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not allowing this great capital to be idle in


Much misconception, owing no doubt to a port; another in avoiding, as much as possible, Two Voyages-Coals

£80,000 vague idea of the real distance to Calcutta, to the dangers of passing to and from any coast, Officers, Engineers, Crew, &c., wages 20,000 the great length of time occupied by clipper whereas by sending her to America the delays

Dietary for Crew and Passengers.. 60,000

ships and auxiliary steam-ships in the voyage, Engines, Oil, &c.

5,000 in port must be tenfold her time on the voyage

Working Expenses


and to the apparently (as compared with them) -indeed so long that smaller steamers will fill

Wear and Tear.


very short time given to the Great Eastern, has with passengers and cargo and make the pas- Depreciation

50,000 got possession of the public mind as to the sage while she is loading, if indeed she ever Insurance

50,000 speed per hour necessary to accomplish the will be loaded there. The whole object of the

duty undertaken. The speed proposed by Mr.

365,000 enterprise will thus be defeated, capital will be

Balance or Profit.

Brunel in the first-published prospectus, in

153,000 uselessly lying idle, and wages and expenses

1852, was that “which experience proves such will be as uselessly paid. Then, again, as to

£518,000 “vessels to be capable of, and which will perthe risks incidental to the voyage.

We all
No estimate is made of the receipts likely to

"form the' voyage easily in 32 days.” To do know

how comparatively small they are in a be derived from mails, parcels, or specie. But this he determined to employ engines of 2,600 well-found ship when once at sea, and most are exclusive of these sources of income there can

power, consuming from 250 to 300 tons equally well aware of the risk in approaching hardly fail to be, if this amount be even near to of fuel per day, and 15 knots per hour is stated the English and American coasts, of the fogs correctness, an "ample return to the share-by him as the required speed. Is this rate and ice incidental to the vicinity of the one , holders, and if the wear and tearbe estimated likely to be realised ?

The trials prove," and the dangers of our rocky shores and narrow at the cost of the ship to the present company,


Mr. Hawes, as far as they go (the en-. seas. “I never have been able to understand," says Mr. Hawes, “why the directors determined Mr. Hawes has estimated them upon what he is in order, this rate will be attained." He

"gines never having been worked to full speed), the result will be much more favourable; but

" that after a little working, when everything * to send this ship even one voyage to America, assumes would be the cost of a second or sister then argues,-the distance to Calcutta is 11,819

or to spend the large sum they have done in ship. He considers there will be no difficulty " fittings before the ship and machinery had in obtaining a sufficient number of passengers cutta by Peninsular and Oriental ships, 38 to

geographical miles or knots; the time to Cal“been tried, and the speed of 15 or 16 knots

or tons of freight to fill the ship so long as we “per hour, which none doubt will be accomplished, had been proved to the satisfaction of India £15,000,000 to £20,000,000 value of to 36 days ; time to Calcutta by Great Eastern

are annually exporting to or importing from 40 days ; time to Calcutta via Marseilles, 34 “the world. I have always maintained that, as "soon as she was launched, and the machinery

manufactures and merchandise, and employing at, per hour, 16 knots, 31 days ; 15 knots, 33 “completed, by which I mean everything re

hundreds of thousands of tons of shipping, days ; 14 knots, 35 days ; 13 knots, 38 days; quired for her safe navigation, sufficient especially when we recollect that the line by cost of first-class passage by Peninsular and

these ships will be a trunk or feeding line to Oriental boats and rail, £102; do, per Great ballast and coal should have been shipped, the whole of our Indian empire and the Eastern Eastern, £60 ; Luggage for each passenger (free) 6 and a voyage of 1,000 or 2,000 miles per world. The cargo of 10,000 tons at high rates 336 lbs. per Peninsular and Oriental; do., 46 "formed, with or without her masts. If that

will consist of the first-class goods required at cubic feet per Great Eastern ; charge for extra “ trial had been successful, money would have been easily raised to finish her in any style every port to which we trade, and the advan- luggage per Peninsular and Oriental boats at

tage to merchants on either side, whose intelli- the rate of £36 per ton ; do. per Great Eastern, “the builder or directors might have chosen ; "if a failure, the shareholders would have saved gence and good information enables them to say £12 per ton; trade to India—Tonnage foresee a coming deinand before it actually

cleared to Calcutta, Madras, and Ceylon (1858), “the £100,000 spent in fittings and ornament.” We need hardly say how entirely

and cordially arrives, of receiving goods by a conveyance 294,162 tons ; estimated annual value of trade to as quick and regular as that which con

India, per annum, £15,000,000 to £20,000,000. we agree with these remarks.

veys the orders, cannot be overrated. At From 12 to 154 knots' have already been done The fact is, there is no visible hope of doing present orders are received by the overland with a maximum rate of 125 revolutions of the anything useful with this ship until the object mail to be forwarded by sea, the shipment of paddle and 40 of the screw engines per minute ; with which she was designed and built

is once which is notified to every one by our Customs give them 16 and 48 respectively, and more more set before her proprietors. How will she reports, and frequently in time to enable mer

than the anticipated duty will be done. answer for the passage to India ?-answer, that chants having no similar orders of their own to In comparing her speed with that of our is, in a commercial sense? is the one inquiry make shipments on the faith of the known large ocean passenger ships supported by which should be resolved with all possible intelligence of others, which goods may arrive large Government subsidies, it must not be haste. If she can accomplish what her de- as soon, or perhaps sooner, than those shipped forgotten that while by this ship it was prosigners promised, there can be little doubt, as by the parties by whom, in anticipation of a posed to accomplish a higher average ocean Mr. Hawes 'remarks, that a fleet of such ships demand, orders were first transmitted to Eng- speed than has yet been attained, it was also will soon be built, and a visit to India við the land by the overland route. To ensure the calculated to carry so many passengers and so Cape will become one of our holiday trips, the earliest possible arrival of goods after the re- much freight that it should be worked profitpassage being performed in a luxurious hotel ceipts of orders will command, Mr. Hawes ably without subsidy, the sum annually paid instead of by the overland route, which con- argues, an amount of freight which this ship, by Government to mail steamers being

centrates in a journey of six weeks as capacious as she is, will hardly be able to carry. 1982,000.; of which £167,125 is paid for the á much discomfort as it appears possible to Commercially, then, the establishment of a Indian route ; £204,000 is paid for the Aus“experience in so short a time.” Mr. Hawes trunk route which 'shall combine speed and tralian ; £172,840 is paid for the American ; states the conditions of the question in the comparative cheapness, must command as large and £244,000 is paid for the West Indian. In . following manner :- The cost of a passage to a share of business as can be undertaken by a every other fast passenger ship the coals and Calcutta is now £102, and, excepting servants, fleet of such ships to sail monthly from either engines, even for a short voyage, occupy so is limited to 1st class. If the Great Ship Com- terminus. It appears to him almost impossible much of the ship that but little freight can be pany, relying on her size and economical to appreciate, much less to estimate, the effect carried, and only a limited number of passenarrangements, boldly meets the wants of the of thus reducing the distance between England gers in proportion to the size of the ship, and time, and charges but £60 for a 1st class, £40 and India ; even the effect produced upon the these mainly of the first class. “They occups for a 2nd class, and £25 for a 3rd class passage, home trade by the introduction of railways, or the same relative position in ocean travelling and freight at proportionately low rates, its the increased facilities for our correspondence to other steamers that the fast coach or the annual earnings and expenditure—so soon as by the joint effects of penny postage and rail

“mail did to the six-insider of former days. her speed is proved, and making two voyages way conveniences, invaluable and startling as “The one quick used only by the rich, the only-may be estimated thus :

they are, or the daily increasing traffic between “ other slow, but paid for by the public." INCOME OUTWARDS.

England and America, since 1838, when the Railways, continues Mr. Hawes, have abolished 400 passengers

£24,000 first passage was made, to the present time this distinction ashore ; rich and poor travel at

20,000 when steam-boats are running almost daily, nearly the same speed, though at varying rates; 3,000

75,000 offer but poor means of estimating the advan- and this great ship is the first step in the same 10,000 tons of cargo

30,000 tages to be derived from bringing several hun- direction afloat. Mail coaches required subsiINCOME HOMEWARDS.

dred millions of fellow-subjects and their wants dies ; by rail the mail is carried at rates scarcely 300 passengers

£18,000 within a few days of our shores. Surely, as he equal to the actual cost of transit. So the mail

12,000 says, support ought not to be wanting to aid in steamers now built cannot run without subsi2,000


overcoming the difficulties attending the com- dies ; "and as the rail has beaten the coach, so 10,000 tons of cargo


mencement of so vast an undertaking, for when we hope in this ship to beat the subsidised 259,000

once the fact is established means will soon be mail steamers in speed and economy, and thus Two voyages-annually found to develop it more fully.

" to secure large public support, which is of in

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"finitely more value than a Government subsidy. / on the national importance of this great under the undisguised cheerfulness and systematic " The one tends to check progress so long as a .taking. At present, the most rapid means of order which appeared to reign throughout the contract continues ; the other stimulates and intercourse with our Eastern possessions is varied ramifications of this vast concern.

encourages it, because it rewards every im- through France, across the Mediterranean, and Indeed, although the proprietors with commend“provement.” At 15 knots per

hour this ship through Egypt by the Red Sea to the Persian able modesty consider it an experiment, our belief, will reach Calcutta in 32 days, and at 16 knots Gulf. This route can be stopped at any moment in 30 days and 12 hours, with a consumption of by the Emperor of the French. The next in from no little experience in such matters, would fuel, wh the aid of trade winds and favourable shortness is by sea to Alexandria, which can

lead us to pronounce it a fait accompli, and one monsoons is allowed for, not exceeding 280 be very much endangered by French fleets, and which is eminently deserving of the most serious tons per diem. We may fairly expect from thereby deprived of its certainty and safety, consideration of those who are unselfishly devoting what has already been done, that when every- besides the risk attending the transit through their minds, both privately and legislatively, to thing is in order, and all hands, from the cap- Egypt. Such are the difficulties and expense of the welfare of succeeding generations. The manutain to the stoker, are up to their work, and the this route, that it can only be maintained by facturus pursged at these works, which stand on engines do the duty assigned to them, this aid of an enormous subsidy from the Govern- ten acres of ground, are manifold in their chaspeed will be attained, and the distance accom- ment, and even then with very high charges for racter, and rise by almost imperceptible degrees plished in the time originally contemplated. the conveyance of passengers and small parcels ; Extra speed can only be attained by the dis- to commerce it is entirely inaccessible. The from the merest mechanical application of the placement of passengers and cargo ; and it is charge by the Peninsular and Oriental Com- fingers alone, to matters which are engaging the the skill with which the space allotted to ma- pany is, by sea to Calcutta, £102, and the most gifted minds in these days of rapid intelchinery-the source of expenditure, and that ordinary time required to reach Calcutta is 38 lectual progress; from the punching of holes in allotted to passengers and cargo--the sources of days, or four days less at an extra charge, vid wool, in metal, or in composition, and the caneincome, have been determined, that forms the Marseilles. The Great Eastern, therefore, will bottoming of a chair, to the highest branches best ground of our hope that this ship, when forestall the arrival of the Peninsular and of practical science. It is impossible to conceive the first difficulties of starting so novel an Oriental boats, by several days, at Calcutta, and undertaking are overcome, will be a great com- this without subjecting either letters of pas- exists an appropriate sphere within reach of

an area more fraught with promise; for there mercial success. Disturb the one, and the sengers to the risks and inconveniences of three rates for the other two must be increased, and times passing through foreign countries, or to every capacity, be that capacity mental or meour surest element of prosperity destroyed. being transferred from one conveyance to chanical, or both. In the school, which is a lofty, These facts are strikingly illustrated by Mr. another, or to being interfered with from well-ventilated structure, we found some sixty Hawes, who compares some of our largest pas political disagreements between France and children, boys and girls

, the offspring of the senger ships with the Great Eastern, thus : ourselves. By such means, then, may our work-people, under the tuition of a master and Eastern possessions be brought not only so

mistress, assisted by .monitors selected from the many days nearer to us, but the communicaShips.

more advanced of the pupils. In order not to tion be rendered more safe than, and equally tax their young energies too stringently, one Passengers

certain as, by the existing routes. Every one
must at once see the importance of thus re-

half of the children is mentally employed, while Eastern 22,500 2,600 300 14 | 650,000*40 4,000 10,000 ducing the distance as measured by time be the other half is mechanically so, and a liberal

tween India and this country, especially if at regard to out-door amusements in the field within

300 the same time we afford infinitely superior the bounds of Silvertown healthfully tempers both 92 11 | 120,000 Persia.../ 3,585 1,000 1401 11 | 140,000

means than now exist for transporting an al- exertions. Those of the children not in school

most unlimited number of troops and material Or, as compared with the average of these or merchandise to and from any part of our

are employed principally in minor portions of carthree ships. distant possessions.

pentery-in the caneing of chairs, sofas, &c., for The Great Eastern has cost

the cabins of ships and officers' outfits, and for 5 times as much. One Great Eastern will not suffice, probably, domestic purposes in India and our colonies. It 7 times larger. either for commerce or the Government, when 3times the power. her power and speed are fully proved. The

was interesting to notice the growing intelligence basrita 4.b Mats metimes the speed objection made by many

that it would not

be pru- of the children in these branches of industry, carries 40 days' fuel against has carrying or commercial power

dent to put 5,000 or 10,000 troops in one bottom the fingers of some plying the split cane in the for passengers 15 times greater. is, as Mr. Hawes observes, most futile. Let it reticulation of the seats of the chairs with a sur

for cargo 26 times greater. be proved that this conveyance is the safest, the prising celerity, while others, but young begin. In all these ships—and they fairly represent quickest, and most certain, and the objection ners, did and undid their work in evident mortithe subsidised mail and passenger ships—it will fails at once. Experience has fully proved that fication at their own incipient want of skill. Each be seen that the quantity of cargo carried is large ships are safer than small ones, and no trifling in proportion to their size, and that the one ever thinks of refusing to take a passage in child receives payment for its work according to expenditure of coals in proportion to size and a good ship because she carries a large number its quality and quantity, and some of them, mere speed is enormous ; and whilst, with a horse- of passengers.

babes, obtain about six shillings a week for the power of 1 to 3 or 4 tons of burthen, they give

short period of the day they are thus permitted an average speed of only 11 knots per hour, the


to employ their time. It was obvious to us that Great Eastern, to run 15 knots, has but 1 horse- An important social “experiment” is at present this was a very happy state of things, showing a power to 8} tons burthen. Mr. Hawes sums being simultaneously tried in various portions of very far-seeing policy upon the part of the heads up thus :-" This then is the measure of the the British dominions, and is watched with con- of the works, inasmuch as the child is not only “advantage gained by her beautiful form, great siderable interest by true and zealous philanthro- reared to an independent position by the know“size, but comparatively small steam-power. pists. We allude to the foundation of training ledge of a trade, while it is receiving that religious “We have a higher speed by a vessel 7 or 8 schools, where a solid but plain education, and a and moral education without which the greatest "times larger than any afloat, than has yet been knowledge of the manufactures carried on around, mechanical acquirements are rendered so often "attained-capable of carrying from 5,000 to “10,000 passengers, or 4,000 passengers and go hand in hand in fitting the offspring of the unstable, but the parents themselves working "10,000 tons of cargo ; burning per hour but men employed upon the works, of both sexes, for almost in sight of their offspring are relieved “three times the quantity of coals now used by their future independence and well-being. The from that depressing and feverish weight of "ships one-eighth her size, and carrying fuel enormous factories at Saltville, for the manufac-anxiety which is ever attendant upon the parental " for 40 days steaming instead of for 15 days—ture of woollens, the extensive glass-works of care of children not similarly provided for. These “can any one doubt this being a great advance Messrs. Chance and Co., near Birmingham, and children, as they rise in mechanical acquirements, "in ocean steam navigation? Railway speed the extensive producing resources at Silvertown, work immediately under their parents' eye, and in “ was never the object of the engineer, but large opposite Woolwich, are successfully developing due time, in sickness or death, succeed to their “carrying power with great safety, at a speed to “accomplish the distance to India in the same results in the highest degree encouraging to the positions and emoluments. A committee of taste, “or in less time than by the overland mail permanent unity and good fellowship of the em- tending to bring out the latent talent of old and route, with the economy of ordinary clipper ployer and the employed.

young, is amongst the noticeable features of this “ships, was his object, and, as far as we can see, The impression left upon our minds by a visit to community; and from time to time plans and “ it appears likely to be fully realised.”

the latter place, which, through the courtesy of the models are examined, and suggestions for the adWe cannot pass over without a few words Messrs. Silver, we thoroughly inspected, was one vancement or improvement of any of fourteen the last portion of Mr. Hawes' remarks—those of a very promising description, arising from different descriptions of trades carried on at Silver






town are examined and canvassed, and prizes | nitude of which can best be judged of by a glance made to show that the same actual amount of awarded for those of a practical nature. A Mutual at the busy scene of the packer's department upon heat is produced, whether some metals osidise Improvement Society in connection with the for the basement of these establishments, where enor. slowly or rapidly. But I must be allowed to mer, gives unity and force to its other beneficial mous cases are being labelled with their various doubt whether these experiments are satisfactory, tendencies. The school-room serves as a temporary destinations, and are constantly departing for and I believe any person will agree that they canplace of worship, a chaplain being appointed to shipping to almost every quarter of the world. not apply to the slow or rapid oxidation of iron; the duty. This gentleman does not, however, con- This department, and the general sample room, for to conceive by any slow operation as much heat fine his ministrations to these works, but extends where specimens of the manifold articles manu- is altogether given out as when it burns in oxygen them also to the numerous employés at the ware- factured by the firm permit of the merchant gas seems actually impossible ; and for the simple houses in Cornhill and Bishopgate, where social selecting at once and giving his orders, perhaps reason, that no man can measure exactly the very and religious meetings take place monthly, best served to convince us of the magnitude of the high degree of heat produced by this latter experimarked by appropriate addresses, prayer, &c. A inanufactures carried on by the firm, to which we ment. This heat, like that produced by heating mechanics' and news institute are likewise in full have to tender our thanks for the courtesy which vitreous selenium slowly to 1920, when it suddenly and useful exercise in one of these warehouses, in thus permits us to afford onr readers a slight, and, rises to 450° (Regnault's Cours. I. p. 245), by the which classes for instruction are formed, and lists we trust, interesting insight into its workings. cold powder of antimony in chlorine, and by of sessional lectures printed and delivered by its

potassium when laid even on ice, or when the rays members.

of a powerful sun fall on sawdust moistened with

Ο Ν HEA T. To return to Silvertown: the parents of this

oil, or by Sir J. Leslie's air-pump experiments, nay, infant colony work at the more matured require- EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS TENDING TO

even by igniting a lucifor match, &c., &c., is so ments of the factories, which are devoted to pon

THE HEAT WHICI DR. BLACK | great that it forces us to acknowledge the truth derons machinery of Herculean strength for the

DURING THE of the theory I have elsewhere advocated, of the mastication of crude india-rubber, until that won.

LIQUEFACTION OF Ice, AND WHICH HE CALLED generation of heat from heat, much in the same drous product acquires its perfect protean powers,


way in which life is generated from life. and is converted into rick and waggon cloths, car

THE FREEZING OF WATER, WITH REMARKS ON It will be seen that I admit that Dr. Black's

A PECULIAR PROPERTY WHICH SEEMS TO BE riage aprons, macintosh and various waterproof

theory is true as regards the absorption of heat garments, waterhose of almost endless lengths,

when ice becomes water. I shall now proceed to air goods, such as life-boats, mattresses, cushions,

show that his experiments are not so satisfaetory inflated children's balls for play—a comparatively


when he attempts to show that water gives out recently manufactured article of very extensive

(Continued from p. 378.)

these 140° again when it becomes ice. use. Buffers, washers and bearing springs now so That the theory of the separation of atoms

The following experiments (says Thomson, p. extensively used for machinery, are

here likewise being the cause of cold is right, follows also from 160) prove that the heat of 140° which enter into turned out after the severest tests in almost fabu: Sir 3. Leslie's experiments on the exhaustion

of ice to change it to water, are not altogether lons quantities. The tenacity, and power of air (i. e., separation of the space between its atoms). at 22°, we leave a vessel of water at 52° to the resisting great weights as evidenced by these washers, as well as the buffers and packers degrees* when in the receiver, (says Thomson, open air, and beside it another full of brine at similarly constructed for railway carriages, is p. 108.) And the sudden rise to so great a degree each, we shall find that both of them gradually something marvellous. The manufacture of hose for when air is let in again, is also best explained by cool to 32°. After this the brine (which does not water pipes, &c., is another branch of this peculiar the theory now proposed. The density of air freeze till cooled to 4*) cools gradually to 22, the industry, which more than usually interested us, being •0,0003, Leslie found that the degree of heat inasmuch as we saw no less than sixty feet of produced by letting the external air rush into the temperature of the air; but the pure water rerubber placed around a mandrel or tube, and receiver, so as to return to density 1, was so won.

mains at 32°, and freezes very slowly, and never after being joined throughout the whole of this derfully great as 13,500° F., and even

when the gets below 32°* Now, is it not probable that the by one man with an ease and facility which at heat in this case may be generated by the friction 140° it absorbed during its liquefaction, and that once proved how little friction must exist between of rushing in, but the greater part is probably water at 32', notwithstanding what it parts with metal and this extraordinary compound. fact is surely as suggestive as it is curious. It THAN, USUAL, in consequence of their having been to the air during the whole proceedings ? is likewise within the precincts of these previously placed in an unnatural and forced state

Now, I may observe that the reason why the works that india-rubber is undergoing trials for of very great separation. The degree of cold water does not fall lower than 32, seems to depend the purpose of being enlisted yet more extensively will be greater the greater the RAPIDITY of the

on the sudden production of a nisus at this temas an important auxiliary for the more impervious action of separation of atoms, whether in the case perature to resist change of state (for this is the insulation of electric-wires.

of the solution of salts, or of the exhaustion of natural freezing point), which nisus prevents the The houses already built at Silvertown are some air, and vice versa, as regards the production of equilibrium of heat being established, just in the fifty in number; they are without the gates of heat. But in both cases rapidity of action must

same way when a similar sudden production of the works, and from external appearance seem to be regarded as an essential element, whether of force (nisus), prevents the water in a red-hot be inhabited by an industrious community, who the production of cold or heat, only that the crucible arriving at a heat above 96.5 C. intuitively entertain a high regard for almost a

motions will be inverse ; but the idea of pressing (Boutigny), or altogether to the boiling point. Dutch notion of cleanliness. The street is wide, out or drawing in of an ether (the cause of heat)

This theory seems well to explain the fact that well paved, drained and lighted, and in it we

seems to explain the effect just as well (to say the induced Thomson to think that the above experinoticed a store for food. The latter we were in least) as the theory of the opposite motion of ment almost proves the evolution of 140°, viz., formed was self-supporting, and each article being atoms.

that the brine may be cooled to 22°. But why? bought at trade price, and of the leading whole- In the case of snow and water at 172o the more Because as this does not freeze till at 4°, the sale houses, its purity and economy are ensured. It rapid and greater production of cold than when is again retailed at a fractional advance of cost to

over the 140' theory. As the force of heat is rised to overwater at 32° is used, is also to be paralleled with

come cohesion in the two cases in the text, is it not meet the contingent expenses of rent, &c. A the greater production of cold when snow and natural to suppose that the force should be diminished or medical practitioner is also attached to the firm, muriate of soda are used, than when water at 322 destroyed by its struggle with cohesion ? To assert, as and a sick fand has likewise been established and muriate of soda are used. I have already another force without losing any of its power, is contrary under proper regulations, which not only brings stated that in this case the production of cold to all analogy: When the cohesion of zine is destroyed by with it a due amount of independence, as the men certainly greater than what the mere absorption solution in dilute sulphuric acid, heat instead of cold is find in it a fund which provides for accidents, but of 140° can account for, is to be attributed to the the acid and metal; hence IMMEDIATELY on the separation absolves them from the necessity of seeking elee natural action being hurried, and in the same way of homogeneous atoms, there is a CLOSER UNION of heteromosynary aid from their employers. The houses when snow is dissolved in water at 172°, I may ask geneous atoms. devoted to the chaplain, the manager, and princi- whether, at least, part of the cold produced is not

• Thomson must mean till long after it is frozen ; for ice pal clerks are within the gates, and are well built, to be ascribed to a similar cause ?

at 32° may be cooled to 22°; though the operation is slow. commodious, and comfortable structures. Indeed, I know that an attempt has very lately been more difficult; and it is worthy of remark that as chloride

+ The addition of salts makes freezing, as well as boiling, everything around bears the unmistakeable im

of calcium impedes freezing more than chloride sodium press of a well-organised system, which distributes Of course this separation of atoms is the cause of the (salt), so it impedes boiling more, and while with salt (50 to industry, ease, and happiness over the largest cold predsteen big evaporation. It also explains why high 100 parts) water boils at 221°, it with a saturated solution

of the former) does not boil at 264o. (Thomson, p. 179.) surface.

to expand by rushing into the air. Also the freezing of But as according to Despretz's experiments, when 148-156 Although the products of this industrial town water when this is put in anlıydrous sulphuric acid in a parts of chloride of sodium are dissolved in 1000 parts are enormous in their aggregate, the warehouses in and wide of the ether

evaporating, while the fluid portion with the same quantity of chloride of calcium in the same

red hot crucible, the separation of atoms being so quick water, the freezing point of the solution is 14-440°, and London take their share, and some hundreds of remains under 32° F. But as so little water is used when quantity of water, is at 15.962°, and with ditto of earbonate men, women, and the youth of both sexes, are

the hand moistened is dipped in melted iron, by itself of potash, it is at 30-4880°. (Thomson, p. 156. Tables.) there employed in the completion of shirts, krap- about the hand assists) it seems inadequate to explain this (unless the sudden expansion of air in the water and all In this case, then, the nature of the salt seems to make a

great difference, and it does not act merely mechanically sacks—both for military and touring purposes-wonderful fact. It explains well the sudden sinking of by any supposed separation of the atoms of water; Sir C. belts, caps of all descriptions, toilet requirements, water from 418° to 212° in Papin's digester, when the steam Blagden's experiments on other saline solutions (p. 154) clothing, &c., &c., as well as the resources of a

prove the same. It is curious, however, that common sede is + The particles

of snow are separated rapidly from each even a little more powerful than ehloride of calcium, seeing private outfitting trade for Great Britain, the mag. other, hence there should be an extra production of cold that in freezing mistures it lowers temperature so far less.

nisus in this case has no need to be developed, and nault's Cours Elementaire, Tom. 1, p. 101, able to make experiments below 220," and hence he is not, till the solution is cooled far beyond the 1858-9.)

has been obliged to conclude" from analogy," that temperature of the air (viz., 22° F). That“what it The secret of cooling below 32° seems to depend 'th part freezes for every 5o we descend below parts with to the air” is a pure assumption on the on the prevention of even the SLIGHTEST degree of 32°. But surely “analogy" would induce is part of Drs. Black and Thomson, is shown by the motion, from the contact even of the invisible par- rather to think that the lower we descended, the lame way (on this occasion) in which Thomson ticles of dust always in the air ; in fact, to freedom proportion of asth would be far more likely to proceeds. " If,” says he, "a delicate thermometer from all irritation; hence, in the experiment first increase than remain fixed, since the cold is so far is suspended above water while freezing, it is con- quoted, we find, as the vessel was "uncovered," greater. I may add to this objection that the stantly affected by a stream of air less cold! (sic) the water never fell below 32°, though the brine very ingenious attempt to make exactly 140° than the air around.” (p. 161.). Observe here a did (the air being only 22). By these observa rather overshoots the mark, for Cavendish thought "delicate thermometer" is to be used, and even tions I do not mean to deny that probably a 150,* Wilkie 130°, Laplace 135°, and Person (the then air “less cold” is only given off'; yet if even great increase in the degree of cold (10—30°, or latest experiments) 79.25° C., about 159of F. disonly of 140° had been given out, it should not less, for example) would overcome this anti-freez- appear during the melting of ice. only have affected a “delicate thermometer," but ing action of ABSOLUTE freedom from the irri- This theory also seems to assume another doubteven the hand, as he tells us is the case" when tation of dust, but this does not prove that freezing ful point, namely, that the 13 parts can be in heat is entering ice." "Place even the hand,” says is always a PURELY physical act, as is supposed, actual contact with the 14th part frozen ; for if he, “under the vessel, and a current of cold air for life itself can exist for a time under the action not, as water is so bad a conductor of heat, they may be felt descending from it during the whole of a great degree of cold,

but increase this, and life surely could not rob it of 140°. But as 13 spheres process of liquefaction” (p. 160), and, of course, is at once extinguished and becomes impossible. of the same size can't be all at the same time in a common thermometer also proves it. (Experi- But the cautious reader will observe that contact with one, this 14th part losing instantly

ment 2.) “Let a tall beer glass, covered, and in the case the water is cooled to 22° there 140', which it must do, for the freezing “is sudden • nearly full of water, with a thermometer in it, be are only 10°, and in case it is cooled to 5° there into a spongy mass” (p. 161.), seems entirely exposed when the air is at 22°. In this case it are only' 27° seemingly given out-a very different theory. But this “spongy mass," as it nearly fills cools down to 22° without freezing. Things being temperature from the presumed 140°. This the vessel, should instead of 10°$, give out 140', 80, if the water be shaken, part of it freezes, and brings us to the famous attempt of Thomson to or nearly so, as he himself tells us twice that the the temperature of the whole instantly rises to prove by experiment that in reality these 10o freezing in this case is very sudden. And the 32°. Now, whence come these 10°? Is it not or 27° indicate 140°, and thus to remove the great want of this sudden effect (in common freezing) is evident that water in the act of freezing gives defect in Black's theory, probably seen by him, the reason why he, and Dr. Wilson more lately, out heat ?” (p. 161.)

but considered incapable of explanation. (Ex. viz., 1854 (Chemical Treatise), assert that we canAs I have found by experiment that the tempera- periment 3.) “From many experiments," says not mark by the thermometer that 140° are ture of water is not sensibly raised by violent shak- he (p: 161), "I have found reason to conclude evolved. The formation of ice is so very slow ing, this evolution of heat does not arise from the that the quantity of ice which forms suddenly on that these 140° escape imperceptibly, say these “shaking" made use of, as indeed is clear from the agitation of water, cooled down below the authors; but in the present case it is not so, and turning to p. 154, where we find “that any solid freezing point, always bears a constant ratio to the I may add that as the air is always something body dropt in water so cooled-whether it be a coldness of the liquid before agitation. Thus, I below 32, often below 22°, when water freezes, I pin, a grain of salt, a piece of animal or vegetable find, when water is cooled down to 22° very nearly think in all cases these 140' (or rather part of substance, causes freezing and the rise to 32. tath of the whole freezes; when the previous tem- them) should escape quickly enough to be very Agitation, or even wind, provided all solid matler perature is 27°, about sth of the whole freezes. easily observed by the thermometer, nay, even by be excluded, does not seem to act.” Hence, the From analogy, I conclude that for every 5 degrees the touch. Had freezing in general taken place the agitation said to produce the effect in the first of diminution of temperature below freezing with when the air was nearer this temperature of 140° quotation (p. 151), is by implication made to de-out congelation, ith of the liquid freezes suddenly. (say only 60'), then indeed as they would have been pend on the atoms of dust (solid matter) always on agitation. Therefore, if water could be cooled far longer in passing to it, we might conceive them floating in the air. And we find that Thomson down 28 times 5° below 32° without congelation, lost by absorption. But air at 32, or lower, should “has cooled water in thermometer tubes to 8", and the whole would congeal instantly on agitation, surely always be very suddenly raised by them, once to 5° before it began to freeze, and even then and the temperature of the ice would be 32°. and in a very obvious manner, on the ground of it rose to 32 on freezing" (p. 154).

Now, 5 x 28 = 110% gives us precisely the quan- heat seeking its equilibrium more quickly the Now, when we consider that water may cer

tity of heat which, according to Black's experi- greater the difference of the temperature of the tainly be cooled to 5° (and probably even lower) ments, enters into ice to change it to water."* bodies. Indeed these reflections induce me to without freezing, here we have at the beginning Thus when water is cooled down to 22°, every doubt if water in common circumstances could presumptive evidence that this evolution of heat particle of it wants 10° of the heat necessary to scarcely ever be frozen except at the very surface, and the rise to 32° is to be attributed to the keep it liquid ; (I may here by parenthesis observe if it required to give out again these 140° before physiological cause (if I may venture so to speak) that it does not, for it still remains liquid); 13 parts freezing, since the air itself would be so much that makes a corked and saturated solution of the of it seize 109 each from the 14th part. These heated by the very operation of freezing. The carbonate or sulphate of soda crystallize, and, at

13 acquire the temperature of 32', and the other temperature of the air being 70°, I filled a vial the same time, evolve heat* on removing the part being deprived of 10x 13= 130°, which with with water heated to 168°, and found that in ten cork, &c., &c., and that the evolution of heat is the 10° it had lost before, make 140° (its heat of minutes the temperature of the air in a tumbler the effect to a certain extent of this cause, which fluidity), assumes the form of ice.”

was raised to 86', when the vial was left corked to in ALL cases may be called an assistant cause of Now, Prof sor Thomson tells us, “ he was not prevent heating from steam in the tumbler uncovered. freezing ? Else, how is it that water has not a

I found by placing the bulb in contact with the FIXED point down to which it may be cooled with main point, viz., why, when water is below 32, it must minutes, and remained there ; consequently glass

. In all this Thomson has omitted to comment on the side of the vial, that this was raised to 103° in five out freezing ? Why soinetimes to 22°, sometimes always rise to 32" before it assumes the solid state of ice: heated to this can raise the temperature of sur5', as I observe since this essay was written, ag This should at once have induced him to think that the has been confirmed by others. (See Prof. Reg. giving out of these 100 had nothing to do with the sup: rounding air from 70° to 86° (the mean of two

posed giving out of 140°, and formed no part of these, but experiments with two thermometers). Air, then,

depended upon the same physiological cause that makes See these experiments, Thomson p. 173. In the case of melted tin when cooled down to 438", or 4 degrees below its

has an absorbent power, as the experiments of carbonate of soda 14', and in that of sulphate of soda 24°, are freezing (solidifying) point, rise instantly to 442° (its solidi- Professor Tyndall (Bibliothèque Universelle) have given out under such circumstances. Thomson, by a similar fying point), when it congeals (Thomson, P.; 133, Crich- very lately shown, and consequently the temperaline of argument to that used in experiment 3 (see further

ton's Experiments). These 4o have nothing to, do on) has tried to prove that these numbers represent in each with the heat of fluidity of tin, why then should the 10%

ture of this will be raised at least 10° or 12° if case a part of the latent heat of the water of crystallization, evolved when water is cooled to 22? It would appear 110° are really given out from water during viz., "; but, if possible, less successfully, I think, than in that bodies may have too much cold for congealing, and freezing. But our quotations from Black show the case of water cooled to 22, and rising to 32° by freezing, that they all have a fixed temperature for such change, that it

not, and a " delicate thermometer" only because, even if water of crystallization be solid, as he probably because this favours better the new arrangement asserts, it can only be solid from what may be called a of atoms, obliged to be made, when they change from proves the air above freezing water “less cold" state of chemical combination, just as oxygen united to fluids to solids.

than air around! iron, as oxyde of iron, is solid. In neither of these cases is the Since the above was written, I see that Regnault solidity exactly the same, as in the case of ice, as the tem- says :-" This rise of temperature is observed in the

The attempt to prove that no part even of these perature at which they exist is so much higher, and I solidification of all bodies when during

fusion they are 1409 can be detected because the freezing is slow, have just found that by crushing sulphate of soda between folds of blotting paper that this is wetted by the water of confirm my view, given at length, that the development of globe with a narrow neck, and applying a freezing

cooled below their solidifying

point.". This, then, will may be upset again by putting water in a glass crystallization fixed between the pores of the salt unchanged. It is curious that the above solutions-like water generally. He also says (1): "A strong vibration (shock) mixture (snow and salt) to the globe. The water brought to 22° without freezing-must be cooled and will cause congelation of water cooled much below 32, suddenly starts up, then subsides, and after an corked "without agitation;" hence there is a great analogy between the cases. As these salts are very solable, easily (mieux).” And he seems to say (2), * that the whole interval rises again slowly, then shoots into ice with water has a strong attraction for them. Is there not then of the water gradually freezes under such circumstances the greatest velocity. (Thom. p. 20.) And the "pro. a nisus produced ia the water to prevent the salt leaving it (Op: cit : Tom. 1, p. 104), and that it resists, and remains by change of state-by crystallization? This would tend at, 32°, till the freezing is complete. Thus, on the first of . Phil. Trans, 1733. to explain the reason why the salts do not fall till the cork these two points, he is certainly at variance with Péclet. (Traité de la Chaleur, Tom. I, p. 461, Zieme of the vial is removed; but when by doing this, irritation Thomson's statement above quoted; and also, most profrom particles of dust always floating in the air is pro luced, bably as regards the latter, and is in this latter he is right, Could water freeze at 229, even these 10% would not be the crystallization takes place from the same physiological we have still stronger reason for rejecting Thomson's given out. On obvious principles they are given out because cause that makes water at 22° freeze and rise to 32° by its attempt to prove that 140% are given out when water the water is excited by an irritation to freeze or change crystallization, so to call it. freezes.

the arrangement of its atoms, and it can only do this at 33,

edition. 1860.


digious force generated by this expansion is conducts even high degrees of heat slowly, as the and still remain water p* That when at 212° it shown by the experiment where it burst a brass experiment of heated water at the top of a glass can lose 140° and yet remain water at 72° is globe an inch in diameter by freezing.” (Thom. tube shows. But nothing seems clearer than that certain.

Ditto that when at 172o it can lose p. 34.) Reaumur found cast-iron, bismuth, and there is not.

even more than 140', and yet remain roater; since, antimony also expanded on becoming solid. (p. 34.) In Professor Tyndall's late experiments (Phil. as already stated, Professor Thomson was able to But they probably do not expand to near the ex: Mag., Nov., 1858) after 20 minutes' action of prevent the formation of ice even when water tent of ice on its formation, the expansion being Harrison's freezing apparatus, a thermometer, was cooled to 5o. so great as “10 per cent. of the volume of water.”* placed two inches deep in the water, was " firmly"

(To be continued.) (Phil. Magazine : June 1855.)

imbedded in ice formed from this water (A) at 24°. We may here pause, and ask the origin of this We find this thermometer gradually SINKING, SO vast force in all these cases. And first, as there that at 1 o'clock it stood at 11°, and at this time ON THE RELATIVE EFFECTS OF DENSE are probably many other cases besides the above, another thermometer put one inch from the side

AND SUPER-HEATED STEAM, we may ascribe the origin of it to a general proof this, and hence further from the side of the

By Mr. Thomas HOWARD. perty of matter, viz., a tendency to resist a change ether (which was in the middle), worked only In my communication to the MECHANICS” MAGA. of its natural (usual) state, and the consequent 26, and was soon surrounded by ice! (B)* ZINE of 14th February, 1857 (No. 1749) on the production of a NISUS whenever such change is But why only 26. if 140° had been given out by subject of super-heating steam, I ventured to reforced on it. As regards water especially, we may the layer of ice firmly frozen (A) P. Perhaps mark that "it would seem probable that the ask, supposing all the 140° to exist in it at the against all this it may be said that the ether system may shortly pass into the competing hands time of the formation of ice, would not this vast carried off these 140°; if so, still surely even a of the makers of steam-engines, without which EXPANSIVE effort (doubtless caused by the air .small part should have been given out on the side condition there would be little hope for it even being forced by being at or below 32°, to attempt of the ater. But on the contrary we find this (B) now.” It has just arrived at this position, and to extract the heat of the water) at once ABSORB only 261, though in immediate contact with the would seem on the fair road of becoming geneCERTAINLY, and thus prevent any extrication of freezing water. In these experiments again, then, rally adopted. The exposition too therein given heat in freezing ? Regarding, then, this expansion the common argument that ice freezes so slowly of the loss of steam, and of course of fuel, by the as another argument against the evolution of does not apply, for the water froze in twenty precipitation of water on the internal surface of 140° by freezing, I may also regard it as showing, minutes, and hence the 140° should have been the cylinder and its adjuncts on the admission of perhaps, an unusually powerful nisus in water given off very quickly.

dense steam, such surface being cooled by the compared with almost all other matter, seeing Although it seems proved that ice in melting rapid conversion into vapour of this water on that this requires energy enough to expand (as it absorbs 1 40°, and renders the heat “latent” (i communication with the condenser, and so on al. were, in very defiance of heat) while some small should rather call it combined heat which loses its ternately, is beginning to be accepted and underportion of heat is probably LEAVING it (if such heat character, just as an alkali does when combined stood; as is also the prevention of this loss by is not converted into this pure repulsive force ?); with an acid), still it may be asked (if not annihi. simply giving to the steam " a sufficient surcharge for certainly no heat is entering into it, to expand lated or converted to other force), do not these of caloric to enable it to maintain its elastic or it. It would almost seem in reference to the 140° gradually go out of the water as radiant heat? | vaporous condition throughout the stroke without query just put, that the nisus of water to resist That the intense attraction of ice for heat con- the deposit of water." change of state is even strong enough to subdue tinues after its liquefaction seems doubtful, seeing I now record in further confirmation of these the very nature of heat itself (since it expands as that nature is against the formation of ice, this views the result of many experiments made in forcibly WITHOUT Tuis, as most forms of matter being inimical to vitality. Hence there is pro. the interim on the four steam-engines at these can do with it), and separate its pure repulsive bably what may be called a latent nisus in this works. Two of them are fitted with jackets to . element from that peculiarity in it which excites ice to absorb heat, and to change to water, and which the steam is admitted from the boilers at what we call pain—in fact, to decompose heat, this intense attraction for heat in ice would go to its full pressure, and the condensed water drawn which must be the case if "latent heat” is even confirm the assertion in the last note, of its being off as it accumulates. One of them, without a indirectly the cause of the expansion.t

properly considered colder than ice-cold water. jacket, is provided with a vessel to catch the con. Since water may freeze, and never rise above I query whether more than the mere surface (of densed water passing along the steam-pipe, which 32° while the air itself remains at only 22° (as | a few inches deep) could ever freeze if 140° had is of considerable length. The other has neither formerly stated), here again is another argument to be given off, since though these 140° could be a separator nor jacket, but the steam pipe is against its giving out 140°, for, if it did, the air easily supposed to be given off directly into the thoroughly clothed. The boilers are large and should rise above 22°; yet the same men who fur- air at the surface freezing, still after this was have plenty of steam room, and being worked by nish us with these interesting facts, seem never to frozen, another 140° would have to ascend through the spare heatlof the reverberatory furnaces, are not think them adverse to the 140° theory.

this surface ice, as heat must be conducted away subject to forcing or priming. The nominal There is also another point they and the late upwards ! Such free heat, therefore, would imme. powers of the engines are 45, 25, and two of 20 writers on “Conservation of Force” overlook, viz., diately thaw the surface that had been frozen ? horses. I inserted into the cylinder cover a small that when one force grapples with another force, This heat must pass upwards, because it would cup or thimble projecting a little way into the EVEN SUCCESSFULLY—as when the absorption of be attracted by the part where the greatest cold cylinder, and containing sufficient mercury, to 140° certainly is necessary to render ice fuid, or

was, viz., at the surface, which being 32°, the cover a thermometer bulb. A hole was also drilled water—these 140° may still possibly , if they be next would be 33°, 34°, 35°, 36°, 37°, 38°, 39°, and nearly through the valve case close to the port, coming the great cohesive power of ice

, yet be par- This water at 40° would constitute a vast Jense the pressure varying from four to nine pounds per not actually annihilated in the conflict of over- 40°, the greatest density of water in succession. also supplied with a little mercury.

The engines are low pressure and condensing, tially so, and reduced to 50° or 60°, or less. When mass in all freezing water. one force in animal bodies overcomes another, we Add the reason above stated in favour of

inch above the atmosphere. Care was taken to

my always find a diminution (though temporary, be- opinion—that water being so bad a conductor of have the piston packing and slides duly tight at the cause life can regenerate force) even in the con. heat, part at least of these 140°, if disengaged, time of the experiments. A pressure indicator of quering force, as when a weight (for instance) is should remain a very long time sensible to the the usual construction was applied simultaneously raised by nervous power. Again—when a ball in thermometer.

with the thermometer. motion impinges against one at rest, much of the Another point in reference to the present

The result of the experiments is, that when the motion is, no doubt, transferred, but surely some subject is

, that Sir J. Leslie, in his essay engines were working about one-fourth below must be actually annihilated by the act of having "On Heat,” puts down the radiating power

of their assigned velocity

under heavy loads, and the overcome the resistance of the ball previously at water 100°,+ making it, somewhat greater even

throttle valves wide open in order that very little rest. then lamp-black. In consequence, as soon as

difference of pressure should exist between that If 140° were given out by the freezing of water, ever the air becomes colder than freshly melted ice, in the cylinder and steam-pipe, the temperature there should be some elevation of the temperature this will surely soon radiate at least some of the of the former at the least was 17° below that of in the contiguous portions of water, since this 140° it has absorbed to become water. The

the latter. And when the engines were worked . Moreover, the high degree of heat used for the fusion question is, cannot it do so, and yet remain water? at their assigned velocity of 200 feet speed of of these metals renders these cases not so analogous with | If it can-cannot it lose ALMOST ALL these 140°, piston per minute, the difference of temperature the expansion of ice as might appear at first sight. The

reached 20°. The steam is not worked expansively cooling of these metals, too, is also, of course, a far

* In another Essay on Heat I shall have occasion to say higher temperature than the cooling of water to form ice.

more than by the ordinary lap of the slides, as more

on these experiments ; at present I may state that they there is an abundant supply, and this may be In the expansion of this latter, ihen, we are perhaps by poster er bes, the more pressentials colderPinan ice-creed nearly balanced by the cushion of steam at the cases more analogous, as oil, &c., &c., &c., we find con- water,”(Compt. Rend., 1850) since they show

that the in- end of the stroke. The diminution of temperature traction in the vast majority of cases examined always to accompany congelation. that ice water never can, in common circumstances, get

as shown by the above discrepancy, owing to a + Even the actual giving out of 10° when water at 290 below 32°, and if in Thomson's experiments “ once to 3," freezes, seems not incompatible with the annihilation of

we know that ice
might be cooled to any possible degree possible way, and very different from what Dr. Black

• If these 140° are ever given out again this is the only much heat, or its conversion to pure repulsive force, during

and yet remain ice. the expansion of freezing. In almost every case this causes

+ See also Thomson, On Heat, p. 25.

Thomson, and Wilson supposed, for it is obvious that on cold, so that as Leslie produced very great heat by forcing

this theory these 140° will not be necessary for fluidity,

# This great radiating power will also support my though they are for the melting of ice certainly. Sapposing air to condense suddenly in the void, so he produced cold opinion (above-stated), viz., that if 140° are given out by only 10 remained to be given out in the act of congelation, enough to freeze mercury by the sudden separation, and freezing, at the very least

10° or 12° should be indicated by our thermometer possibly might not be able to detect of course to a greater extent than can happen in common circumstances of the atoms of air by rarefaction.

a thermometor placed in the air above the water becom- them. When air is at 220, it certainly must be long gra. ing ice.

dually extracting heat from water,

terior of masses of ice was often below 320. But we know

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