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before being put into the furnace, in the shape motion takes place, accompanied by the emis- these consisting in their adaptation and manner and size best suited to the use for which such sion of a bluish flame or vapour ; the operation of application. It should also be observed that plates are intended, and passed repeatedly is continued, as occasion may require, of raking, the improved blast or application of improved through the common rolling and slitting mill separating, stirring, and spreading the whole blowing machinery was wholly immaterial to rollers with flat surfaces till it acquires the re- about the furnace till it loses its fusibility, and Cort's invention, which required only the ordiquisite degree of thinness. If it be intended is brought into nature; the iron when so brought nary reverberatory or air furnace. for flat or square bars, rods, hoops, or the like, into nature is collected together in lumps called Cort, at the conclusion of his specification in as soon as welded and made sufficiently thin loops, of sizes suited to the intended purposes, the passage already cited, declares his practice under the rollers, it may at the same heat be and so drawn out of the doors or furnaces. The to be " entirely new, and contrary to all received passed through the slitters, and from them specification declares the above method and opinions amongst persons conversant in the again through the rollers, if needful, for proper process of preparing, manufacturing, and work- manufacture of iron.” That he should have uses. When the iron thus to be welded through ing of iron, in substitution and instead of the to encounter detraction, disbelief, and opposithe rollers is designed for bars, half flats or use of the finery, to be Cort's invention, and tion is the inheritance of such men ; fortunately, thimble iron, with feather edges, a groove of never before used or put in practice by any however, his position in society, and the means the requisite dimensions is made in the under other person or persons. The specification pro- in his control, enabled him to demonstrate be roller, through which groove the iron is to be ceeds to state that the iron so prepared may be yond cavil the truth of his representations as to passed in the state of welding heat.”

afterwards stamped into plates, and piled and the improvements resulting from his combined The specification also states :-“ Much of the worked in an air furnace ; but that the method processes in the manufacture of iron. success of the operations described depend on and

process invented and brought to perfection the iron being properly cut, faggoted, banded, by Cort is to continue the loops in the same

THE SEWING MACHINE. or placed together;" and that in mills of suffi- furnace, or to put them into another air furnace

ITS VALUE. cient power, with rollers large enough to admit or furnaces, and to heat them to a white or of grooves and collars for the purpose, very welding heat, and then to shingle them under

No. III. great sized iron may be welded in this manner a forge hammer, or by other machinery ; and Few persons in Great Britain are aware of the as well as under the hammer, the heat being after having been shingled to the size of the immense value of the sewing machine trade either the same in both cases, and claims such process grooves in the rollers are worked through the to those who use machines, to those who own as his own invention, and put in use by him grooved rollers, in the manner in which Cort them, to those who manufacture them, or to the only. It is material to observe that Cort, in used bars or wrought iron faggoted, and heated public in general. this specification, speaks of the rollers, furnace, to a welding heat ; which manner of working The running of a sewing machine is a remarkably and separate processes as well known; there is any sort of iron in a white or welding heat healthful and pleasant employment. The erect no claim to any of them separately, the claim is through grooved rollers, Cort declares to be attitude of the operator, the exercise of the lower to the reducing of the faggots of piled iron into entirely his own invention. The following is the rapidity with which band and gusset and bars, and the welding of such bars by rollers in the concluding paragraph of the specification :

are sewn up-all tend to keep up the spirits stead of by forge hammers. This invention as - Iron and steel so prepared, made, wrought, and preserve the

health. The hours of labour, then announced and described in the specifica- and manufactured by such effectual applica- too, are short. In this country operators work tion in the above terms is a faithful description tion of fire and machinery, will be discharged on an average only nine or ten hours a day. One of the manufacture as now practised. Cort's of the impurities and foreign matter which firm in New York which employs about 200 own language may be applied to the manufac- adheres to them when manufactured in the machines and 100 young women, says: “The ture as practised after an interval of 75 years ; methods commonly practised. The steel is fatigue is so slight that our employés work the the grooved rolls, whether of the rectangular, of an excellent quality, and the iron will be year round and continue in good health and diamond, or double flanged shape, are the rolls found to be good tough iron in bars and uses, spirits.” An American lady, accustomed to use a described by Cort and used for the same pur-whether large or small, and in all sorts of mer- machine in her family, writes : “My sewing maposes; each presenting a specific section through chant iron, whether it be made from metal of chine is to me perfectly fascinating. My children which the iron at a welding heat is constrained a red short or cold short nature ; and blistered leave their amusements for the sake of operating to pass, being unable to escape on either side, steel, whether made from iron prepared accord-it. The laundress and the waiting-maid hurry and becoming deprived of its impurities, con- ing to the above process, or from any other through their duties to share that of the sempdensed, elongated, and welded, precisely in the iron when faggoted together, heated to a

stress. Housekeepers may well exchange their

pianos, which they never have time to use, for a manner described by Cort. It should be re- white or welding heat, rolled in that heat machine which will relieve them of many hours of marked that Cort

in this specification takes and through grooved rollers, according to the weary labour. Substituting, as it does, healthful treats bar-iron as then existing ; this invention method invented by me, and slit through exercise, and cheerful, rational employment for the begins with and has reference to a method of the common cutters, is equal to steel manufac-soul-and-body destroying drudgery of hand-sewing, making uses," as they are termed, by piling, tured by forge and tilt hammers. The whole it should be hailed as · Woman's Friend.?" faggoting, and rolling, not to the manufacture of which discovery and attainment are pro- Its introduction has tended to raise women's of the bar from the cast-iron which forms the duced by a more effectual application of fire wages. In the United States the wages of subject of the next patent. and machinery, as described by me, than was operators range from 12s. to 33s. per week. In

New York a woman has been known to make as Cort's second patent is dated 13th Feb., 1784; before known of or used by others, and are it is for “A new mode and art of shingling, entirely new and contrary to all received high as £12 per week with two assistants to prewelding, and manufacturing iron and steel into opinions amongst persons conversant in the pare and finish the work. In Great Britain the bars, plates, rods, and otherwise, of purer quality, manufacture of iron; and the whole of my wages of operators range from 7s. to 30s. per week, in large quantities, by a more effectual applica- method may be completed without the ne- (the average being probably about 12s. per week), tion of fires and machinery, and with greater cessity of using finery,


, cokes, chaffery, this sum, and that, too, through long protracted, yield than any method before attained or put blast by bellows or cylinders, or otherwise, or

In the stay-trade, the stay-stitchers in practice."

of The specification enrolled on the 12th day of the use of fluxes in any part of the process. obtain an average of 18. 6d. or 2s. a week, but by June (four months after the date of the patent), The whole operation to be performed with one

the use of a sewing machine they can now ea relates to the preparing, manufacturing, and or more furnaces, according to the quantities from 78. to 9s. a week. welding of iron from the ore, as well as from or dispatch required."

But while the sewing machine has doubled the sow and pig metal, and also from every other On the 12th day of June, 1784, Cort had wages of one class of operatives, it has not percepsort of cast iron, together with or without scull published in the specification of his two patents tibly lessened the number of persons engaged in and cinder iron and wrought iron straps. The the processes of which he asserted himself to be tailoring, bootmaking, shirtmaking, dressmaking, furnace employed is the reverberatory or air the inventor. No one can peruse these records and similar trades. “It may tend to displace a furnace, hollowed or dished out at the bottom, of his invention without being at once struck portion of male labour, but at the same time it so as to contain the metal when in a fluid state. with the precision and completeness of the dis- at an enhanced value.”* More work is put upon The furnace having been brought to a proper closure thus made to the world as to the pro- clothing now than before the use of machinery. degree of heat, the fluid metal is conveyed into cesses by which the manufacture of bar iron Even on the coarser garments worn by the middle the air furnace, or the metal may be fused in and of its uses was to be attained. The speci- and poorer classes there is or amental work, such the furnace, the doors of which are then closed fication of the second patent discloses the pro- as double instead of single stitching on shirts, and until the metal is sufficiently fused, when the cess of “puddling” precisely as now practised. on the breasts and sleeves of coats. Besides, the whole is worked and moved about by bars and And it will be observed here also that rever- lessened cost of production has greatly increased other fitly shaped instruments through aper- beratory and air furnaces, and rollers, and worktures, which operation is continued until an ing instruments are treated and spoken of as

See Dr. Strang's Paper on "The Sewing Machine in

Glasgow," read before the British Association, at Leeds, ebullition effervescence, or such like intestine things well known; the invention in respect of September 25, 1858.

No. VI.

the demand for ready-made clothing both for national wealth by one million and a half. During to the presses, without the aid of shafting or home consumption and for exportation to all parts the same period, sewing machines must have gearing or any apparatus susceptible of disarof the world. The necessary consequence of this added not less than fifteen millions to the wealth rangement, is a thing of which, as the author, the increasing demand for well-made clothing has of the United States.

foremen of the coining press-room may very been an increasing demand for female labour.

legitimately feel proud. The pockets of his Poor women now get better pay for lighter work

fellow-countrymen have been spared to some ex

MONEY-MAKING AT THE ROYAL MINT. than they did a few years ago, when Hood drew

tent by its introduction, if his own have derived the sympathies of the world to the needlewomen

no benefit therefrom. The extent to which the of London by his inimitable “Song of the Shirt.” It will be remembered that in our last week's vacuum may be raised by the double-acting coinAt present the demand for sewing machine paper on this interesting subject, the coining ing.pump is regulated by a steelyard relief valve operators exceeds the supply, and with the far- press-room was spoken of, and the rapid manner placed on a branch of the vacuum-chamber, and a ther extension of the use of machines we may in which the conversion of prepared blanks of barometer gauge near it. If medals are in pronaturally expect increased employment for females metal, whether of gold, silver, or copper, into cess of manipulation the vacuum is at its maximum and an increase of their wages.

sterling coin, under the force of the screw presses, point; if quarter-farthings, or obolis, then at its The amount of sewing done by a single ma. drew forth its meed of commendation. There were minimum." But every coin which has issued from chine in a day or week necessarily varies with the allusions made also to the vacuum-chamber, by the Mint for the last forty-nine years—and a expertness of the operator, the kind of machine the aid of which the direct motion is given to great majority of the medals also owe their used, and the quality of the work to be done. those presses, and of this it will be perhaps well sharp, clear, and beautiful impressions to the With a good operator on a first-class machine, to give a little further explanation before advanc- weight of the atmosphere. The air we breathe one thousand yards of straight seam, ten stitches ing to the process of medal striking, and the has, in short, coined all the money we use. to the inch, is said to be an ordinary day's work manufacture of dies.

In touching upon this theme, it may be menof ten hours. Ten dozen of shirt wristbands The vacuum-chamber was spoken of as an irontioned that a branch from the main artery for the can be made in an hour. Fifty dozen collars, or tube of considerable dimensions, and its use ex- circulation of air-the suction pipe to the vacuumeighty shirt bosoms with seven rows of stitching, plained, but it was not stated by what means the chamber—a branch from this descends to the are easily made in one day. Eight fine linen vacuum in it was got up and maintained. When vacuum-chamber of the weighing-room atmocoats may be made in a day of ten hours, and Boulton and Watt in 1810 fitted up this portion spheric engine, and thus creates the steady, neverthirty such coats are an average week's work for of the Mint they had determined by actual exchanging motion which is given to the valuable one machine.

periment at Soho that the pressure of the atino- weighing machines of which we have spoken. This rapidity of production has, hitherto, served sphere was the best possible power to use for It will be now completely understood that the to increase the profits of the wealthy manufac- stamping money, and they had accordingly vacuum-chamber is an important adjunct to the turers who own machines rather than to reduce devised what was called secret machinery on screw-presses; and, as the latter were left in our the price of the manufactured article. Almost that principle for the Royal establishment. They, last chapter delivering themselves of finished all those persons who were so rich and so fortunate however, had calculated that for the effective coins at the rate, if all were in action, of 200,000 as to purchase machines two or three years ago working of the eight presses ordered for Tower- per diem, we may return to them after this dishave been gaining a profit of from 20 to 25 per hill a ten-horse steam engine with two powerful sertation on air. “ Trifles light as air” have been cent. more than their competitors who were con- air-pumps would be necessary. These were sup. alluded to by our never-to-be-forgotten bard; but, tent to plod on in the old methods of doing business. plied, and the air-pumps, on the butterfly valve if he had known as much of the weight of that In some kinds of goods, however, the sewing ma- principle, 24 inches in diameter, and with a 28 ethereal substance as the Queen's coiners, he chine has reduced the price of the finished article. inch stroke, worked from either end of a pump would doubtless have substituted another simile. In New York the price of men's clothing and of beam driven by a crank on the end of the fly. The gold pieces of the four bags have been folladies' gaiter boots has been reduced about 20 per wheel shaft of the engine, were employed for a lowed by many, many more, and there, ranged in cent. It is said that in London, bootmakers can number of years—up to 1852, indeed-in exhaust- the butcher's trays without handles, are thoubuy machine-made boot tops 30 per cent. cheaper ing the vacuum-chamber.

sands and thousands of the metallic portraits of than those made by hand. The finished boots, Things might have gone on in this primitive Her Majesty. These are, at the close of the day, however, have not fallen in price more than from and very expensive manner up to this hour had placed on trucks, conveyed once again to the 10 to 15 per cent. But not until the reduction not a very remarkable improvement been suggested scales, weighed up carefully, folded once again in in the cost of manufacturing has been followed in 1851 by a young mechanic, who had a few the little journey bags of 180oz., placed, in batches by a corresponding reduction in the prices of the years previously been transplanted from the es- of eight bags or 5,608 sovereigns, in the trays, pnt finished articles in every department of trade will tablishment of the Messrs. Rennie. This gentle into omnibus trucks, deposited in the stronghold, the full value and importance of the sewing man, whose name ought to be better known at and locked. " Thanks !" says the officer, in turnmachine be sensibly felt by the whole commu. the Treasury, conceived that if instead of using ing the key upon perhaps 300,000 or 400.000nity.

the one steam engine and the two pumps of “thanks be to Providence, the wearing anxieties The profits of those who use machines cannot, Boulton and Watt for the exhaustive process, he and cares of the day are over! Thanks for losing however, be so large as the profits of those who were to attach to the beam of a 20-horse power sight of gold.” make them. It is believed by many persons in engine, by Rennie-lately erected at a distance of On the following morning at eleven, it is likely America that the three firms who have monopo- some 220 or 230 feet from the press-room, and that a visitor to the Mint would see issuing into lized almost the whole business in the United used for pumping water from an artesian well of the “quadrilateral,” or rather the quadrangular States have become so wealthy that they are able great depth-a double acting air pump, and then space, one or perhaps two of the omnibus trucks to control the Patent Office. The existence of this carry a tube to connect it with the vacuum- evidently bearing heavy burdens, and requiring belief (although it must be unfounded) is the best chamber over the roof of the coining department, each three or four men to propel them. They each evidence of the enormous profits made by Ameri. he might accomplish the same object at a vastly contain, in fact, 70,100 sovereigns, weighing can manufacturers. We bave no means of ob- diminished expense. The proposition obtained 18.003.06 ozs., and are destined to pass in—in very taining information regarding the profits of little attention, although laid before the Sheil different form, shape, and value to that in which manufacturing in England. Machinists, judging Hume commission, until the advent of Captain when bound for the melting-house they left itmerely from the appearance of the finished ma- Harness, R.E., who at once saw the practicability to the central office. Arrived per tramway before chine, say that on machines sold from £20 to £30 and value of the plan. In the beginning of the alluded to, they are now " pyxed” by the senior the manufacturer's profit cannot amount to less year 1853 the inventor of the new arrangeinent officers. The pyxing is an operation into which than three-fifths of the selling prices ; that is, on had the satisfaction of seeing it adopted, manu- we need at present perhaps not go into minute a machine sold for £25 the manufacturer has a factured by Rennie, and put to practical use. It detail. It is a very ancient custom. Briefly, it clear profit of £15.

was found vastly superior in every respect to the may be said that a coin is reserved from each bag But while the profits of some of the patentees old system. The extent of the vacuum gained of gold—and the same may be said of silver-and both in this country and the United States have by the well-constructed pump—which was of placed in the pis, meaning a casket or chest. This been enormous, the public have gained largely large comparative area and of short stroke, and latter, after the whole of the bags have had one from the use of their inventions. A single sewing which of course exhausted in the up and the down coin abstracted from each and another to make machine in the least advantageous work is equal to stroke-was much higher than could be obtained the journey weights correct, is sealed with three the labour of six persons, and in many kinds of by the ancient " butterflies.” The power obtained, seals and secured with three locks. The Master work, especially the finer and more difficult kinds too, was more steady and uniform, whilst the of the Mint holds one of these, the Chancellor of of work, it is equal to the labour of from fifteen saving effected amounted to something like £200 the Exchequer another, and the Queen's Assayor to twenty persons. Making every allowance, there. per annum in fuel and wages-a saving still going the third. The pieces of gold or silver so carefore, for the time machines are out of order, we Another great advantage which it gave to fully preserved are kept till the trial of the pix, may safely estimate that, on an average, every the Mint was, that it answered the purpose of a an annual performance-something after the machine in Great Britain does as much as seven duplicate steam-engine. If the new pump became sheriff's hob-nail arithmetic feat in usefulnesshand sewers. The 10,000 machines now at work in deranged, the old butterflies would be resorted to, at which the fineness of the metal, as compared the country have added as much to its wealth as and if the latter broke down there was the new with certain trial plates kept in the treasury of the labour of 60,000 persons beyond those actually arrangement in reserve.

the chapel of Edward the Confessor, in the cloisemployed would have added in the same time. This very neat plan of transferring so much ters of Westminster Abbey, is enquired into and And supposing these machines have been in use for of the power of the pumping-engine as is needed a dinner partaken of. The pyxing at the Mint is only two years, they have already increased the l over the building and among the chimney-pots, I a short operation, and after it the coins are ready



for delivery to the Bank. Bank clerks now arrive | It has become an exquisite work of art, and it draining tools; £10, J. Whitehead, brick and tile to check the journey weights in weighing with requires but the clip, the clasp, the riband, and machine; £5, H. Chamberlain, brick and tile the Mint clerks. Bank porters come to put them the name to make it worthy the acceptance of the machine; £50, John Fowler, jun., set of steam into Bank chests, which are deposited in licensed bravest soldier.

cultivating apparatus, and balance four-furrow carriers' carts, and fair receipt being given, the

plough ; £5, Trustees of Win. Crosskill, field horses are compelled to move on, and away up the

roller ; £3, Messrs. Hill and Smith, field roller ; Minories, en route for the Bank itself, go the


£2, ditto, ditto; £5, Messrs. A. and E. Crosskill, finished sovereigns. May those £140,000 which


clod crusher ; £3, W. Cambridge, ditto; £2, have just now gone, with ut any guard save a The Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers Trustees of Wm. Crosskill, ditto. porter or two, be the means of doing an amount have awarded the following premiums for papers Silver Medals.—Sidney Flavel and Co., kitchen of unalloyed good, and may none of them be ever read during the session recently concluded :- range; Thomas Gibbs and Co., collection of agriused for base purposes !

1. A Telford Medal, to Michael Scott, M. Inst. cultural plants, seeds, and grain, in great variety; Returning once again to the coining depart: C.E. , for his paper Description of a Breakwater Peter Lawson and Son, collection of plants,

seeds, ment, we find that a change has come over

the spirit at the Port of Blyth, and of Improvements in and grain; W. H. and George Dawes, patent of its dream. What are those large heavy discs Breakwaters, applicable to Harbours of Refuge." atmospheric hammer; Humphrey Chamberlain, of white metal-are they for crown pieces ? No! they are intended for medals. They have been so c.E., for his paper “On the Co efficients of Elasti

2. A Telford Medal, to Robert Mallet, M. Inst. Chamberlain, plastic clay brick-making machine ; far prepared in the same way that metal is prepared for stamping. They are of fine or virgin city and of Rupture in Wrought Iron, in relation Burgess and Key, grass-mowing machine. silver-that is, silver unalloyed-and have been

to the volume of the Metallic Mass, its metallurgic rolled down from bars of the florin size-as given treatment, and the axial direction of its constituent

Law Case. in Art. No. II. They have been also cut in the way

crystals." explained with regard to ordinary coin. Now the 3. A Telford Medal, to Henry Bessemer, for his COURT OF CHANCERY, Lincoln's-inn, July 8.—(Be

fore Vice-Chancellor Sir W. P. Wood.) treatment must, however, be different, and briefly paper. On the Manufacture of Malleable Iron and

THE PATENT TYPE-FOUNDING COMPANY (LIMITED) that treatment shall be defined. The cut work is

Steel.” brought to the annealing-room in bags of 1000 in Books, to William Joseph Kingsbury, Assoc. the infringement of a patent for “ improvements in

4. A Telford Medal and the Manby Premium,

This was a demurrer. The bill was filed to restrain medal blanks each. These are counted. They are next placed in open wrought iron pans and an.

Inst. C.E., for his paper "Description of the En- the manufacture of type and other raised surfaces nealed or baked, then blanched, and now being trance, Entrance Lock, and Jetty Walls of the for printing," which had become vested in the plain. distributed over recessed boards, their faces are

Victoria (London) Docks; with Remarks on the tiffs by assignment from John Robert Johnson, the scrubbed by means of scrubbing brushes, and with Form adopted in the construction of the Wrought original patentee. The patent was granted in 1851, silver sand-the finest sand, that is—and water. Iron Gates and Caisson."

and the specification contained the following stateThis gives bright surfaces to them. Next they 5. A Watt Medal, to James Wardrop Jameson, ments:

In the manufacture of type and other are dried by aid of box-wood sawdust, sieves, and Assoc. Inst. C.E., for his paper “On the perform” raised surfaces for printing it has been usual for the drying stoves.

most part to employ compounds of lead and antiAnd now they are ready to re

ances of the screw steam-ship Sahel, fitted with mony as the metal for casting the same, and in some ceive first impressions—in some cases very lasting Du Trembley's Combined

Vapour Engine, and of cases a small percentage of tin has been added. Now, as 'tis said—but in this of not half the value of the sister ship Oasis, with steam-engines worked the object of my invention is to obtain harder, past ones.

expansively, and provided with partial surface tougher, and more enduring type, and by employing Removed to the press-room, counted, and supcondensation."

tin in large proportions with antimony, and to greatly plied to a press tender, rouleaus are placed in a

6. A Council Premium of Books to Thomas reduce or wholly omit the use of lead with such tube à l'ordinaire, the press is set in motion, the Sebastain Isaac for his paper “On the Successful metals when making type, by which means the type feeder does its duties, the dies kiss the pieces on

Working, by Locomotive Power, over gradients of produced is so hard, tough, and enduring as to allow both cheeks, the collar rises and falls, they are 1 in 17, and curves of 300 feet radius, on Inclines of its being used as a punch on the ordinary type

metal now used, and the best proportions I am ac. delivered into trays, examined by the press-room in America."

quainted with are 75 of tin and 25 of antimony, but critics, and the whole operation resembles coining Bullock Jackson, M. Inst. C.E., for his paper also used I find that it must not exceed 50 parts in

7. A Council Premium of Books to Matthew this may be to some extent varied ; and when lead is very much. But, alas ! examine the embryo medals. They are not half struck. They may be

Description of the Gravitation Water Works at 100 of the combined metals employed, for if the lead intended for Crimean medals, but as yet there are Melbourne, South Australia.”

be employed in much larger quantity the hardness

and toughness of the alloy rapidly decrease, and the but shadows of victory, and the well-known Roman

alloy then approaches the ordinary type metal in its warrior to be seen on the reverse, the noble head of the Queen is but outlined, and there are no


properties, notwithstanding the presence of a conMEETING.

siderable quantity of tin. When the antimony is letters. Evidently this is a preparatory step only ?

tolerably pure, the best proportions are as given True; they have to be returned to the annealing

WARWICK, Wednesday, above-one part of antimony to three of tin or tin room, again baked, again blanched, again scrubbed, The following prizes for implements have been and lead; but when it contains other metals I find and again dried. Striking medals is a different and awarded :

that the quantity of antimony should be diminished, far more expensive process than coining money.

Judges : Mesgrs. W. Owen, C.E.; Jno. Brasnett, 1 If this be not attended to, the alloy, though of great

or which is preferable, the metal should be repurified. The shadowy medals are again prepared and re- J. Clarke, J. Druce, J. Hicken, G. M. Hipwell, hardness, does not possess the tonacity or hardness turned to the press-room once more. This time J. J. Rowley, J. Thompson, W. Tindal; C. E. necessary for type of extreme durability.” they must be daintily touched by the operator or Amos, C.E., consulting engineer. Stewards :

The defendants, against whom a case of having inthey will be soiled, and perhaps require to go Messrs. Barnett, Caldwell, and Pope.

fringed the patent was alleged in the bill, had put in through all the stages again. Placed singly on a Prizes: £4, Hornsby and Sons, light land a demurrer, on the ground that the specification as warm iron plate beside the press, to which one die plough ; £3, Ransomes and Sims, ditto; £2, J. set out in the bill was so vague as to render the patent only-the lower one-beautifully polished is at- and F. Howard, ditto; £1, Hensman and Son, void, and, at all events, to deprive the plaintiffs of any tached, the operator takes them one by one, and ditto; £2, John Eddy, turnwrest plough; £6, title to relief upon it in equity. puts them with his fingers on that die, taking J. and F. Howard, general purpose plough;

Sir Hugh Cairns, Mr. Webster (of the common law especial care that the partly raised impression £5, Hornsby and Sons, ditto; £4, Ransomes bar), and Mr. Druce appeared in support of the defalls exactly into the corresponding cavities and Sims, ditto ; £2, Busby Agricultural Im- Mr. Hindmarch, of the common law bar) were for the of the finishing die. He now places by plement Company, ditto; £1, Hensman and

plaintiffs. hand also a steel collar of the size of the Son, ditto; £3, Hornsby and Sons, heavy The VICE-CHANCELLOR said that the question was finished medal over the piece of silver-so as landplough; £2, J. and F. Howard, ditto ; whether the specification was so clearly and manifestly to encompass it-the collar being polished as the £2, Ransomes and Sims, ditto; £1 10s., W. bad that it would not enable workmen to carry it into dies on its circumference. Next he “feels” the Ball, ditto; £1 10s., Busby Agricultural execution. The invention appeared to be definitely upper die upon the disc of silver, and makes its Implement Company, ditto; £4, Messrs. J. and stated, assuming that something further might come partially raised surface fit it. He now pulls one F. Howard, harrows for light land;

£3, ditto out in evidence. Was there any vagueness because line, it closes the outer valve—another, it opens ditto; £2, Messrs. Page and Co., ditto; £2, might be varied? Upon a patent depending upon the inner one-of the press-pump. The screw Messrs. Mapplebeck and Lowe, chain harrows; proportions the patentee was not bound to limit his with a plain block of steel fastened below its £4, Messrs. J. and F. Howard, harrows for heavy claim entirely to those proportions. The vital propoint has descended with terrific force upon the land ; £3, Messrs. Page and Co., ditto ; £2, perty of the patent was a large proportion of tin, as upper die, and the silver has suffered great com- Messrs. Ransomes and Sims, ditto; £5, Mr. Ben contrasted with antimony, and, though some slight pression. The press has rebounded, and is at tall, cultivator for light land; £3, Messrs. Cole- variation might be made in the proportions, yet that rest. The upper die is taken off, the medal man and Son, ditto; £2, Mr. Cray, ditto; £5, would not avoid the patent. Evidence might be profitting the collar tightly, by force of pressure is Messrs. Coleman and Son, cultivators for heavy duced as to the validity or invalidity of the patent lifted with the collar from the lower die, and land; £3, Mr. Bentall, ditto ; £2, Messrs. Ran. before a jury, but at all events the patent, as stated behold you it is, as far as the Mint deals with it, somes and Sims, ditto; £3, Thomas Scragg, hand. The demurrer must therefore be overruled.

on the face of the bill, was not void for indefiniteness. perfect. It is pressed from the collar, examined power tile machine; £2, J. Whitehead, hand tile by aid of a glass, and it is found that the soft silver machine ; £15, A. and W. Endington, draining once, leave being requested (after putting in a de

Sir Hugu CAIRNS obtained leave to file a plea at with that last heavy blow bas been forced into plough and windlass; £3, F. Parkes and Co., bundle murrer) for resorting to this mode of defence, which very interstice of the elaborately-engraved die, I draining tools; £2, Mapplebeck and Love, bundle ! is technically known as a “second dilatory."

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PLAN CF WCI KINC.- Cn the left kcadlard is the Engine and Windlass, the Water-cart, and directly opposite to them the Anchor, and between these two the Plough is pulled backwards

ard forwards, one end of the Plough being alternately in the air and the other in its work.

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A FEW weeks ago we gave a description and illus- step of much importance, especially as it saves a cent construction. We are now enabled to give trations of the main portions of Mr. J. Fowler's considerable length of rope. Next, the adoption an illustration of the latter, which is shown in apparatus for ploughing land by steam power, of steel instead of iron rope has effected a great Fig. 1. The frame is made entirely of wrought noticing the successive improvements he has made saving in wear and tear, which saving is further | iron, the winding-forward drum being placed in it from the time he first exhibited it, and the increased by passing it round large (4 feet) upon an upright spindle; and the machine so convery great degree of simplification he has at pre- pulleys instead of small ones as formerly. As we structed with shafts as to be capable of being

ent attained in its construction. These improve have already explained in our last article, the worked round any ordinary bend in a hedge. The ments may be shortly stated to consist, first, of a windlass is now permanently combined with the side strain is well borne by the cutting discs or better mode of ap

wheels fitted to plying the power ; FIG. 2.--WATER CART.

the machine, which secondly, the light

is balanced by hayening and cheapen

ing a box filled with ing of the appara

earth fixed at the tus; and, thirdly,

side opposite that the improvements

from which the made in its details,

wire-rope passes off. which cannot be

The forward mo. separately enume

tion is accomplishrated, but which,

ed by the friction of taken collectively,

the wire-rope on are of vital import

the four-feet pulley, ance, as upon the

to which is attachmode of carrying

ed a drum for them out depend its

winding up a rope durability and ef

stretched along the ficiency. The dif

headland and fixed ference betveen

to the ground. good and bad detail

The water-cart, frequently corsti.

which is drawn tute all the difier.

along with the enence between

gine, is made cirmachine made orly

cular, and of to be looked at, and

wrought-iron, and one which will

is shown in Fig. 2. bear to be daily

It is used also for worked. The great success of Mr. Fowler's ap- engine, which, by aid of pitch wheels and chain, conveying the wire rope from place to place, and for paratus at the trials which have been made during is made capable of moving itself by steam from this purpose is fitted with a fly-wheel and handle the present week at Warwick, induce us now to field to field, only requiring to be steered by one for winding the rope up upon it. The cart is made give yet a fuller description of it in its present or two horses, which is easily done, and avoids to contain about 150 gallons of water. Fig. 3 form,

much of the complication attending ordinary shows two of the rope “porters," with the rope The first improvenent-viz., that in the mode steering apparatus.

running over the pullies, as it does when in use. of applying the

Several of these power, is one of FIG. 3.-ROPE PORTER.

porters are used very great im.

when the field to portance. Instead

be ploughed is of of laying a rope

great length, in round the field, as

order to keep the was done

rope as much ofl Chelmsford in

the ground as pos1856, the engine

sible, thus to preand windlass are

vent unnecessary now made to work

wear, and to econothemselves along

mise the power reone side of the

quired to work the field as the plough

apparatus. perforins its work,

We have before the anchor doing

illustrated Mr. the same at theop

Fowler's balanceposite side,

plough, but the acshown in the ac.

companying illuscompanying large

tration, Fig. 4, illustration, the

shows the applicaplough being

tion of scarifier worked between

irons to the same the engine and the anchor. Again, the rope In our former article we gave an illustration of frame work, the plough bodies being removed. Inbeing now passed over two grooves, instead an anchor used for some time by Mr. Fowler; stead of attaching scarifier irons, the breasts only of being wound on a barrel, as fornerly, is another but, as was then stated, not one of the most re: 'may be removed and shut, and blunt mould boards




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