensible to the ther- tricity), as Tyndall's late experiments show, also Melbozia this case as in many others, mometer.

(see his tables, Ann-de Chim et Phys., Tom. 55).

TO TIE EDITORS OF THE

Ind. h. p.

TO THE EDITORS OF THE

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was about 12 minutes and a half. Among the solid, or if not suitable for being built together,

STEAM-SHIP ECONOMY. gentlemen in the car were the Hon. Mr. Cartier, filling up the compartments of a cellular construcPremier ; Mr. M. Ross, chief engineer of the tion so as to form a solid floating mass up to or a

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." bridge; Mr. Blackwell, managing director, and little above the load line of the vessel—such mass

Woolwich Dockyard, 7th Dec., 1859. several directors of the Grand Trunk road. Two as respects its form and stability being, of course,

GENTLEMEN,–It is rather a trial of one's of the tubes are not quite finished, but the bridge constructed in accordance with the essential ele patience to have to repeat explanations in matters is expected to be fully completed and thrown open ments of naval architecture-would, I dare say, of theoretical investigation. But in courtesy to to traffic about the 15th inst. This will be ex. form a suitable bottom for such purpose. The correspondents those who court public investigaceedingly opportune for the trade of Canada, treasure might be duly secured or embedded tion in such matters must, it seems, frequently subwhich is expected to derive a renewed impulse, as therein, and suitable accommodation for the crew

mit to such necessity; there is some satisfaction, the water navigation has ceased. The traffic over would form the superstructure of the hull. Such however, in the fact that every such repetition in the line is steadily increasing. The receipts for was the original idea, and incidental circumstances, a public journal such as the MECHANICS' MAGAthe week preceding the opening to Detroit, which such as the

supposed irresistible force and precision ZINE attracts fresh inquiries towards the subject in took place on the 21st ult., amounted to of modern ordnance, and the threatened introduc

discussion. With reference, therefore, to Mr. 60,560 dols., being 10,000 above the

receipts of tion of the marine ram, gave rise to the suggested Cheverton's remarks in your last number (No.49) the corresponding period of last year. The pros application of the system to ships generally on the construction and application of the forpects of through Western freight are very good. Every case of special application will, of course, mula

= C, I beg to repeat that in the demand special adaptation of practical details,

the general result being that the aggregate calculation by this formula of the mutual relation LIGHT WOODS AND UNSINKABLE SHIPS.

mass of material, when immersed in water, shall of displacement, power, and speed of vessels of The following letter from Captain J. H. Selwyn, not merely float itself, but be capable of support. different sizes represented by their respective disR.N., is accompanied by a specimen of extremely ing, in addition to its own weight, the load that placements, the coefficient (C) after having been light wood. It is in the form of a short cylinder, the material for giving the floating power will be under consideration, is assumed to be a constant

be imposed on the ship. The distribution of practically ascertained for one vessel of the type 31 ins. in diameter, of a mean thickness of 1* ins., a matter of arrangement in which great ingenuity number only for vessels of that particular type and weighs 323 grains. It would no doubt absorb may be displayed, and all the elemental principles of immersed form, and in which the ratio of gross a considerable weight of water, (as Captain Selywn of naval architecture will be called into requisition indicated h. p. to the effective working power is suggests,) but as we purpose sending the specimen in the construction of “unsinkable ships," as is also assumed to be a constant number, or to the Society of Arts we will not venture to test

now the case in the construction of floating vessels closely approximate thereto; also it is assumed its absorbent qualities :

that all other circumstances affecting the perforgenerally.-I am, Gentlemen, Yours very obediently,

mance of the vessels are under similar conditions GENTLEMEN,– I send you a specimen of light

Chas. ATHERTON. as usually implied by the term ceteris paribus. It wood, which may afterwards, if you please, go to

is therefore only on the assumption of the co-effithe Society of Arts. It is probably the same as THE LOSS OF THE ROYAL CHARTER. cient corresponding to the type that may be under that sent by Mr. Cunningham. I brought it from

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

consideration being known or approximately so, Brazil ; it is the stem of the great flowering South

that any pretension is made to the mutual relaAmerican aloe, not a cactus. I do not think any

GENTLEMEN,—The inquiry into the loss of the tions of displacement, power, and speed being deof the cacti have any such wood. But light woods Royal Charter having been closed, I beg to offer terminable by this formula, that is, for either one approaching this specific gravity, but of large size, a few remarks, which you may perhaps deem of those elements being determinable the other are well known both in America and Africa, and are

not altogether useless on that unfortunate ac, two being given. It is also to be observed that in America used for making Balsas or navigable cident.

two different types of steam-ship construction may rafts, while in Africa they are principally used for

It seems extraordinary that no reason is shown possibly give the same co-efficient, that this can floating the heavier woods down the rivers. I do by the evidence why the operation of wearing did only be regarded as a coincidence in exception to not, however, think that any such means can ever

not succeed. “Wearing” (I may say, for the the general rule. be useful for making unsinkable ships, for the benefit of your non-nautical readers) consists in

Presuming on these theoretical properties of space occupied must always be so comparatively the turning of the ship’s head from the wind in the formula being confirmed by experience and great as to exclude any useful cargo, and all such order to gain the opposite tack,

as "tacking" or conceded, it follows that the different co-effibodies have the fault of rapidly absorbing water, staying" is the turning of her head towards the cients respectively distinctive of different types of and then of course losing their floatative qualities wind with a similar object.

steam-ship construction indicate the order of merit until again dried. Balsas or catamarans are always

The Royal Charter, according to the evidence, with reference to the mutual relations of displacehauled up on the beach to dry after their short had not for some time been able to keep to the ment, power, and speed, in which the dynamic pervoyages. I think that more than anything else wind, i.e., within six points, even with the helm formance of vessels

of different

types may be rated speed and bottom, i.e., economy of fuel, will decide hard a starboard. Tacking, therefore, would seem

or classified, and if instead of the indicated h. p. the future naval engagements, at least as regards to have been out

of the question. It was, how. as the denominator in the formula, te adopt as the material, and invulnerability or unsinkability ever, tried but failed. But wearing ought, one its representative the consumption of coals per are alike opposed to both of these, the one by in. would think, to have succeeded, and why it did hour (W), the comparative co-efficient resulting creasing the weight, the other by decreasing the not is the mystery, more particularly the means from this formula will in like manner indicate the space available for fuel.

J. H. SELWYN.

were adopted to which I shall now refer. order of merit with reference to the dynamic duty Admiral Paris, of the French navy, has recently capable of being performed by the respective ships

spoken of some phenomena in the manæuvring of thus tested in comparison with each other. UNSINKABLE SHIPS.

steamers, which, I trust, are not unfamiliar to TO TIB EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” many of my brother officers. I do not think he

I am, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant, Woolwich Dockyard, Dec. 6th, 1859. notices the one which is applicable to this case. If

CHAS. ATHERTON. GENTLEMEN,,I am glad to observe that the in a heavy gale, the ship being on the port tack, suggested idea “unsinkable ships” is attracting with but little sail possible to be set (say a fore

METEOROLOGICAL TELEGRAPHY. the attention of your readers, whose remarks hold trysail or staysail), it be desired to wear, the screw, A TALENTED author in one of his works on nautical out the expectation that the subject will be particularly if auxiliary, may be thus applied, science intimates that the electric telegraph might thoroughly discussed. I am, however, not disc bracing the yards, &c., as usual. From going be advantageously used for the purpose of convey, posed to notice much of the banter with which it a-head reverse and go astern easy, as quick as you ing notice of approaching storms. This novel ap. seems that the suggestion of original views on can, the helm to be put very slightly to star. plication of meteorological science may be appro. matters connected with practical science must be board. The ship’s head will fall off quickly, be- priately termed" meteorological telegraphy," and expected to be publicly received. In starting the cause the screw gathers to port before it can act I ventured to suggest to the Aberdeen Session of idea of constructing ships so as to be unsinkable, to force the ship astern. As soon as the wind is the “British Association for Advancement of I made no profession of having matured the aft go ahead again. This can, of course, only be Science” that they should appoint a special comdetails of such a project, for, first of all, the ma- done (with a right-handed screw) if on the port mittee to consider and report upon some uniform terials most advantageous for the purpose had to tack, as the action is entirely caused by the differ. plan for ascertaining the nature, force, and direction be determined, also the practical mode of applying ing immersion of the two blades, and the conse- of sudden weather changes, and flashing warning them, which would greatly depend on the nature quently differing force exerted by them; you will telegrams, in such effective manner as to result in of the materials themselves ; and ultimately the by this means, if skilfully done, lose but little if the saving of many lives and much property anextent and varieties of application to which the any more ground than if you had tacked, which is nually, especially by prevention of wrecks in our principle can be beneficially adapted depends on sometimes impracticable under such circumstances, channels, and on the coasts. The proposition was considerations which, perhaps, no one individual is and always uncertaia.

submitted to the committee of the section of macompetent fully to appreciate ; and all these con- A curious and, I believe, hitherto unaccounted thematical and physical science, and upon their tingencies are mutually dependent on each other. fuct connected with paddle steamers is, that if favourable report the general committee of the In the case now in question, it was the opening up you go astern, they will always turn their sterns Association passed a resolution recommending of the Australian gold-fields that originated in my towards the wind, as well where the paddles are in "application to the Board of Trade for such an mind the idea of “unsinkable treasure ships,” for the middle as when they are nearest the bow. arrangement as may further this object authori. which purpose a mass of material built together

J. H. SELWYN, tatively." Illustrations and arguments in support

of such a system would be tedious and unnecessary RAILWAY SIGNALS AND WAR

nearly all physical and mental energy, and his in the columns of a newspaper. It may suffice to

APPLIANCES.

decease has for some time been apprehended by state, that the chief means of attaining the desired

TO THE EDITORS OF THE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” | his relatives. He leaves behind him a son to purpose would be the establishment of barometrical stations in salient or extreine positions on our coasts: demonstrations of my appliances for war and home Dockyard, who will without doubt attain ere long

GENTLEMEN,—I made the following practical succeed him in his profession-Mr. John Fincham,

first assistant master shipwright of Chatham with of . pass, whence prevalent storm-winds blow, and / defence this day at Beaufort-house, Walham- the post of master shipwright in the servicethence telegraphing warning communications to volunteer rifles, and a numerous party of ladies due to the late Mr. l'incham to say that for many

green, in presence of Lord Ranelagh, his corps of the highest to which his father rose. It is only distant shores or seaports. We possess the know and gentlemen amateurs. ledge and instrumentality, and the practical adap. tation of the latter would be both easy and in

No. 1 in the catalogue-A railway guard and years he received successive {proofs of the high expensive.

passenger explosive signal to slide down a tube in esteem in which the Admiralty held him. This subject, with its associate themes, is fraught explodes by percussion with a report much louder a railway carriage on the iron rail, by which it

NOTICES. with numerous considerations of incalculable im- than a fog-signal such as is now in use. portance for all maritime States, more especially for the British Islands, whose watery highways are seven feet from the ground, by the check of a

No. 2-A grenade fired by friction, at about

The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to all subscribers of £1 ls. 8d., annually, payable in advance,

Post Office Orders to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at quick with human life, and crowded with laden cord reaching to that height from an upper the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C. ships, ever intercrossing day and night, in light or window. This grenade was thrown out of an darkness, storm or fog. The perils of sea-transit upper window of Beaufort-house by a young

TO ADVERTISERS. far exceed those of land, and yet how much more gentleman of about the age of 15. It can be used

All Advertisements ocoupying less than half-a-column carefully are the latter guarded against by, pre in perfect safety by ladies in defence of "home, insertions less than 13 ; for 13 insertions, 4d. per líne ; and

are charged at the rate of 5d. per line for any number of ventive arrangements! Why should not all our

sweet home,” thus “placing the weak on a par for 52 insertions, 3d. per line. frequented channel tracts, and even great ocean with the strong."

Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as routes to (say) forty miles distance from the prin. cipal ports, be indicated at certain intervals by is far more efficient than the rifie percussion-shell

No. 3—Rifle fire-shot or spinster. This missile two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for

the space occupied. conspicuous buoys, or even by anchored vessels, for blowing up ammunition waggons.

Special Arrangements for larger or Serial Advertisementa

To ensure insertion, Advertisements must reach the Office displaying characteristic symbols of position and

No. 4-A safe way of fixing percussion appli- by 5 o'clock on Thursday evening each week. None can contiguity to coast or haven. Apart from the inestimable value of human life, the cost would pro- rifled cannon.

ances in the mouth of elongated rifle-shells for be received after that time for the ensuing number

This is done by inserting the bably not amount to a moiety of the value of pro- appliance about a quarter of an inch below the perty destroyed by wreck within a period of five mouth of the shell. The ramrod cannot then

Our Weekly Gossip. years; aml as for the asserted impracticability of mooring ships securely in blue water, the genius of press on it, and if the

shell should fall from the During the recent trials at Shoebursness of the

hands on the ground or the deck of a man of war 12-pounder Armstrong guns intended for China invention would soon overcome that difficulty: percussion-end foremost, it is still safe ; but by another of the breech pieces was blown from the gun Once the benefit of an object confessed, and fitness striking an object with great force when discharged and fell about two hundred yards in the rear of the of the means of attainment duly estimated, the true from a rifled gun, it cuts out its own plug, which battery. This shows the extreme necessity for the born son of science instantly sets to work to ac. explodes it. Lord Ranelagh fired two elongated utmost caution in the manufacture and use of guns complish it, without even a doubt. Imagination wooden shells from a large rifle into a heap of upon this principle; and it becomes a grave question conceives the project, science brings forth the com: loose sand, where they instantly exploded, proving whether in the heat of action

occurrences of a similar pleted labour, and then the halting advocate of that iron'shells on a similar construction can be description may not readily take place, and thereby mere practice and precedent wonders and admires; employed from rifled cannon to destroy clay sacrifice of many valuable lives. and it may be, in happy forgetfulness of his former defences, on which mere shot have little effect. incredulous prejudices, congratulates himself, as

Inquests, Board of Trade inquiries, Committees of

No. 5—Gossamer cartridges. Lord Ranelagh Investigation, and other like machinery, are of exceed. if he also were a co-worker in the progressive fired several of these from å dragoon's pistol of ingly little use to us in this country. The explosion achievements of inventive science. An extended publicity is respectfully solicited rapidly and efficiently they can be used in loading. country jury, who read newspapers while directors

the Enfield bore, and similarly rifled, showing how of the Great Eastern ended in a wrangle before a for these brief remarks, with the hope of attract. They do not require to be broken or opened pre- and contractors lied (some of them) and quarelled

. ing thoughtful and benevolent minds to a speedier vious to insertion, as the military cap fires them

The loss of the Royal Charter has had a result less solution of the important question submitted to a certainty, provided the upper part of the disgraceful but equally useless. Mr. Mansfield, the namely, the prevention of loss of life, time, and vipple is countersunk so as to take in the whole magistrate at Liverpool, and Captain Harris, the property by storms, especially in the channels, and fire of the cap. The cartridges were charged choly event, and their report to the Board of Trade is on the shores of the British Islands.

with Curtis and Harvey's improved coarse-grain before us. They tell us that a portion of the iron of

JOIN LOCKE. Rathmines, Publin, Nov. 1859. gunpowder, No. 3.

which the Royal Charter was built, recovered with I am, Gentlemen, yours, &c.

great difficulty and expense from the wreck, has been

J. NORTOX. produced before, and tested by, the Liverpool corpo-
LIGHTING MINES.
Rosherville, Dec. 3.

ration machine." It is decidedly above the average TO TIE EDITORS OF TIE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

strength of iron plating used for shipbuilding, and the GENTLEMEN,— I see that a paper is to be read DEATH OF MR. JOHN FINCHAM. average strength assigned by Mr. Fairbairn for good this week before the Society of Arts, on the sub. The death of this gentleman took place at his dence, I have arrived at the conclusion that the Royal

Staffordshire plate." Again we read, “from the eviject of accidents in coal mines. Now, as one of residence at Highland-lodge, Landport, near Charter was, at the least, fully equal in strength to the greatest causes of accidents is the explosion of Portsmouth, on Tuesday morning, in his 75th year. the average of ships of her class built at the same fire-damp, in which, by the carelessness of one indi: 'The deceased will be best remembered by the date (1855). Whether this be sufficient is a question vidual, the lives of hundreds may be sacrificed, I general public as for many years master shipwright which in reality does not arise in the present inquiry. venture to suggest that for the purpose of illumi. of Portsmouth Dockyard, and more especially as

Even if it did, I should hesitate to generalise from nation, the electric light should be employed. the builder of the Arrogant, the first screw frigate an isolated instance, on very imperfect evidence, and Electric lamps

might be hermetically sealed up in possessed by this country. 'Much of his time and where so much is left to conjecture. A much wider glass globes, and stationed in the various branches study was devoted to the introduction of the screw underwriters in the ordinary course of their business; of the workings, and by means of suitable reflectors propeller into the British navy. For a long period and to those of the public who may be ignorant of the the light might be carried into almost any direction. he was shipbuilding superintendent of the School fact it may be of interest to learn that, ceteris pari If desirable the lamps

might be made to some ex. of Naval Architecture at Portsmouth, and in later bus, there is no difference in the premium paid for in; tent moveable, being fixed on a pedestal, and con- years had nominal charge of the practical part of suring wooden or iron vessels of the same claes." nected with the battery by insulated conductors; the studies at the School of Mathematics and Mr. Mansfield and Captain Harris also think that the and if suspended aloft they might be made to illu- Naval Construction. His History of Naval Archi- ship was not properly prepared (by making her stuk mine a large area at once. I know that economists lecture, Outlines of Shipbuilding, a Treatise on Lay- aloft) for encountering the rising gales-that as me would object that the arrangement would involve ing-off' Ships, and on Masting Ships, are well known pointed out weeks ago) the Captain should have considerable expense, but the attainment of per- among professional men. As an acknowledgment behind him-and that her masts were not cat sway fect safety would more than repay the extra ex- of their merits the Emperor Nicholas, of Russia, soon enough. They likewise point out the danger of pense (if it existed), while the miner who felt him- presented Mr. Fincham with a snuff-box set with steaming ahead while at anchor in a gale. A gale of self free from danger and under the influence of a diamonds, and Mehemet Ali presented him with wind is not uniform in strength, there are moments genial light, would hoth be happier in mind, more the order of the

“Bey." Mr. Fincham was greatly of comparative lull

. During these the steam power not comfortable in body, and would do double the indebted to others for assistance in the preparation being readily controlled is apt to shoot the ship sheels work which he did before, while groping under of these volumes, and in the construction of the After this

, when a violent gust oceurs, the shìp drops the dim rays of his present safety lamp. ships which were designed by him. His connec.

astern, bringing up with a sudden and a severe jerk I have the honour to remain, Gentlemen, tion with the late School of Naval Construction them part. The cables of the Royal Charter were

on her cables kind of strain most likely to make Your most obedient servant,

resulted unhappily—the members of it attributing full 21'ins. in diameter, and were tested by the maker, F. MAXWELL-LYTE. to him the chief cause of their undue depreciation. Mr. Woods, of Chester, to 72 tons. It is reasonable Bagucrcs' de Bigorte, 28th Nov., 1859.

Mr. Fincham long since, we regret to say, lost to suppose that the material and workmanship were

as

1066.

1084.

good. We need hardly say how little is to be found will be admitted to the National Gallery, British in all this to satisfy the public mind. If we are to School, through the Museum only. 5. The National Patents for Inventions. draw inferences from this report, they can only be, Gallery, British School, will be opened on Monday, that the Royal Charter was a very good iron ship, and 5th December.

ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS that any other such ship would have gone to ruin speedily and utterly as she did, after once coming upon the following inquiry ?

Will some of our readers respond, if possible, to

The abridged Specifications of Patents given below are the rocks. Comforting assurance !

Abercarn, December 5th, 1859.

classified, according to the subjects to which the respective

.nventions refer, in the following table. By the system of The action which Messrs. Mears commenced against GENTLEMIN,–Can you kindly help me to obtain classification adopted, the numerical and chronological Mr. Denison for his statements respecting the bell, any information on the following subjects :- I possess order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with Big Ben, cast by them, was entered for trial for the the first three vols. of Holtzapffels Turning and Me. all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be sittings after Michaelmas Term in London, and would chanical Manipulation, which of themselves, so far as

understood that these abridgements are prepared excluhave been tried by Lord Chief Justice Cockburn and they go, form an admirable

work ; but unfortunately sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the

Government, and are therefore the property of the propriea special jury. Mr. Denison pleaded a justification to there seems no prospect of the work being ever com- tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not the libel with which he was charged. The case was, pleted. Can any of your readers inform me of the to produce them without acknowledgement: however, withdrawn on Wednesday last, Mr. Denison titles and price of any modern works which would Steam ENGINES, &c., 1065. having abandoned his defence. The plaintiff will supply the deficiency, more particularly as to plain BOILERS AND THEIR FURNaces, &c., 1054. therefore take a judgment by default. The only turning with and without the slide rest, &c.? orna. ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and carmatter remaining to be determined is the amount of mental turning I do not so much care about. If you

riages, saddlery and harness, &c. None. damages, which, in the usual course, will have to be obtain for me the required information

SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings, 1062.
will much
you

CULTIVATION OF THE Soil, including agricultural and horassessed in the Sheriffs' Court.

oblige an old subscriber.

W.R.

tieultural implements and machines, 1072, 1075, 1081. Mr. Walesby sends the following practical sugges.

Captain John Norton, of Rosherville, writes :- FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing tion:

food for men and animals, 1085. GENTLEMEN, -Having good and sufficient reason FIBROUS Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibres, GENTLEMEN :-On Saturday last I heard Big Ben to believe that the authorities are now anxious to know

pulp, paper, &c., 1060, 1063, 1070, 1077, 1086, 1010, perform for the first time since it had been reported that who was the first to suggest, and practically to de- BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, itcluding sewers, he had been fatally wounded ; and I have to state monstrate the superior advantages of an elongated drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c. None. that, cracked or not cracked, his voice is neither worse expanded shot, I beg to say it was devised imme. | LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 1052, 1058, 1061, nor better than it was in the very first instance when diately by myself from the expanding lotus pith base

FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, the clock struck him to indicate the hour. In other of the Malay tube-dart, which I submitted and fully

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 1051, words, the bell merely emits the same imperfect sound explained to the select committee of artillery oslicers,

1067, 1074. as before, being remarkable for metallic harshness and

at Woolwich, as far back as the summer of 1823. The Metals, including apparatus for their manufacture, 1076, doleful continuity of tone. Now, although I think officers now living that can bear testimony to the fact this bell, like its predecessor, was designed and cast are, General Sir Robert Gardiner, R.A.; General Sir

CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 1099. too thick at the sound bow ever to produce a rich and Richard Airey, now Quarter Master General,

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 1069.

WARFARE. None. mellow tone, even supposing no deep crack to exist, Colonel Barlow, Chairman of the Southampton Doek yet as the bell is suspended in a manner so objection company, Major Hector Straith, late Professor of LETTER Press PRINTING, &c, 1079. able that it has not fair play, the authorities may be Fortification at Addiscombe Military Seminary, Cap- MISCELLANEOUS, 1053, 1053, 1056, 1057, 1059, 1069, 1071,

1073, 1078, 1080, 1082, 1083, 1087, 1088. advised to try the following experiments :-Release tains Thomson and Hadison, the last five of whom poor Ben from his present unhappy position, of which

were present with my late regiment, the 31th, at the

time. he has always bitterly complained; then fix him to a

Colonel Beamish, in his memorable letter of

1051. J. H. JOHNSON. “ Improvements in mablock of" wood” of suitable form called a stock, which August, 1852, to the editor of the United Service chinery or apparatus for grinding and polishing must be freely suspended from a beam so as to be Journal, at page 3, gives a full and clear narration knives, and other articles of cutlery, and tools.” (À able to swing in some degree. If the alleged fracture of the facts. I have left a specimen of this shot at communication.) Dated April 26, 1859. be not dangerous, Big Ben the second will then give the United Service Institution, Whitehall. Colonel This consists in the use, in combination with a out such a sound as may agreeably surprise his Wilford, in his recent lecture at the United Service grinding-stone or polishing wheel, of a revolving audience. Permit me to add that when a large bell Institution, has truly stated that the great improve: Årum for carrying the articles to be operated upon, is cracked at the sound bow, it is idle to talk of apply. ment in rifle efficiency is to be traced to the elongated each drum being fitted with suitable matrices in which ing the “drill-a-hole and whip.saw remedy." This form of the shot.

I am, yours, &c.,

such articles are placed, the said matrices being has been tried over and over again in the case of

J. NORTON. adapted to give the required shape to the articles to Church bells--though not at present in that of Big

Rosherville, 5th December.

be ground, and enable such articles to be ground and Ben-and the result has uniformly been most un. A gentleman who has himself invented guns, and polished in a uniform manner. Patent completed. satisfactory to a musical ear. I am, &c., taken them before select committee after select com. 1052. J. M. CIROUX. “Improvements in lamp

THOMAS WALESBY.
mittee, sends the following :-

glasses and shades, applicable to gas-burners, lightDecember 5, 1859.

GENTLEMEN,—It is a well known fact in every houses, and railway-signals." Dated April 27, 1859. Mr E. Edwards, glass-manufacturer, of Birming

official branch of the public surface, the Armstrong This consists in making glasses and shades of ham, states that glass, when cooled too quickly, is rept gun is only Armstrong in name, and that it would not crystal rendered convex either externally

or internally, into fragments which are invariably found to be

have found its way in that name, had not the Duke of or on both sides, for lamps and lanterns, and appli wedgelike, or following the general shape of the arrow

Newcastle been appointed to the war department just cable to certain gas-burners, to lighthouses and railor spear heads recently found deep down in pre about to be better known.

at the moment the originality of the invention was way signals, which convexity is obtained by known Adamnite geological beds. Hence he starts a theory:

means, and by which a greater brightness is given to

All men interested in inventions made for the the light than by the ordinary glass. Patent aban. He supposes that in the early geologic periods masses of flint or large boulders may have become heated by

public service quite agree

with your remarks, doned.

1053. G. PEARSON. subterranean fires, and while in an incandescent stato gentlemen, That the war office has not the right to

Improvements in apparatus have been suddenly thrown by volcanic force to a cool spend the money of the nation” to serve the special for cutting and aping trenails."

Dated April 27, place; the outside of the mass would soon begin to

purpose of any protege of men in power; be it his | 1859.

Grace the Duke of Newcastle or the Right Honourcontract, while the inside would retain its heat and able Member for Morpeth, Sir George Grey, who out to suit the shape and size of the trenails. One end

This apparatus consists of a cylinder, or box bored its expanded condition; the struggle between the two forces would go on until the mass was rent to frag: Blakely's challenge of £500 will not be taken up by made with an aperture in the side for admitting

the who may become the patron of the inventor. Captain of the box is enlarged, forrning the conical head, and ments, and each of these

fragments would be one of the fortunate maker of the so-called Armstrong gun cutting blade, which is adjustable, and fixed with the "works of art” of which we have lately heard so much.

or any of his champions," however important it screws to the outside of the cylinder. This cutting

They blade is so shaped as to cut the cylindrical parts of The following regulations for the admission of the may be to all taxpayers, as you justly remark. public have been arranged bythe Committee of Council

can better afford to give Captain Blakely £500 to say the trenail as well as the conical' head. A second

no more about the gun or its maker, lest it should cutting blade is fixed to the face of the tail end of on Education and the Trustees of the National Gallery. lead to an open investigation as to who really invented the box for cutting the ends of the trenails. The 1. The separate entrance to the National Gallery, the gun, and first brought

it under the

notice of the head-end of the cylinder has a guide plate screwedł to British School, provided at the request of the trustees select committee at Woolwich. For the sake of the the cylinder flange, while at the tail-end a washer or of the National Gallery, will be open for the public on taxpayer and the efficiency of the service, Captain plate with an enlarged bore, and open at one side to Mondays, Tuesdays, and Saturdays, and for students Blakely will serve Her Majesty best by calling the allow of the escape of the shavings, is attached to a on Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, in the day attention of the Executive through the Legislature, similar flange with bolts, by which the cylinder is also time only. The public will be admitted to the not only to the Armstrong gun, but other guns and firmly fixed to a small chuck, which has an external National Gallery, British School, also through the mortars so strongly patronized by the Government screw for screwing on to the end of a revolving spindle. Museum every day, and on those nights when the since 1854, when his Grace of Newcastle, in his zeal The pieces of wood intended for trennils are first cut Museum. On those nights the National Gallery, has been so economically carried out. Let him show Museum is open, according to the regulations of the fer improvement, gave the start at Woolwich which into lengths equal to the lengths of two trenails

, and

as they are of an irregular form, they are formed in British School, will be lighted by the department. 3. a disposition to do this, and no doubt the €500 will cylinders slightly tapered at both ends. These cylin Wednesday being a public day at the National Gal. increase ; and with it, a far better chance of his money drical pieces of wood are introduced through the Museum, will hereafter be a students' day at the the Secretary of State for War, or challenging com. lery, and a students' day at the South Kensington being returned to him than by seeking justice from guide-plate, and pushed in till the end reaches to, and

is shaped by, the end blade, the cylinder with its National Gallery, British School, and the public ad- petition with the extraordinarily lucky maker

of the blades revolving rapidly, whilst the piece of wood is mitted on payment of (6d.) to the South Kensington Armstrong gun.

OBSERVER

Iteld fast. This double trenail, after both ends have Museum will be admitted also to the National Gallery,

been cut, is then cut in two by the circular saw, and British School, through the Museum only, the National Gallery students being admissible by the

LIST OF NEW BOOKS.

the heads faced by a cutter similar to the one for

facing the trenail ends. The blade which performs separate entrance. 4. On Wednesdays, Thursdays, Douglas on Modern Systems of Fortification, 12s. and Fridays, when only Students are admitted to the Engineers', Architects', and Contractors" Pocket-book, this last operation is fixed in a separate cylinder.

Patent completed. National Gallery, British School, the public admitted Potter's Elementary Treatise on Mechanics, 4 edit., 8s. Gd.

1054. J. HYDE. “Certain improvements in steam. by payment (Ed.) to the South Kensington Museum Winter's Elementary Geometrical Drawing, Part I., 3s. 6d. boilers.” Dated April 27, 1859.

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