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not of that irregular and erratic FIG. 4,-SCARIFIER PLOUGH.

character which many cards of de. viation might lead one to suppose, but that they accord most closely with the deductions of theory and experiment, as exemplified in the works of the Astronomer Royal and Mr. Archibald Smith.” And again, at p. 24, in alluding to certain fluctuations in the amount and direction of a ship’s induced magnetism, These fluctuations do not appear, however, to affect practically an authoritative statement which has already been supported by the committee, and which, as it forms the key to the correction and calculation of compass deviations, cannot be too earnestly repeated; namely, that a a ship's magnetism for any given place may be very closely represented by a permanent polar wag

netic force in combination with a HARE

quadrantal force, or one changing its deviation in each quadrant as a ship is swung round.”

Among the various philosophers

who, during the present half century FIG. 5.—TRENCHING PLOTGI.

-a period noted for the progress of theoretical and experimental research-have grappled with the perplexing and, it may be said, uninviting science of magnetism, none more perseveringly worked for practical ends than the late Rev. Dr. Scoresby, and to him is due the enunciation of the notable facts, that the distribution of magnetisim in an iron ship depends on the direction of the keel and head while' building with reference to the magnetic meridian; and that this ori.

ginal magnetism is subject to great substituted in their steads, when at one operation

THE MAGNETISM OF SHIPS. changes after launching, and also from other exa perfect fallow may be made. Fig. 5 shows one- By F. J. Evans, Esq., Master R.X., F.R.A.S., Superinten- traneous causes. The following from among the half of a balance plough frame, with subsoil irons

dent of the Compass Department, Admiralty." results of his investigations, as bearing on the attached. We have now given illustrations of the I HAVE to bring to your notice, and under review, subject, are worthy of extract. — (Magnetical whole apparatus used by Mr. Fowler, and which the valuable labours, still in progress, of a com- Investigations, by the Rev. Wm. SCORESBY, D.D., may be seen in operation at the Royal Agricul- mittee formed at Liverpool by various gentlemen vol. ii. 1852, pp. 330—343.) tural Society's Show at Warwick, where agricul- connected with the vast shipping interests of that 1. That ships built of iron in place of timber and turists will have had an opportunity of verifying port, and working also under the auspices of the plank obtain necessarily an extremely high degree of the statements we have made with regard to its Board of Trade, to collect observations and make magnetic development from the elaborate system of simplicity and efficiency. The cost of ploughing by experiments on the condition and distribution of percussive action, as well as from the bending of the steam was stated in our last article, the results magnetism in iron-built ships, and the general plates and bars, during the progress of their con. given being from trials by the Society's engineer. system of compass correction and management.

struction. Estimates have, however, been made by several Two or three disastrous shipwrecks, clearly of the retentive quality, a quality remaining whilst

2. That the dominant magnetisn thus developed is persons, and the several conclusions arrived at are traced to compass errors, occurring about the time terrestrially sustained by consistency of position, and that from 78. to 10s. may be fairly put down as that the iron navy of Liverpool was rapidly ex. otherwise, also, in relations inaccordant with terresthe cost of steam ploughing for different classes of panding, gave rise to various conflicting opinions trial influence, whilst the ship remains free from land, and from 9s. to 18s. for double trenching the on the safety of their navigation, and particularly mechanical violence or other magnetically-disturbing soil. These accounts, be it remembered, include on the subject of compass-compensation by force. every expense, wear and tear, interest of capital, magnets; these questions were discussed in various 3. That in each iron ship there is a special indi. &c., and compare very favourably with home la- periodicals

, and also at the British Association for viduality, of the magnetic distribution, depending bour. We insist that after so persevering a course the Advancement of Science, held at Liverpool in direction of the keel and heac—whilst building, and

essentially on the position-characterised by the as that which Mr. Fowler has taken, he should 1854: hence arose the formation of the Liverpool peculiarly on the deviations from

uniformity in the at length reap the reward of his labours. They Compass Committee.

placing of occasional heavy masses of iron. have been most arduous, very costly, and such as The publication in 1857 of the first and second

4. That, after being launched, percussion, vibration, nothing but a firm conviction that success was at- reports of that body to the Board of Trade, and or the straining of the general frame of iron-built tainable, and a determination to obtain it, would presented to both Houses of Parliament by com- ships, must tend to equalise the relations of the ship's have enabled him to overcome.

mand of Her Majesty, enables the observations re- magnetisms with those of the earth; and that the

lative to the theory of the magnetism of ships to state of equalisation or approximation thereto will BOAT-LOWERING APPARATUS.—Mr. Clifford has be extended, not only in confirming what has been be hastened and advanced accordingly as the quantity forwarded to us—but too late for publication this already advanced, but in giving some more general accordingly as the ship’s

head is kept pretty steadily week—a reply to the letter of "Nauticus,” which views of its character and distribution, particularly in the same direction. appeared in our last impression. This we hope to in iron-built vessels. insert in our next, but in the mean time as the A striking feature in these reports is

, that the cording to Dr. Scoresby, the theoretic magnetic

The accompanying diagrams represent, acletter of “Nauticus” contained a statement rela- researches of the various authorities already condition of iron ships built in England, with the tive to an accident to a boats crew of the quoted, and their exposition of the laws of mag: dip of the needle fron 68° to 70° N., previous to Oracle, which, if not immediately replied to, netic action on ship-board, have received ample being launched. might operate seriously to Mr. Clifford's injury, it confirmation from the various observations colis only right that we should state that Mr. lected and experiments undertaken by the com

The confirmation of Dr. Scoresby's views will be Clifford produces in contradiction to the charge mittee. In the opening page of the second report the committee no longer allow a doubt as to the

seen from the following extract : "The records of letters from Messrs. Green and the Captain, which they observe, that it has been "proved, too, most connection which exists between the direction of affirm that there was not the slightest blame at decisively, that the deviations of the compass on tached to her lowering gear,” and furthermore, board iron ships, when properly ascertained, are

a ship’s original nagnetism and her position when “that where it has been fitted in Messrs. Green's

upon the building slip. In all the ships which ships it has given general satisfaction.”

* Portion of a paper recently read at the United Service have been exanined, the north end of the comInstitution, and published in the Journal of that Society. pass-needle invıriably deviated towards that part

[graphic]
[graphic]

E

с

D

E

of the ship which was farthest from the north from direct experiment; still there is a notable | Liverpool in Sep

tember, 1856, while she was building, if the compass was placed example deduced from the latter in the case of the in a central position, and free from the influence ship Royal Charter, which will be hereafter

after alterations-, 19,+ i 13, -8 33, +8° 6, -8 19 of individual masses of iron.”* alluded to. The conclusions arrived at are thus Liverpool in Octo

ber, 1856... .-09,-4 55,-14 0, +6 41,-09 The reports also further proceed to show that given :the characteristic features of the original mag- This original magnetism of an iron ship is fre

Enough has now been advanced to show the netism of an iron ship, by which is meant the quently very permanent as regards direction, but is valuable nature of the investigations under review, magnetism dependent on her direction when believed to undergo rapid changes in its amount, both but on the subject of the changes of original magbuilding, and the effect on a compass when she is in reality and in its apparent effect on the compass: netism in newly-launched iron ships there appears swung, presuming that the needle is not influenced the most striking change being at and immediately to be ample scope for further inquiry, both as to by iron bulk-beads, or proximity to the stern-post, usually more evident in a steamer than in a sailing change, as also as to the probable time required

after launching, and during the first voyage. It is the possibility of there being some regular law of rudder-head, or other masses of vertical iron controlling the magnetism of the hull of the ship, is steamer have changed so much as two points in the for the development of its final permanency of as follows:

first two days at sea, while

afterwards the change has character. The alarming change alluded to in In an iron ship built with her head to the not been more than 3° in as many months. In new

the reports by the committee of “cases in which north, or nearly so, there is no apparent attraction sailing ships the change is generally, but not always, the deviations in a steamer have changed so much of the needle towards either side while she lies in

more gradual, and extends over a longer period. 'A as two points in the first two days at sea, while a north or south direction : but with her head in change of 10° to 15° is not infrequent.

afterwards the change has not been more than 3° all other directions there is a strong attraction

Again, Under some circumstances considerably in as many months," is from its amount and irre

more than one half of a ship’s original magnetism, or gularity sufficient to embarrass the most care. towards the stern.

rather that part of it which affects the compass, may ful navigator ; it is certainly to be hoped that the With ships built head to the south, the same be lost, or may become balanced in the course of a principle will apply, the deviation being then year.

cases on which the statement is based are exceptowards the bow.

And, After this early reduction of a ship's mag. tional, and arising from the injudicious selection When built with head to the east, the deviation netism has taken place, the remaining portion, as far of a position for the compass (probably from close is towards the starboard side, (the south in buildas may be judged from examinations made in the proximity to some ponderous

mass, especially of ing) and when built with the head to the west, to same place, and under the same circumstances, vertical iron). I am certainly disposed to view

them in this light from a consideration of the rethe port side (the sonth in building): [this de- appears to be comparatively permanent.

În confirmation of this comparatively per- sults obtained in the Royal Charter. viation must be considered as only due to a differential action, for if a compass be placed near

manent condition of a ship's magnetism the com- An important feature in the navigation of iron the top sides of such ships either internally or ex

mittee give a striking example in the case of the vessels, and one at the same time of a perplexing ternally, the north end of the needle (in north ship Great Britain ; and it may be permitted me character to the navigator, are the changes of magnetic latitudes) is attracted; one side, however, of inspecting deviation tables of most of the iron of some ships.

express my opinion, having had the opportunity deviation of the compass arising from the heeling attracts 'he needle more strongly than the other, vessels in H.M. navy, extending over many years' In wood-built vessels the errors from this cause and that is the side which was furthest from the observations, that from this evidence also their may be considered as in general too small in north when the ship was building, as above stated.] In these ressels if placed in an east or west direc permanent condition appears to be the role.

amount to be appreciable in practice, unless the

The committee thus report on that well-known compass is in close proximity to the guns or other tion, the north end of the needle will tend to the

iron ship the Great Britain :bow or stern respectively according to the direc

masses of iron ; but in iron-built vessels the results tion in which lies the greater mass of iron.

This extraordinary ship has been stranded, and are not unfrequently of sufficient magnitude to In ships built in intermediate positions the pre spheres, and been very many years in active service : information on this head is for the present very

strained, and altered; has traversed both hemi. call forth unceasing attention and vigilance. Our built witl head to the N.E., the attraction will be vet ber lines of no deviation are now much

the same incomplete; but some few leading points can be aft and to starboard; with the head to the N.W., when she was upon the stocks. Yet how small is the traced, sufficient to place the seaman on his guard aft and to port. If the head be S.E. or S.W., the change! a proof, apparently, that no circumstances and to draw attention to the general character. attraction will be forward and to starboard, or can permanently conceal or greatly alter the direction istics. Messrs. Rundell and Towson, the secretary forward and to port respectively. of an iron ship's original magnetism.

and honorary secretary to the Liverpool committee, The amount of original magnetism appears to [Illustrations in support of these views are made various experiments, are of opinion that

who have paid great attention to the subject, and have relation to the size of the vessel, or the given in the Committee Reports of the lines as heeling affects to the greatest extent ships that quantity o'iron used in her construction, and is taken in a graving dock, January, 1856; again in are built with their heads to the north or the south; thus illustated :—“In a ship of 400 tons, built December, 1856, after being for some weeks head and that the effect on the former is to draw the head to eas, if a compass be carried fore and aft N.N.E. in the same graving dock; as they ap- north end of the needle to the weather side, the on the middle line, about three or four feet from peared two days after with her head in the oppo deviations reaching their maxima when the ship's the deck, the deviation may be 10° or 12° when site direction; and again as determined twice in head is north or south (by compass), and having her head is north or south. In a ship of 1,000 January, 1857, after undergoing constant ham, little or no effect when the ship's head is east or tons it may under the same conditions be 25° or mering in almost every part for forty-three days.] west. In ships built with their head to the south, 30°, or mor, depending to some extent on the The

most instructive case of the rapid changes the north end of the needle will be drawn to the breadth of the ship."

of magnetism in a newly-built iron ship is illus- lee side, the maxima and minima deviations obFrom a consideration of the foregoing illustra: trated in the case of the ship Royal Charter, whose serving also the same conditions as those just tions, we ma: at once predicate the character of deviations were carefully obtained prior to leaving an iron ship' deviation from a knowledge of the England in January, 1856; at Melbourne in

described. direction of ler keel and head when building, or, Australia, in May, 1856; and again on her return have trespassed long on your attention, on the

I propose now to enter somewhat briefly, as I vice verså, from having her deviation table we

to Liverpool in August of the same year. These may infer the direction in which she was built : changes are well exemplified by a comparison of vexed question of mechanical adjustment for comthe accompanyng table illustrates generally these the values of the five co-efficients alluded to; the

passes. conditions. Tlus if results being selected from an extended series of priety and indeed safety of applying an antago

Much controversy has taken place on the proApproximate direc-Maximum Easter- Maximum Wester- observations, as made with an Admiralty standard- nistic force to neutralize that of the

disturbing of ship's ly deviation ly deviation compass specially placed in aid of the experiments. effects of the iron in the ship: our highest maghead (magnetic) when ship's head when ship's head while building is, is near. At Liverpool in

netic authorities differ on the point, though North. West.

East.

Jan. 1856, preN.E.

agreeing in the main theoretical principles as to N.W.

S.E.

vious to going East.

The North.

South.

on first voyage - • 27,- 3 46, – 19 42, +650,- 52 the nature of the magnetic disturbances. S.E.

Astronomer Royal is strongly in favour of corN.E.

S.W.

At Melbourne in South.

recting the deviation of the compass by opposing East.

West.

Australia, May,
S.W.
S.E.

N.W.
1856

-127,-1 11,- 859, +6 23,- 0 26 forces of magnets and soft iron. Admiral FitzRoy,
West.
South.
North. At Liverpool on

General Sabine, and Mr. A. Smith, supported by
N.W.
S.W.

N.E.
return, in Aug.

numerous nautical authorities, consider such cor.

1856 We have now arriv>d at an important feature

-0 3,-1 6,- 3 22, + 6 10, + 0 56 rections dangerous—except within certain limits, of the inquiry—the ateration in the ship's mag

We see here very distinctly the permanency of such as coasting navigation-and prefer a superior netism after launching-and which would still

the quadrantal deviation as represented principally compass, to be considered a standard, fixed in an pear to require an extended series of experiments by the co-efficient D; and the gradual diminution elevated position, convenient for careful bearings, to elicit more precise information. Numerous of the sub-permanent magnetism, or polar-magnet as far removed as possible from the disturbing examples are given by the committee, but de deviation, in the co-efficients B and c.

influence of iron, and using the binnacle compass rived more from informtion communicated than indicate that the sub-permanent magnetism is Subsequent experiments in the Royal Charter merely as a guide to the man at the wheel.

The opponents of the system of compensation This was exemplified by diagrams, which represent approximating to its original amount ; but, as urge that it is defective in principle and dangerous the magnetic character of vamus vessels as determined by some alterations have been made in the ship's fit. in practice ; defective in principle so far that it and which will appear with the conclusion of this article, ments, the comparisons are

not strictly identical; has not stood the test of experience in distant probably in our next number,

they are nevertheless well worthy of attention. voyages to the southern hemisphere, and dark

tion

is near.

A

B

с

D

E

gerous inasmuch as it inspires the unskilled and We record these facts because they are interest- ship will be more exposed to submarine attack unwary seaman with confidence in the stability ing and satisfactory, and because we are anxious than any other large ship? And if not, would of that which is not proved to be stable, and places that in all cases there should be an appreciation not his argument have equal cogency if directed in his hand a power over the action of the com- of services rendered by employés of the Govern against the building of any and every kind of pass-needle which he cannot control and of whose ment. It has been too much the practice hitherto large war-ship ?-Eds. M.M.] strength he is ignorant.

for those in authority to becloud the merits of The advocates, on the other hand, contend that those beneath them, and in many cases even to

SCREW PROPELLERS. a fertile source of error in navigation arises from decorate themselves with laurels earned by others. the unskilful use of the deviation tables, the cor- Colonel Dixon, who is highly respected, and not

Captain Beadon, R.N., sends the following :rections being frequently allowed the wrong way, more for his professional ability than his urbanity, TO THE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” by which the original error is doubled; also that has offered an excellent example in his late dis- GENTLEMEN,—You remark in your magazine of the tables do not

provide for changes of the ship's tribution of prizes at Enfield ; and on behalf of all the 1st instant in reference to recent experimental magnetism caused by change of geographic posi- who are in positions similar to those of Messrs. trials of screw propellers i. H.M.S. Doris, that tion or other circumstances; and again from the Hayes, Hague, and Williams we desire to see proof had been given that a blade formed of a want of directive power of the needles under cer- that example followed largely. It is not impro- fine flowing curve throughout would be more suctain conditions of large deviation due to the ship's bable that ere long some particulars as to the cessful, as had been proposed by Sir Howard iron, combined with the earth's directive or hori. rate of production at the Enfield Small Arms Douglas. I hope you will do me the justice to zontal force being small, as in the higher latitudes; Factory may be given, with other facts in relation state that this is no other than the first and which deficiency of directive power magnet com- to the place.

original form of screw propeller designed by me in pensation would remedy,

1834 to Captain Ericsson, keyed to a horizontal There are just reasons in all or many of these

DUNN'S PATENT CARPET CLOTH. submerged shaft connected with steam power, and arguments, and the question appears more to re- We had occasion a short time since to allude to two years before patents had been obtained for solve itself, as my subsequent remarks will tend this beautiful material, and the great interest the mangled principle either by Smith or Ericsson. to show, into one of application under varied but which has been excited amongst manufacturers On my return from China, in 1842, I again urged certain conditions.

generally has fully corroborated our first opinion its adoption. In 1845 I patented it through (To be concluded in our next.)

of it. That it will eventually supersede many Messrs. Robertson and Co., whose opinion you

of the articles now in use, from its great prox- will see expressed in ten minutes reading, the last THE SMALL ARMS FACTORY AT imity to the appearance of carpet, in lieu of the ten pages of which I devoted to illustrate the adENFIELD.

present dirty substitutes, there can be but little vantage of a curved blade, and its history, after The very complete and extraordinarily interesting doubt. The patentee, who was formerly with actual experiment under steam power. In 1851 I machinery of the Small Arms Factory at Enfield Messrs. Goodyear and Co., and now connected exhibited the volute principle by a model at the Lock has been the theme of eulogium amongst with the eminent firm of Messrs

. Blackwood and Great Exhibition for six months, with a challenge

I am, yours faithfully, mechanical men for some little time past; and Co., of Bread-street Hill, has favoured us with appended.

GEORGE BEADON. anything in connexion with it cannot but be note many details of this process, which is obviously

Crichtarrow, Taunton, July, 1859. worthy, in these times, to the general public. So destined to play a worthy part in the history of perfect are the contrivances there for the purpose vast number of industries, as each individual in

manufactures. It is certainly suggestive of a in view—the rapid production of small arms of

GRIFFITH'S SCREW PROPELLER. unerring accuracy—that it was thought by some its present position upon the mere threshold of

terested in his own peculiar notions sees, even in TO THE EDITORS OF TIE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." that the force of invention could no further go: usefulness, some one or other profitable applica- two letters from Lord Carlingford claiming the

GENTLEMEN.-In your last publication I find of the tree and the ernde product of the forge, to tion. We are informed that Mr. Dunn has dis- merit

of being the inventor of my patant screw the finished stock and truly bored and rifled covered a mode of vulcanizing colours-a deside

propeller. barrel, together with all correlative details pertain- ratum which has occupied the attention for years

My first patent, including the large boss and ing to them, seemed to have been successfully past of some of the greatest chemists of Europe, tapered blades, was taken out in 1849; at

and which, according to the scientific journals of that time I was not aware there was such a provided for. Machines accomplished almost everything, whilst attendants but looked on, and the continent, was conceived to be unattainable.

person as Lord Carlingford in existence and if his visitors were amazed.

lordship will read my specification of 1849 he may As it has been often said, however, "Nothing

THE STEAM RAM.

satisfy himself that I could not have taken any of human creation is quite perfect," so it has TO TIE EDITORS OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” idea from him, and I am ready at any sime to try proved with regard to the machinery of the Small GENTLEMEN, -By the newspapers we are in the validity of my patent with him. Arms Factory at Enfield. Improvements have formed that it is determined to build a monster I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, been recently, and are now being made in the vessel, designated “The Steam Ram,” which, from

ROBT. GRIFFITIS. automaton machines at that place. There ap- the description of her, is intended to run over or 69 Mornington-road, N.W., July 13, 1859. pears to be an emulative spirit at work among run down all swimming craft that she may upon those engaged near them, which is sure to be the ocean obtain sight of. Little short of £500,000 productive of advantage, especially as it seems to is to be expended upon her construction and equip

THE GREAT EASTERN. be encouraged by those in power. There was one ments. It may be presumption in me to question GENTLEMEN,-Your correspondent" A Reader," portion of the rifle which the manufacturers of the prudence of such undertaking, or the prowess says that the employment of paddle-wheels in this Birmingham had pronounced beyond the reach of of this sea monster, but I would ask, How is she ship destroys her usefulness as a sailing vessel. machine labour at all. This was the lock. In to run, with a chance of swinming, among sub. This is erroneous. The paddle-wheas are narrow, ventions and improvements, however, on the part of marine charges of gunpowder or explosive com and small in diameter, in proportior to the vessel, some of the foremen of Enfield have brought this position ? Suppose, for instance, that she pursues and, being provided with disconrecting gear, I important portion of the implement of war quite a steam-vessel —a mite of a thing in comparison-doubt whether two-horses power would be conwithin machine range; and it is, indeed, com armed with submarine explosive shells, suspended sumed in turning them when the vessel is going pleted almost without a touch from the hand of by buoys at any desired depth below the surface 10 knots under sail alone. The screw would conthe mechanic. To Mr. C. F. Hayes, Manager of of the water; these shells may be regarded as sume a little more power, were it not provided (as the Lock and Screw Department, belongs mainly submarine vessels in tow. The steamer so armed, I believe it is) with a small ·ngine to keep it the credit of this remarkable, and for the country upon being pursued, launches overboard one or going just sufficiently to prevent drag. Although very economical change; and certainly Col. Dixon, two more of her shells, towing them by suitable she will carry low rigging for ler size, I think she Superintendent of the Establishment, performed ropes or chains. On comes the monster ram, and will not only prove very hanly under sail, but but a graceful act when, on Saturday, the 25th runs into contact with one or more shells, which will, as a sailing vessel, bea any other sailing ult., he presented Mr. Hayes with a War Depart. are so constructed as to explode, by self-action, vessel in existence. I am, Gertlemen, ment prize of £30 for bis ingenuity. The lock of only when in hugging contact with any vessel that

Your very oledient servant, an Enfield rifle is an intricate piece of work; the may be the object of attack or destruction. Now

T. Moy. principal parts being the “bridle,” the “swivel,” the result of such a collision would, I confidently 1 Clifford's Inn, 12th July, 1859 the "tumbler,” and the “hammer.” It was in predict, be the bilging of "The Steam Ram” to relation to these minute but yet consequential an extent beyond repair; down she would, in

NOTICES. details that Mr. Hayes displayed his skill. On all probability, quickly go; and with her a crew the same interesting occasion, we learn that of not less, perhaps, than a thousand men. In all all subscribers of £l 1s. 8d., amually, payable in advance.

The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE vill be sent free by post to Colonel Dixon, who was attended by J. Gunner, earnestness would I commend this matter to the Post Office Orders to be made rayable to R. A. Brooman, at Esq., Inspector of Small Arms, G. Munro, Esq., careful consideration of those whom it may con- the Post Office, Fleet Street, Jondon, E.C. Storekeeper, and Mr. Barnes, presented second cern. I remain, Gentlemen, your obedient servant,

TO ADVERTISERS. and third prizes of £17 and £13 to Messrs. H. B.

JOHN HARVEY, Captain R.N.

All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-column Hague and G. Williams, of the “ Furniture" and Sandgate, Folkstone, July.

are charged at the rate of d. per line for any number of

insertions less than 13; for 3 insertions, 4d. per line; and “Sight” Departments respectively, for inventions [We do not quite perceive what conclusion it is or 52 insertions, 3d. per lin. in connexion with their branches of small arms towards which Captain Harvey would conduct us.

Each line consists of 10 wrds, the first line counting as manipulation. Does he intend to imply that the new iron steam | the space occupied.

two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for This year

VI. Amount of capital required for the soluble in fuming nitric acid, while ordinary nitric Literature.

profitable occupation of a farm 10 0 0 acid and dilute nitric acid produce a similar re-action VII. On the condition of seed.bed best

on both. In no one case can there be said to be a An Essay on Hydrographical Engineering, as appli.

suited to the various agricultural

decided difference. Further experiments were made cable to Floating Sea Barriers, Harbours, Bat. crops

10 00 by dissolving similar quantities of gutta-percha and terios, Coast Defences, and Naval Fortifications. VIII. On the adulteration of agricultural gum in equal portions of naphtha and turpentine reBy Captain ADDERLEY SLEIGH, K.T.S., F.R.S.L., seeds

1000 spectively, and after pouring the solutions from the &c. With Illustrations. London: Peller, 31

IX. Any other agricultural subject 10 00sediment, allowing them to evaporate at the ordinary Poultry; and Stanford, Charing Cross. 1859. 4. The reprint of Dr. Lang's prize Essay on Potatoes temperature of the atmosphere. After standing to WHEN we inform the reader that this work con- is now laid on the table, and recommended to be evaporate the solvent, the gutta-percha in each case sists of only 58 pages of large leaded type, in a

sold at the following prices :

had returned to its original condition, while the gum

1d. each, or 68. per 100 to Members of the Society. was soft and sticky, except when submitted to a con, green paper wrapper—that its “illustrations" are lithographs from some of the roughest pen-and

13d. each, or 98. per 100 to Non-Members.

siderable degree of cold, when it became brittle and

Lord Leigh, chairman of the General Warwick friable as at first. From these results it will be seen ink sketches that we have ever seen--and that Committee, presented the report of the Committee that the gum alone could not be used for similar purthe main topic of the whole is a certain invention in reference to details connected with the Warwick poses to which gutta-percha is applied. Experiments of the author's-be (the reader) will scarcely be meeting. Mr. Pain was elected one of the Stewards were made in order to ascertain how far the gum induced to pay for it the sum of ten shillings, of Show-yard receipts in place of Lord Portman, who could be mixed with gutta-percha without interfering which Captain Adderley Sleigh modestly asks for will be unable to attend.

to any great extent with the properties of the latter, it. We cannot look at this pamphlet without

Various communications were laid before the and mixtures were made containing 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, being instantly reminded of a work which, a short Council

, and it was decided what replies should be 50, 60, and 70 per cent of the gum and gutta-percha.

From an examination of these mixtures it would appear time since, passed under the notice of ourselves given thereto by the Hon. Secretary.

that from 20 to 30 per cent. of the gum may be added and our readers—Mr. Calver's pamphlet on the * Wave Screen" (J. Weale, 1858). The objects of

to the gutta-percha without any material difference

Our Weekly Gossip. being noticed in the mixture to the gutta-pereha both pamphlets are identical inasmuch as they

alone. But it is necessary to observe, that these were both written in advocacy of certain forms of The civil service estimates for the year ending March mixtures have not been put to the test of sunlight, air, sea barriers ; but Mr. Calver's is not only the 31st, 1860, are now in the hands of Parliament and &c., which are known to decay gutta-percha more or sounder, and in all respects the better book, but it the public in a printed form; and they certainly less, according to the nature of the gutta-percha is also, by very much, the cheaper of the two have to pay,” if not to the former who voted, the and the time it may be exposed, as their application

furnish information interesting to the latter who (gutta-percha not being a perfectly definite substance) There is also a great difference between the prescribed amount. Taking the estimate for the may have to extend over some years before a result structures recommended by these two officers. Royal Mint, we find that it presents a rather favour- could be obtained of any value. Captain Sleigh advocates floating, Mr. Calver fixed, able aspect as compared with that for the last finan- The Surgical Instrument Committee, which had breakwaters: the former would incline their sur- cial year, and a marked improvement in comparison just been appointed and organised at the time of the faces; the latter would make them vertical. with those of former years. Last year the amount last report, has commenced its labours; and its various There is much to be said in favour of, and much required to defray the expenditure of the Mint, Sub-Committees, into which it has been divided, have against, the plans of both. But there can be no including coinage, was £36,639; this year it is prepared a complete catalogue of the instruments question as to the relative capabilities of the two 435,052 5s, 3d, ; giving thus a reduction of £1,586 and apparatus employed for the investigation and

treatment of disease. This list, drawn up under the writers to discuss the subject. Captain Sleigh estimates go to account for this difference. For direction of the several Sub-Committees, awaits now moves over the surfaces of many things. He was instance, last year, under the head of " extraordinary the formal sanction of the General Committee once in the Royal Navy; subsequently he joined expenses," were the charges for a new forty-horse previous to its being published. Such a catalogue the Land Transport Corps ; now he is in neither. power steam engine, a pair of rolls, &c., amounting has long been wanting in the profession. He is, moreover, the author of "A System of Mili. to £2,745.

"extraordinary expenses The Artistic Copyright Committee of last year tary Portable Telegraphic Communication ;” also, are set down at nil. The loss, too, on silver coin having made its report, embodying the principles of a treatise on the "Nautical Re-organisation of withdrawn from circulation for recoinage, which in upon which an amendment of the law of copyright the Mercantile Marine, and Manning the Navy by sinks to £9,600. There is a saving, too, in the item requirements of the public on the one hand and of the

1858-9 amounted to the average £10,000, this year in works of art should be based, as likely to meet the Voluntary Enrolment;" also, of a brochure on

of wages of artificers in the die department, caused artist on the other, it became the duty of the « The Amazon, or Suggestions for Preventing the by a diminution in their numbers to one half, of Council at once to endeavour to procure the passing Loss of Steam Ships;" also, of a set of “ Climatic 1512 2s. 4d.; whilst as regards the same class of of an Act of Parliament to secure such an amended Statistics of Great Britain,” &c., &c. He has workmen in the coining department, a reduction is law of copyright. With that view a small Comnow alighted upon batteries, harbours, coast de. shown to the extent of one man, and £41 128. wages. mittee, as an executive, over which Sir Charles Eastfenoes, and so forth. We could scarcely expect Then, as set-off's to these pranings down, come items lake, P.R.A., consented to preside, was appointed, anything very sound, or very profound, from such of additional expenditure in the shape of £5,000 for and numerous meetings having been held, a Bill was a source; and the pamphlet before us shows that

the expenses of silver coinage against £3,000 for the settled which it was hoped would have been before if we had expected it, we should have been dis- previous year;

the ever-growing salaries of certain the Legislature during this Session of Parliament,

privileged officers, and other more trifling matters, but the unexpected dissolution of Parliament, appointed. With Mr. Calver the case is wholly leaving in the end the aggregate saving as shown and the consequent interruption of business, has predifferent. He is by profession an hydrographer, above. The expenses for coining gold and copper are vented the subject from being investigated at present. and has for many years been the Admiralty Sur- put down at the same sum for both years, namely, The Council, however, will still use their best exerveyor on the East Coast of England. His work £6,666 and £1,500 respectively.

tions to bring the matter before Parliament at the answers to our knowledge of him.

From the Annual Report of the Society of Arts we earliest time possible. gather interesting intelligence respecting the opera- The Council of the same Society have had under

tions of the several committees appointed by that their consideration the best means of rendering the Proceedings of Societies.

Society in furtherance of scientific and artistic objects. action of the Society available for obtaining and
The Gutta Percha committee has met several times, diffusing among the public of this country informa-

and is carrying out systematically its experiments. tion in reference to the productions, resources, and July 6.-Monthly Council; the Duke of Marl.

The Committee have had under their consideration capabilities of the Colonies, and with that view a borough, President, in the chair. New members were

the properties of the substance called “Pauchontee,” Committee was appointed early in the session to take elected. The usual monthly report of the Finance last year as the produce of a tree of the same genus as its labours by seeking and obtaining the aid of the

an Indian gum, alluded to in the Council's report of charge of the subject. That Committee commenced Committee was received. The thanks of the Council were voted to the Finance Committee for their past This substance has been carefully analysed and ex. Society more fully to carry out its object. Sir Edward

that from which the true gutta-percha is produced. Secretary of State for the Colonies to enable the services. Mr. Thompson, Chairman of the Journal Com- properties has been sent, as requested, to the Indian assistance as might be required, and, at the request of

perimented upon, and a report as to its nature and Bulwer Lytton at once consented to give such official mittee, reported :

Government. For this report, and the experiments the Council, called the attention of the Governors of 1. That in class III., Essay on Steam Cultivation, and analyses, the Society are indebted to Mr. Dugald our Colonies to the wishes and objects of the Society the prize of £25 is awarded to the Essay bearing Campbell

, one of the members of the Committee. as expressed in a letter addressed to Lord Carnarvon, the motto “ Faint but pursuing," and on the seal From this report it appears that at the ordinary the Under Secretary, in which the Council state that being broken Mr. J. Algernon Clarke, of Long temperature it is hard and brittle, but upon the the best measures for obtaining the object in view Sutton, was declared the author.

addition of heat, such as that caused by friction in a would be-1. That such Colonies as consider that the 2. That in class VII. none of the Essays are con- mortar, it becomes sticky and viscid, and when once meetings and proceedings of the Society of Arts sidered worthy of the prize.

this condition is reached, it does not after the lapse of would at all serve to give publicity to their resources, 3. The following list of the subjects for prize Essays several days assume its original consistence. When and tend to increase the demand for their productions, for 1860 is recommended to the Council:- boiled with water, it becomes of a reddish brown should select some competent person, or existing

£ s. d. colour, rendering the water turbid and slightly Society in the Colony, to frame a complete statement 1. Agriculture of Berkshire

saponaceous. Experiments were made with a view of the points upon which it is considered that the II. On the best period of the rotation, and

to compare the properties of the gum with those of public of the mother-country are not sufficiently inthe best time for applying the manure gutta .percha. For this purpose, the comportment formed. 2. That the individual or public body thus of the farm

2000 of each, when brought into contact with various selected should at once be put in direct communication III. Alterations advisable in farm manage

chemical re-agents in similar conditions, was parti- with the Society of Arts. 3. That the person or perment, in land of different qualities, by

cularly noticed, and the results are shown in a table sons thus chosen should also designate, and obtain the low price of grain and high price of accompanying the report. With some of the re-agents, consent of, some well-informed person in this country, meat

10 0 0 the behaviour of the gum is precisely similar to that either himself to read, at an evening meeting of the IV. Late improvements in dairy practice 10 0 0 of the gutta-percha, while with others only a slight Society, the paper prepared in the colony, or to confer V. Proper office of straw in a farm ... 10 0 o similarity is to be observed. Both seem to be nearly with the Council as to the best method of securing

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL OF ENGLAND.

50

0 0

Patents for Inventions.

their common objects. Further proceedings may be it is preferred to use only one valve box and one slide running parallel with the fire-place through which he conlater indicated, or may arise from the steps proposed. valve for the two cylinders. Patent completed.

ducts air to the back thereof, and the ends of these flues he Should any Colony consider that a different course of 2724. J. Luis. A watch simplified with anchor escape

closes with copper plates pierced with fine holes which

form the communication between the air flues and the fireproceeding would better suit the peculiar circum-ments and rack, forming a double lever, catching in the

Dated place. The gases of combustion pass off by a central flue, stances of that Colony, the Society of Arts will be pinion of its balance wheel. (A communication.) November 30, 1958.

which is bent round to take the circuit of the fire place, quite prepared to receive such suggestions. The The mounting of this watch is composed of a pallet plate and is brougħt into close proximity with the lateral airresult has been that several of the Colonies are already on which is fastened the whole machinery of thje watch,

flues. The air will thus be heated both by the direct heat in communication with the Society, and more will, no and on the surface the ordinary dial work of a watch is

of the fire-place, and also from the winding smoke-flue. doubt, be added to the list before the Society resumes placed. The stop is fixed on the axle of the winding-up Patent abandoned.

2732. W. E. NEWTON. provements in telegraphing it's meetings in November next, or when a sufficient machinery of the

watch. The pallet plate forms the prin- and in telegraphic apparatus. (A communication.) Dated time has elapsed for replies to be received.

cipal part of the box, and it is furnished with two hinges Nov. 30, 1858.
to receive the back of the box and the rim of the glass. A

The object here is to produce an arrangement that shall tail piece, with its eye or ring, is added to the pieces above

not be susceptible to the changes of the weather, and that mentioned. A hollow part in the pallet plate receives the shall generate an amount of inductive electricity that shali spring and serves as an immovable barrel arbor; a wheel answer all demands. The apparatus consists of an ordinary placed beneath turns of itself ; to the middle of this wheel

galvanic battery, using either one or more acids, a large inABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. a spring ratchet wheel is fixed by a round axle passing ductive apparatus or coil, on Ritchie's or Rhumhorff's

throughout it, and turning at soft friction. When the principle, and a simple arrangement for recording the sig. Tax abridged Specifications of Patents given below are watch is wound up in the core hole, round which the

nals. This arrangement consists of two metallic points classified, according to the subjects to which the respective spring winds, the two pieces being adjusted together, the approaching but not meeting each other on opposite sides inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of rachet wheel catches in its wheel, and presents the opening The paper

is to be divided into two equal spaces by lines, classification adopted, the numerical and chronological where the key is placed to wind up the watch on the side order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with of the dial. The watch can be made to wind up at the back

and to be moved between the metallic points by clockwork, all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be if desired. Patent abandoned.

so geared as to move the paper forward the distance of one understood that these abridgements are prepared exclu- 2725. J, Lurs. A new railroad with continued supports space at cach, beat or tick of the clock, and no more, and a sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the splintered together without any wood being used. (A com

single wire, either insulated or not, to convey the electricity.

Patent abandoned. Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie munication.) Dated November 30, 1858. tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not

2733. J. COLYER. Improvements in machinery and ap

This consists in replacing wood by iron in the construc- paratus for cutting and shaping staves and other parts to produce them without acknowledgement: STEAM ENGINES, &c., 2742. of the rail on the ballast in its whole length, and to give it of casks. Dated Nov. 30, 1858.

This relates, first, to that part of stave-cutting called BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, 2729, 2731, 2744.

the necessary stability by adding to the bar an auxiliary backing and hollowing. The blank to form the stave is

surface so as to obtain the same size of surface for support fixed in a holder, so that it shall remain stationary during ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car- as in the road having cross beams. This auxiliary surface riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 2725, 2736, 2747, 2751, is not manufactured in one single piece with the rail, but outside of the cask is presented to a cutting tool so shaped

the backing, and that part of the wood intended for the 2759. at the time of placing the rails it is bound with it by hooks

as to give the required convexity to the back of the stave. SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings, 2721, 2752. and belts of iron. Patent abandoned.

The cutter travels along the stationary stave in a horizontal CULTIVATION OF THE Soin, including agricultural and hor

2726. A. A. BURTON. A moveable face and handle for line, and is made to approach nearer to and recede from ticultural implements and machines, 2734, 2748. smoothing irons. Dated November 30, 1858.

the stave to take off more or less wood as is necessary to FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing smoothing iron, open at the top, having a toe or front cover

Here the stone is a hollow box similar in form to the give the bulge to the stave, by a guide rod or bar, the outer food for men and animals, 2755.

end of which is made to travel over a template Thus by ing piece to hold the iron in it, and at the other extremity varying the template the travelling cutter will cut the back FIBROUS FABRICS, including machinery for treating fibres, a loose swing handle which doubles over the smooting iron of the stave to any bulge required. The hollowing of the pulp, paper, &c., 2727, 2741. handle. Patent abandoned,

stave is effected by the same machinery, the cutter being BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, 2727. A. Marks. Improvements in the manufacture of formed convex in lieu of concave. By using the same drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 2746, 2769. braided articles. Dated November 30, 1858.

template all the staves will be backed to the same bulge. LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 2739, 2740, 2764, This consists in causing a core of wood (or other material An arrangement of levers or springs ensures the same 2768. which is too rigid to permit of its being wound on reels

amount of tension on the belt which causes the cutter to FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, and passed over pulleys) to travel while the braiding rotate at every part of its travel. The holder for presenttime-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 2724,

threads are being laid on it, so as to allow the work to be ing the staves in the cutter has four arms radiating from a 2730, 2735, 2743, 2760, 2763, 2766.

produced at all times at or very near one point, whatever shaft or boss, and is provided with stops for retaining that METALS, including apparatus for their manufacture. None.

be the length of core employed. The core is placed in a arm, carrying the stave next to be cut exactly opposite the

tube passing througb the centre of the table, and rising cutters. As soon as one stave is cut the holder is moved a CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 2753, 2761.

above it nearly to the point where the braid is formed, and quarter of a turn and a fresh stave is presented, and so on, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 2732.

as the braid is produced the core is drawn up out of the whereby a continuous feed is maintained. Patent comWARFARE, 2762.

tube by a cord passing over a pulley placed over the centre pleted. LETTER PRESS PRINTING &c., 2767.

of the table, at a distance above it greater than that of the 2734. J. Corlsox. Improvements in threshing and

largest core to be covered. This cord passes to a take-up dressing machines. Dated Nov. 30, 1858. MISCELLANEOUS, 2722, 2723, 2726, 2728, 2733, 2737, 2738, motion, and the tube serves as a guide to the core to keep

This consists, 1, in forming the springs or bars by which 2745, 2749, 2750, 2754, 2756, 2757, 2758, 2765, 2770. it central while the core is being drawn up. When the the shoes, riddles, and shog-boards of the shifting or rid

core is not sufficiently stiff to remain straight in its length dling apparatus of threshing and dressing machines are 2721. J. GRESIAM. Improvements in apparatus for pre- while it is being braided upon, it is kept straight by being suspended thicker at the ends than at the middle. The serving ships' papers, and other papers and writings, in held in a state of tension by a weight or spring. Patent said springs or bars may be of wood or steel. 2, in forming case of the loss of, or accident to a ship whilst at sea. abandoned.

the beating surfaces of the beaters of threshing machines Dated November 29, 1858.

2728. D. Thomson. Improvements in machinery for of a half-octagon form in section, three of the sides having This consists in a buoy so constructed as not to sink in the raising water and other liquids. Dated Nov. 30, 1858. oblique ridges or projections placed in opposite directions. event of its becoming water-logged, and to this end it is The inventor constructs a wheel similar to an overshot Patent completed. lined with cork between the cylinder and outside case. To water wheel, but with each bucket covered throughout the

2735. A. STENGER. Improvements in the manufacture of distinguish it from other floating bodies it has raised con- greater part of its length, leaving only a mouth open for cravats, braces, belts, and waistbands. Dated Dec. 1, 1858. spicuously upon its surface a silvered globe. Patent com- the entrance and exit of the water. These buckets descend This consists in manufacturing these articles in a braided pleted.

into the water as the wheel revolves, and come up full of form. They are made of silk, cotton, &c., in an ordinary 2722. G. J. BENSEN. Improvements in cleansing or water or nearly so. At the upper part of the wheel the braiding machine. Patent abandoned. purifying animal charcoal after it has been employed by water is discharged into a trough which is placed to re- 2736. R. H. Bow. Improvements in railwag chairs and sugar refiners. Dated November 29, 1858.

ceive it. Holes or passages may be made for ventilating fastenings. Dated Dec. 1, 1858. Here the charcoal is placed in a vessel within which is a the buckets or allowing the air to escape and enter as the This relates to an arrangement of railway chairs wherein perforated false bottom; the charcoal is laid on this false water flows in and out. The wheel may be made to dis- the rail is held by three dead or fixed resisting surfaces, bottom in a layer of uniform thickness, and the liquid with charge at the circumference, or at the side, or at both the retaining pressure upon which is brought into play by which the washing is to be performed is run on to the sides, as may be desired. When variations occur in the a fourth pressure arising from the action of a binding surface of the charcoal. A partial vacuum is then produced level of the liquid to be raised the wheel is mounted on a wedge or key, or otherwise. The three dead pressures are by pumps or otherwise in the space between the bottom of shaft which can be raised and lowered while still remaining those of the pressure of the bottom of the rail upon the sole the vessel and the under surface of the false bottom, and in gear with the driving pinion, &c., and the receiving of the chair, the centre of the well of the rail against the this causes the washing liquid to pass respectively through trough may also be raised and lowered when required. top of the inner and lower jaw of the chair, and finally the the layer of charcoal, which is thus cleansed. In a similar Patent abandoned.

pressure of the outer side of the upper flange of the rail manner air may be drawn through the charcoal and steam 2729. J. Thow and T. M. HALL. Preventing the fusion against the outer and higher jaw of the chair. These three may be blown through it by leading steam by a pipe into of fire-bars in locomotive or other furnaces. Dated Nov. pressures are brought into action by the pressure of a key the space between the bottoms of the vessel.' The charcoal 30, 1858.

of circular or other transverse section fitting into and may be afterwards revivified by burning. Patent aban

This consists in placing a small pipe running transversely pressing against a corresponding concavity in the interior doned.

under the heel of the fire-bars. In this pipe holes are to of the higher jaw of the chair on one side, and on the other 2723. D. Evans and G. JOXES. Improvements in air be drilled, one opposite to each space between the bars. against the outer side of the rail at the point where the pumps and water gauges. Dated November 29, 1858. On turning a cock with which this pipe is furnished, a jet lower side of the web joins the bottom flange. When the

Here a cylinder or barrel is used having three posts one near of water will be thrown between the bars along their whole key or other binding and adjusting agent is driven into its each end, and one in the middle of its length; within this length, and the effect will be that the bars will be kept at a place the pressure exerted by it binds the rail against the barrel or cylinder two solid pistons are used which are comparatively low temperature, and thus their fusion and three resisting surfaces of the chair and holds it tight. The fixed to the ends of their respective piston rods, one of all adherence thereto will be prevented. Patent completed. chairs themselves generally resemble the common form, which piston rods is hollow to admit of the outer piston 2730. A. E. C. SCHEIDEL. Improvements in fastenings for but the inner jaw is only about half the height of the outer rod sliding or working through it. These piston rods are belts, braces, garters, books, porte-monnnies, portfolios, one, and the latter is formed with a shallow concavity worked by cranks so that the pistons alternately come pocket-books, invoices, writing and cigar cases, reticules, running horizontally along its central position. Patent towards and recede from each other. When they are bags, and other similar articles or purposes. (A commu- completed. coming towards each other the fluid between them is nication.) Dated Nov. 30, 1858.

2737. J. Loach and J. Cox. Certain improvements in driven out at the middle part or opening, when they are re- On one side of a belt, porte-monnaie, &c., is fitted a clip, ornamenting the surfaces of japanned goods, and which ceding from each other the fluid is driven out through the clasp, small case or recess, slotted, or with an opening in said improrements are also applicable to the ornamenting two end parts or openings, the middle part and the end each side, or a double plate so connected as to have a of certain other surfaces. Dated December 1, 1858. parts alternately acting as induction and eduction ways. On groove on each side forming a shoulder piece, and on the This consists in forming ornaments from scraps of perthe exterior of the cylinder or barrel is a valve box within end flap or other part of the belt, &c., is attached a frame forated zinc or other metal placed together so as to form which a slide valve is used capable of opening a way or loop formed with cheeks, feathers, or tongues, or cut the ornament desired whether on a round, curved, or flat between the two end passages or parts and the main educ- away at the inner sides so as to leave parts projecting in

surface. Over this the inventors lay on black japan or tion way of the pump when the middle passages or part is wards, which by moving the frame or loop, are caused to other coloured paint so as to imbed such metal ornament. acting as an induction way, and also capable of opening a enter or slide into the slots

or grooves in the holding piece After drying the whole

is rubbed down and polished, when way between the main outlet way of the pumps and the to fasten the belt, &c., and are drawn out of such slots or the metallic ornament will be defined by the contrast of its middle part or passages when the two end parts are acting grooves to nnfasten it. There are modifications included. bright surface with the ground on which it is inlaid. In as induction ways. The fluid is received into the valve Patent completed.

this state they paint certain parts of the metallic ornabox from whence it passes into the barrel of the pump, 2731. G. Boccius. Improrements in the construction of ments with transparent colours. Patent abandoned. and is thence forced into the main outlet of the pump. furnaces. Dated Nov. 30, 1858.

2738. E. JONES. An improvement or improrements in the When constructing a pump with two barrels, as described, The inventor provides the furnace with lateral flues manufacture of coke in ovens. Dated Dec. 1, 1858.

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