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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878, by
HARPER & BROTHERS, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
The present volume is the seventh of a series commenced in 1871, and which, although entirely unconnected with a work having somewhat the same object—the Annual of Scientific Discovery—took up the record of scientific and industrial progress where the latter left it off, after having been published since 1850. The two therefore form a continuous history of the subject for twentyseven years.
Heretofore the “Annual Record” has for the most part been composed, first, of a summary of scientific progress during the year; and, second, of a series of abstracts of the more important articles contained in the proceedings of learned societies and in the scientific and industrial journals of the day. With the rapid increase in the number of such papers, it has been found impossible to compress the abstracts in the limits necessarily assigned to the annual volume; and it has therefore been concluded to omit them entirely, and, by an extension of the Summaries, to furnish what will probably better answer the purposes of the student.
A minute alphabetical index will supply the means of ready reference to the more important data. The names of the several gentlemen whose assistance has been obtained in the preparation of the series of summaries will be sufficient guarantee of the completeness of their work.
As in the earlier volumes, there will be found a list of the principal losses to science by death, and a bibliography of the more important publications, whether in the form of books or of scientific memoirs. The latter, as heretofore, has been prepared with the assistance of Professor Gill, of Washington.
SPENCER F. BAIRD.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, WASHINGTON, March 1, 1878.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.