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nary kind.

thereby preventing the silting-up of a bay, or the There is another material which the author is facing, which might be proceeding at severalestuary of a river, which is a general consequence at present testing, but a sufficient period has not places at once, as there would be no interferenceof its enclosure by any breakwater of an ordi. elapsed to prove its qualities. The author is of from the current, and no danger of breaching.

opinion, that there can be little doubt that the Then the rubble hearting, having been exposed to The construction of the screen is of the simplest timber would last twenty years; but, without the sea for years, would be thoroughly consolikind. It consists of piles at considerable inter- speculating further upon this point, it will be dated, and would form an impenetrable backing, vals. To these the main timbers are secured, upon sufficient to show, that the difference in first cost which is always of great importance, and from the which the grating of planks is laid. It will be between ordinary stone breakwaters and the new strength of the staging very large blocks might observed that these planks are tapered in cross arrangement, is so great as to leave an ample be employed in the facing. section, making the lower edge thinner than the margin in favour of the timber system. The 10

(To be continued.) upper edge. The object of this is threefold. fathom section, Fig. 6, would cost, complete, about First, it diminishes the shock of the water on the £70 per lineal foot; whereas the stone break.

FRENCH PRIZES FOR REAPING planks as it rises ; secondly, it ensures the inter water at Alderney is said to have cost £190 per

MACHINES. ception of the water on its descent; and thirdly, foot, and that at Portland £150 per foot. The it gives to the main timbers a secure hold of every cost of these, as compared with the timber system, PARIS, Friday July 23.— The competition for the plank.

for a length of say 2,000 yards,—about the length prize proclaimed for the best reaping machine DURABILITY AND COST.

of Portland and Holyhead,-would stand as fol. came off yesterday at Fouilleuse. The Emperor lows:

was present, and exhibited the greatest interest in These two stand in such intimate relation to

Timber System, Fig. 6 ...

£420,000 the proceedings. Forty-five machines had been each other, that it is proposed to consider them Portland ...

900,000 registered, but twenty-five only appeared in the together. The first question which arises is, how Holyhead, unknown, but believed

field. A wide extent of harvest land had been long will the timbers last ? To this it is not easy to have cost a great deal more.

divided in patches of wheat, rye, and barley-all to give a definite reply. The chief enemies to be Alderney ...

1,140,000 nearly in equal proportion. The cutting of each encountered are the Teredo Navalis, or great The manner in which the timber of such a work, patch was drawn for by lot. The machines were worm, and the Limnoria Terebrans, or surface as is shown in Fig. 6, would be renewed, would catalogued under two distinct heads—the foreign worm, as it is often called, but which, in fact, is a depend on the nature of the bottom. If it was machines and those of French manufacture. The species of shrimp. The operations of the Teredo clay, or sand, for instance, the face might be prizes for each division were the same—1,000 fr. Are said to be confined to the space between low simply close piled, and by the application of the and a gold medal first prize, 500 fr. and a silver water and the bottom, as they cannot exist out of new arrangements for piling, this would not be medal the second, 300 fr. and a bronze medal the water, whilst the Limnoria attacks the wood an expensive operation. But if the bottom were third. Moreover, a great gold medal had been chiefly near low-water, and particularly at the hard, than a cradle filled with stone might be voted as honorary prize to the machine consurface of the ground, in cases where the bottom lowered and thus the face would be renewed. sidered the best of the whole, whether French or is dry at low tide. There is no doubt that unpre. This cage, as it may be called, would have several foreign. This prize, as well as the first in the pared fir-timber, excepting the more resinous hundred tons of stone in it, and this would re- foreign division, fell to the lot of Messrs. Burgess pines, would in some cases be destroyed in a few present the weight of the smallest pieces of the and Key. Worked by two horses, its action suryears by these animals, and it is said that even face.

prised the assembly. The harvest fell before it greenheart succumbs in time to their efforts ; but Finally, it remains to be shown, that even if the with a precision and regularity never attained by there are instances which indicate great durability. new arrangements be regarded merely as a means human hand, while the quickness with which the The piers at Boulogne and at Calais may be men- for forming the back-bone, as it were, of a 'more work was executed proved an incontestable supetioned as having stood for many years—a part of permanent stone structure, it is the best and riority over manual labour. Moreover, this mathe latter, which is of oak, being above seventy cheapest way of attaining that object; for, view- chine proved itself the only one in the field capable years old. But the true question is with regard ing the timber only in the light of a temporary of being worked with the assistance of only one to the durability, not of raw, but of prepared staging, the following would be some of the man, and by measurement it was known that the timber; and the experience of the author of the advantages of the system-rapidity of execution; Burgess and Key reaper could clear an hectare of process of creosoting leads to the belief that, the enclosure of the harbour, and the protection to ground in an hour and a half. Cranston, of when properly done, it will preserve timber for the shipping being completed years before an London, obtained the second foreign prize. The many years, though how long it is impossible to ordinary stone-work could be erected; and an ex. first French prize was awarded to M. Mazle, of say, as time alone can show.

cellent staging from which to build the stone the Department of the Orne, the second to M.

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The advantages of these heat-diffusers are the Hon. James R. Drummond, C.B., Aide-deobvious and manifold. In the first place they are Camp to the Queen, in his official capacity as very simple, and their application does not require superintendent, attended by the entire body of any alteration of the boilers now in use; and they officers representing the various departments of can be inserted at the shortest notice at a compa- the yard. One of the instruments was erected at ratively small cost. Secondly, it has been proved either end of a long enclosed lobby adjoining the by experiment that they are self-cleansing. dockyard factory, when a lengthened test of mesThirdly, they materially lessen the consumption sages and replies was satisfactorily carried out.

of fuel. This is their characteristic advantage, The experiment was extremely interesting and Lallier, of the Aisne, and the third to M. Legen- and will in all probability recommend them to the conclusive as to the merits of the apparatus, the dre, of the Charente Inferieure. Independently consideration of engineers, railway and other como result of which was promptly transmitted to Lord of these testimonies to physical perseverance, panies.

Clarence Paget by special direction of the Comanother prize of more importance still was voted Upon the 9,500 miles of British railway there modore to that effect, the invention having been to M. Durand, Mayor of Baruel, for the moral are now employed more than 5,000 locomotives, pronounced one of the most important of the kind perseverance with which, in spite of the opposition performing an annual mileage of upwards of hitherto produced, and likely to be productive of of ignorance, he had encouraged the use of the 90,000,000 miles. The fuel consumed by these immense benefit to the entire naval and merchant machine in his commune, and a silver medal and engines may be taken as equal to 1,500,000 tons service afloat. The weight of the instrument, a sum of 100f. were likewise awarded to the plough- of coke ; and this quantity of fuel may be valued which is of the simplest construction, does not man in the employ of M. Durand, for having aided at £1,200,000. The introduction of the heat appear to exceed 141b. It represents the form of his master in this undertaking. The Emperor diffusers to the above number of locomotive a cross, exhibiting five alphabetically marked was accompanied on the ground by the Count de boilers would effect, at 30 per cent., an annual lamps, which are worked by a process resembliag Montebello, where he was

received by M. Rouher, saving of £400,000, and involve no alteration in the keys or notes of a piano slowly depressed, and Minister of Agriculture, by Count Chasseloup- any of the existing arrangements.

at the termination of each sentence the lights are Laubat, Minister of Algeria and the Colonies, and No doubt this invention will be found particu- clouded. As regards the working of the instru. by all the notabilities connected with the progress larly valuable to steam navigation. A full. ment, the principal officers of the Fisgard wlio of agriculture in France. At the close of the ex. powered 3,000 tons paddle steamer carries 550 yesterday attended the experiments affirmed with. periments the Emperor presented to each of the tons of engines, boilers, and appurtenances, 1,400 out hesitation that any boy of Her Majesty's fleet successful candidates the prize which had been tons of coal, and 100 tons of water in her boilers, could obtain a prefect mastery of the system by a awarded him, and at six o'clock left the field making nearly two-thirds of her burden. It is couple of evenings' study.-- Naval Intelligence of amid the hearty plaudits of the assembly.—Corre- principally on account of this vast tonnage of the Times.spondent of Morning Star.

fuel that steam navigation has hitherto proved a
commercial failure—as it is well known that no

THE MANUFACTURE OF CANNON. line of swift steamers can exist without a Govern

(Concluded from p. 58.) DUNCAN AND GWYNNE'S PATENT HEAT ment mail contract. If, however, a steamer which MR. LONGRIDGE next made a gun of a thin cast. DIFFUSERS.

has hitherto required 1,400 tons of coal may, by iron tube, with wire coiled round it. It weighed An invention has recently been introduced the aid of the heat-diffusers, perform her voyage only 3 cwt., yet threw a 9-pound shot 1,500 whereby the steam-producing power of engines with less than 1,000 tons, a vast saving will be yards. may be greatly increased. This is done by in- realised. Supposing the coals to cost £l per ton, A 6-inch hydraulic press, which he had made of troducing into the tubes of boilers spiral heat there would not only be the saving of £466, but cast-iron three-quarters of an inch thick, with diffusers. By the aid of these diffusers a column there would be 466 tons of freight space, amount- wire coiled round it with a carefully-calculated of heated gas is so distributed in the tube of the ing, on a rough calculation, to £1,350, at the rate increasing strain to a thickness of half an inch, boiler as to make it produce, it is said, about 30 of one farthing a ton per mile, being £1,700 upon was sent to a gentleman at Glasgow to be tested; per cent. more steam. Flames and other gaseous a single voyage to New York, or £3,400 on a voy- he reports that it has borne a pressure of upwards products of combustion in passing through the age there and back, which is more than equal to of seventeen tons per inch! One-fourth of this tubes of boilers now in use, impart only a portion the Government subsidy now granted to each would have destroyed most cast-iron cylinders of of their heat to the surrounding metal. These large mail steamer.

treble the thickness. productions pass with considerable rapidity We may add that the patent heat-diffusers are Time, I regret, will not permit me to describe through the tubes, and being ariform and bad manufactured and supplied by Gwynne and Co., any other of Mr. Longridge's valuable expericonductors, consequently a large proportion of Essex Wharves, Strand.

ments. I will only mention one more experiment their energy is unproductively expended by the

to-day, but that a most important one, because present mode of generating stenm. The metal of

made by Colonel Treuille de Beaulieu, a disthe tube only absorbs heat from that portion of WARD'S AMERICAN SHIP SIGNALS. tinguished French artillery officer, and one of the the column of Aame in direct contact with it, Mr. W. H. Ward, of Auburn, United States of Comité d'Artillerie of France.

He had a 32consequently, the central portions of the column America, yesterday exhibited in Woolwich Dock - pounder (French 30-pounder) turned down cylinare permitted to escape with the smoke out of yard, by permission of the Lords of the Admiralty, drical from the breech to near the trunnions. the chimney. The patent heat-diffusers now his patent invention for transmitting messages Over this he shrunk steel tubes, accurately bored. under notice break up this column, and compel its and carrying ou correspondence of any length At first sight this looks very like my plan, but component particles to strike against all sides of from ship to ship, becalmed, or sailing within 1 regret to say that I cannot quite agree with the tube. In this way more heat is transmitted telescopic sight of each other on the ocean, with Colonel Treuille in his method of construction. to the water of the boiler, and consequently, more equal facility to that of the electric telegraph on The steel he uses is very tough, and similar to steam produced at a less cost.

land. The exhibition was witnessed by Commodore that wonderful metal now made so inexpensively by the Mersey Steel Company. Like it, it can be of one length to a certain amount, could only guns, on the other hand, bear without injury the stretched one-fifteenth of its length without break strain a fibre three times as long one-third as much greater pressure resulting from the use of a ing, and one one-hundredth-and-fiftieth without much.

bullet covered with lead, and fitting extremely losing its elasticity. Colonel Treuille made his I have already given reasons why the metal tight. His bullets, indeed, are made larger than outer tubes only one three-hundredth of their dia must decrease in thickness when strained; I will the general bore of the gun, are inserted at the meter less than the outside of the cast-iron cylinder. now, therefore, only refer to Major Wade's expe- breech end, where the barrel is slightly wider, and This was about 16. English inches in diameter; riments, which show that in every instance he tried are forced by the gas of the powder through the the bore of the gun being about 6] inches. Now such was the case.

narrower part. The pressure of this gas must be this cast-iron cylinder is thicker in proportion Those who argue that the strain is in the in- enormous, because the powder must have time to to its bore than any of those Major Wade tried. verse ratio of the squares of the diameters, be- be entirely burnt before the shot moves many The outsides of his were stretched but one-eighth lieve that the thickness of the metal diminishes inches, resisted as it is. as much as the inside, when free to expand. I do as the circumference is increased by pressure from How, then, does Mr. Armstrong obtain power, not think that in Colonel Treuille's 32-pounder, within, but that the total bulk of the metal re accuracy, great velocity, and extreme range from therefore, the outside of the cast-iron cylinder, mains constant; and that, therefore, the area of a pressure much greater than that which destroys encompassed by a strong steel envelope, can ex- the surface of metal, which would be exposed by Mr. Whitworth's guns? How can he use a pand more than one-tenth as much as the inside making a cross-section through the cylinder, per pressure capable of giving such velocity to his of the gun, Granting, even, that his cast iron pendicular to its axis, must be also constant bullets, that a twist not half so rapid as Mr. can be stretched 1 in 300 without danger (which whatever the pressure. Now, on this hypothesis Whitworth uses is yet sufficient to ensure accuracy I doubt), still the outside would only be increased, even, the outside of a cast gun could not do more which must be seen to be credited ? even then, 1 in 3,000. One three-hundreth added than one-ninth of its work; yet, in all Major I will answer these questions by quoting the to one three-thousandth would then be the greatest Wade's experiments, the cross-section was decreased words in which Captain Younghusband, R.A., deelongation of the steel possible, without fracturing by strain up to a certain point, which proves that scribed the manufacture of Mr. Armstrong's guns the inside of the cast iron. Nearly one-half of the useful effect of the metal must have decreased to the Royal Artillery Institution in April, 1856 :the strength of the steel is thus made no use of. in a greater proportion than even the squares of the “A core, or internal lining for the gun, was As it is, the gun is strong enough to resist any distance from the centre.

formed of cast steel, to which the requisite strain by gunpowder in a lateral direction. When Had I not found an account of these experi. strength was given by encircling it with twisted Colonel Treuille first showed and explained it to ments I should have despaired of ever convincing cylinders of wrought iron, made in a similar me, I ventured to express an opinion that the any but persons possessing a knowledge of science manner to gun barrels, and tightly contracted breech would eventually be blown back, owing to that guns are at the present time being cast by upon the steel core by the usual process of cooling the great squareness of the end of the bore in thousands in such a manner that fully two-thirds after previous expansion by heat; the parts are French guns. I had the honour of seeing that of the metal in them is not only utterly useless then in that state of initial tension which is necesgentleman, however, a fortnight ago, and was re- but most mischievous, because rendering their sary to bring their entire strength into operation." joiced to find, as I am sure you will all be glad to transport more difficult and expensive; and that

This “initial tension" of the outside of the hear, that hitherto neither this nor any other the extreme outsides of the present guns cannot exert guns, is, then, the difference between Mr. Whit. catastrophe has occurred. On the contrary, the one-twelfth of the power they could be made to worth’s and Mr. Armstrong's, between failure and gun has borne 1,000 proof-charges without the exert.

unexampled success; and it is this “initial tenslighest injury except to the vent, which, of course, These experiments are valuable to me also as sion" of the outer parts which I have been advohas been more than once renewed.

establishing the truth of another argument I used cating for upwards of four years, which I have Although I think that Colonel Treuille could here on a former occasion. It is constantly as- endeavoured to advocate to-day, as not only benehave obtained equal strength by the use of one serted that the pressure of the gas of gunpowder / ficial but absolutely necessary when great strength half the quantity of steel, had he made the steel amounts to ten or twelve tons per square inch of is required. cylinders one four-hundredth part less in diameter, surface, and that its action being sudden is more It is but fair to Mr. Armstrong to state, that, still

, as he actually does not make them do ten mischievous than an equal pressure applied more judging from dates, his first gun must have been times as much work as if they were not in a con- slowly. As guns do bear the repeated application commenced long before I published my views, alstant state of tension, I hope I may fairly consider of this pressure, I was told that I must exaggerate though after I had taken a patent and made one or him as an authority, and a most weighty one, in their weakness. My reply was, that the shot, by two guns. We, therefore, arrived independently favour of the principle of construction I am advo- moving directly the first particles of powder burnt, at the same conclusion, cating. leaves room for the rest to expand gradually, and

Though I claim to share with him the honour of His method of manufacture must not be con- that the pressure can never be so great as is said, the invention of the means of obtaining strength founded with that proposed years ago by General because such pressure acting through a certain in cannon, yet the marvellous accuracy he attains, Thierry, who thought to obtain the rigidity of space must necessarily produce a greater velocity the ingenuity and simplicity of his plan for cast iron and the strength of wrought iron by than we know is produced. The belief in the loading by the breech, the perfection of his fuze, simply placing tubes of the latter metal over one great pressure of the products of powder, which the skilful shaping of his shell and of the inside of the former metal. Guns were so made, which has been handed down to us from former genera of his barrel, the scientific way in which he secures looked exactly like Colonel Treuille's or mino; tions, must now at last yield to demonstration. the great pressure, guarding against any waste of yet they were perfect failures. The reason is ob- Major Wade burst a serviceable 18-pounder gun it; these and many other advantages are due to vious ; the strain was not communicated to the behind the trunnions with a pressure of 44 tons him and to him only (so far as I know), and I am wrouglat iron, as it had no initial tension, or at per inch. The pressure of the gunpowder must confident you will all join me in hoping he may most only enough to give it a firm hold on the therefore have been less than 45 tons per inch, or receive the hearty gratitude of his country for his interior.

at all events less destructive than that pressure patient, laborious, most scientific, and most sucThe difference of opinion between Colonel longer applied. This is very important, upsetting cessful. researches. Treuille and myself is only as to the degree of dis- all preconceived ideas of the violence of the ex

I will conclude by taking the liberty of en. proportion between the useful effect of the inside plosion of gunpowder in the cannon now used. treating any of you whom I have been able to and the outside of cylinders. He thinks that in larger guns the pressure of course would be convince of the truth of my views to promulgate in the 32-pounder he made, the outside of the greater, because the shot would acquire motion them. I venture to make this request now, becast-iron part, which was about 50 inches in cir. more slowly, therefore would leave less room for cause every cannon foundry in the kingdom is cumference, could exert two-fifths as much the igniting powder. Hence the larger the gun busy making guns which in a year or two must be strength as the inside, which was about 20 inches the greater the difficulty of getting it to resist the obsolete; and because, what is far more dangerous, in circumference; the diminution being in the explosion; hence the utter impossibility of making we are planning expensive means of defending direct proportion of the diameter. Now, I believe guns beyond a certain size to fire full charges of our seaports against guns now in use, against guns that the diminution is in a greater ratio than even powder without making more than one layer of which we will heed no more than bows and arrows the squares of the diameters; in the above casa metal take its fair share of work.

by the time our defences against them are commore than 25 to 4, instead of 5 to 2.

In rifled cannon this limit is reached in a

pleted. Those defences I need hardly say will be The question is of such importance in deciding smaller calibre than in smooth bores, because the useless against cannon which can be made, and the necessity of abandoning the present method of resistance of the twist and of the friction prevents

which in a year or two will be made. making guns by casting, that I trust you will per- the shot moving from its place rapidly enough to mit me to discuss it a little fully. leave room for the gas of the powder, which being

TOWERS OF STRENGTH. Those who, like Colonel Treuille, argue that the thus confined exerts more power.* This additional TO THE EDITORS OF TIE "MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." strain is in the inverse ratio of the diameter, must power has been turned to advantage by Mr.

GENTLEMEN,- All soldiers who have been enbelieve that the thickness of metal remains con- Armstrong, but has hitherto baffled Mr. Whit-gaged in “various wars” know that the first stant whatever the pressure; for under no other worth, in his endeavours to obtain good results object of an active enemy is to rush at and seize conditions would one part be exactly as much from rifled cannon. The 32-pounder and the 68elongated as another. Even on this view of the pounder made by the latter were burst by the factories, &c., and immediately set to work in

upon strong Villag, as churches, mills, case the outside of a service-gun, which is fully pressure in the gun, though the shot was of iron fortifying them in such a manner as to cause three times greater in circumference than the in-only, and not tightly fitting. Mr. Armstrong's great loss to those who would endeavour to retake side, could only do one-third as much work, because an elongation which would strain a fibre I last,-Eds. M.M.

This was written, it should be recollected, in January them. All our churches are strong buildings,

generally fortified with towers. In the event of


invasion, I would defend such buildings with my the public in general, for the fact went the round frictional grenades, which can be made to explode of the public journals), that the captain of the

Our Weekly Gossip. with unerring certainty within five or six feet of Euryalus, (the second ship supplied with Captain the ground, whatever height the building may be Kynaston's life-hooks), bears record to the fact of The Commission, consisting of Professors Faraday, of, high church or low.

a seaman's life being saved by this method under Hofmann, and Tyndall, Mr. R. Redgrave, R.A., and This frictional grenade formed one of the many somewhat difficult circumstances.

Capt. Fowke, R.E.,--appointed for the purpose of repractical experiments I recently made at Chatham It seems, moreover, that Mr. Clifford's fre porting to the Lords of the Committee of Privy with the sanction of his Royal Highness the quently expressed desire of competitive trials | Council on Education “On the lighting of picture Commander-in-Chief, and the late Secretary of being ordered between the two methods, has been galleries by gas, and on any precautions (if necessary) State for War. Captain Lemprière, R.E., who always forestalled, and that trials are in progress, against the escape of gas, and the products of its comsuperintended the experiments, reported of the and, as far as I can glean, more especially in the bustion”-having met at various times and considered frictional grenades that they answered admirably. case of the Exmouth and Topaze, that these trials the subject referred to them, now make the following

report :-—There is nothing innate in coal gas which renHaving obtained permission from Mr. Jones, have not been favourable to Mr. Clifford.

ders its application to the illumination of picture galproprietor of the far-famed Rosherville Gardens, The test of time, and changes of the atmo. leries objectionable. Its light, though not so white as I shall with great pleasure show the manner of sphere, I may observe, are the chief enemies to Mr: thatof the sun, is equallyharmless; its radiant heat may using my grenades to all persons wishing to Clifford's arrangements; and surely as a naval be rendered innocuous by placing a sufficient distance understand it, as well as other experiments, such officer of some practical experience and long sea between the gas jets and the pictures, while the heat as were practically demonstrated at Chatham ; service, I may hardly with reason be accused of of combustion may be rondered eminently serviceablo Mr. Lock, the instructor of rifle practice on the preaching mere vague theories to a person of an

in promoting ventilation. Coal gas may be free from grounds, will assist me in the course of the ex. opposite calling, who although he may have in- sulphuretted hydrogen compounds, and in London is periments. I am, your obedient servant, vented an ingenious plan for lowering boats, and action on pictures. But it has not as yet been cleansed J. NORTON. has frequently been lowered in them himself, can

from sulphide of carbon, which, on combustion, yields Rosherville, 25th July.

have no experience in the ever-varying changes of sulphurous acid gas capable of producing 22 grains

a ship's voyage, and the means of adapting any of sulphuric acid per 100 cubic feet of present London BOAT-LOWERING APPARATUS.

part of our naval economy-management of boats coal gas. It is not safe to permit this product of the included-to meet them. I remain, Gentlemen, combustion to

in contact with pictures TO THE EDITORS OF THE“ MECHANICS' MAGAZINE."

Your obedient servant,

painted either in oil or water colours; and the ComGENTLEMEN,-As Mr. Clifford is inclined to


mission are emphatically of opinion that in every rate you for the publication in your Magazine of a July 24th, 1859.

system of permanent gas lighting for picture or

Sculpture galleries, provision should be made for the statement made by some anonymous and untruthful [Complaint has been made to the effect that it effectual exclusion or withdrawal of the products of individual, having reference to what he terms the is unfair to Mr. Clifford to permit this boat-lower-combustion from the chambers containing the works alleged loss of a boat's crew of Green's ship ing controversy to be pursued on one side by an of art. The Commission have examined the SheepOrwell, I can do no less than furnish you, for your anonymous correspondent. It is said that wbile shanks' Gallery as an experimental attempt to light own special information, with the source from Mr. Clifford is made rigidly responsible for every pictures with gas, and are of opinion that the process which the original statement is derived, backed word he utters, his opponent is practically irre- there carried out fulfils the condition of effectually up with two other documents which further tend sponsible, and cannot be made to suffer the just removing the products of combustion. According to to confirm its truth.

recompense of any inaccurate statements which the indications of the thermometer required and obThe rank and position held by the original in- he may please to make. Readers must be aware tained, it does this in harmony with, and in aid of, the formant, you will admit, render his authority un. that the question thus raised is both a delicate ventilation, and does not make a difference of inore questionable, while the matter of the documents and a serious one. On the one hand, we cannot than one degree Fahrenheit at the parts where the herewith enclosed being entirely derived from Mr. for a moment admit that there is any unfairness pictures are placed, between the temperatures, before Clifford's immediate supporters, are not to be ob- in anonymous correspondence itself ; nor can we

and after the gas is lighted. Certain colour tests jected to, on his side at any rate. The first of undertake to debar ourselves from inserting the consisting of surfaces covered with white lead, or with these witnesses states that

although assured of communications of those gentlemen who, from vegetable and mineral colours (especially the more the truth of the Orwell's deplorable disaster by holding high offices, or from other causes, are pre- magylp, and copal varnish were employed as vehicles, Mr. Green's officers themselves, that the fault cluded from using their name in public controver- had been prepared, and were, when dry, covered one which occasioned it was attributed to the “ lower-sies. On the other hand, we readily acknowledge fourth with mastic varnish, one fourth with glass, one ing man,” and that no blame was attached to the that when questions of fact, of momentous im- fourth with both mastic varnish and glass, and one apparatus itself. The second, you will observe, is portance to one of the disputants, are raised, as fourth left uncovered. Sixteen of these have been silent altogether as to the cause of the catas- they have been

in the present dispute, there is some placed for nearly two years in different situations, in trophe, but dwells on the fact of two only of the risk of the anonymous writer exposing the other to

some of which gas has been used, in others not. They hoat's

crew having been drowned, the remaining an ordeal to which he would himself object. Conse- give no indications respecting the action of coal gas two having died subsequently through want of quently, after deliberation, we have decided that (except injury from heat in one placed purposely very food and exposure to a snow-storm (a condition of it will be better to bring the present discussion to shew signs of chemical change in the whites, due to

near to and above the gas burners), but seven of them the atmosphere, one would imagine, fatal to the an end. We have all confidence in the integrity either a town atmosphere or want of ventilation. The safe working of Mr. Clifford's pendants and nip- of “Nauticus,” and our readers have had ample most injured is that from the National Gallery, sheaves). Be it as it may, these two versions of proof of his ability ; but notwithstanding these Charing Cross, and the next is from a country privy; the affair do not by any means tend to remove the things, we think full justice to Mr. Clifford re- the third much less changed is from the House of veil of mystery which hangs about it, and it is to quires that the grave questions of fact which have Commons; the fourth is from the Barber Surgeons' be regretted, therefore, that Mr. Clifford, pro- been raised should not be further discussed by a

Hall; the fifth from the Bridgewater Gallery; the fessing as he does to work for the public good, con- gentleman whose position imposes anonymousness House; the seventh from the British Museum. The

sixth from the Royal Society's Rooms, Burlington fines the terms of that part of his last letter to a upon him. The resolution we have come to in remaining tests hung in:-1. Sheepshanks' Gallery, short phrase of exoneration of his plan on the this matter must be attributed solely to the nature

South Kensington. 2. Secretary's Room at South part of Messrs. Green and the master of the of the subjects discussed ; we would never for a Kensington, where no gas is used. 3. Mr. Henry Orwell, leaving the public totally in the dark in moment think even of forcibly closing a purely Drummond's Drawing-room at Albury Park, Surrey. those points of detail on which the latter would argumentative discussion on the grounds just 4. Sealed up and kept in a closet in the Secretary's necessarily desire to be informed. By leaving stated. At a future time Nauticus” will, we Room at South Kensington. 6. Lambeth Palace, the matter thus in its incomplete shape, would trust, be relieved from his present restraint.

Vestibule of the Staircase. 6. British Institution, seem to offer a parallel, as far as the public curi. Eds. M. M.]

Picture Gallery. 7. Windsor Castle, room with a osity is concerned, to the testimonial afforded by

north aspect without gas. 8. Mr. Thomas Baring's some imaginary proprietor of a coal mine to

Picture Gallery, 41 Upper Grosvenor-street, fre

NOTICES. disaster of another sort, which we will suppose,

quently lit with gas--present no observable change in

this respect. Though apart from the especial subject for the sake of illustration, to run thus :

The MECHANICS' MAGAZINE will be sent free by post to

submitted to the Commission the Members cannot “ DEAR SIR,—With reference to your note just 2U subscribers of £1 1s. 8d., annually, payable in advance. is especially a painter's experiment, should be con

resist a recommendation that this kind of trial, which received, I beg to inform you that the explosion Post Office Orders to be made payable to R. A. Brooman, at

tinued for a longer period, and, indeed, be carried out of fire-damp in the mine of which I am the pro- the Post Office, Fleet Street, London, E.C.

on a more extensive scale. The Commission think it prietor, which caused the melancholy loss of all

right to state that they were unanimous on all points the workmen engaged in it at the time, is not at


to which their attention had been called, or which are tributable to the Patent Safety Lamp of your in. All Advertisements occupying less than half-a-column referred to in this report. vention, which they carried in their hands, and no are charged at the rate of 5d. per line for any number of

A correspondent, a "Civilian," writes :-“In readblame whatever can be attached to that valuable insertions less than 13.; for 23 insertions, 4d. per line ; and ing your article this week on the subject of rifleil

. line. invention. “I am, &c., &c."

Each line consists of 10 words, the first line counting as

guns, it has struck me that what we want for immeThe remainder of Mr. Clifford's letter is not re- two. Wood-cuts are charged at the same rate as type for

diate use is a rifled ball that can be applied at once to markable for its accuracy, more especially in that the space occupied.

our smooth-bored artillery, not only in the navy, but passage where he arrogates to his invention the Special Arrangements for larger or Serial Advertisements. the case before inventors of warlike instruments for

all over the world. I should imagine (and would lay merit of standing alone in the great cause of To ensure insertion, Advertisements must reach the Office their consideration) that an elongated ball, with three saving human life ; he must be well aware (indeed | be received after that time for the ensuing number.


or four spiral grooves cut into it, would by the action



of the exploding powder be made to rotate, and in

pipe for giving the supply. They cause the shaft of very many respects resemble in its action a ball shot Patents for Inventions. the bucket to work any suitable gearing, having from a rifled cannon, and that smooth-bored guns

hands pointing to any number of dials, so that the furnished with such balls would partake very much of ABRIDGED SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS. of the gutta-percha cylinder can be measured, which

exact quantity of the water passing through one hole the quality of rifles." A practical shipbuilding friend sends us the follow. The abridged Specifications of Patents given below are

sum multiplied by the number of holes in the said ing useful memorandun :-“You are aware that classified, according to the subjects to which the respective cylinder will give the amount of supply. Patent yellow metal sheathing has recently failed to an ex- inventions refer, in the following table. By the system of

abandoned. traordinary extent. It has been very usual to discover classification adopted, the numerical and chronological 2812. R. L. P. MANNING. “A floating paddleindications of galvanic action between the nail heads order of the specifications is preserved, and combined with wheel.” Dated D-cember 8, 1858. and the sheet metal. In the sample I send you all the advantages of a division into classes. It should be

Here the inventor fixes two or more cylinders or herewith, it appears that the nail' head, on the understood that these abridgements are prepared exclucontrary, has preserved the sheet; and if you break sively for this Magazine from official copies supplied by the drums to the sides of siling vessels, making them

Government, and are therefore the property of the proprie- of any suitable metal or material, and also waterthe part of the sheet which is left in the reticulated tors of this Magazine. Other papers are hereby warned not tight and air-tight, by which he increases the state of the piece sent all over the ship's bottom, the to produce them without acknowledgement:

buoyancy of the vessel, and consequently its speed fracture appears to be rather that of copper than of STEAM Engines, &c., 2830, 2857, 2858.

in sailing. For steam-vessels he gives the said cy. yellow metal; as if the zinc had been decomposed and BOILERS AND THEIR FURNACES, 2838, 2847, 2866. the copper of the yellow metal composition left.” The ROADS AND VEHICLES, including railway plant and car

linders or drums a rotary motion from the crankspecimen forwarded entirely bears out these state.

riages, saddlery and harness, &c., 2836.

shaft of the engine, or by other suitable means, and SHIPS AND Boats, including their fittings, 2825, 2844. by attaching paddle boards to the surfaces of the said CULTIVATION

OF THE SOIL, 'ncluding agricultural and hor- cylinders or drums, either transversely or diagonally, The following needs no introduction:-“Sidmouth, ticultural implements and machines, 2828.

but the latter in preference, he obtains a very July 20, 1859. Gentlemen,- May I take the liberty FOOD AND BEVERAGES, including apparatus for preparing effectual and powerful means of propulsion. Patent to draw your attention to a little circumstance con

food . nected with the Electro Magnetic Coil. I some time Fibrous Fabrics, including machinery for treating fibres,

abandoned. pulp, paper, &c., 2833, 2845, 2849, 2850, 2862, 2867.

2813. M. HENRY. "Improvements in twisting since fitted myself up a machine according to direc. BUILDINGS AND BUILDING MATERIALS, including sewers, fibrous materials, and in machinery or apparatus emtions as given by Bentley in the MECHANICS' MA- drain-pipes, brick and tile machines, &c., 2822, 2834, 2837, ployed therein.” GAZINE, No. 1769, for July 1st, 1857, with the excep

(A communication.) Dated De28 10, 2816. tion of my primary wire being stouter than those LIGHTING, HEATING, AND VENTILATING, 2924, 2837,

cember 8, 1858.

2843, recommended, No. 103, 30 yards long, instead of No. 2844, 2846, 2854.

The patentee claims, 1, the mode of twisting fibrous 14, with a condenser of about 130 series, 6 by 12,

FURNITURE AND APPAREL, including household utensils, materials by bringing threads or yarns on to a reel,

time-keepers, jewellery, musical instruments, &c., 2819, roller, wheel, or spool from off a number of bobbins, formed with stout writing paper, enclosed between 2820, 2823, 2826, 2827, 2829, 2811, 2842, 2852, 2854. two sheets of thin gutta-percha, so that the tin foil Merals, including apparatus for their manufacture, 2831, twisted threads oryarns passing between a cylinder and

arranged on the same rapidly revolving spindle, the may be thoroughly insulated; my secondary wire is 2847, 2859,

a pressure plate, or between two twist regulating rollers about two miles in length, No. 35. I find by applying CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 2820. a graphite battery of 12 pair of plates, 31 by 6 in., WARFARE. None. ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, 2835, 2836, 2864.

at theupper part, so that if desired they may be gissed,

glossed, or dressed during the progress of the operais gives a very smart spark and very rapid; but if I

LETTER PRESS PRINTING &c. None. take one of the pairs of plates and use 11 as a bat. MISCELLANEOUS, 2830, 2832, 2834, 2839, 2848, 2851, 2853, of parts and mode of action of twisting apparatus,

2. The general arrangement and combination tery, and apply the poles of the remaining one to the 2855, 2856, 2860, 2861, 2863.

consisting of a spindle above, or at the end of which poles of the former, connecting the zinc poles with each other, as also the graphite poles, the power is 2810. G. F. CHANTRELL. “Improvements in

are situated a cylinder and pressure plate or two increased to a surprising degree, the magnetism in apparatus applicable to the manufacture and revivifi- / twist regulating rollers, and which spindle carries

two or more bobbins, so arranged that their threads the core being increased three fold, and the spark at cation of animal or vegetable charcoal.” Dated Dethe terminals of the secondary wire proportion cember 8, 1858.

or yarns may be united between the cylinder and abiy exalted. Not having seen the circumstance men- This relates to apparatuses patented on the 17th pressure plate or between the regulating rollers. tioned, I am not aware if the fact has been before October, 1853, and 8th June, 1855, and consists, 1, 3. The method of action or combination of parts of discovered. Perhaps some of your numerous corres in causing an agitation in the char during the time centrifrugal self-acting stop or arrrangement de. be kind enough to try the experiment, and give the bers, in which it is being

burnt. This is accomplished such thread or yarn happens to break, and is then spondents who might have a similar apparatus would it is being passed down through narrow retort cham- scribed, in which a thread guide held in place by the result through the MECHANICS' Magazine. Yours by forming the inner surfaces of the retort chambers thrown outward by the centrifrugal action of the rerespectfully, S. CHICK.-P.S. I find the same propor- corrugated, the hollows and rounds of which corrugationate amount of power in a less number of plates, tions by preference should run horizontally. 2. In volving or twisting appliance, and in which also the say 6 pair with the extra plate. The magnetism

being forming of corrugated metal the corrugated coolers wheel roller or reel on which the thread is being so much increased, would it not prove a very superior into which the char falls after having been acted wound is provided with a key or a bolt and a stud

or stop, the former causing it to partake of the arrangement for the magnetic engine. I have not upon in the retort chambers. The object of the had time to vary the number of plates in the second patentee in forming the coolers of corrugated metal rotary motion

of the shaft on which it is carried, but ary battery ; probably a still greater power would be is to obtain a greater amount of surface, and in the nected or disengaged by the stud or stop. 4. The obtained by a series.—S. C. Viscount Carlingford writes :—"To the Editors of He prefers in this case that the hollows and rounds application of centrifrugal force for effecting the

action or dis the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. Gentlemen, -Allow forming the corrugations should run in a vertical self-acting stoppage, throwing out me to trouble you with the reply I forwarded to the direction. 3. In forming the upper parts of the connecting of the twisting apparatus of throwing or Engineer, in answer to a letter addressed to you, pipes or passages which connect the bottoms of the twisting machinery. Patent completed. therein inserted; your obedient servant, CARLING- retort chamber with the coolers of as great a horizon.

2814. S. PIIILLIPS. "Improvements in sliding Ford.” “To the Editor of the Engineer. Sir, tal sectional area as the retort chambers for a given window sashes, shutters, and doors.” Dated Decem. In reply to the letter of Mr. Robert Griffiths, in your distance below the bed-plates upon which the furnaces ber 8, 1858. last number, I trust you will allow me to inform him and char chambers are built. The communication Here the inventor dispenses with the usual pulleys, through your paper, that so far from claiming to be pipes are then divided into two barrels, so that one lines, and weights employed for raising and lowering the inventor of his patent screw propeller, he will find half of the char will run into the right hand cooler, or sliding sashes, shutters, and doors, and substituting en referring a second time to my two letters, pub- and the other half into the left hand cooler, two for the same a curved or bow-shaped spring, which is lished in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, that I have coolers being used in conjunction with each chamber. secured to the edge of the sash, so that in use the condemned its principle as regards its adjustable 4. In forming on or fixing to the under side of the spring will be compressed between the sash and the pitch. But let me inquire of him the reason he takes bed-plates, at the bottoms of one or more sets of the sash-frame. At both ends of this spring are mounted a new patent for that which he states he took a patent char chambers, a hump of iron, perforated with small rollers partly toothed and partly plain, forming for ten years ago, while only five years ago the Ad- say six hopper-mouthed holes for the passage of a ratchet, the ratchet part being furnished with a miralty had condemned all screw propellers then in the char. The holes in the iron humps are carried spring pawl attached to the long spring to prevent existence, so much so that Government had ordered down in an oblique direction on alternate sides for the revolution of the roller in more than one direction. that no vessel worked by the screw should be em dividing the charcoal, so that it may fall into two

These rollers which thus assist the raising of the ployed to carry Her Majesty's mails? Then is it not coolers, suspended parallel to each other, below the sash by running smoothly up the sash-frame will clear that Mr. Griffiths has applied the pitch of the vertical char chambers. Patent completed.

in some measure retard its downward movement by Carlingford screw to his old patented screw propeller, 2811. C. DE CAPPOT and A, JARRIANT. “A new being locked in that direction by the action of the and now takes a new patent in the hopes of making hydraulic counter.” Dated December 8, 1858. ratchet and pawl, which will thus overcome the the public believe that he is the inventor or discoverer The patentees attach to the pipe from the main or tendency of the sash to fall by its own weight. Pas of the new principle, which I alone discovered, and other suitable supply a flanged pipe connected to a

tent abandoned. which alone gives to his screw propeller its new cook or tap, the pipe from which opens outwards at 2815. A. LAMB And W. A. SUMMERS. “Improved qualities. I trust the Admiralty will now see the pro- the bottom in the shape of a truncated cone, and is arrangements of apparatuses for super-heating priety of giving the screw I presented to them and flanged at the bottom, so that it may be connected to steam.” Dated December 8, 1858. the country its proper name of the Carlingford a case enclosing a cylinder of gutta-percha, &c., The object here is to divide the steam to be superScrew, and 'not insist further on calling it the Admi. having anysuitable number of perforations, though the heated into as thin films or streams as may be in ralty Screv-for none at the Admiralty had anything decimal ratio will be found preferable, the solid part order to get the whole quantity composing such films whatever to do with its discovery-and so put a stop of the cylinder being indented when necessary. The or streams quickly, thoroughly,and economically super. to all persons in future attempting to take on them. patentees connect to the aforesaid case a box com- heated. The steam is passed through thin channels selves the merit of the real discovery by merely municating by a pipe with one of the holes of the or ways arranged cylindrically, spirally, or parallel to making some trivial alteration to some part of it gutta-percha cylinder, and also by another pipe to a each other, or in any other suitable direction in the which had nothing whatever to do with its principle, bucket wheel, formed with any required number of Alues, smoke space, uptake, or chimney. The inven. and then call it a new invention of their own. 1 buckets, starting from about the centre of the wheel, tion applies especially to those boilers known as might as well bore holes in the chimney of a locomo- and sliding against the interior of the casing, at the Lamb and Summers' Patent Flue Boilers," but is tive, and, taking a patent for it, call the entire my bottom of which there is an aperture covered with also applicable to other steam boilers. Patent com. own invention. I remain, Sir, your obedient servant, wire gauze, &c. To the lower part of the case con- pleted. CARLINGFORD. Swifto’s Heath, 18th July, 1859.” taining the gutta-percha cylinder, they connect a 2816. W. King, jun. "Improvements in apparatus

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