« EelmineJätka »
body as of skill and intelligence, that the safety of benefiting the agricultural labourer, and not were sold last year, and the Cuthberts, of of the labourer lies.
of injuring him, as many predicted. The ex- Bedale, who have just begun the manufacture As the matter at prosent stands, then, and planation of this fact which Mr. Morton offers, of their equally clever machine, sold 100 before confining ourselves to that large and increasing and which seems to us to be the correct one, is last harvest, and could have sold four times as class of operations in which the power required this : that agriculture is more and more be many. In all, probably 4,000 reaping machines is great and the process almost uniform, and coming the work of intelligence and skill es were at work last harvest, capable of cutting looking only to the cost per unit of work done, well as power—those parts of its processes more in a day than 40,000 labouring men, and we have seen that steam-power stands decidedly where intelligence and skill are wanted, are yet there never was such a harvest as the last first in the race, horse-power is a tolerably good becoming a larger portion of the whole. Cul- for the difficulty of procuring harvest men, second, and the agricultural labourer is literally tivation is more perfectly performed, and over Yet, notwithstanding all this addition to the nowhere. There are, however, as Mr. Morton a greater extent of land—the crops cultivated forces and the machinery of agriculture, more points out, two considerations which greatly require more labour and are more productive labourers than ever are required, and as more affect the position of horse-power in this com -the stock consuming them is proportionally labourers are not forthcoming, wages rise, as petition, and place it much farther back than it larger and needs proportional attendance. But, Mr. Morton shows by an array of unquestionwould at present seem to be. They both affect whatever the explanation be, the fact is certain, able facts. its fitness for those acts of cultivation where it as he says, that the use of steam-power on a is plain that there is the greatest room for an farm is a part of that system which employs extended use of steam-power. We refer, first, most labourers in agriculture. Mr. William
THE CASE OF HENRY CORT, to the injury done to the land by the trampling Smith, of Woolston, who has an 8-horse engine of draught animals ; and, secondly, to that for 110 acres of arable land and 70 acres of HIS INVENTIONS IN THE MANUFACTURE irregularity of employment on the farm for pasture, and works this engine only 14 days a
OF BRITISH IRON. horses during the year, which in effect makes year in cultivation, and not more in threshing, you keep upon a large farm several horses all employs regularly throughout the year seven THOMAS WEBSTER, M,A., P.R.S., &c., Barrister-at-Law. the year round for the sake of their work during men and four boys, equal to nine men upon the a few weeks of spring and autumn. We have whole, or one to every 12 acres of arable land
“THE sanguine hopes” entertained by Mr. not space to enlarge upon these two considera- and eight of grass—more than any farmer in Dundas of Cort's inventions becoming productions, but the reader will see their very great “the neighbourhood employs.” His steam importance without difficulty. Suffice it to cultivation costs him on the average 10s. 10d. successful commencement, early in 1789, of the
tive were of course much heightened by the say, Mr. Morton after making careful calcula- annually per acre on his clays, and 8s. 3d. colossal forges and mills, which had been two tions estimates that by steam-power at least annually per acre on his lighter soil. It has three out of every seven horses on arable land displaced exactly 2-5ths of the former horse- Dowlais, &c., &c., under the superintendence
years in progress at Cyfartha, Penydarran, may be dispensed with all the year, at a cost power; and he says that 70 per cent of the and instruction
of Henry Cort and his workmen, not exceeding the cost of these horses during cost of engine work is manual labour and only and the letters written to Cort by Sir Jeremiah · the three or four months when alone they are really needed on the land. The first class of displaced only 20 per cent. is manual labour Homfray, a man of honour (the predecessor of operations then upon the farm, which includes and 80 per cent. is horse food. Mr. Morton ment of the Penydarran), in Feb., 1789, and the ploughing and turning of the soil
, will be accumulates a large mass of facts of a similar from Mr. Cockshutt, the resident and expetaken by steam-power out of the field of horse- tendency., “ Agriculture is, in fact, experiencing rienced managing partner at Cyfartha, describlabour, just as threshing, and cutting, and " the truth taught in the history of all other ing the very successful commencement of Cort'se grinding have been taken by it out of the field “ manufactures—that machinery is, in the long of hand-labour.
run, the best friend of the labourer. This had proceeded so well as to be able in the sum
process at all these works, and in which they To the second division of farm work Mr. "truth is taught even more impressively by a
er to take the Government contracts for iron, Morton refers but very briefly. It includes " review of agriculture generally, than it is by previously supplied from Corts works at Fontsuch cases of ploughing and cultivation as are “the case of any individual farm."
ley. Soon after (as ascertained by the Naval taken, by very rocky subsoil and very crooked The statistics which Mr. Morton has Commission), that is, on the 13th Aug., 1789, hedgerows, out of the scope of the steam- brought together to illustrate the extent to some proposals were made to Adam Jellicoe driven plough ; it also includes the lighter which agricultural machinery is coming into by the Treasurer and Paymaster respecting an class of horse-work, such as harrowing and use are most impressive. He has had returns extent upon Cort's premises for Jellicoe's dehorse-hoeing, which, however, might very well sent to him by all the leading manufacturers of fault. But however unfortunately Jellicoe may be done by steam; and it more especially in- steam-engines for agricultural purposes. Within have been led into appropriating public money, cludes the work of carriage, which, consider the past ten years upwards of 40,000 horse- under a system which appears from his melaning the scattered position of the produce to be power has been added to the forces used in choly letter, and from the general inquiries of the collected, and the crooked roads along which it agriculture in steam alone: Messrs. Clayton Commissioners, to have been at that time the must be drawn, he sees no probability, as long and Shuttleworth of Lincoln, Garrett of Sax “official routine,” yet he had the reputation of as these remain, of getting done except by mundham, Hornsby of Grantham, Ransome of being otherwise an honourable character. He horse-power and manual labour in the usual Ipswich, and Tuxford of Boston, alone are appears, therefore, to have felt deeply any proway. Mr. Halkett does, indeed, propose to furnishing 10,000 horse-power annually to the posal to ruin Henry Cort
, whom he had deremove these obstacles, and is therefore able to farmer. Messrs. Tuxford-among the first to ceived in common with others, who believed accomplish all by steam, although at what cost start the locomotive agricultural steam-engine- him to have large private property, out of which we at present know not.
informed him that for the earliest suggestion of he was supposed to be finding money for the The third class of operations includes the it they are indebted to Mr. John Morton, of iron-works as a provision for his son. And it lighter work, requiring skill and thought as Gloucestershire, then agent to the late Earl of is very doubtful if Mr. Dundas could or would well as labour.
The planting of a seed equi- Ducie, who twenty years ago recommended them have dared to proceed to extreme measures distantly within the land may be done by to put these little engines upon wheels, thus fore- while Adam Jellicoe lived. It was ascertained machinery, but the culture of the young plant, seeing the fitness of these powers made loco- by the Commissioners that when Mr. Dundas much of the hoeing of the land immediately motive to the circumstances of English agri- required money he procured Mr. Jellicoe to around it, and its treatment during growth ac- culture. Messrs. Ransome, of Ipswich, were draw cheques as if for naval service, and approcording to its condition, must be left to the the earliest to receive the commendations and priated the proceeds to his private purposes. haud. When ripe it may be harvested by the prizes of the Agricultural Society of Eng- Two of these cheques were identified, one for horse-drawn implements; our corn crops are land for their engines, and now the leading £10,000 in 1782, during the first Treasurership reaped, our potatoes may be dug, and roots are manufacturers of them, Messrs. Clayton, of of Mr. Dundas, and a second for £20,000 in cut from the ground by horse-drawn machines Lincoln, send out 10 of them each week, or 4,000 1785, during his next term of office. It is a -they must, however, be gathered into bundles horse-power per annum. Of reapers, again, since singular coincidence, and it may be nothing or heaps, and ultimately removed by the help 1831, Burgess and Key have sold upwards of more, that these two sums so nearly approach of manual labour. When stored they are 1,900 of their improved M'Cornick's reaper, of and cover the sum of £27,500, sworn to as the threshed, and ground, and cut, and steamed by which 771 were sold last year; and they now hold default of Jellicoe, for which ́ Cort was made steam-driven engines, but they must be ad-four times as many. orders as they did twelve answerable ; but nothing is more possible than ministered as food by manual labour.
months ago. Crosskill's have sold 500 of Bell's that the advances to Cort were made by the There is one happy fact which Mr. Morton, reaper, and 800 of Hussey's ; Messrs. Dray principals of the office, who so well knew the by facts and figures, places altogether beyond have sold 800 of their improved Hussey's value of the patents. However this may be, it doubt, viz., the introduction of steam-machinery reaper; Messrs. Garrett have sold 600, of is clear that Jellicoe could not easily have for agricultural purposes, which has had the effect Hussey's ; 250 of Wood's clever little reaper | escaped ruin by recrimination. Mr. Dundas
was in a position to have effectually stifled the and I have it in charge from them to acquaint | countenance which you, Sir, may have the recriminations of a defaulting subordinate ; and you that your invention appears of that utility goodness to show him at our instance. it appears he continued to press upon Jellicoe as to induce them to give encouragement to “We have the honour to be, &c., &c., the necessity of making good his deficiency, for the manufacture of British iron, performed Sam. THORNTON, M.P.) Russian on the 29th of August, sixteen days after the according to the methods that have been prac- Robr. THORNTON, M.P. | Merchants. first proposal of an extent, an accountant was tised by you.
JOHN HUNTER, M.P. called in, and a schedule of Adam Jellicoe's
“I am, Sir,
Alderman L. MESURIER, M.P. effects drawn by him was found by the Com- “ Your most humble servant,
Alderman CURTIS, M.P. missioners, estimating the whole, including
“Jno. Morrison, Secretary.
Sir GEORGE JACKSON, Bart., M.P. Cort's property, at £89,657. It should be par- “Mr. Cort, Devonshire-street, Queen’s-square." BROOK WATSON, M.P. ticularly noticed that the patent contracts, which were considered to be of such value as This condescending testimonial to a value
FRANCIS ANNESLEY, M.P.
GEORGE SMITH, M.P. states, the diversion of nearly £30,000 of public Cort's object was of course to call attention to to induce Mr. Dundas to countenance, as he that was undeniable is, indeed, a singular piece
ROBERT SMITH, M.P. of cold-hearted equivocation and mockery: Mr.
Sir WATKIN LEWIS. money upon " sanguine hopes” of their produc; his own claims. The Secretary reminds him
WILLIAM CHUTE. tiveness, and for securing which he anticipated that the methods which have been prac
J. J. ANGERSTEIN. a parliamentary reward, are set down at £100 tised by him and others are now to be en
J. EWER. only; so that the value of Jellicoe's estate was couraged.
J. & W. WILSON & Son." not swelled by any sanguine estimate on this head. The day after this schedule was made,
(Mr. Brook Watson undertook to deliver this
The ordinary device of setting up of the rival letter to Mr. Pitt.) Adam Jellicoe died by his own hand-a very the course intended to be pursued. The real nominally £200 a-year, actual receipts about claims of others was a sufficient indication of
This appeal obtained Mr. Cort a pension of singular circumstance, when coupled with his references to sudden death in the melancholy point is evaded, and Mr. Cort is left to the £150. It would have been more to the honour memorandum already stated. It is clear he hopeless task of fighting with interested officials of the Minister to have restored to their owner would not countenance, and he could not live backed by a public purse
, and in possession of his patents, then producing £25,000 a-year, in the disgrace of witnessing, the execution
of the patents, the only title by which he could than to tax'the public purse even to the extent the nefarious designs of his superiors against enforce his legal rights.
of this paltry pension. The impenetrable myshis confiding and deceived friend. Mr. Trotter In 1794, after three years more of such cruel teries of office were not pierced by Mr. Henry lost no time in a prolonged mourning for the and, under all the circumstances, infamous neg- Cort ; he was ruined, but does not appear to decease of his senior, under whom, before 1782, lect, the following appeal was addressed to the have known why. The transactions of Messrs. he commenced his official career as a clerk at Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Wm. Dundas and Trotter were very secret ; sixteen £50 a year, thence promoted by Mr. Dundas to Pitt :
years afterwards they burst like a thunder-clap be his useful Paymaster, over the head of an “Sir,- We take the liberty respectfully to on the public ear. Their contract with certain officer who had risen through forty-two years of state to you the unfortunate case of Mr. Henry men to annul the patent claims had been snugly service, and had been Deputy-Paymaster since Cort, late of Gosport, at which place he had, made, and the quid pro quo received, and the 1777. On the 1st of Sept., only three days some time ago, iron contracts under Govern- whole affair managed so cautiously, that the after the sad event, he performed the necessary ment, and among the rest a contract for making fact of H. Cort's ruin having been a great State
swearing at a convenient distance from London, malleable iron with raw pit-coal only, and secret has only recently been disclosed. A . adding, to make the document complete, that manufacturing the same by means of grooved pension during pleasure was the best step to
Henry Cort—who was executing a contract with rollers by a process of his own invention ; we hinder disagreeable inquiries into the title of the Navy Board, from which the oath pro- are sorry to add that, through the very great the son of a defaulter to all his possessions in ceeded, for 450 tons of iron, value at the foreign expenses necessarily attending the prosecution Hampshire. In 1800 Cort, after witnessing the price over £15,000, and upon which for what of these important instruments, this gentleman expiration of his second patent for rolling, died had been executed' he held more than £4,000 failed, when on the very eve of reaping the a memorable victim to official delinquency. of Navy Bills ; and who in addition, as was harvest of his patents, which were taken pos- £125 was then extended to his widow, net equally well known to Mr. Trotter, had patent session of under extents from the Crown. receipt £100, as stated in the petition to the dues of £15,000 per annum coming in to him, “We have therefore been induced, not only iron trade. On her decease in 1816 pensions without the least difficulty or dispute,"is, as from compassion, but from the good opinion we of £25 6s. each were granted to two unmarried he verily believes, much decayed in his credit, entertain of him, and from the great national daughters, subject to deduction, the amount of and in very embarrassed circumstances." benefits which now actually result from these which is estimated at not less than £500.
The premises at Fontley, Fareham, and Gos- his discoveries and improvements, to join with The journals of the House of Commons report, stock-in-trude, good-will
, &c., many others in a subscription to afford some cord the following remarkable facts in connec&c., were valued at £39,452, and Samuel temporary relief to him and his destitute family, tion with the foregoingJellicoe was put into possession of them by consisting of his wife and twelve children,
“House of Commons, Mr. Trotter. In 1800, when this method of (nine of whom are wholly unprovided for, only Impeachment of Henry Viscount Melville, realizing public property for eleven years had one able to maintain himself). This, however,
1805, left, as Lord Melville states in his memorial
, cannot possibly produce any other effect than Present, 433 Members, including the Speaker ; £24,846 of Samuel's father's default unliqui- merely to supply his present urgent necessities,
217 for Impeachment, dated, out of effects valued at £89,657, the without rescuing him from that state of poverty 216 for Criminal Prosecution. Treasurer's own default on quitting office that and ruin to which we are very sorry to find his
Extract from 6th Article. year, as nearly as could be estimated in 1803 meritorious exertions have reduced him; a Burning of Books and Papers. by the Commissioners in the absence of docu- circumstance which will appear the more un
“That during the time the said Alexander ments, exceeded £193,000 ; and during the fortunate, when it is considered that the same Trotter held and enjoyed the said office of whole term of office he had retained yearly pursuits have been attended with the greatest Paymaster to the said Henry Lord Viscount balances of public money averaging £600,000 success and profit to others, who, availing Melville as aforesaid, and whilst the said for his private emolument.
themselves of his experience, have enjoyed all Henry Lord Viscount Melville held and It may even yet come to light how much he the advantages without encountering the labour enjoyed the said office as Treasurer of the Navy received as the price of not enforcing the patent
and difficulties ever inseparable from the first as aforesaid, he the said Alexander Trotter contracts against the ironmasters. These practice of any new process.
kept with the said Henry Lord Viscount Melpatents and contracts disappeared, and have
“From these considerations we beg leave, Sir, ville an account current entered in certain not yet been found. Where are they?.
to recommend Mr. Cort to your notice in the books of account, containing entries of all the A return from the Navy Office of all iron strongest manner we are able, as deserving of sums paid and received by the said Alexander supplied for naval service, and by whom, from be thought most expedient, either by an ap- Viscount Melville : and by agreement between
such encouragement from Government as may Trotter in the account of the said Henry Lord the first to benefit by the ruin of Henry pointment in some situation in one of His the said Henry Lord Viscount Melville and the Cort.
Majesty's Dockyards, the Customs, Excise, or said Alexander Trotter, bearing date the 18th In July, 1791, the following reply was re- and industry may prove useful to the public they had either mutually delivered up to each
any other office or place in which his talents and 23rd February, 1803, it is stated that ceived from the Navy Board to a letter and himself. In any of which departments we other, or resolved and agreed mutually to canaddressed to it by Henry Cort :
will confidently engage that Mr. Cort's abilities celor destroy, all the vouchers or other “Sir,—The Commissioners of the Navy and conduct will be such as by no means to memorandums and writings that any time have received your letter of the 4th instant, discredit our recommendation, or any other theretofore might have existed, passed, or been
interchanged between them relative to the said | THE SMITHFIELD CLUB IMPLEMENT | tines of these implements not travelling in parallel accounts, and the different items and articles
lines, but forming curves crossing one another, of which the said accounts were composed or
makes these machines more effectual than the constituted, and the said books of account con- noticing in detail the exhibition of implements in made, but the arrangement is very ingenious and GREAT pressure upon our space has prevented our
common harrow. Few trials have as yet been taining the said account current, together with the Smithfield Club Show until the issue of our deserves fair testing. We next notice a new root all vouchers, with other memorandums and present number, in which we shall endeavour pulper patented by Mr. Lambert and manufacwritings in possession of the said Alexander to give a short but accurate statement of what tured by the Trustees of Mr. Crosskill, of Beverley, Trotter, and also of the said Henry Lord few novelties presented themselves to us while These inachines are made for hand and power, and Viscount Melville, relative thereto, were burnt examining this important although subsidiary consist of a cast iron cone, into which hooked or destroyed by the said Henry Lord Viscount portion of the long-looked for Christmas gather knives are fitted which work against a ribbed Melville and Alexander Trotter ; and the said ing together of cattle and implements, showing fence. They are certainly very simple, and are stipulations contained in the said agreement for the progress of the preceding six months. In said to pulp faster than any other machines, but the said Henry Lord Viscount Melville mutu- drawing attention, however, to what may be this we cannot vouch for, and indeed we think it ally delivering up to each other, or for mutually termed the novelties of the show, we labour under very unlikely to be the case. Messrs Goss and concealing and destroying, all the said vouchers disadvantages unknown to those writing for the Peene's improved root grater also deserves special or other memorandums
or writings relative to information or amusement of the general public, notice, although it has been out for, we believe, the said accounts was so entered into, and the inasinuch as we unfortunately know that the nearly three years
, though never exhibited at the said books and accounts, vouchers, and greater part, if not the whole, of these “ novel shows. It consists of a cast metal ring (which memorandums, and writings were so burnt the show itself, and to some portion of those who it with cutters formed therein in the usual way of
ties” are no novelties at all, except in respect to acts as a fly-wheel) having a flat plate attached to and destroyed, with a view to conceal and pre- visit it; the generality of the schemes having, in this class of machine. It is very cheap and appears vent the discovery of the several advances of all probability, been before both us and our readers, to be very effective. Romaine's patent portable money made by the said Alexander Trotter to at least upon paper, perhaps, for many months, railway, a model of which was exhibited, although the said Henry Lord Viscount Melville, and of and in some cases for years. Notwithstanding not new, having been shown at Warwick, yet the several accounts and considerations for or this, however, the appearance of an implement at deserves a passing remark. In this apparatus each upon which the sums were advanced.”
the Smithfield Club Show is interesting even to bearing wheel is made double, the two halves The facts as stated in the above article were those who knew of its previous existence, for it being fixed a few inches apart and having separate not disputed, but the conduct of Henry Lord may be pretty generally assumed that it has, systems of shoes, as in Boydell's plan, but so Viscount Melville was declared by a majority prior to its exhibition, known the test of ex- arranged as that the centre of each shoe in one of 88 over 47 Peers (the impeached command-perience to some extent at least, and has become system should bear the weight when the ends of ing
as it was supposed 40 proxies) not to be “al one of the wants of the agriculturist. It is not the shoes on the second system are in use. This high crime and misdemeanour."' The acts of easy at any time to invent an entirely new ma
prevents the ends getting embedded in the ground, the accessories to the transactions were declared chine, or even to invent one which shall perform and increases the bearing surface. Hornsby's
a similar operation to those already in use in an patent plough also claims our attention here, tencies and forgetfulness occurred in the evi- entirely new ways this latter is, however, very although brought out at the Warwick meeting. dence of implicated parties.* The solicitor former, although the utility of any great variety breast, attached to the slide or sole plate, instead employed to issue the extent stated, that he of machines for doing the same thing is somewhat of to the frame as usual. By this mode of con. did not consider it his duty to see that the questionable. At least it is quite certain that if struction the heavy handles and frame are solid annual payments from Cort's estate in the pos- three-fourths of the manufacturers of the almost pieces of wrought iron, very light and very strong. session of his late partner Samuel Jellicoe were endless varieties of root pulpers and chaff cutters The draught of these implements appears very regularly discharged, conceiving that duty to of the present day were to receive forthwith a light, and seems to bave astonished those who have rest with Mr. Trotter, who also excused hiinself friendly " advertisement” or recommendation to witnessed them in operation. on the plea of ignorance from all knowledge of desist from making their specialities, British Mulgrave Brothers, of Belfast, were new exthe matters as to which he was interrogated. agriculture would not be in quite a hopeless con- hibitors in London, and showed an excellent
Thus was Cort deprived of all his property; dition. Indeed, we feel sure that farmers in that assortment of railings, grates, stable fittings, wireno one took any part in the matter, or could case would save a vast deal of time now very work, standards for corn, rick stands, &c., all of recollect what part they had taken or permitted unprofitably spent in ruminating upon what par. which appeared of the best workmanship, and to be taken ; no one knew what had become of ticular machine to buy. Besides the variety of very moderate in price. Edward Palmer and Son, patents under which property to the amount of machines for performing the same operation, there of Thetford, exhibited a new chaff engine in £200,000 might have been realized. Lord
are also a great variety for differently treating which the cutting blades, instead of being curved
the saine substance. "Take, for example, that and attached to the arms of the fly wheel, are Melville, after having enjoyed possession for favourite root the "sweed.” Into what forms has made quite straight, and attached to the fly-wheel eleven years of freeholds and patents of ten it not been cut, torn, or ground? One machine shaft. These blades as they rotate pass a fixed times the value of the alleged default, obtains slices it like pancakes, another cuts it into long cutter placed at the end of the feeding trough, a further grant of £24,846 of public money square bars or fingers, a third makes it into and so cut the hay like a pair of shears; the reafter the death of Henry Cort, being discharged verita pills, and a fourth reduces it into shav- volving blades being fixed at an angle, the of this sum as the balance of the debt remaining ings. Whether or not all these forms are absoo cutting commences at the lower ends, and produe to the Crown by Cort and Jellicoe. The lutely necessary, in order to suit the more than gresses, as it were, along the edges. A machine evidence of Samuel Jellicoe in 1803 is as follows: epicurean tastes of fastidious swine, we cannot with three knives, 15 inches long, has cut a
"An extent was issued against the firm of venture to say, but their production is sufficient truss of hay in less than two-and-a-half-minutes. Henry Cort and Samuel Jellicoe. Upon my evidence of the difficulty of anything new being Hancock's washing machine is comparatively a being put solely in possession of the trade and done in turnip cutting. It may be that the diffi- new machine,
and consists of a case containing effects, I engaged to pay all the debts of the culty of getting even pigs (whilst undergoing the rollers carrying
an endless band, upon which the firm, which I have done." If this be true, and finishing process for the Show) to eat at all when clothes are laid, and upon which latter rest loose no doubt it is, the trade being very lucrative, the idea that in the event of a homely slice of both vertically or horizontally, so as to allow the
so required, has been so great as to have suggested wooden rollers or discs, which are free to move why were Cort's patents retained and withheld turnip being refused, the offer of a delicate finger clothes to pass under them. The only other by the Treasurer from their rightful owner ? would be more acceptable; or failing this, a still matters we The alleged default had been repaid twice over, more delicate pill or shaving would be irresistible. machine of H. Clayton and Co., and the model
can notice are the brick-making once out of Cort's estate, and again to the If this be so, these varieties of forms are doubtless of Fowler's steam-ploughing apparatus.
The amount of £24,846 out of the public taxes. highly scientific, though after all only suggestive former, however, having been fully described in The only actual result of this impeachment of still greater refinements for the saving of un
our pages a fortnight since, and Mr. Fowler's was, as usual, the punishment of the minor necessary labour in the way of mastication. A system some months ago, we need not now recaoffender, Mr. Trotter being dismissed his office. machine could be devised for removing the sharp pitulate what we have already said. Mr. Fowler
Well 'might Mr. Fox, in his speech on the angles from the fingers before-alluded to, or one is making good progress, as he deserves to do, in 10th of April, 1805, remark, "The House may for fairly smashing turnips combined with a force steam-ploughing, and publishes, with his present depend upon it the question will be a subject pump might find favour, and would constitute the catalogue of prices, a very imposing list of testiof consideration out of doors for a long period, multum in parvo of pig-filling machines.
monials of the advantages of using steam in and be agitated over and over again.”
The greatest novelty of the show was perhaps place of horse-power, and the saving effected The present Marquis of Landsdowne, then Marriott's Canadian revolving harrow, manufac- thereby. Lord Henry Petty, was eloquent on the stigma tured by Samuelson, of Banbury. This iinple With regard to the future site of the show, it affixed by these acts to the British Peerage.
ment consists of two or more separate systems of appears that for the next two years little, if any,
horizontal rings which continually revolve as they change can be made from the existing arrange. * See Report of Select Committee on the 10th Navid are drawn over the ground, thus relieving them- ments, but the committee are now earnestly at Sec Journal and Debates of House of Commons and selves from weeds, &c., and so lessening the work seeking a fitting place to hold the Christmas Lords.-Session 1805.
power required to work them; the paths of the shows, where ample space may be had for both
WEIGHT OF A CUBIC FOOT OF
cattle and implements. The corporation of the City of London would doubtless like the shows to
CAPTAIN TOOVEY'S AZIMUTH DIAL. be held in Smithfield itself; others, again, would locate them at Islington; some at the Crystal Palace, and some at Kensington. The general impression seems to be in favour of a movement westward, but we fear' many objections will be made to the desecration of Kensington. How far ample space, good air and light, and, moreover, aristocratic “surroundings” might tend to im. prove the cattle show, we do not know, but
17777 unless about nine-tenths of the dirt and confusion at present experienced could be prevented, Kensington will be up in arms at the thought of bringing the Christmas shows there. There can be little doubt, however, that room exists for a suitable building which might answer for all sorts of flower, fruit, and poultry shows, as well as for a winter garden and the cattle shows, and no place seems better than Kensington for most, if not for all, of these purposes. With care and good management we think a cattle show would be endurable at Kensington, but care and good management would be absolutely necessary in order to make it so, and it will be well worth the committee's while, should they think of this site, to lay down their plans somewhat in detail in order to avoid needless opposition. The same building might also serve the purpose of the proposed exhibition of 1862, and any that may succeed it. It might also form an admirable place for rifle practice, and the annual gatherings contemplated by the Association for Promoting Rifle Corps, at CAPTAIN SMALLMAN Toover, of the mercantile the compass in the binnacle differs from the read. which the promoters appear to hope as inuch as
marine—a gentleman who has had considerable ing on the outer disc, the difference is the devja. £10,000 a-year will be distributed in prizes.
experience in charge of iron ships, and well under tion of the compass on that point. In the same stands the necessity of testing the compasses of manner the error of the compass may be deter.
such vessels with all possible frequency and care- mined for any number of points. It can also be ON THE WEIGHT AND STRENGTH OF has introduced a valuable instrument for facilitat- used to determine the error of the compass from AMERICAN SHIP-TIMBER.
ing this operation. The accompanying engraving the bearing of any distant object the correct By Donald McKAY, Ship-builder, of Boston, U.S. represents the improved instrument, which has position of which is known.
already been employed on several voyages with
POOLE'S PARALLEL-MOTION SAFETY
high-priced forms, in order that no captain may AFTER the meeting of the Institution of Civil
have difficulty in obtaining it. The origin and Engineers, Nov., 22, Mr. John Poole exhibited After felling...
nature of the instrument are as follows:-It and explained a Parallel-Motion Safety Valve." 1 Year after... 53.51 39.83
occurred to Captain Toovey that it would be more It was pointed out that the ordinary valve 4 Years after
convenient, when determining the error of the simply rested on its face or seat; its vertical or Each of the above numbers are the mean of experi- compass by the use of the dumb.card, if both the upward motion being guided by a spindle on the ments on twelve different pieces of timber cut from amount of error and its direction, i. é. the course lower side passing through a box or feathers in different trees, and the experiments were made by by ship’s head and the true course, were shown the steam pipe. The area of the discharge pipe Mr. Farris, Timber Inspector of Gosport Navy-yard. on the same card: he was thus led to adopt a was thus reduced one-third, and in some cases as
modification of the dumb-card, which he calls the much as one-half. This valve was pressed upon WEIGHT OF A CUBIC FOOT OP LIVE OAK, ACCORDING
Azimuth Dial. The instrument consists of a by a weighted lever, moving on a hinge or centre TO GRIFFITI. Green............ 78.69 lbs. | Seasoned......... 66.75 lbs.
double disc of metal (sometimes silvered), swing on one side. When in a state of rest, the lever This timber is exclusively used for the frames of the ing freely on a tripod, and is of sufficient weight and the centre of the spindle were at right United States' men-of-war ships, and is considered by of the ship. The outer rim of the disc is graduated rose the angle became more acute. This
brought to be always horizontal, whatever may be the list angles to each other; but as soon as the valve all nayal men to be almost imperishable.
to the points (or degrees) of the compass, and TENSILE STRENGTH OF AMERICAN WHITE OAK AND turning on the same
centre is a second disc tion, inducing a tendency in the spindle to twist ENGLISH OAK PER ONE SQUARE INCH.
similarly graduated. There is a small pointer for and on the valve to jam or stick. The guide (From “ Appleton's Dictionary of Mechanics.")
indicating the direction of the ship’s head : and it spindle, being below the valve face, was also English Oak
8820 to 10,224
is also fitted with a style for obtaining the sun's liable to be corroded by foul or dirty water, and 11,501
shadow, but this can be removed, and the ordinary to unequal contraction and expansion. It was
telescope and sight-vane applied in the usual mode likewise found that these valves, when out of (PER ONE SQUARE INCH) OF ENGLISH OAK AND
of taking an azimuth of an object. The instru- order, invariably leaked on the side nearest the
ment is used thus :-By the use of Godfray's time hinge of the lever. (According to Various Observers.)
azimuth chart, the true bearing of a celestial In the “Parallel-Motion Safety Valve” the Extracted from a Table published in Vol. V. of the object can be determined at any moment, when its spindle was on the upper side, the seat or face Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers.
meridian distance is more than two hours and less was flat, and the discharge pipe was free of intethan six hours. Thus, within those intervals, the rior incumbrances, so that less leverage and
points of the true horizon are known for any given weight were necessary. The spindle passed English Oak.
Live Oak. instant. Having placed the azimuth dial in a through a guide above, and to the centre of the Observer. Sp.gr. Strgh. Sp.gr. strgh Sp.gr. strgh. convenient part of the ship for making an obser- spindle, on which the valve was hinged, the paral.
yation, fix the instrument so that the pointer may lel motion was attached. It was shown, by a secLieut Nelson ......
be on the line of the keel and towards the ship's tional model, that the radial action of the lever
head ; set the inner and outer graduated disc so did not control the vertical action of the valve, Mr. Barlow
that their difference may show the amount of which therefore could not stick or jam in its seat. Lieut. Dennison..
variation as known at the place, such that the Mean results ... inner disc may indicate the true and the
LIST OF NEW BOOKS. outer disc the magnetic horizon, then turn Bohn's Scientific Library, Morphy's Games of Chess, According to these experiments, the advantage of the dial on its axis until the shadow from Comstock's Manual of Natural Philosophy, edited by Hoblightness, combined with strength, is entirely on the the style on the inner disc coincides with the
lyn, new edit , 5s. side of American White Oak.
Dougall's The Rifle Simplified, ls. sun's true bearing at the time as given by God- Hunt's Yachting Magazine, Vol. 8, 14s. • The Virginia Pitch Pine is called in America “ Yellow fray's chart; the pointer will then
also show the Lund's Geometrical Exercises, with Solutions, 3s. 6d. Pine." The Florida Yellow Pine is called the • Long-leaf magnetic position of the ship's head on the outer Lunn's, of Motion : an Elementary Treatise, 75. 6d. Yellow Pine," and weighs about 41 lbs. per cubic foot. graduated disc and the true on the inner disc. If | Progressive Drawing Book, 2 Parts, 15.
lbs. 64.74 53.60 45.97
lbs. 39.21 34:16
American White Oak
SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND
SOCIETY OF ARTS.
mous price of provisions, there would be abundant could navigate all the rivers, thus affording access Proceedings of Societies.
work for those who were quitting the country. to the aurifergus regions. He was glad to see Dry diggings have yet to be found, which would young officers of the Navy employed in examining
be done when men possessed energy enough to those distant regions of the British Empire. December 7th, 1859.—The fourth ordinary prospect the country. But while provisions held meeting of this session was held, J. Bennet Lawes, such an enormous price, there could be no hope MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. Esq, F.R S., in the chair. Several candidates were that any active exertions could be made. The
London Inst., “ On the Radiation and Absorption balloted for and duly elected members. The paper Chief Justice Begbie, in his communication, ob
of Heat," by Prof. John Tyndall, F.R.S., at 7 p.m. read was “On the Forces used in Agriculture,” by serves that two chiefs, said to be of extensive Wed.—Society of Arts, “On Starches; the Purposes for J. C. Morton, a lengthy notice of which appears authority, paid him a visit while at Cayoosh, and which they are Employed, and the Improvements on another page. complained of the conduct of the citizens of the
in their Manufacture," by Mr. F. Crace Calvert,
F.R.S., at 8 p.m.
London Inst., Soiree.
TILLING AND COOKING APPARATUSES. Captain G. Augustus Bedford. R.N., Rear-Admiral could by possibility be eaten. The cattle which DISTILLING and cooking apparatuses for use on Sir H. Byam Martin, K.C.B., Henry Ancell the Indians stole they did not attempt to sell or board ship are now so universally in request that Edward Butler, Edmund Calvert, William C. Hood, make use of otherwise than as food, and it was their manufaeture has become a matter of much M.D., Henry Raikes, M.A., Elward Smith, W. admitted on all hands that many hundreds of importance to shipowners. We are anxious, thereCastle Smith, Richard Todd, and James Watson, Indians had died of absolute starvation during fore, to place before our readers a set of apparaEsquires, were elected Fellows, Sir Andrew the winter. The Indians said that the salmon had tuses recently devised by Mr. Graveley, of the Agnew, Bart. , M.P., Captain Claude Clerk, the failed them now for three years together. The well-known firm of Winchester and Co.
, Upper Ilon. W. H. Forester Denison, Captain J. Hamilton whites alleged what was obvious to every body - East Smithfield, manufacturers of ship fire-hearths, Ward, R.N., Edward Enfield, H. Hamilton that the Indians were extremely averse to work, &c., for the marine of this and other countries. Lindsay, Charles Otter, and J. Petherick, Vice except under the pressure of immediate hunger, Mr. Graveley and the firm mentioned have had the Consul at Khartum, Esquires, were proposed as and that they were so improvident as rarely to advantage of very great experience in connection candidates for election. The MS. trigonometrical look beyond the wants of the day, or to provide with this subject, and have introduced apparatuses survey of Kashmir, by Captain T. G. Montgomerie, for the winter. The Chief Justice expresses an for distilling and cooking which certainly are not F R.G.S., under the direction of Lieutenant- opinion that this was more true of the savages surpassed, to say the least, by any others. Those Colonel A. Scott Waugh, F.R G.S., Surveyors who had never been brought into contact with supplied by them for the Great Eastern, the General of India; sketches illustrative of Hima- civilisation than of those who had had even such General Admiral (Russian frigate), and other imlayan scenery, by Captain Austen and Mr. Purdon ;
a little acquaintance with the whites. He found portant vessels, many of thein men-of-war, are Numerous sketches of scenery in British Columbia, almost everywhere Indians willing to labour hard among the best examples of this class of articles including San Juan Island, &c., by Mr. Bedwell, for hire, and bargaining acutely for wages, and to be found on shipboard. R.N.; á map of the Fraser River, by Captain G. H. perfectly acquainted with gold dust and the
Their latest improvements, which we now proRichard, R.N., F.R.G.S., Her Majesty's Ship Plum. minute weighis for measuring one and two dollars pose to illustrate and describe, have done a very per ; a plan of the Tien-tsin-lio, showing the Chinese with. These circumstances were inconsistent great deal towards perfecting apparatuses for defences, by Major Fisher, R.E.; and a model of with an utter heedlessness for next day's provi. distilling and cooking on board ship, leaving little the largest gold nugget hitherto found, from sions; for in all cases it was necessary to find to be desired in respect of either efficiency, Ballarat, by Professor Tennant, F.R.G.S., were
these Indians in provisions as well as wages. The economy, or compactness. The first apparatus exhibited to the meeting.
amount of wages for carrying burdens was 8s. per which we shall describe consists of a furnace with The papers read were :
day, and provisions everywhere showed a high the ordinary appliances for cooking, roasting, and 1. On the trigonometrical survey and physical rate of profit as the wages of labour in British baking, and of one or two steam boilers arranged configuration of the valley of Kashmir, by Mr. Columbia. If this was the average remuneration and acting ás hereafter described. The same fuel William Purdon, F.R.G.S., executive engineer, of the most unskilled labour, what would not and furnace perform all the operations. One boiler Punjab ; communicated by Sir Charles Wood, skilled labour supported by capital earn ? It was is similar to an ordinary tubular boiler ; the patenF.R.G.S., India Office.
the uniform practice of those keepers to entrust tee divides the steam chest or dome into two comPrior to commencing the above paper, the these Indians with their goods, generally 100 lbs.partments by a partially perforated plate to preChairman. read a letter from Lord Canning, et of flour, beans, or pork, and provisions for their vent any undue pressure of steam coming too sud. pressing his approbation of the map of Kashmir, own subsistence. Thefts were said to be unknown, denly in contact with the steam-pipe leading from and alluding to the peculiar difficulties against and great care taken of their burdens. The in- the dome. Inside the lower compartment he which the officers of the survey had to contend, dividuals who worked were found extremely places a small dome perforated to a given height not only from the nature of the country itself but fleshy and healthy. His impression of the Indian up the sides. Inside this small dome is a globular from the disposition of the inhabitants who were population was, that they had far more natural | valve provided with a proper seating, into which at that time strongly opposed to the British rule, intelligence, honesty, and good manners than the seating a pipe opens. This pipe is intended to: and the men employed under the engineer officers lowest classes, such as the agricultural and min- carry off any salt water that may arise with the were sepoys belonging to one of the regiments that ing population, of any European country he had steam; the globular valve is enclosed to ensure its had been first to revolt. Owing, however, to the ever visited, England included. At Cayoosh he not being held down on its seat by the pressure of skilful management and courageous conduct of tried to cause a grand jury to be summoned to the steam in the chest. Captain Montgomerie, the men had been retained present all these matters formally to him. But He encases the above-named steam-boiler in in obedience and confirmed in their loyalty. The there were not twelve British subjects there. The an air tube to prevent loss of heat by radiation, map which was the result of the survey was Chief Justice says the chief points which struck and outside of the air tube is fixed another boiler exhibited, and appeared to illustrate the descrip- him were, first, the ready submission of a foreign containing a quantity of tubes in connection with tion of the valley of Kashmir given Mr. Purdon's population to the declaration of the will of the steam-pipes from the chest of the internal boiler paper. The paper gave rise to a discussion, in executive, when expressed clearly and discreetly, for the purpose of boiling sea water. Atmos. which Colonel Everest, the former Surveyor. however contrary to their wishes; secondly, the pheric air is admitted to aërate and mix with the General of India, Captain Austen, of the Staff of great preponderance of the California, or Califor- steam from the first steam-chest after the same the Great Trigonometrical Survey, and others, nicised element of the population, and the paucity has entered the tubes in the second boiler, and took part.
of British subjects; thirdly, the great riches, both force or drive in the air by a jet of steain. On the 2. British Columbia. Journeys in the Districts aurifercus and agricultural, of the country ; second boiler is another steam chest or dome bordering on the Fraser, Thompson, and Ilarrison fourthly, the great want of some fixity of tenure divided into two compartinents and fitted with a Rivers. By Lieutenants Mayne, R.N., and Palmer, for agricultural purposes; and, fifthly, the absence globular valve as in the dome first mentioned. A R.E., and Chief Justice M. Begbie. Communi- of all means of communication, except by foaming steam-pipe leads from the top of this dome, and an cated by the Duke of Newcastle, Colonial Office. torrents in canoes, or over goat tracks on foot, orifice is made in the side of the dome for the ad
- Lieutenant Mayne's report contains much in which rendered all the productions of the country, mission of atmospheric air, and introduces a jet of teresting topographical information. It describes except such as, like gold, could be carried with steam from the first-named steam-chest to draw the character of the soil, the vegetation, and great care in small weight and compass, practically the air in. The steam-pipe from the last-named productions of the districts traversed, and points valueless.
dome leads to a small cistern or box containing out the courses of the rivers and the general geo- The Chairman, in proposing the thanks of the fresh water, in which the steam from both the graphical features of the country. Lieutenant Society to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle for boilers is first received and becomes condensed. Palmer, in his paper, remarks that every miner sending the papers, and also to those gentlemen The water from this box then passes through a admitted the existence of gold in the Upper who had prepared them, said that he was much condenser and filter in connection with it, and is Fraser River; and but for the scarcity and enor-struck with the fact that vessels of large tonnage I discharged from the filter in the state of pure