« EelmineJätka »
species Krennerite. It occurs with sylvanite and petzite in minute silver-white crystals, which have been thoroughly described by Vom Rath.
Coloradoite.--Found with native gold and tellurium at several mines in Boulder County, Col. It is, as described by Dr. F. A. Genth, a telluride of mercury (HgTe) analogous to the long-known sulphide (cinnabar) and selenide of mercury (tiemannite). It is found only massive, without cleavage, and has a metallic lustre and iron-black color. The specific gravity is 8.627.
Cryptocallite.—A new hydrous silicate of zinc and aluminum, described by Dr. G. E. Moore as occurring at the zincmines of Franklin, N. J.
Cuspidine.- A fluo-silicate of calcium, described by Scacchi, who discovered it at Vesuvius. It appears in spearshaped crystals of a pale-red color.
Dysanalyte.Found in cubical crystals in the granular limestone of the Kaiserstuhlgebirge in Breisgau, where it has long been known under the name of perofskite. Knop finds it, on analysis, to be a columbo-titanate of iron, calcium, cerium, and sodium, and separates it from allied species under the name of dysanalyte. This name refers to the difficulty involved in the chemical analysis of the mineral.
Elroquite.-A problematical phosphate of iron and aluminum, named by Professor Shepard. It occurs on the island of Elroque, Caribbean Sea. It is massive, and has an applegreen to gray color: the green color is attributed to chromium in combination with phosphoric acid, and the compound is called phosphochromite.
Enysite.—Occurs in stalactitic forms, of a bluish-green color, in a cave at St. Agnes, Cornwall. Its most prominent constituents are copper, alumina, water, and sulphuric acid (8 per cent.). It is supposed by Collins, the describer, to be of comparatively recent origin.
Ferrotellurite. -Observed by Dr. Genth as a crystalline coating on quartz, from the Keystone Mine, Colorado. Under the microscope it is seen to consist of minute prismatic crystals of a yellow color. In composition it is probably a tellurate of iron.
Franklandite.-A hydrous borate of sodium and calcium, found with ulexite at Tarapaca, Peru. Described by Professor J. Emerson Reynolds.
Ginilsite.-A name given by Rammelsberg to a massive mineral from the Ginilsalp in Graubünden, Switzerland. Its color is grayish-yellow, and its most prominent constituents are silica, lime, and iron, together with smaller amounts of alumina and magnesia, and 3 per cent. of water.
Guanajuatite.-The mineral frenzelite, mentioned in the Record for 1876, was described under the name of guanajuatite by Professor Fernandez in 1873, and the latter name has consequently the prior claim.
Haddamite.--A mineral occurring imbedded in the Haddam columbite, and believed by Shepard to be distinct from microlite.
Hatchettolite.— A name given by Dr. J. Lawrence Smith to a mineral occurring in regular octahedrons with the samarskite of Mitchell County, N. C. It has a yellowish-brown color and resinous lustre. Analyses by Dr. Smith, and a later and more complete analysis by Professor 0. D. Allen, show the mineral to be essentially a tantalo-columbate of uranium and calcium, containing also some water, iron, and less than 2 per cent. of titanic acid. It is named in honor of the English chemist Hatchett, who discovered the element columbium.
Henwoodite.—Essentially a hydrous phosphate of aluminum and copper; described by Collins from the West Phenix Mine in Cornwall. It occurs in globular masses of a turquois-blue color on limonite,
Heterolite. — Closely associated (hence the name from éraipos, companion) with chalcopbanite at the zinc-mines of Sterling Hill, N. J. It occurs in botryoidal coatings, of a black color. In composition it is, according to Dr. Moore, a zinc hausmannite.
Heubachite.—A hydrated oxide of cobalt and nickel; described by Sandberger as occurring in thin coatings on barite at the mines in Heubach, near Wittichen, Baden.
Hexagonite.—Described as a new mineral by Goldsmith, but shown by Koenig to be a manganesian variety of tremolite, from St. Lawrence County, N. Y.
Homilite.-Found in orthorhombic crystals, of a brownishblack color, at Stockoe, near Brevig, Norway. In composition, according to Paijkull, it is allied to datolite, being a silicate of calcium and iron containing 18 per cent. of boracic acid.
Hydrocastorite. - A decomposition product of the castorite of Elba, which it surrounds as a white mealy coating. An analysis by Grattarola shows it to consist of silica, alumina, lime, and water.
Hydroniccite.—(See niccochromite, below.)
Lawrencite.--A name given by M. Daubrée, in honor of
A hydrous phosphate of iron, allied to vivianite, occurring in small monoclinic crystals, of a clear green color; described by Field from the mines of Cornwall, England.
Magnolite. Occurs in white silky needles, having, according to Dr. Genth, the composition of a tellurate of mercury. Locality, Keystone Mine, Magnolia District, Col.
Meroxene. -An old name of Breithaupt, now given by Tschermak to a part of the biotite micas. (See above, anomite.)
Microcline.—A name early given to a variety of orthoclase: it is now appropriated by M. Des Cloizeaux for a feldspar identical in composition with orthoclase, but triclinic in form. It includes the feldspar enclosing ægirite from Magnet Cove, Ark.; and is intimately associated with orthoclase at many localities, conspicuously so in the beautiful amazonstone of Colorado.
Neochrysolite.—A manganesian variety of chrysolite, described by Scacchi as occurring in cavities in the lava of 1631 at Vesuvius.
Niccochromite.-Occurs as a thin yellow coating on chromite at Texas, Pa.; supposed by Professor Shepard to be a dichromate of nickel. Another associated mineral is regarded as a hydrate of nickel, and the name hydroniccite is suggested for it.
Pelagite. — A provisional name, proposed by Professor Church, for the material constituting the “manganese nodules” obtained by the Challenger in deep-sea soundings in the Pacific. They contain manganese, iron, alumina, and silica.
Phosphochromite.-(See Elroquite, page 158.) Plumbomanganite.-A mineral examined and named by
Hannay. Color, dark steel-gray; composition, a sulphide of lead and manganese; locality unknown.
Protovermiculite. – A hydrous micaceous mineral from Magnet Cove, Ark.; closely related to culsageeite; described by Dr. Koenig.
Polydimite. - Occurs in regular octahedrons, of a steelgray color and brilliant metallic lustre. According to Laspeyres, it is essentially a sulphide of nickel (RS), though quite distinct from millerite. Locality, Sayn-Altenkirchen.
Rogersite.--A new hydrous columbate of yttria, named by Dr. J. L. Smith in honor of Professor William B. Rogers. It occurs as a white incrustation, with mammillary structure, upon the samarskite of Mitchell County, N.C.
Silaonite.—A selenide of bismuth (BizSe); described by Professor Fernandez as occurring with guanajuatite at the mines of Guanajuato, Mexico.
Sipylite.—A new columbate, of complex composition, occurring, as described by Professor Mallet, with allanite of Amherst County, Va. It contains as bases zirconium, erbium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, didymium, uranium, iron, and calcium, with smaller amounts of other elements. It occurs indistinctly crystallized, has a brownish-black color and a resinous lustre. Its specific gravity is 4.89. It is remarkable for glowing very brilliantly in the blow pipe flame.
Sonomaite.- A hydrous sulphate of aluminum and mag. nesium collected near the geysers of Sonoma County, Cal., and described by E. Goldsmith. It appears in colorless crystalline masses with silky lustre.
Sphærocobaltite.--Found in spheroidal forms, with roselite, at Schneeberg, Saxony. Its color is rose-red, and in composition it is a carbonate of cobalt (CoCO3). Described by Weisbach.
Strengite.—A hydrous phosphate of iron, allied to scorodite. It occurs with cacoxenite in spherical incrustations of a generally white color. Described by Nies as found at the iron-mines near Giessen, Hesse; and since identified by Koenig from Rockbridge County, Va.
Szmikite.-A hydrous sulphate of manganese; described by Schroeckinger as occurring in stalactitic forms at Felsobanya, in Transylvania.
Uranocircite.-Described by Dr. Weisbach as a hydrous phosphate of uranium and barium, in appearance very similar to autunite. Occurs in quartz veins in the granite of Falkenstein, Saxon Voigtland.
Venerite.--A name given by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt to a hydrous silicate of copper, which forms the mass of the “clay ore” mined in Berks County, Pa.
Waluerite.- A hydrous silicate of aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, allied to xanthophyllite; in external appearance very similar to clinochlore. Described by Kokscharof as occurring near Achmatowsk, in the Southern Ural.
Youngite.--A hypothetical mineral of unknown locality, supposed by Hannay to be a sulphide of zinc, manganese, and lead.
Zircarbite. — A massive yellowish-brown mineral, of unknown chemical composition, occurring at the granite quarries of Rockport, Mass. Named by Professor Shepard.
METEORITES. M. Daubrée has carried on a series of experiments with dynamite, investigating the effects produced upon a block of steel when a charge has been exploded upon it under different conditions. The object of these experiments was to obtain an explanation for some of the most commonly occurring characters of meteorites. The result of his investigations showed that the effects produced upon the steel which had been subjected to the explosion were throughout comparable to those produced upon the meteorites by their passage through the atmosphere of the earth. This was true of the irregular fragments formed, the pitted condition of the surface, the striations of the surfaces which had been rubbed together, the cracks, and the marbled surfaces.
The conclusion to which he comes, from the facts that have been stated, is that the meteorites owe their distinctive characters to the pressure of the atmosphere against them, as they move through it with immense velocity, and to the heat thus generated—this pressure being analogous to that which acted upon the steel at the moment of the explosion of the dynamite.
The so-called meteorio iron of Ovifak, near Disco, Greenland, has been the subject of several recent papers. A prominent one by Steenstrup deserves to be mentioned. He de