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This applies to those steam-boilers in which one or This consists in suspending and supporting a

1087. R. HARRINGTON. " Improvements in um. more internal flues are employed, and consists in conical valve by, a diaphragm of thin sheet caout- brellas and parasols." Dated April 28, 1859. suspending a water chamber within the flue or flues; chouc or caoutchouc fabric in a tube or ring; in This relates to the construction of the runners, the these chambers are connected by tubes to the interior covering the top of the tube by a cover; in carrying object being to enable a parasol or umbrella to be of the boiler to allow the water to circulate freely a spindle from the upper part of the conical valve placed in an excentric position to the handle or stick. therein. The end of the water chamber near the through a central aperture in the cover; in fitting a Patent completed. bridge divides the products of combustion which, in valve on the spindle having its seat on the top of the 1068. N. LIBOTTE. “A steam brake for mines, passing along the flue, surround the water chamber, cover; and in forming a communication with the at- which may also be worked by hand.” Dated April and distribute the heat. Patent abandoned.

mosphere from the chamber in which the upper valve 28, 1859. 1055, H. R. FANSHAWE. "Improved apparatus rests, and through the aperture in the cover to the top The patentee claims, 1, a method of arranging, or mechanism for drawing-off, filtering, and gauging of the diaphragm and valve. There are modifications combining, and constructing mine breaks, so that a liquids in butts, barrels, casks, and such like vessels, included. Patent completed.

wheel may be acted upon to operate as a break by the preserving the contents from deterioration from con- 1062. Sir T. T. Geant, K.C.B. "Improvements in application of friction or pressure against or upon the tact with atmospheric air.” Dated April 27, 1859. ships' cooking apparatus.” Dated April 27, 1859. sides thereof. 2. An arrangement and combination

The patentee claims the use and adaptation of a The patentee employs an apparatus of the follow- of break in which a wheel having projections and bag with its adjuncts, which, by the introduction of ing construction:-It consists of a fireplace or fur. sunken parts is acted upon by the pressure exerted air pressure, will occupy the void formed as the liquid nace combined with a boiler ; the fireplace is at the on its sides by bars having projections corresponding is drawn off, sufficient pressure being kept up by this front of the boiler, and the two edges or cheeks to the recesses in the wheel, and operating as de. means to allow a free draught. Also the gauging and thereof are formed by water spaces in connection with scribed. Patent completed. filtering apparatus described. Patent completed. the boiler; the bottom of the ash-pit also is formed 1069. N. J. HOLMES. · Improvements in electrie

1056. J. and W. STUART. "Improvements in in a similar manner. The top of the fireplace is telegraphs, and apparatus connected therewith." machinery or apparatus for manufacturing nets for formed of metal slabs, which serve as a hot plate. The Dated April 28, 1859. fishing, and for other purposes.” Dated April 27, back or bridge of the fireplace is formed by a water The patentee claims, 1, the use of coils constructed 1869.

space also in communication with the boiler.


to secure to any transmitted or received current This invention is more or less based upon a net. hind the hollow bridge is a chamber from which a an inductive influence always parallel to the axis of making machine for which a pátent for Scotland was series of small tubular smoke flues pass to a chamber motion and polarity of any magnetized substance granted to James Paterson, July 27, 1835. The me- at the back of the boiler in which ovens are placed; placed within the sphere of that influence, either ex. chanical arrangement by which the twine or yarn is this chamber communicates directly with a chimney ternally or internally. 2. The use of such construcnetted, consists of a combination of needles, hooks, placed at the back of the apparatus. Over the boiler tion of coils whereby the polarity of the needle or inand fullers, the joint operations of which form a series a steam chamber is formed which receives steam from dicators is always preserved at a uniform distance of twisted loops extending across the machine. the boiler by a pipe ascending from the top of the from the influence of the coil during the motion Through this series of loops a length of twine or boiler, and terminating in a dome formed at the top derived from any transmitted or received current. 3. yarn is carried by a shuttle, which consists of a long of the steam chamber; this arrangement is to prevent The particular arrangements of conductors and parts hooked wire or slender rod, which is caused to pass water being forced over with the steam into the steam necessary to secure these maximum effects of any cur. through the loops, and in traversing back to its chamber. Within the steam chamber one or more rent upon any magnetized or indicating apparatus, or normal position it draws with it the twine or yarn, cooking chambers are placed, and they are supported apparatus used either for direct transmission of signals

, which is cut off by a self-acting cutter when the so that a space may be left for the steam around the or for local action, either as a visible, audible, or printtraverse is completed. A corresponding arrangement said vessel or vessels. Cocks are provided at the ing telegraph. 4. The use of two parallel or diverse is fitted on the other side of the machine, so that the exterior of the apparatus. On each side of the steaming magnetized needles, or other indicators used in two shuttles work alternately to form the series of chamber brackets are fixed to support kettles or combination with the parallelism of axis of motion equidistant knots in the material of which the net is vessels which are supplied with steam by steam pipes with the direction of inductive influence of electric manufactured. The object of the present invention connecting them with the steam chamber, and these currents, so that each needle is in opposition to the is to modify the original machine before referred to, vessels receive smaller vessels in which cooking may axis of such inductive influence during any motion so as to render it capable of producing the higher be carried on. Patent completed.

derived from any current or currents. Patent comnumbers of mesh or finer qualities of net, solely by 1063. T. GAUNTLEY, sen. “ Improvements in the pleted. mechanical means. There are various modifications manufacture of fringes.” Dated April 27, 1859. 1070. E. LARDENOIS. “Improvements in the included. Patent completed.

Here twist lace machines are used, so that the warp manufacture of pulp for paper, pasteboard, and other 1057. J. R. SMITH. “Improvements in obtaining threads are employed for producing the fringe as well like articles.” (A communication.) Dated April 23, motive power.” Dated April 27, 1859.

as the traverse threads of the woven parts or heads of 1859. Here a wheel with a tubular or hollow run, capable the fringe, and the bottom or carriage threads are This consists in manufacturing pulp from vegetable of revolving in a vertical plane upon a horizontal employed to produce the longitudinal threads of the substances without rags, by subjecting them, Ist, to axis, has attached to its periphery at equal distances woven parts or heads of the fringe. The warp threads the action of steam; 2nd, to the blows of heavy apart, and all round it, a series of open cages or are shogged or moved to and fro a distance equal to hammers, and to pressure between rollers; 3rd, to chambers, each containing a flexible diaphragm of the desired width for the fringes. Patent abandoned. solutions of protoxide of sodium under pressure ; 4th, tubular or bag form. The tubular or chamber space

1061. J. KIDD. “ Improvements in sewing ma- to universal acids and to washings in water ; 5th, to in the main wheel is filled with water, mercury, oil, or chines.” Dated April 28, 1859.

chlorine or chlorides, to carbonic acid, to oxalic acid, other liquid, and by means of certain other arrange- The inventor claims the principle of working the to heat, to galvanic currents, and to pressure. Patent ments (the details of which we cannot give space to) needle and the shuttle by one crank pin by means of completed. the wheel is made to revolve in either direction. Pa. the slots described. The principle of a shuttle moving 1071. T. CLARKE. Improvements in sheaves or tent abandoned.

in groores in a race, and supported by the keels de- pulleys for paying out and hauling in ropes, chains, 1058. R. J. Laing. "Improvements in wet gas. scribed. The principle of a feeder hanging on a and cables, for communicating motion to machinery

, meters.” Dated April 27, 1859.

centre and worked by the needle arm and needle slide, and for other useful purposes." Dated April 28, 1859. Here the patentee employs a ball or other suitable and the principle of the guide bar forming a guide This consists in constructing sheaves or pulleys in valve suspended by an arm or other suitable means and a regulator. Patent abandoned.

two parts, so that one or both of the flanges or slides from above in either or both of the gas passages of

1065. C. RANDOLPI and J. ELDER. “Improve of the groove in which the rope or cable travels shall the meter, so that when the meter is in a correct ments in steam-engines and boilers.” Dated April be capable of being moved so that the two may be position such valves will hang free of the openings 28, 1859.

brought together or towards each other at one part of they are capable of closing, but so soon as any tilting The patentee claims, 1, communicating the power the circumference of the pulley, and nip or grip the takes place these openings will be closed, and the of the engines to screw or similar propellers by me. rope at that part, while the ropes may travel freely passage of the gas stopped. These valves may be chanism capable of giving, either a direct connection ofer the other part of the pulley. The motion of the arranged in pairs so as to close either way. Patent with equal speed, or an increased speed by means of moveable part or parts, and therefore the gripping completed.

an indirect connection as described. 2. Constructing action, are produced by weighted levers, springs, in. 1059. C. HAMP. “ Certain improvements in locks." surface condensers with spiral or helical coils of clined axles or otherwise. The gripping faces of the Dated April 27, 1859.

pipes. 3. Constructing marine steam-boilers with Aanges or sides of the groove may be furnished with This relates to lever locks, and consists in construct. two or more separate uptakes to each separate vessel roughed steel plates, or with vulcanized rubber. ing them with two distinct sets of levers, each ope- or boiler, and the surrounding of such uptakes with Patent completed. rated upon by the bit or bits of the key; also in steam drying or superheating chambers. *4. Arrang. 1072. J. WHEAT. “Certain improvements in forming the keys of lever locks with two bits, eaching the tubes or corresponding passages of multi. drilling-machines employed for agricultural purposes." bit being intended to operate each of the aforesaid tubular or similar steam-boilers with a downward Dated April 28, 1859. sets of levers for locking and unlocking the same. It inclination towards the smoke boxes. 5. Construct In carrying out this invention a wooden barrel is is also proposed in some cases to use a loose curtaining combined heaters and steam generators as de. connected by a spindle to a suitable framing, and attached to the case of the lock. Patent abandoned. scribed with reference to the drawings. Patent com- around this barrel a chain passes right and left, and is 1060. J. HOLROYD. “Improvements in machinery pleted.

guided on to a half round wood gearing to which used for finishing woollen and other cloths.” Dated 1068. R. JONES. “An improved safety lamp.” | the ends of the chain are securely fixed; on the top of April 27, 1859. Dated April 28, 1859.

the spindle of the aforesaid barrel a handle is placed, This consists in so constructing the bed over which This consists in the lamps being provided with an by moving which handle from right to left, or rice the cloth passes that when the machine is set in extinguishing apparatus secured

to the moveable head versá, the course of the machine will be directed as motion, the bed shall move up and down in a vertical of the same through the medium of pendant frame required. Patent completed. direction by self-acting means. As the cloth passes work, and so arranged as to admit of two metallic 1073. W. A. Tompsox and W. Greer. “Improve. over this bed, and between it and the cutters, it surfaces being brought immediately in contact with ments in apparatus for applying liquids to the throat follows that when the bed is raised the nap of the the wick on withdrawing the head, by which the and air passages for medical purposes.” Dated April cloth is cut shorter, and that when the bed is lowered light is extinguished, the draught holes being covered 28, 1859. the cloth is left longer in the nap. This variation in with gauze, and the lamp provided with the ordinary The patentees employa flexible or other gas-holder or the length of nap produces lines or stripes running wire gauze, glass, lock-up head and handle, as also a vessel containing an under pressure, and they connect transverse across the piece from bit to bit. Patent fat wick, in place of the usual round one; a reservoir this gas-holder or vessel with a pipe, by means of completed.

of oil is contained in the head, together with a pipe which a jet of air can be directed on to the interior of 1081. T. LACEY. "Improvements in gas regula and thumb valve for supplying the burner. Patent the throat of the patient. Before the air passes to tors.” Dated April 27, 1869. abandoned,

the throat they cause it to become saturated with a

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mist of the liquid (usually a solution of the nitrate of or moveable part of a press will be acted on very “ Improvements in looms and in apparatus connected silver) which they desire to apply. This is effected by powerfully by the lever or other means used for caus. therewith.” Dated April 30, 1859. causing the air from the gosometer to pass into a ing the axis to rotate partly round, in consequence of This relates, 1, to certain improvements in jacquard small egg-shaped vessel of glass containing a few the two plates being thereby brought more nearly into apparatus of the kind used for acting upon leaves of drams of the solution; the air is caused to enter near the same plane. When making a lithographic press the heddles in the production of ornamental fabrics. 2. the upper part of the vessel on one side, and to issue patentees employ a friction roller under each of the To certain improvements in details connected with from the top of the vessel to the escape tube or jet by axes or necks of the cylinder or roller, over which the shifting shuttle boxes ; and 3, to an improvement in which it is applied. The vessel which holds the solu- carriage of the press 'moves, and in order to ensure shuttles. The details are too voluminous to be quoted tion also contains a piece of glass rod having a num greater accuracy in the movement of the platten they here. Patent abandoned. ber of capillary passages formed from end to end of it, prefer to apply apparatus as above described at both 1087. W. CLARK. “Improvements in ventilating and one end of this rod rests in the liquid, while the ends of the platten. They apply V or angular guides or supplying air to diving bells and divers, and in other rises above it. The air in entering impinges on to the two ends of the platten. Patent completed. holding communication therewith from above." (A the surface of the liquid, and forces it through the 1030. S. DE Cazenave. " An improved lubricating communication.). Dated April 30, 1859, passages in the rod; it is thus brought within range compound.” Dated April 29, 1859.

Here a blowing apparatus is placed in position of the current of air, and is carried by it through the The inventor mixes together oil ricini or castor oil, where the descent is to be made ; on the shore or in escape tube or jet. At the end of this tube there is a soft or potassa soap, palm oil, and virgin or American the boat, raft, &c., are established two tubes of gutta covering of very fine gauze of silver wire, through rosin, and melts them at as low a temperature as percha or india-rubber of a length in proportion to which the solution can escape to the throat only in an possible. He then adds, in a finely powdered state, the depth to be explored or operated in. One of the extremely divided state ; the connection between this bichlorate of mercury and pumice stone, and well extremeties of each of these tubes is in com. tube and the solution vessel is formed by a vulcanized mixes and incorporates the whole while warm. Patent munication with the diving apparatus, one of which india-rubber tube. Patent completed. abandoned.

is open to the air and furnished with a speaking 1074. A. BOYLE. “Improvements in the manufac. 1081. T. SMITH. “Improvements in cultivating trumpet or funnel, while the other is joined to the ture of certain parts of umbrellas and parasols.” implements.” Dated April 29, 1859.

induction tube of the blowing machine. The other Dated April 28, 1859.

This relates to an implement which may consist extremity of each of these tubes is connected to the This relates to machinery whereby the ribs of um. of one or more sets of tines or teeth, and the forms of diving bell or other receiver, being firmly united to brellas and parasols may be made from wire with the tines or teeth may be varied, and such ends or one of the two junctions which communicate with the greater facility and dispatch than heretofore. The points may be moveable, so that one implement may interior thereof. Thus the interior of the receiver is stamp or fly presses for forming or straightening the at different times work with different forms of points on the one hand in communication with the exhaust. ends or tips of the ribs are dispensed with. Sets of or ends to the tines. The tines are bent, the forwarding tube of the blowing machine, and on the other sliding bolts are arranged to work either horizontally edges being concave, and the hinder edges convex. hand with the atmosphere. In connection with the or vertically, and to these bolts suitable dies or tools when having a single set or a row of tines or teeth latter communication in the interior of the receiver are affixed, and the bolts and dies are acted upon by across an implement, the upper end of each tine is is an india-rubber flexible tube, of just sufficient cams, levers, or cranks, which derive their motion fixed to a bar, either permanently or moveably, so as length to descend to the level of the mouth of the from a shaft provided with a fly wheel, and driven by to admit of their distances apart being varied. The diver, and which has at its extremity a small mouth any suitable gearing. The dies will then be made to bar to which a set or row of teeth or tines is applied piece to facilitate conversation with the diver. The experform the operations of fattening the tip and notch is connected by links to a lever which has its axis at tremity that is free to the atmosphere for speaking ends of the ribs, and also forming the indentation for or near the front of the implement. The tines or has a similar arrangement of parts for speaking or the iniddle bit or joint (to which the stretchers are teeth move on an axis which passes through the hearing. The apparatus thus established, and the affixed) simultaneously or in rapid succession. Patent whole of them, and the parts are so arranged that, by diver being in the bell dressed in a dress of guttacompleted.

depressing the hinder end of the lever, the points or percha, &c., it is sufficient to put the apparatus to 1075. W. M. CRANSTON. “A grass-cutting ma- lower ends of the tines or teeth are lifted out of the work, to work the blowing machine in order to prochine." (A communication.) Dated April 29, 1859. land, and the parts are in equilibrium or nearly so, duce the ventilation of the bell. The foul air in the

This invention is not intelligibly described apart in order that it may not require much effort to lift bell is drawn off by the blowing machine, while the from the drawings. Patent completed.

the tines or teeth. The implement is mounted on fresh air arrives by the second tube. Patent com1076. W. CORBETT and W. CARMONT. “Certain wheels, one on each side, and one or two in the front. pleted. improvements in the construction and arrangement of There are modifications included. Patent com

1088. A. MCKECINIE. "Improvements in hammers furnaces employed in the manufacture of iron and pleted.

and in apparatus for working the same." Dated steel, and for other similar purposes.” Dated April 1082. W. WINSTANLEY and J. KELLY. "Improve. April 30, 1859. 29, 1859.

ments in pumps, and gearing and appliances for This relates to mechanically actuated hammers of This consists, 1, in the use of a brickwork shield working the same." Dated April 29, 1859.

frictional action, whereby variable blows may be over the metal hearth for the prevention of all dele. The patentees claim surrounding the head of the given with rapidity, ease,' and certainty, whilst the terious contact, whether arising from the gases of suction pipe with an air-tight chamber or casing, and machinery is simple, &c.; the hammer can be sus. combustion, or from solid matters, as coke, &c., get- elevating the discharge orifice of the suction pipe to a pended at any point required. We cannot give space ting into the iron, &c., from the furnace. 2. In the point above the level of the lower valves of the to the details of the invention. Patent abandoned. use of a diaphragm or partition between two metal pumps. The application to pumps of the peculiar hearths heated from one furnace for greater conveni. syphon-shaped discharge part as described.

The ence in the conversion of iron or steel. 3. In the use peculiar arrangements for jointing together the lift

PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. of a hopper with a self-acting arrangement of me. valve and pump rod as described. Connecting fog

Dated Aug. 2, 1859. chanism for the gradual supply of “physic” to the horns to the air vessels of pumps by india-rubber 1784. H. Fletcher. Certain improvemonts in sewe furnace or furnaces in the conversion of metals. tubing. Patent completed.

ing and embroidering machinery. Patent completed.


A new process of model. 1077. J. W. Welcs. “Improvements in sizeing or ling and moulding for galvano-plastic.” Dated April

Dated Sept. 16, 1859. dressing yarns or threads for weaving.” Dated April 30, 1859.

2110. T. Richardson. Improvements in the manu29, 1859. This consists in sizeing or dressing yarns or threads hollow or in relief, of leaves, flowers, fruits, shrubs

, generated in the process,

The object here is the reproduction by electricity, in facture of sulphuric acid and in applying the heat for weaving, with a combination of substances not reptiles, fishes, birds, insects, shells, animals, and all

Dated Sept. 27, 1859. heretofore used for that purpose. To this end the objects, animate or inanimate, in groups or separately. 2180. F. Simpson. An improved method of fastenpatentee employs gelatine derived from animal sub. Patent completed.

ing or securing envelopes and other like receptacles, stances combined with sulphate of magnesia. Patent 1034. J. DARLINGTON. " Improvements in zinc also for affixing postage stamps, receipt stamps, and completed. retort furnaces." Dated April 30, 1859.

all other similar labels requiring adhesive properties. 1078. H. BOSSIARD. “An improved mechanism This consists in so constructing retort or muffle

Dated Oct. 5, 1869. for obtaining and imparting motive power.” Dated furnaces used for the reduction of zinc oros, that hot April 29, 1869. or cold air may be forced through and among the fuel of lead. (A communication.)

2254. J. A. Herbert. Manufacturing of oxychloride The inventor proposes to construct a motor or employed, so as to render the same incandescent, and driving apparatus capable of being motioned by wind, so that coal may be supplied at the side in a caked or

Dated Oct. 13, 1859. water, or other natural power, to consist of an ar- coked state. Patent completed.

2338. T. Vicars, sen., T. Vioars, jun., T. Ashmore, rangement of wheels and shafts usually known as 1085. G. FRANCIS. " Improved apparatus appli. and J. Smith. Improvements in the manufacture of clockwork. Patent abandoned.

cable to the treatment of tea and other useful pur. bread, biscuits, and like articles, and in the machinery 1079. A. PORTEUS and W. H. BURKE. “Im. poses.” Dated April 30, 1859.

and apparatus connected therewith. provements in printing and other presses.” Dated This apparatus consists of a horizontal flat sieve or

Dated Oct. 19, 1959. April 29, 1859.

riddle, with a vertical circular side, which the patentee 2390. J. K. Blackwell. Improvements in reverIn constructing a press according to this invention forms either solid or perforated, and which he mounts beratory and other furnaces. (A communication.) motion is communicated to the platten or moveable upon a suitable frame work or stand. Above this part of the press in the following manner :-An axis sieve or riddle he constructs horizontal radial arms

Dated Oct. 24, 1859. with a lever handle, or other instrument for giving a which spring from a vertical revolving centre shaft.

2426. P. M. A. Laurent. Certain improvements in partial rotation thereto, is used, on which axis there These parts are enclosed in a suitable cover to confine eye-glasses for optical instruments. is a boss or projection, against which, and in suitable the dust and so forth, and the top is provided with a

Dated Nov. 4, 1859. notches or recesses formed at opposite parts of its hopper for introducing the tea, &c., to be operated 2519. J. G. Meyer. The employment of the “tacca periphery, two of the edges of the two rectangular upon. There is a receptacle below the sieve or riddle received into a notch or recess in the platten, or other revolving radial arms and passed through the meshes plates press; the other edge of one of these plates is into which the tea, &c., falls when acted upon by the pinatifida” as a substitute for straw now used in varimoveable part of the press, and the other edge of the of the sieve or riddle. The shaft carrying the radial

Dated Nov. 10, 1859. other rectangular plato is received in a notch or recess arms is caused to rotate by the power applied through

2558. S., W., and H. Evans. Improvements in in a cross-head or other reaching part of the press. It the meshes of the sieve or riddle. The shaft carrying polishing thread and yarn, and in machinery to be is preferred that the two edges of each plate should be the radial arms is caused to rotate by the power employed for that purpose. formed into knifelike edges, and that they should be applied through a wheel and pinion, or any other

Dated Nov. 15, 1869. received into corresponding notches or recesso8, but suitable contrivance. Patent completed.

2584. W. H, Ward. Improvements in wheels top this may be varied. By this arrangement the plattoq 1036, J. MORISON, 497., and J. MORI8QN, jun. I railway engines and garriages,




Dated Nov. 16, 1859.

NOTICES OF INTENTION TO PROCEED LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, &c., 2506. C. Green. Improvement in the method of


Published during the toeek ending Dec. 2, 1859, applying heat in the manufacture and drying of salt. (From the London Gazette, Dec. 6, 1859.) 2597. W. Baker. Apparatus to facilitate the de. 1722. J. B. Whitehall and s. Wheatcroft. Cap No. Pr. No. Pr. No. Pe No.

Pr. No. Pr. livery of coins, for the giving of change and the like. fronts. 2598. W. Johnson. Improvements in gas-burners. - 1729. G. Davies. Dyeing. (A communication.) s d

d (A communication.)

1732. C. F. Vassorot. Preventing incrustations in 8300 91037 1 3 10190 3,1060 0 10 10710 910830 10 2599. R. White.' Improvements in shirts. boilers. (A communication )

9600 31038 0 8 10501 410610710720 610830 4 2600. T. Greenwood and J. Batley. Improvements

102810 1734. W. H. Buckland. Peat.

7110390 20 10510 9 1062 1 10 1073lo 6108410 in the construction of the beds of lathes, and the tables

102810 81|10400 4 10520 3 10630 3/10740 101 1085 6 7 1736. P. D. Mickles. Springs. (4 communica

10300 410410 3 10530 810640 310751 010860 3 of planing machines. tion.)

103110 1010420 710540 3, 10652 61076,0 6,20870 3 2601. G. Taylor. An improvement in the mode of 1739. D. B. Hale. Garment for ladies. (Partly a 10320 31043 0 10 1055 0 4 1066 0 3|1077 0 3 1088 0 3 manufacturing wrought iron crank axles. communication.)

10330 7|10440 4/10561 3.10670 710780 3 10890 3 2602. J. Burrow. Improvements in umbrellas and 1744. J. Scoffern. Waterproofing, dyeing, &c.

103410 3 10450 7 10570 3 1068 0 7 10790 10 10900 4 parasols.

10350 6101710 31058 0 1110090 7110800 3109110 2603. J. Ward and H. Burman. Improvements in

1700. W. Kent. Self-acting fan.
1752. J. Aspinall. Evaporating.

10300 3101804 10590 3, 10700 420810 2011 machinery for making bricks and tiles, and for mould. 1755. J. Jackson. Metal pens. ing peat and plastic substances.

1761. P. A. Viette. Engraving.

Nore.--Specifications will be forwarded by post from tà e

Great Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on reDated Nov, 17, 1859. 1766. F. Haeck. Refrigerating apparatus.

ceipt of the amount of price and postage. Sums exceeding 2604, J. A. Drieu and A. Legeay. A tissue, being

1782. E. de Bassano Artificial fuel.

5s. must be remitted by Post Office Order, made payable a substitute for leather, mill-board, and papier.

1784. H. Fletcher. Sewing and embroidering. at the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr. Bennet Wood1787. A. Pin. Paint.

croft, Great Seal Patent Office. maché.

1788. J. Hewett. Water closets. 2605. I. White. Improvements in glass furnaces.

1798. J. Horton. Water gauge.

LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS TENDERS IN 2006. D. Jones. Improvements in metallic casks. 1824. R. A. Brooman. Preventing incrustations in VITED, AND ENGAGEMENTS OPEN. 2007. R. Laming. Improvements in obtaining boilers. (A communication.) alkalies and alkaline compounds.

The tenders and vacancies which appear in this toeekly lis 1851. W. K. Westly. Heckling flax, &c.

are not repeated in succeeding numbers. 2608. T. Robinson. Improvements in steam- 1862. W. Clark. "Oscillating engines. (4 com. BAILWAY IRON, Scinde Railway-For from 6,000 to 7,000 engines. munication.)

tons of rails, with a proportionate quantity of fishing 2609. J. L. Jullion and G. Pirie. An improrement 1882. C. Glassborow. Pianos.

plates. Tenders, 10 o'clock morning of 13th inst, Gresin the manufacture of paper.

1932. G. Riley. Refrigerators.

ham House, Old Broad-street. 2610. J. McKenzie and S. T. Wentworth. Im. 1976. H, Hutton. Lubricator.

SLEEPERS, South Wales Railway.-For the supply of

10,000 slecpers. Specification at the Chief Ottice, 10 Eastprovements in breach-loading fire-arms.

1984. J. Mackenzie and S. T. Wentworth. Firo

bourne-terrane, Paddington; or office of Mr. W. G. arms. Dated Nov. 18, 1859.

Owen, Company's Engineer, Gloucester. Tenders, 2611. J. H. Brierley. A belt or band-fastener, 2165. A. R. L. Normandy. Cooking food.

December 15th. 2208. A. W. Williamson and L. Perkins. Steam CARRIAGE TYRES AND AXLES, &c., South Eastern Rail2012. W. Gossage. Improvements in the manu. boilers.

way.-For carriage tyres and axles, cast iron bosses, facture of carbon of soda.

wrought iron rings, axle boxes, buffer rods, horse-bair, 2013. S. Pinchbeck. Improvements in consumers'

2336. W. Burgess. Reaping and mowing machinos. and plate-glass. Specifications, patterns, &c., Stationcompensating gas meters, which are partly applicable and J. Smith. Bread, biscuits, &c.

2338. T. Vicars, sen., T. Vicars, jun., T. Ashmore, master's office, Bricklayers' Arms Station, Oid Kent

road, London. 'Tenders endorsed "Tenders for Stores," to ordinary consumers' meters,

2352. J. Fernihough. Şteam boilers.

to Mr. S. Smiles, Secretary, Dec. 14th.
Dated Nov. 19, 1859.
2359. R. Smith. Purifying water.

Waggons AND TRUCKS, South Eastern

Railuray.-For the

supply of 100 new goods waggons, 100 new coal waggons, 2615. S. Corbett. An improvement or improve. 2398. R. Hobson. Producing devices.

and 50 new timber trucks. Patterns, &c.. Stationments in pulpers for pulping food for cattle.

2524. G. T. Bousfield. Polishing glass. (A com- master's office, Brieklayers' Arms Railway Station, Old 2016. W. Clark. Improvements in the preservation munication.)

Kent-road, London. Tenders en lorsed * Tenders for of animal and vegetable matters. (A communica

2539. C. Green. Tubes.

New Waggons," to Mr. S. Smiles, Secretary, Dec. 1. tion.)

2568. W. Burgess. Mowing and reaping machines. Water-Works, Heywood.- l'or the execution of the 2617. W. Blinkhorn. The novel application of cer. 2576. A. Applegath. Surface block printing.

earthwork, puddling, and masonry required in raising

the embankment of the npper reservoir of the Heywood tain materials to the manufacture of bricks, quarries,

2599. R. White. Shirts.

Water-works Company, near Naden Head, in the Townor tiles, to be employed principally in the construction 2601, G. Taylor. Crank axles.

ship of Spotland; and for other works. Plans at the of furnaces as fire-bricks.

2621. J. Bancroft. Curtains, &c.

offines of Messrs. Cawley and Radford, Civil Engineers, 2618. J. Knight. Certain improvements in or ap2627. G. Laidlaw. Hats.

41 John Dalton-street, Manchester. Tenders, Secretary

of the Water-works Company, Heywood, Dec. 22nd. plicable to looms for weaving, part of which is appli. The full titles of the patents in the above list can be as.

SEA WALL, River Wear.-Commissioners. For the work cable to lubricating axles and bearings for other pur. certained by referring back to their numbers in the list


required in the erection of a sea wall, near the south poses. provisional protections previously published.

outlet in front of the battery intended to be crected there, 2619. E. Barlow and F. Hamilton. Certain imOpposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to

Plans, &c., Engineer's Office, Commissioner's Quay. any of the parties in the above list who have given notice of provements in carding engines.

Tenders, Executive Committee of the River Wear Com their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the 2620. A. H. Le Pontois. Improvements in ma- date of the Gazette in which the notice appears, by leaving

missioners, endorsed " Tenders for Sea Wall, South

Outlet,” Dec. 13th. chines for distributing seed and manure. at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing of the

Farm, Homestead, Launton,-Plans, offices of Mr. Wilkin2021. J. Bancroft. Improvements in the manufac objection to the application.

son, architect, Oxford. Tenders, Dec. 10th. ture of fabrics adapted to be used for curtains, cover

IIEATINO APPARATUSES, Chelsea.--For the heating of the ings of fnrniture, table covers, and such like uses.

LIST OF SEALED PATENTS. Dew vestry hall. Plans, &c., office of Mr. W. W. 2623. A. Godehaux. Improvements in the inode of

Sealed Dec. 2, 1859.

Pocock, 10 Trevor-terrace, Knightsbridge. Tenders to

Dec. 17. printing forms, or models, or copies of penmanship 1371. J. Burrow and w. 1388. W. B. Nation. WARMING CHURCH, Rugeley.-For warming the church and designs on paper, and other fabrics.

N. Wilson.

1573. S. Fisher.

with a hot-water apparatus. Tenders, accompanied by 2624. J. Petrie, jun., and J. Lord. Improvements 1378. J. and W. Wood. 2022. F. C. Bakewell, a plan and specification to the Church wardens of in machinery or apparatus for drying rags, wool, and 1383. J. Ferrabee.

2377. J. Reynolds.

Rugeley, under cover to Mr. James, bookseller, &c., other fibrous materials.

Dec. 17.

Scaled Dec. 6, 1859. 2625. A. V. Newton. Improvements in the mode

SEWAGE, Warrington.--For the construction of main 1335. C. de Bergue. 1518. A. Chesneau,

sewers with their appurtenances embodied in contracts of and machinery for drying cloths. (A communica

1396. J. B. IIowell, J. 1531. W. Coppin.

10 and 11. Drawings and specifications, Mr. Benjamin tion.)

Hick, and W. Hargreaves. 1535. B. Burton. 2627. G. Laidlaw. Improvements in hats, and

P. Coxon, borough engineer. Tenders for each contruct 1408. G. J. Farmer and 1550. G. Chapman.

a separato tender, Chairman of the Paving and Sewerage other coverings for the head.

Committee, Town Hall, 6 p.m., Dec. 12. 2628. H. Naylor and W. Crossley. Improvements

1583. C. I. G. Williams. DESIGNS AND ESTIMATES FOR CEMETERY, Sittingbourne, G. B. Hardy,

1413. M. H. Picciotto. 1699. F. C. Bakewell. Kent. For designs, &c. (free of expense), for the erecin pickers used in looms for weaving.

1423. H. L. Corlett. 2038. E. R. Dann and tion of two chapels and an entrance lodge, with entranee Dated Nov. 21, 1859. 1447. C. H. Waring. E. Goldschmidt.

gates, and for boundary, fencing, draining, and laying 2630. P. Jochem. Improvements in brakes for

out the ground, which is square in form and three acres 1465. A. V. Newton. 2112. J. Beck.

in extent. Average nuniber of burials sixty per annun. railway and other carriages.

150k. W. Russell.
2276. E. O. Tindall.

The architect of plan adopted will be employed to super. 2632. J. Cowan. Improvements in "bracing” or

1507. M. A.F. Mennons. 2278. A. M. Ferry, intend the works, all other plans will be returned to the connecting the anglos or corners of chairs, and other 1614. H. Doulton.

2309. J. Earl.

Plan of ground, &c., Mr. G. Harris, clerk to like articles of

1517. J. Mills.

the burial board. Designs and estimate, Dec. 14.

FOREMAX AT IRONWORKS.For a forge in the vicinity of 2636. J. Apsey and W. G. Buckwell. Improve

Manchester, must have a thorough practical knowledge ments in boilers and other furnaces, smoke consuming PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP


of pudding and roller, and be provided with first-class and steam generating.

testimonials as to character and ability. Address, stating 2939, J. Gibson. 2978. E. D. and G.

age, references, and where last employed, Y 30, MarDated Nov. 22, 1859.

2911. E. J. Emmons.

chester E.raminer Office. 2638. E. T. Hughes. Improvements in weaving 28 19. J. Longbottom. 2882. A. E. L. Bellford. OVERLOOKER.-Overlooker for twenty puddling furnaces silk and other materials, and in the machinery or avo 2861. F. Siemens.

2884. D. Crawford.

and two bar-mills. Box 70, post office, Wolver

hampton. paratus employed therein. (A communication.)

2868. T, Crabtree,
2896. C. Schiele.

CLERK OF Works. Sowerby Bridgo Cemetery, to superin2640. J. Sind and J. Rowley. Improvements in 2869. J. Denis.

2898. J. Longbottom. tend the erection of chapels, lodge, boundary walling, fire-engines, parts of which improvements are applica- 2874. J. Apperly and 2910. W. Lund.

draining, and approach road to the works. Terms, ble to other pumps. W. Clissold.

experience, and testimonials “ To the Chairman of the 2644. W. E. Newton. Certain improvements in

Cemetery Committee," Dec. 14, before 19 o'clock, a.m.


PATENTS ON WHICII TIE SEVENTII YEAR'S obtaining compensation for the effects of changes of

FINISIERS AND MOULDERS.--Wanted first-class temperature in time-keepers. (A communication.)


workmen at an old established London firm. Apply by

letter, stating full particulars, to Mr. J. J. Taylor, 116 2646. R. Mushet. An improvement or improve.

936. J. Norton.

933. J, H, Johnson. 1

Fenchurh-street. A preference given to those accusments in the manufacture of iron and steel.

939. J. Newall.

tomed steam-cock work.



Custom House Registry more than 100 years him to state the case in this way, but we must


guard shipbuilders against proceeding blindly The paper next deals with men-of-war, in the matter. American white oak is a thing

and enumerates 9 line-of-battle ships averag- of very variable nature. The States' white oak LONDON, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 16, 1859.

ing 384 years of age : 5 frigates averag- (which is generally better than the Canadian) is

ing 26 years; and 19 sloops and 4 brigs of totally different qualities when grown under AN AMERICAN SHIPBUILDER averaging 22 years.

At the end of this different circumstances. That grown on the ABROAD.

list Mr, McKay 'asks, somewhat trium- hardy soils near the sea-coast, where it is subWe announced to our readers a few weeks phantly as it seems to us,-“Can the Eng-jected to the rude retarding influences of wind since that Mr. Donald McKay, shipbuilder, of

"lish navy present a result more satisfac- and storm, possesses a stoutness and strength Boston, United States, had arrived in this “tory than this ?". Now, in considering this which is nowhere to be found among the vaks country on a professional tour. Remembering question, we must remind ourselves and our that spring up in the moist inlands rapidly and the outery which was made eight or nine years readers that all Mr. McKay tells us of these untried to maturity. The timber from trees of since, when we happened to reduce Mr. Grif- ships is, that they are “in perfect preservation the latter class-a light and free-splitting mafith's American volume on Shipbuilding in the

" and in an efficient state up to this date." terial--is what we see most of in this country, crucible of English science, we resolved, as soon

Well, if this be all, we may answer at once, and what, we fear, is most frequently used in as we heard of Mr. McKay's arrival, to do our " The English navy can present a result more America itself

. If it does not pay the Ameribest to show him all the consideration which so “ satisfactory than this." "In the English navy cans to use the high-priced better kind, it is distinguished a member of a distinguished pro

we have 9 line-of-battle ships, not only over exceedingly doubtful whether we can afford to fession and a distinguished nation deserves. We 384 years of average age, but of 50 years of do so. feel compelled now to offer a few remarks con- age--every ship of them--and all “in perfect But we can do more than place our opinions cerning our visitor's opinions and statements,

"preservation and in an efficient state up to in antagonism to Mr. McKay's. Examples of in which we shall be found to differ seriously Foudroyant, Victory, Egmont, Queen Charlotte

, building timber-of its early and general decay,

“this date.” These are the Ajax, Implacable, the failure of the American white oak as a shipfrom him, but hope to do so without departing Impregnable

, Hogue, and Edinburgh. We have that is—have come under our notice even in Many facts respecting Mr. McKay's present upwards of twenty „such ships individually of the American war nuvy itself. The Scientific visit to England and his contemplated tour on

the age of Mr. McKay's average. So much for American of a few weeks since published an the Continent of Europe became privately line-of-battle ships. As to frigates we venture announcement, which we think may be reproknown to us from time to time, but the first to say we have nearly half-a-hundred of them duced here to good purpose. It is to the folthing which brought the subject formally under each reaching Mr. McKay's average of five lowing effect :-“The steam frigate Minnesota, our notice was the receipt of a printed paper, frigates, viz., 26 years ; and in smaller sailing which was found to be rotten, and is now bearing a London imprint, and entitled " A ships also we doubtless exceed his average of 22" undergoing repairs at the Charlestown Navy“Practical Refutation of the English Pre- years. With regard to steamers of war, it is "yard, is only five years old, and has made but “ judices regarding the Durability of Ame- only necessary to say that against nine Ameri- " one cruize. All her outside planking, from “rican-built" Ships and American Timber. can which Mr. McKay mentions, averaging 145 " the water-line to the plank-sheer, is decayed. “Illustrated by à List of American Ships years, we could set as many averaging double " Many of her knees are also unsound, so that " (Merchant, Men-of-War, and Steam Ships); that age! We have at least forty reaching she will have to be rebuilt to fit her for “ distinguished by their Long Durability. Mr. McKay's average. Only last week we “service. All the decayed timber is white oak; “Prepared by Donald McKay, Shipbuil

were ourselves looking at the Salamander sloop" and some of the yellow pine, with which the der, of Boston, United States.” On the in the basin at Deptford Dockyard—a ship" oak came in contract, is also rotten. Yellow title-page we are informed that these lists of built 27 years since—and learnt that new "pine is considered rot-proof in consequence of ships were prepared for the purpose of “proving boilers are preparing for her at the Sheerness the great amount of rosin which it contains ; “by facts * that ships built with carefully factory, in the expectation that after certain but the presence of the decaying white oak selected American timber - viz., live oak, necessary repairs are made, she will still be "produced eremacansis in the pine in this case, white oak, pitch pine, &c.—will last as long perfectly sound and fit for service. We need in the same manner that a little leaven proas ships built with the best English oak, “ in hardly enlarge upon these points.

motes fermentation among a large quantity of “contradiction to the views entertained by

Mr. McKay appends to his list of United“ matter. The live oak in the Minnesota has "Lloyds' Committee, and in support of the States men-of-war ships over fifteen years of " not been the least affected with the rot; it is "favourable opinions entertained by British age a foot-note, which stands thus ;—“The term as fresh as when put in. These are important "merchants in regard to the efficiency and " [15 years) assigned to the average duration" facts for shipbuilders." We agree with our safety of American ships.” We are likewise

" of British men-of-war ships, after which they contemporary; these are important facts for told that this paper is extracted from the manu

"require a complete and extensive repair. shipbuilders - particularly for British shipscripts of "a comprehensive and richly illus

Statement of the Surreyor of the Navy." But builders, who raust keep them in mind during trated work” on the theory and practice of if the Surveyor of the Navy's remark is rightly Mr. McKay's stay among us. Naval Architecture, which is shortly to be interpreted, it implies nothing whatever in Mr.

Having had an opportunity of seeing the published by Mr. McKay.

McKay's favour. Does he wish us to think that comprises, first, å list (extracted from the

New years of age have never undergone such repairs ture," we had almost persuaded ourselves that On examining the paper we find that it the American ships averaging 38.5, 26, and 22 prospectus of Mr. McKay's contemplated work York Marine Register for 1859) of merchant as the Surveyor refers to ? Surely not. If

something of real value upon this subject was vessels built in America, and with American they have not, we should like to possess some

at last coming to us from America. But our timber

, that have been found in an efficient authentication of their alleged state of “ perfect expectations have been sadly stricken down sea-going state after more than twenty years of preservation” and efficiency.

during the last few days. Mr. McKay, like service, and are yet in actual service in 1859 The next and last division of Mr. McKay's every other American, is writing home elaborate This list gives 102 ships of an average age of printed paper consists of certain tables and descriptions of what he sees in this country, 24 years ; 40 barques of an average of 25) years; observations on the weight and strength of and some friend (or enemy) of his at home has 54 brigs of 25 years ; and 12 steamers averaging American ship-timber, which we reprint, for the published extracts from his letters in the 18! years. We think we need hardly say there sake of convenience, upon another page. The American Journal before referred to. In these is nothing extraordinary in this list. If Mr. frames of American ships of war are built of extracts we find things which greatly depress McKay will take the trouble to look through live oak,” their planking being of “white our estimate of Mr. McKay's professional Lloyd's list, and to count the number of oak;" and live oak and white oak take promi- ability. That he should tell his friends (as he English-timber-built ships therein of an age nent places in these tables and observations. does) that the clipper ship Lightning, designed exceeding 20 years (an operation which wo To tell the whole truth, we ought also to say and built by himself, “is this day considered have not leisure to amuse ourselves with) he that one part of Mr. McKay's business in this the swiftest sailing vessel under the British will find that his American list will stand no country appears (from what has passed between “flag,” is perfectly natural; it is equally sort of comparison with that for which Lloyd's him and some of our shipbuilders) to be to get natural that he should " have no hesitation in furnishes material. We have glanced cusually orders for American timber--white oak in par-"asserting that our (American) models for through Lloyd's list, with this question in view, ticular. He would have us believe, as the arti- "speed are very superior to any that I have yet and we predict that if Mr. McKay will do the cle on another page shows, that American white seen in the Royal dockyards” of England. same he will be not a little astonished. We oak is not only equal, but superior to English But in one part of his let er Mr. McKay exhave, we venture to say, many scores of vessels oak: “ the advan'age of lightness combined presses an opinion or two which certainly not only 24, bụt between 50 and 100 years of " with strength, is entirely on the side of should be noticed. During his visit to Liverage; indeed, there are several vessels in our American white oak." It is all very well for pool, he writes :-" The Donegal, of 101 guns,

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“is at anchor in the Mersey. She is of a very levers, wheels, and pullies, is in this way suffi- tainly below the actual force at which it could "full and clumsy model, and does not seem ciently under our control for their performance, be worked with the estimated quantity of coal capable of going more than four'knots with and this class of operations increases in extent consumed-11 lbs. of coal per hour for every

steam and sail combined. The man who de- and in importance with almost every permanent horse-power produced, which is the consumpsigned her appears to have derived his ideas improvement of the land, that is, with every- tion named for Fowler's engine, and the majo “ of naval architecture from a Dutch galliot. thing which tends to the uniformity of its con- rity did not consume more than six to eight “Her model is a disgrace to the Board of Addition. In the second class, as much force is pounds. “miralty that sanctioned it.” Now, we shall needed; but rocky subsoil, awkward hedge- Again, a horse at plough with an average write quite courteously when we say that these rows, crooked roads, and scattered produce, length of 120 yards of furrow, loses one-third remarks render it almost impossible for us to feel interfere with any possibility of uniform proce- of his time on the headland in the mere act of any further respect for Mr. McKay's professional dure. Some machinery more pliable than turning the plough. At the dung-cart not oneopinions. He goes to the Mersey and sees a cranks and rods is needed by which to carry third of his time is employed in the actual consplendid line-of-battle ship at anchor, and pre-out the purpose of the mind ; and here, there- veyance of the load. Indeed, this loss of time dicts a maximum speed of four knots under fore, it must work by means of the teachable is a necessary part of his employment, however steam and sail together ; whereas, on the 16th and powerful horse. This class of operations he may be engaged. He can pull 33,000 lbs. of July last this very ship, the Donegal, made diminishes in extent and importance with every one foot high in a minute, but he cannot keep at the measured mile at Plymouth, under steam permanent improvement of the soil

, that is, with that performance up for 10 hours at a time. alone, TWELVE knots within a fraction—11912 every removal of the obstacles referred to. In On six farms, the details of which Mr. Morton knots being the exact speed recorded! The the third class, the care and cultivation of indi- has so ascertained as that all the ploughing, fact is that this ship, which this guest of ours vidual life, vegetable and animal, are concerned: scarifying, harrowing, rolling, horse-hoeing. deems a disgrace to the Admiralty, is an ex- no great power is needed, but there is need for carting all the horse-labour, in fact, on each ceedingly good ship. In the Admiralty tables the constant and immediate exercise of the is converted into lbs. lifted so many feet per which we published in the spring we have the will, varying, it may be, at every successive minute throughout the working year, he finds particulars of two ships of the line, the Con- moment; and here, therefore, the human mind that the actual performance per hour through queror and the Marlborough, of the same can work only by its most perfect instrument the year is not 33,000 lbs. one foot high in a nominal and nearly the same indicated horse- —the human hand. It is plain that everything minute, but more nearly one-half that quantity, powers as the Donegal, and in respect of speed by which, on the one hand, land is brought to a varying from 14,000 lbs. in the lowest case to the Donegal is the best of the three, that of the uniform condition, and by which, on the other, 19,000 lbs. in the highest. No doubt, even in Conqueror being 10.853, that of the Marlbo- the quantity of its living produce is increased, the case of steam-power, there must be periods rougħ 11:06 on one occasion, and 11.866 will extend the first and last of these three of waste labour-ploughs must be turned upon on another, while her's was, as we have said, fields of agricultural operations, and will the headland even if it be done by steam-but 11:912. We will only add that the disgrace diminish the necessity of employing horses. these occasional periods of comparatively fruitattaches itself in this case, not to the British And this,” says Mr. Morton, “is no mere less work are, as he says, no necessary condition Admiralty, but to the American shipbuilder speculation ; it is the principal lesson of the of steam-power; it is better if maintained conwho

deliberately pen such trash "agricultural experience of the past few tinuously, and machinery will be invented to about us ; and we almost feel as if a years."

reduce this waste time to a minimum with a little of the discredit clung to us because of our condescending to refute the nonsense form a very extensive subject, and one upon

The forces used in agriculture, thus considered, positive advantage to the efficiency of the

engine. he has written.

which Mr. Morton has thrown much new light. Moreover, the relative cost of the two forces

In the first place, he makes a more particular is affected not only by the question of time THE FORCES USED IN AGRICULTURE. comparison of steam-power, horse-power, and during which each can be continuously main

hand-power for the cheap performance of mere tained, but also by the quality of the performWe are exceedingly proud of ourselves, we labour. In describing steam-engines the term ance of which each is capable

. In threshing, men. The spirit within us is very conscious “horse-power" is used as a unit of force, and uniformity of speed is a condition of good of itself, and not a little ambitious. Not Plato's is assumed to be equal to the pull or lift of work; it is more easily maintained by steamsense, not Bacon's wisdom, not Shakspere's 33,000 lbs. one foot per minute; and to this power than by horses. In ploughing, the avoidpoetry satisfies us. Genius may light the land, agricultural experience agrees, Mr. Morton ance of trampling and of pressure generally and cover the race with glory, but our concep: says, for a pair of horses will draw a plough is almost a condition of good work, and tion of what man might and ought to be is still along with an average pull of 300 lbs. at an it is more easily obtained by steam-drawn far from realisation. On the very mountain average rate of 2 miles per hour, or 220 feet machinery. tops of thought our cry still is-Excelsior ! per minute, and this is the same as if the We next come to the estimation of the cost Excelsior ! This is one way of looking at our- 300 lbs. were pulled over a pulley, or lifted of manual labour engaged in mere work-that selves. But there is another way of doing this that height in the time ; and 300 lbs. lifted is

, where the least degree of skill is called for. --a way equally true and just, but marvellously 220 feet per minute is just the same as From a series of statistical facts prepared by different

. Spiritually we are, for all practical 66,000 lbs. lifted 1 foot high per minute, which, him, Mr. Morton finds that the mere force of a purposes, unrivalled. 'No loftier beings, no

as the performance of a pair of horses, is exactly man, at a cost of say 3d. an hour, as equal to a brighter intelligences, meet us in the arena of the 33,000 lbs. each at which their force is lift (in four different instances) of 250, 330, life, and compete with us for gifts or blessings. valued by the engineer. But in a comparison 500, and 370 lbs. per minute ; the two former But, physically, how differently we are placed ! merely of the cost of horse-power in the animal being cases where the load has to be detached Here the dumb brute, the lifeless machine, not and in the engine the great superiority does not as well as lifted, and the third being performed only compete with, but beat us. As motive-appear which really belongs to the latter. In under the influence of good harvest fare ; and power machines especially, the beasts of the addition to this, the performance of which they he compares this with the duty of the steamfield outstrip us, and steam-engines, the are severally capable must be taken into account. engine-or 33,000 lbs. one foot high per minute works of our own hands, surpass us imineasur- An ordinary 10-horse power locomotive agri- for 3d. per hour, and also with the actual ably.

cultural engine will, according to the Chester average performance of the horse — 16,000 lbs. At the Society of Arts, a few evenings since, judges of the work done by Fowler's steam- lifted one foot per minute for 5d. an hour. In Mr. J. C. Morton instituted a very interesting plough there, cost in coals, oil, water and order, at the best rate named, to do the work inquiry into the relative values of men, horses, attendance, and wear and tear of implement and of the steam-engine, 66 men would be required and steam-engines as agricultural labourers, and engine (but excluding interest on capital at a cost not of 3d. but of more than 15s. per the parts which they are severally destined to employed), nearly 45s. a day, or about 4s. 6d. hour; and in order to do the work of the horse play in the fields and farms of the future. His an hour, which is 5 d. per hour for each nominal 32 men would be needed at a cost of 8s. instead paper is one of the most valuable contributions horse-power exerted; but as the real force of 5d. an hour. It is plain that if we can take to agricultural literature that the past twenty exerted is more often that of 20 horses in the much of the mere labour of the farm out of the years have produced, and well deserves the case of a 10-horse power engine, we must really hands of the labourer, and avail ourselves attention of scientific readers. Mr. Morton divide this by 2, and call steam-produced of steam-power for its performance, there is an first points out the fact that there are three horse-power worth 3d. per hour. The cost of enormous amount of saving to be made in the classes under which all the operations of the horse labour on 21 farms in different parts of cost of agricultural production. It is plain farm may be arranged, and they correspond this country, of which the particulars have been that it is but folly in the labourer to think exactly to the three forces which we have at given to Mr. Morton, was 5d. per horse for each that as regards the mere labour of the land he our command. In the first, where the greatest of the working hours of the year. Besides this, can compete with either steam-power or with uniformity obtains, the greatest power is needed; the estimated expense of Fowler's engine was horse-power. It is manifestly, therefore, in the and a purely mechanical force, acting through excessive, and the nominal power of it was cor- | cultivation not so much of mere strength of

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