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four rods were used to give additional strength lengthways. These were fastened at one end to a ring carrying the trunnions, and at the other to an iron plate, which they pressed against the breech end of the gun. Iwo of these rods and the trunnions are not shown in the longitudinal sections, but are seen in the cross-sections. This gun was much stronger than necessary at the front part; indeed everywhere, except just round the seat of the charge. I regret, now, that I only fired it enough to prove that it was an efficient 18-pounder gun; had I continued till it burst, its strength relatively to service-guns would have been more definitely known. Being desirous, however, before injuring it to find out if a still thinner cast-iron core would suffice, I had this 18-pounder bored out to the size of a 24-pounder. Unluckily, in so doing the bore was not made in the centre, only half-an-inch of cast iron being left at one side of it. Even in this state, however, it bore, without injury, several hours' firing with charges varying from one shot and four pounds of powder, to one shot, two wads, and eight pounds of powder. It burst at the third round with the latter charge. This great strength was unexpected, the thickness of metal round the charge being only 24 inches ; whereas, in a service 24-pounder it is upwards of 6 inches. My gun, too, had much less windage, It weighed 15 cwt., less by 5 cwt. than the reamed-out 24-pounders which are used with a service-charge of 2 lbs. 8 ozs. of powder.' The iron service 24-pounder for an eight-pound charge weighs 48 cwt.

The next experiment I made was to get a 9. pounder service-gun turned down cylindrical from the trunnions to the breech, and on this part to place wrought-iron tubes nearly the exact size and weight of the portion of metal removed, but just the necessary fraction of an inch smaller. The wrought-iron tubes had dove-tailed flanges, so that the one clasping the other gave some longitudinal strength; not that I think this was necessary. Indeed, if outer tubes had been placed merely half-way to the trunnions, strength enough would have been attained. This gun was fired follows:

2 rounds with 8 lbs. of powder and 2 shot.
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1 lettered C, Fig. 2, is a roller-path, with a cam shaping machine. The formation of keyways in

1 rising in two places. Rolling upon this is a crank and other shafts, and oil channels in

1 wheel at the end of the crank lever D, which, by brasses, &c., are amongst the many åpplications 1 means of a short connecting rod, imparts motion of the traverse drill. When the traverse is not 1 to the lever E, which is fitted with a pawl playing needed the machine can be used as an ordinary 1 upon a small ratchet, which is fixed upon a shaft, vertical drill, so that it is an exceedingly useful 1 and thence by the inclined spindle F to the upper tool in the engine and machine shop, and will, we

168

10 wheel, which, working in a rack, feeds down the doubt not, ere long entirely do away with hand A cast-iron service-gun, of about the same size drill; by this means the cut is given at both ends labour for the purposes for which it is adapted. and weight, was fired, round for round, with this of the traverse. The handle Ğ is used for work.

gun until the 110th round, with six pounds of ing the inclined spindle, when required, by hand. THE MANUFACTURE OF CANNON. powder and two shot, when the cast-iron gun In front of the bed or frame is fixed an adjustable

By Captain BLAKELY, R.A., M.R.I.A., F.R.G.S., &c.

burst. The superiority of mine was so evident, table, similar to those used in the ordinary shap. My first experiment was to shrink a heated and a 10-inch gun made almost on the model of it.

that Her Majesty's Government had a 68-pounder ing machines, with adjusting screws for elevating or moving it horizontally so as to bring the work wrought-iron ring over one of cast iron. The re

The 68-pounder made in 1857 will, I hope, be into its proper position. The spindles for this sult was the compression of the latter to an extent tested this year or next. purpose are shown by the letters H and I. The I by no means expected, the wrought iron being

My fourth gun was an 18-pounder. The inner upper chamber of the standard supporting the only slightly expanded... When separated, both cast-iron tube was only 1 inch thick, and open at drill spindle is used as a receptacle for oil to be tubes regained their original size.

I next made an 18-pounder gun, formed of a This was decidedly a mistake, throwing too great

both ends, the breech being closed by a plug. fed down to the cutting edge as required. These inachines are often made

longer in the bed and tube of cast iron, 5 inches in diameter, and 14 a strain on the four longitudinal bolts with which fitted with double standards, so that the operation inch thick, over which were shrunk, side by side, this gun, like my first, was provided, though can be carried on at both ends of a piece of work short cylinders of wrought iron, the

thickest of these are not shown in the figure. Over the cast

which was 2 inches. To resist the force of the iron tube I put two layers of wrought-iron tubes ; at one time. Fig. 4 shows examples of two applications of gunpowder

, therefore, this gun had a total thick: the first broad, thin tubes (five-eights of an inch this new system of work. The first is the stump service cast-iron 18-pounder being upwards of 51 making the two layers break joint, additional

By end of a connecting rod and the strap showing inches. Yet the lesser thickness was quite suffi- stiffness was obtained. This gun was firedthe slot holes as also the transverse opening, all cient, even though the initial strain, calculated as of which can be formed in this manner. Next

1 round with 6 lbs. of powder, 1 wad and 1 slot to this is shown a pair of forked ends forged roughly approximated. As a cast-iron tube, 1

necessary on the outer tubes, had been but very together in the solid, and these, when slotted ont inch thick, was insufficient to resist the longi

103 by the traverse motion, present the appearance tudinal strain, and as the wrought-iron cylinders which is shown by the letter A; they have were not joined, but merely placed side by side, each was two five-eights inches thick-the four

At this round the four bolts gave way, although after this to be merely divided, and the holes being drilled through, to be rounded in the

From a paper read at the United Service Institution, united being equal to a solid bar the size of the

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bore of the gun. The rest of the gun was unin- Shortly after I had taken my patent for cannon want of caution on the part of iron-ship construcjured, so that this trial was a great success so far (February 1855), Mr. James Longridge took one tors and those engaged in their equipment, as the method of obtaining lateral strength was for making hydraulic presses on the same prin evinced in the injudicious arrangements for the concerned, the sides being at the thickest part ciple. To test it he had some small brass cylinders compasses given in the Liverpool Compass Comonly three five-eights inches thick. The charge cast, one inch in diameter and one-tenth of an mittee's Reports. Among the instances quoted which broke this gun was twelve pounds of powder inch thick. Round these he coiled steel wire with will be found the following: “The error in the —double the service-charge for guns more than a tension calculated to make each share in the work. first position of the binnacle was 101°. As the double the weight, and four times the service charge When filled the cylinders could each contain 300 ship was going to the East Indies, the compassof the 21-cwt. service gun. I had this gun remade grains of the strongest sporting gunpowder. He adjuster objected to compensate so large an with four bolts of the best charcoal iron; but they, put a certain portion of gunpowder into these, amount, and the binnacle was then placed three too, broke, without injury to the tubular part. then at each end placed a copper globe, ground to feet forward; here the error was reduced to two Though so far most satisfactory, this result made fill up the aperture accurately, with the exception points. In another and much larger ship the me decide not again to leave the entire longitu- of a small touch-hole. The whole was then bound compngs in the first position of the binnacle devidinal strain to be borne by outer bars

together by a strong wrought-iron strap, the secated 14 points; on moving it a little further My fifth gun, which I made in 1856-those I tion of which was about 21 x 1} inches, and the forward, the error was reduced to 24 points." have mentioned having been made in 1855—was balls keyed tight up to their seats by a jib and These cases occurred when the original position a 12-pounder. The longitudinal strain I divided cottar. The powder was then exploded with re- was selected near the rudder-head of iron vessels, between four bars, attached as in forner guns, and sults, from which he found that the same cylinder in which a strong attraction existed towards the the cast-iron central tube which took half this which, unsupported was bulged by 50 grains of storn. strain, its breech-end, to insure this, having an powder, and burst by 90 grains, could bear the It must be evident that under such circumaperture only half the size of the bore. This gun explosion of 200 grains when reinforced by four stances of position no compass, whether compenhad two layers of wrought iron cylinders. The coils of wire, each only one thirty-third of an inch sated or otherwise, can possibly act faithfully, nor manufacture of this gun showed me the great un- thick. The initial strain on each coil being so can any accurate theoretical deductions be made certainty of the result of shrinking heated iron adjusted that each was equally strained with the from such exa:nples; nor, above all, need we be tubes. Those for this gun had been made of the greater charge. For this purpose the first coil surprised at the serious consequences which too same iron, carefully bored to the same diameter, was put on with a slight strain, the next with a frequently result from dependence being placed and heated equally; yet about two feet in front greater, the third with a greater still, and so on. on these marvellous mal-arrangements. The of the breech they had compressed the cast-iron Mr. Longridge next experimented with cast-iron Liverpool Compass Committee acted wisely in the core so much more than in other parts, that the cylinders, one inch in diameter and one-tenth inch promulgation of a circular calling attention to bore was there is th of an inch less. This determined thick, but close at one end. The other he secured these fiets, and expressing their opinion that by me in future always to force the outer tubes on much in the same way as in the brass cylinders. attention to the circumstances under which a ship cold, making the outside of the inner tube a little When filled these cylinders could hold 305 grains is built, and care in selecting a suitable position conical tapering towards the breech-end. Great of powder. They were strengthened with iron for the binnacle, the original error of the compass accuracy can thus be obtained. Indeed, the wire coiled on with the requisite increasing ten- may be reduced within small limits. method of heating and shrinking on the tubes I sion, With eight coils of No. 21 iron wire, Any observations on the theory of a ship's had only adopted as a cheaper makeshift for the then, it appeared that these cylinders could bear magnetism would be incomplete without reference first few experimental guns.

Knowing from the explosion of 95 per cent. of as much gunpowder to Mr. Airy's method of compensating forces, based former experiments that it would be useless to as could be put into them. To find if it was the as it is entirely on the laws which have been attempt to burst this gun with ordinary charges, material which gave this strength, and not the referred to, that is,it being much stronger than any former ones, i method of making each part do its work, Mr. At any place the deviation of the compass in any had long iron cylinders cast and turned accurately Longridge obtained a piece of the best wrought- ship, whether wood-built or iron-built, may be aceuto fit the bore. Unfortunately, I had too great iron, and made a cylinder similar to the others in rately represented as the effect of the combination of confidence in it; and, instead of waiting a day or size of bore, but with sides twenty times as thick. two forces, of which one alone would produce a distwo and having the compressed part again

bored This burst with a charge of 100 grains of powder. turbance following the law of polar-magnet deviation, out cylindrical, I fired these closely-fitting cylin- Mr. Longridge next made a three-pounder gun of and the other alone would produce a disturbance fol

lowing the law of quadrantal deviation. ders from it. Having put in the powder for the a copper tube, with iron wire coiled on it. It was fourth or fifth round, the cylinder was introduced, meant to be fired with its breech abutting against compass may be accurately corrected by well-known

Consequently, at any place the deviation of the but stuck in the narrow part, and we could not

some resisting substance; but at Woolwich they mechanical methods; namely, by. magnet in the get it out again. Thinking that the gun was too fixed it with the front flange resting against a strong to be burst by gunpowder in any way, I piece of timber, and, of course, blew the breech by trial, for correcting the deviation when the ship's fired it. It burst.”. Nothing could have been off. To test the strength of this cylinder Mr. head is north or south; by a magnet in the head-andmore injudicious than firing the gun so loaded. Longridge afterwards loaded it, buried it in the stern direction, also at a distance determined by trial, Not having any means of calculating the strain earth between two strong

pickets firmly driven in, east of west, and by a mass of unmagnetised iron, at on it, nothing would have been proved had it re

and fired the charge. It showed enormous strength. the same level as the compass, in the athwartship mained sound. I should have been particularly

(To be continued.)

line or in the head-and-stern line, according to circareful, too, of this fifth gun, because I could not afford to make a sixth. This fifth gun proved

THE MAGNETISM OF SHIPS.

cumstances (usually in the former), also at a distance

determined by trial, for correcting the deviation when nothing; but in all the others the increase of By F. J. Evans, Esq., Master R.N., F.R.A.S., Superinten- the ship's head is N.E., s. S.W., or N.W. lateral, or rather circumferential, strength by my

dent of the Compass Department, Admiralty.

For the same ship, the mass of unmagnetised iron, method of manufacture was great-indeed greater in the Royal Navy, as recommended by a all parts of the world, without ever requiring change

(Concluded from p. 44.)

if adjusted at one port, will produce its due effect at than I expected.

These guns had been made to test a principle, scientific committee of truly eminent men some not as models. They would all have been too light years since, the system of no compensation be accurately corrected without difficulty, leaving only for service except the 9-pounder. In No. VII. is adopted as a general principle : but a rigid the polar-magnet deviation uncorrected.*

have led to (Vol. II.) of the Journal of United Service Insti- adherence to prescribed rules for preserving consider it desirable that the magnets should be

compass as free from error tution, page 323, I have given drawings re

as presenting the proportions and the method of stances will permit is enforced—thus no iron mounted in such a manner that their distance manufacture I would recommend for large guns ticable; and a careful selection of site for each meet the changes of polar-magnet deviation.

is permitted within fourteen feet of it, if prac- from the compass can be delicately changed, to -to throw a ton of iron, for instance. compass in every ship is made under proper super

We may expect at no distant period that there vision. It is accordingly found to result that the will be an accumulation of facts from various parts, amount of deviation in the Royal Navy is in gene cient to prove the accuracy of Mr. Airy's views of

particularly from the southern hemisphere, suffiral small comparatively, and that no example of a deviation larger in amount, even in our iron ships, compensation under all conditions, and whether (in England) than from 25° to 28° exist, and this its delicate and important manipulations can be only in one or two exceptional cases.

entrusted to all classes of navigators. On one I will here give a drawing of an 18-pounder The mercantile marine adopts more generally point, however, mariners may be assured, that at field and siege gun I should like to see supersede the system of adjustment, and this has led to the present no other metliod of compensation has the 38-cwt. gun now used. This gun would have introduction of various patented compensating been brought to their notice that has been more donble the strength, would cost less originally, plans, differing widely from the Astronomer elaborately worked out by high scientific and and, weighing only 22 cwt., the transport would Royal's views, based often on no theory whatever, philosophical attainments, we can could equally require fewer horses. Only the breech-end would ending frequently in failure, and thus weakening stand the test of such profound mathematical require the strength of the double tube ; but for the confidence of the seaman in the compass, and analysis, as has been brought to bear on the subjeet some purposes it would be well to have a few guns leading him to consider that the magnetism of an by the Astronomer Royal. made as light as possible. In these the principle iron ship is so capricious as to be beyond all laws should be applied the whole length of the gun. and all remedy.

• See Philosophical Transactions for 1855, Art. V., DisBy using wire the weight of an 18-pounder gun

cussion of the Observed Deviations of the Compas in could with safety be reduced from 38 cwt. to 8cwt. closed by referring to examples of the remarkable 1 Deviations, by G. B. Airy, Esq., Astronomer Royal.

These remarks may not be inappropriately several Ships, wood-built and iron-built, &c., with a Gome

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the secretary to the Admiralty, but give a trial to THE MAGNETISM OF SHIPS.*

the preceding suggestions, economy will be seTHEORETIC MAGNETIC Condition of IRON SHIPS MAGNETIC CONDITION OF VARIOUS IRON Snips cured in the public establishinents, and an oppor. BUILT IN ENGLAND, WITH THE DIP OPTIE NEEDLE RESULTING FROM ACTUAL EXPERIMENT, As De- tunity given for those who have been calumniated FROM 68° TO 70° N., PREVIOUS TO BEING LAUNCHED,

AT LIVERPOOL

COMPAss to prove themselves up to the mark. PAwniX. ACCORDING TO THE LATE DR. SCORESBY. COMMITTEE, 1866-7.

TRIALS OF MOWING AND REAPING Built head to South (a little IVest.)

MACHINES AT WARWICK. The mowing machines were tried upon a piece of grass belonging to Mr. B. Dickinson, Goy Brook Farm, not far from the town of Warwick. The crop was rather light. There were three mowers

in the field-Burgess and Key's, Wood's (AmeriCITY OF WASHINGTON.

can), and Harwood's, which we alluded to in our Built head to North.

account of the Ipswich Show. It was soon evident that Mr. Harwood had little chance of competing with either of the other two, for his machine

left patches here and there uncut altogether ; and HEAD NORTH

when it did cut, the lowest sweep it was capable of SARAH PALMER.

making left much too good a portion of the grass Built head to East (a little North.)

upon the ground. Wood's did much better ; but that also left occasional patches, and could not cut uniformly, and sufficiently low, so as to secure the greatest bulk and the sweetest portion of the crop.

We entertain the same opinion as we have alBORYSTHENE.

ready expressed, as regards the grass-cutting

powers of this machine. The mower of mowers, Built head to N.E.

at least as far as we have yet seen, is that beHEAD WEST. HEAD EAST.

longing to Messrs. Burgess and Key. There is no mistake about its effective working power ; it goes into the crop, no matter how laid or trampled

upon, and cuts it, to speak in familiar phrase, as BARCELONA.

close and as clean as a razor. This fact was eviBuilt head to $. V.

dent to every spectator in the field, many of whom

closely examined the ground, and most of whom, The axial line S N in each figure represents the direction

who had any practical knowledge of such matters, of the dip or line of magnetic force as passing through the

expressed themselves in the highest terms as regeneral centre of gravity of the material of the ship.

gards the power of the machine. The saving in All below the equatorial line E Q shaded with firm lines

the crop of even moderate weight and extent, has Northern polarity; all above it, shaded with dotted NOTE.-The letters P and S denote the port and starboard

when cut by a mower like the one we have briefly lines, has Southern polarity. lines of no deviation.

alluded to, would therefore nearly pay for the first

cost of the machine. As a proof, moreover, of TASK.WORK 0. DAY-WORK IN THE have vessels built substantially, let there be a DOCKYARDS.

greater number of foremen made who can watch the opinion entertained by the owner of the A few years since the system of day-work was

the operation of the works, and then task-work is field as to the merits of the machine, he reignored, and the public press was rampant in its the best for the service. Let the Admiralty call quested Mr. Burgess to cut the remaining por

a committee of the superintending measurers of tion of the crop, to which he acceded; and wo the country that a fair day's work was obtained the various dockyards together, and from our per: Mr. Dickinson to Messrs. Burgess, in which he ex? for a fair day's money. Task-work was therefore sonal knowledge of them it will be found that an introduced, and in the Course of a short space of amount of invaluable information will be col. presses his high satisfaction at the manner in time the most magnificent fleet that ever swam

lected. It was the saying of an old master ship which the work was done, and gives a practical was fitted ont from the Royal Dockyards ; and wright— If you want your work done have task- proof of his convictions being well founded, by where is the individual whose heart did not throb work; if you don't want it done have day. securing for himself one of these mowers.

The reaping was upon a piece of green oats, with delight on witnessing the departure of that work."

and did not furnish any very satisfactory results fleet from Spithead in the late war with Russia ?

There is another very important matter to be

as to the relative power of the machines. The These ships were the strongest that ever floated; considered. The master measurers of the various

crop cut belonged to Mr. Woodwards, and though were built with the strictest regard to strength yards have an important trust committed to them. it was heavy and

much laid in places (supposed to and economy; and the workmen employed were They are responsible for the proper discharge of have been purposely trampled down to baulk one paid from schemes of prices requiring very nearly the whole of the duties of the office to see that of the machines), the best reaper did its work * double” the amount of the work done for the thousands of pounds weekly of the public very well. Messrs. Burgess and Key's well-known money in the private dockyards, resulting in the money are properly expended, and the work done machine cut down some of it in the condition fact that whilst by these prices the men of the in a workmanlike manner; and yet their pay is just described, about one acre and a quarter, and dockyard got at the rate of 58. 6d. per diem., but £180 per annum, whilst there are those apo left the ground very clear of the green corn. Tho those in the merchant yards, on the gun-boats pointed to do the secondary duty of dividing the others did their work very fairly, considering all and other vessels, were receiving from 9s. to 15s. money for payment who have salaries of between things, the nature of their construction, and the Merchant builders were encouraging men of the £300 and £400 a year, with others to assist at the difficulty of handling so unfavourable a crop. dockyards to enter their service-making choice

same rate. If ever there was a mistake this is However, it was a mere experiment, got up to of them before others to work for them.

ove, and we hesitate not to say, that with proper amuse the visitors, more than to show the working Finding job-work to the advantage of the em

organization £20,000 per annum of the public power of the reapers. Not so as regards the ployer, shipbuilders would have introduced it in money may be saved through the instrumentality mower. Everything connected with that machine the merchant service, but the men of the union of task-work. Give support to the master measu.

was serious and earnest, as regards its work; and inform us that they protested against it as

rers, and pay them for their responsibility; and so well did the Society appreciate the mower, that

oppressive in many cases, in consequence

of the

esti- seeing that they have a very great responsibility a silver medal was awarded to it.-Bell's Weekly mates and contracts being taken low, then under to sustain, give them a first instead of a subordi. Messenger. let, and, consequently, the men ground down. nate position. Now they can be snubbed and Task and job-work now receive the censure of silenced in the face of injustice, and compelled to

RIFLING LARGE CANNON. those disposed to find fault, and object to re

be dumb; give them their due importance, and TO TIE EDITORS OF THE “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." striction, and there is a disposition for change, justice will be secured in every respect to the

GENTLEMEN, — Captain Jervis, R.A., in his though it is found that whilst the people on country.

place in Parliament has asserted that it is impostask-work get 5s. 6d. per day as earnings,the about the difference between men in the Dock have a sixty-eight pounder rifled, which shall

It may be added that if there is any doubt sible to rifle large cannon. I will undertake to work is done at one-third less expense than by yards and the private establishments, we know throw an elongated iron or steel shot, poised

on employing the people on day-pay—at 4s. per day. and affirm that the former are by far the best and wooden wings to prevent injury to the interior Job-work is nothing more than payment of so much for building the ship, whilst task-work promost substantial workmen.

of the gun, and of between two and three vides for the various jobs distinct in building. To

Mis-statements have been made in the House of diameters of the bore of the gun in length, and

Commons that will be confronted, and if His undertake, also, to fire two such rifled cannons * See page 42 in last Number.

Grace the Duke of Somerset, with the noble lord instantaneously by percussion, after the manner

GRIFFITHS 0. TURNER.

that I fire two of my percussion blasting cartridges the value of theoretical objections substantiated

Law Case. placed in the same line, and two or three feet by such evidence. apart, when blasting the monster stumps of large

And now, Sir, as “ Nauticus” has referred to the Court OF QUEEN'S BENCH, Guildhall, July 14.-forest trees. subject, I must make one remark about rival in

(Sittings at Nisi Prius, at Guildhall, before I should like to know how plates of iron four ventions. In endeavouring for several years to

Lord Chief Justice Cockburn and a Special and a half inches thick could stand the simul- bring before the Government and the public the taneous blow of two such elongated steel shot. almost universal disregard of life at sea, shown in

Jury.)
Your obedient servant, the neglect of the necessary precautions in the

Mr. Bovill and Mr. Hindmarch were counsel for
J. Norton.

event of emergency, I bave always contended that Rosherville, 16th July. it is the duty of the Government to make it com

the plaintiff'; and Mr. M. Smith and Mr. Sumner pulsory that all ships should have on board an effi- for the defendant. BOAT-LOWERING APPARATUS. cient means of lowering the boats, but that such effi.

Mr. Edward Griffiths, Ff High-street, CamberTO THE EDITORS of the “ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.” ciency ought to be decided after actual test and well

, confectioner, brought this action against Mr. experiment under properly constituted authorities, George Turner, of Dover-road, Borough, dealer in GENTLEMEN, --As the qualities and merits of and not left either to the option of officers in patented articles, for an infringement of plaintiffs mechanical contrivances can never be settled by charge or owners, who would too frequently let patent apparatus for beating the whites of eggs argument, it would be useless for me again to friendship or interest influence their decisions. If and other fluids. The infringement was admitted, repeat the answers I gave

in my last letter to you in exposing the evils of the system generally in and the question was whether the patent was not in reply to the former objections urged against use I have shown the palpable advantages of a void for want of novelty. The defendant relied my system of lowering boats by "Nauticus,” and better one, and adduced instances

of my own in on a patent of Messrs. Pollitt and Eastwood for of which his letter in your last week's impression vention having saved lives, it has simply been churns, and a publication of an invention by Mr. is mainly a repetition. I then offered to show the because in this respect it stands alone, no other Harkes, also a patentee for churns, being substangroundlessness of such objections by at once sub- having done the same; and however I may have tially identical with the patent of the plaintifl; mitting to any practical tests to disprove them, and endeavoured to show the criminal responsibility and prior to it in point of time. this, too, against any other inventor or invention that rested with the Government and officers in

The trial, which commenced on the 13th, was Competitive trials of rival improvements under charge in failing to have such at hand, I have not concluded until 4 o'clock on the 14th, when the the very circumstances and cases for which they scrupulously avoided attacking any other inventor, jury found that as to Pollitt and Eastwood's are required can be the only satisfactory solution holding that all had a like right to a chance of patent it was the same as the plaintiffos, with this of the efficiency of either to accomplish the de- public trial to prove their practical value.

difference, that the plaintiff's bad concentric axes, sired ends, and settle their relative capabilities;

Such anonymous letters as those of “Nauticus” which, in the opinion of the jury, was an imporand the results of such trials are the only sub- and others show that the attention of naval tant improvement with reference to the object to stantial arguments on which judgment should be officers is at last being aroused to the consideration which the apparatus was applied ; and that as to formed. In order to meet theoretical objections by actual too long. of a subject they have allowed to pass unheeded Harke's invention it was the same in form and

construction as the plaintiff's, with the difference practice I devoted three years entirely to going to

When any one will accept the challenge 1 of having flat expanded wooden beaters, whereas our different seaports and dockyards in order to gave in my last letter, and prove by actual the plaintiff's had slight wire bars, which more prove in my own person that my invention was working the superiority

of any other plan to mine, readily effected the object of the apparatus. capable of effecting all it proposed to accomplish. so much the more to the public good. Till they

The Lord Chief Justice said the plaintiff would Not only have I never had one accident during do so I shall not forego the claims mine has have the right to raise the question whether, that time, but I now repeat that I am at any established

to the position that has been accorded notwithstanding the similarity of the instruments, moment prepared to show how efficiently the it by the patronage it has received from different the novelty of the combination was not sufficient system will work under those very positions in departments of the Government;

and I can refer to constitute a good patent, and the defendant which “Nauticus” considers it would be useless. with no little satisfaction to the leading mercan.

would have the right to raise the question But more; repeated instances have occurred, as tile firms of London and others who have long had whether, looking at the particular language of he or any one may see from my published it in practice, and many of whom have saved the specification, the points of identity found by pamphlet, of lives having been saved under just lives by its use, in confirmation of what I have the jury were not sufficient to invalidate the such circumstances as he describes.

advanced.
Yours, &c.,

plaintiff's patent. It did not seem to him of much With respect to pendants having broken in

CHARLES CLIFFORD.

consequence how the verdict was entered. some of Her Majesty's ships, I myself admitted 14th July, 1859.

Verdict for the plaintiff, with liberty to defendthis had occurred, and I gave as the cause that

ant to move. rope of a character and quality different to my

THE STEAM RAM. printed instructions had been supplied, but that TO THE EDITORS OF TIE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." Our adtechly Gossip. this had happened with reference to the rope sup. GENTLEMEN,—I am much obliged by the inserplied from one yard only; but I never hinted at tion of my letter upon the steam rain, and for the A Discussion was raised a few evenings since by the the invention having been neglected by the Dock, notice you have taken of any communication, Earl of Airlie in the House of Lords on the arming of yard authorities generally. Very far from it. I which affords me the opportunity of expressing an

mail and other steamers for war purposes. In the am fully sensible of the attention that has been opinion I have long entertained—it is simply that for many years it had been part of the contract

course of the discussion the Duke of Somerset said paid to my instructions, the facilities that have this :been afforded me to carry them out, and the Small steam-vessels of the greatest practicable and other mails that they should adapt their vessels

with the companies which carried the West Indian general excellence of the workmanship and ma- speed, and of a construction and form adapted to to the purpose of carrying armaments. About the terial supplied at all the Government yards. I feel the service of, and armed with submarine explo- year 1852 à committee of military and naval officers this acknowledgement the more due, because I sive shells, would, in naval combat, prove more inquired into the question, and reported that it was never had a particle of patronage or official in- than a match for large ships or steam-vessels not expedient to attempt to fit these vessels for purfluence to help me along; and I believe that sym- armed

with any kind

of cannon and projectiles at poses of war ; that, in fact, in doing so we diminished pathy with the cause I advocated, viz., the obser- present known; and that the larger the ship or

their utility for purposes of traffic, and only malo vance of better precautions for the preservation vessel so armed, the more easily could she be sunk 1853 there was a further inquiry by professional men,

them very inefficient for those of war. In the year of life at sea, had more to do with the readiness

or blown up by the small steam-vessel. that has been shown to help me than anything

who reported that by means of a considerable expen

Theemployment of submarine explosive shells in- diture some of these steam vessels might be rendered else. The "written statement published by “ Nau- for the smaller the vessel, so that she possesses circumstances they would only be able to defend

verts, as it were, the whole system of naval tactics; capable of carrying armaments, but that under those ticus” in reference to the alleged loss of the speed, darker the night, more tempestuous the themselves, and could not contend with vessels of whole of a boat's crew" of Messrs. Greens' ship, weather, the more easily would she accomplish her

A suggestion had been made by Mr. Laird that the Orwell, and imputing such a catastrophe work of destruction. Not that such conditions some of the small steamers on the Mersey might be to my lowering gear, is simply an untruth; and it must obtain if she be properly constructed and the question was brought under the attention of the

fitted out for the purposes of defence, and as soon as is to be regretted that a statement calculated to do equipped; she would under any condition do her Board of Admiralty they sent down an officer to such a serious injury, should have been anony- work in the light of day by submitting to a mously published in your paper, and upon an trifling sacrifice of damaged topsides.

survey the vessels, and report how far this scheme

was practicable. He did not anticipate that very anonymous authority. It will be quite sufficient

I will avail myself of this opportunity to re- much would arise from this inquiry; but, at the same to send to you a statement from Messrs. Green, mark that the important problem of the submarine time, it was desirable that we should know how far written after a full inquiry into the circumstances explosive shell has never been, by the proper these vessels were applicable to the purposes of war. words—“that there was not the slightest blame the better will it be for England—not only as it thrown away; but, looking to the means of production from the captain of the ship; I quote their

very in a practicable form, solved. The sooner it is commercial steamers could be fitted for war, and any attached to Clifford's lowering gear on that occa- may spare her an immense outlay upon useless la- at the command of these great companies, there was sion;" and they add, moreover, " that where it has bour and skill, but as it may also affect her su. been fitted in Messrs. Greens' ships, it has given premacy upon the ocean. I remain,

no doubt that if any sudden emergency did arise they

might be made available for turning out vessels of general satisfaction.” I leave you, Mr. Editor,

JOHN HARVEY, R.N. war at short notice. The late Government had triel and the public, to draw your own conclusions of Sandgate, Folkestone, July 16th, 1859.

this to some extent by making arrangements to

war.

CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY. None.

build a certain number of corvettes by contract, a patented shells (1855) he uses round trunnions to fit is reported as nearly 75 miles an hour. Up to this species of vessel which the commorcial yards were into the grooves of his rifle, but then he had an point they seem to have followed the course which peculiarly qualified to deal with, and if any sudden object in so doing, viz., to enable him to use a they had marked out for themselves. The plan was energency should arise he should be inclined to deal decreasing twist. In the French shell all the dis- to have followed the course of the Central Railroad with the matter in the same spirit. The answer, advantages of the system are adopted without the across the State of New York and thence down the therefore, to the noble earl's question was, that the advantage, for with a double row of trunnions of Hudson River to New York; but unfortunately they Government had considered the expendiency of course the twist of the groove must be uniform. determined first to make Rochester, near Lake entering into arrangements for the arming of these

It was a very pleasant change last Saturday, after Ontario, and land one of their passengers. In delarge commercial steamers, but they were not disposed the rumours of bloody deeds of war which have been scending to do this they fell into a hurricane strate to re-open a question which had already been decided exciting such painful interest during the last two

which drove them out to sea, and obliged them for in 1852 on grounds which might be seen on reference | months, to be present at the fåte which was given by safety to make way to shore and abandon the rest of to the roport of the committee. The Earl of Hard- those interested in the proposed Palace of the their trip. In less than 20 hours, however, they wicke agreed entirely in the decision arrived at by People upon the site at Muswell-bill

. This beautiful travelled 1,150 miles, and they think that they have the noble duke. Unless Parliament chose to go to spot is situated to the west of the Great Northern demonstrated that for which this was an experiment the trouble of providing for the manner in which those Railway, about half-a-mile from the Wood-Green -the possibility of an aërial trip across the Atlantic. steamers should be built it was impossible to hope station, which is five miles from King's-cross. The that they would ever be available for war purposes, total property about to be purchased by the proposed and any money spent for that purpose would be company covers an area of 450 acres, about 150 of

Patents for Inventions. thrown away. At the same time, there was no doubt which are to be devoted to the purposes of the palace, that the producing power of the mercantile navy and the rest will be made available to the shareholders ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. might be safely relied on for the rapid production of for building and other purposes. The rise from the war vessels on an emergency.

The abridged Specifications of Patents given below are railway, through pleasant green fields, to the upper classified, according to the subjects to which the respectiva In reference to the letter of Capt. Harvey, R.N., level on which the palace is to stand is 198 ft., and inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of which appears in another column, we may state that the view from the summit is extremely varied and classification adopted, the numerical and chronological he has, he believes, completely succeeded in producing extensive, in fact in one direction it is possible, on a order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with an engine of destruction, in which are combined easy clear day, to see a distance of fifty miles. Within a

all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be construction with cheapness, safety when charged and radius of six miles of this hill north of the Thames sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the

understood that these abridgements are prepared excluwhen stored, facility of application in combat, with are situated 32 distinct towns and villages containing Government, and are therefore the property of the proprieperfect freedom from danger, while the shell would be a million-and-a-half of inhabitants, and we under tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not horribly destructive to a foe against whom it might stand that it is with the intention of providing a to produce them without acknowledgement : be employed. A submarine explosive shell, embracing a place of innocent recreation for this vast popula- STEAM ENGINES, &c. None. such essentials, is deposited for public inspection in tion that the Palace of the People is to be built. It BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, 2774, 2803. the Museum at Canterbury. In the summer of 1844 was at first considered by some that such a place was

ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and carCapt. Warner made an experiment off" Brighton, not required, and that it would interfere with the

riagos, saddlery and harness, &c., 2775, 2179, 2796.

SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings. None. which suggested to Capt. Harvey the importance of ultimate success of the Crystal Palace, but it appears CULTIVATION OF THE Soil, Including agricultural and horsubmarine explosive engines in naval warfare, looking that such will not be the case; the erection of the tieultural implements and machines, 2784, 2789. to the then altered state of navigation, as compared Palace of the People may produce a spirit of emula

FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing to what it was in the days of Nelson, by the applica- tion but not of competition; in fact, the presence at

food for men and animals, 2771, 2802. tion of steam-power to nautical purposes. Under the fête of Mr. Bowley, the talented manager of the

FIROUS Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibres,

pulp, paper, &c., 2777, 2782, 2783, 2785, 2786, 2791, 2792, this impression he set about constructing a shell to Crystal Palace, would sufficiently show that the

2800, 2801, 2805, 2808. explode under water, such shell to be brought into interests of both will be promoted by this new under- BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, contact with the object of attack by being towed by a taking. It is also an established fact that at present drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 2781, 2795. steamer of superior speed, or by spanning two shells there is no place of public recreation of a similar nature LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 2787, 2807. with a buoyant line of about 100 yards length, and on this side of the river. We understand that the

FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, when so spanned, to stretch them across the course of building itself will be 1,080 ft. long by 312 ft. wide,

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 2780,

2794, 2798, 2804. the advancing or pursuing enemy. To this matter and will be surmounted in the centre by a large dome METAŁs, including apparatus for their manufacture. None. Capt. Harvey endeavoured more than 14 years since of crystal 200 ft. span. This will be glazed as far to gain the attention of the Government, but in vain. down as the ground level so as not to intercept the ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 2773. But we have now a neighbour who will not be review, and be used as a tropical garden. The building WARFARE, 2778 strained by antiquated notions of chivalry, or rules will also be provided with a concert-room capable of MISCELLANEOUS, 2772, 2776, 2788, 2790, 2793, 2797, 2799,

LETTER PRESS PRINTING &c. None. of legitimate modes of warfare. He well knows that holding 10,000 people. We are led to understand

2806, 2809. the art of war is the art of strategy; and should he from the estimates, that the total outlay will be about and his legions at any time resolve upon an inva. one-half of that invested in the Crystal Palace, so 2771. J. CAMERON. “Improvements in apparatus sion of our stores, and should he be before hand with the success of the undertaking in a commercial for the manufacture of sugar.” Dated December 4, us in the employment of the arm to which Captain point of view is pretty well ascertained. The summit 1858. Harvey draws attention, he could, in less than 24 of the hill, so soon to be a busy scene of labour, was This consists in constructing apparatus for curing hours, clear the Channel of hostile vessels, so that his on Saturday crowned with a large tent, under which or cleaning sugar by vacuum, with a false bottom or troops in their passage across would meet with no in. was spread a substantial repast; the guests, to the surface for supporting the sugar, constructed of a terruption. It is upon the engineering and mechanical number of 150, including many men of influence. series of separate flat-topped bars arranged in close skill of England that her safety depends ; for the After surveying the grounds and welcoming Lord proximity over a chamber capable of being exhausted gentlemen in the profession of arms are but too often Brougham, who it appears takes a great interest in of air. Patent completed. under the dominion of fixed ideas.

the success of the undertaking, we had the pleasure of 2772. R. LEGG. '"A machine for combining the Mr. T. Moy writes on the subject of steam-ship listening to a preliminary report, which was read by operation of compressing and cutting tobacco during performance as follows :—“As this subject is likely Mr. John Masterman, to which Lord Brougham the process of manufacture.” Dated December 4, 1858. to be revived at the next meeting of the British replied in eloquent terms, stating that for many This consists in a machine in which the tobacco Association, allow me through your pages to suggest years he had been

looked upon as the head of the leaf (after the damping process, when that is em: the following formula for obtaining a co-efficient : educational movement, that he had often been ployed) is received into a feeding trough or box, from d xv

charged with paying court to the people, but here, which it is drawn forward, and submitted to a yield

upon the site of the Palace of the People themselves, ing pressure by and between rollers which convey it p d = displacement in tons;

he would give them some good advice. He then said to the mouth-piece, where it is then submitted to the v = speed in feet per minute;

that all working men required relaxation, and that action of the knife. The invention is not described = indicated horse power.”

relaxation must be mental as well as physical; that apart from the drawings. Patent completed. P

the object which those interested in this Palace of the 2773. L. W. FLETCHER. “ Improvements in the The new French gun, of the performance of which People had in view was the promotion of such relaxa- construction of electric telegraph cables.” Dated De. we hear so much from Milan and from the French tion; but to effect this three principles would be in cember 4, 1858. camp, but not from the Austrian side, cannot be an volved : it must be innocent, it must be conducted This consists, 1, in certain modes of constructing arm of the same precision as the so-called Armstrong within the bounds of prudence, and it must be en-electric telegraph cables whereby the conducting gun, because no attempt is made to lessen the tirely free from a vicious tendency:. He then gave a wires shall bo prevented from being injuriously windage of it, the shot fitting not more closely than slight sketch of the manner in which this would be elongated by any elongation of the covering wires. the ordinary round shot. The interior of the barrel carried out in the Palace of the People, through 2. In coiling or twisting the conducting wire, or the is rifled with three, four, five, or six flat, rectangular, the instrumentality of reading-classes, lectures, &c., strand of conducting wires in contrary directions, shallow grooves—the heavy naval guns with three, and concluded by wishing every success to the under so that when the electric telegraph cable is in a state the field.gun used in Italy with six, the other, indeed taking.

of tension the said wires may be free to elongate to a the whole thing, being yet only experimental. The The American aëronauts have just performed a greater extent than the covering wires. 3. In weaving shell, which is of iron, is about twice and a half as feat worthy of being chronicled-an attempted trip fibrous materials over the conducting wire previously long as it is broad, the greater part being cylindrical, from St. Louis to the city of New York. The New to insulating it. 4. In wearing a tube over the in. the rear end quite flat, and the point conical. The York letter of the Times

gives the following account sulated wire. This woven cover or tube may be made fuse enters this point. From this iron shell projects of it:-The balloon, one of monster size, was in addi- of wire-warp and a binding weft of hemp, &c., or vice small leaden trunnions, double in number to the tion provided with revolving wheels for propelling it versá. 5. In covering the insulated core of electric grooves of the barrel, so that into each groove fit any desired direction, and with a metallic lifeboat telegraph cables with woven strips or bands of a comtwo of the little projections. These look like round suspended to the car, for use in case of falling in the bination of wire and fibrous material saturated or leaden coins laid on the shell in two rows. They, water. As it turned out the precaution was a wise coated with india-rubber or other suitable substance. however, are firmly fixed, being cast into holes broader one. They left St. Louis about 7 o'clock in the The invention is not described apart from the drawat the bottom than at the surface. But a small por- evening of the 1st in the presence of a crowd of many ings. Patent completed. tion of the surfaces of such projections can bear on thousands. At 4 o'clock in the morning of the 2nd 2774.J. B. Fisher, J. FISIER, and J. BIRD. “An the barrel, so that the lead must strip, or at least lose they passed near Fort Wayne, in Indiana, and at 9 of improvement in the doors and dampers of furnaces ita shape. The form is exactly that which admits of the same morning passed Dear Cleaveland, and over and other places where intense heat has to be resisted.” least bearing surface. In Lieutenant Engstrom's | Lako Erie. In this part of their passage their speed | Dated December 4, 1858.

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