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time give him thanks for it: which letters were also seen by the lord Inchiquin, general of the English forces in Munster, and by his secretary who took copies of them, which should be forthcoming. My lord Falkland replied, they deserve to be hanged: but the matter was no further inquired into."-Ibid.-" Agents from these bloody rebel Irish were admitted by the court at Oxford, to whom the king, when he took his leave of them, said, We have both need of one another, that we neither of us may fail of what we design.”―Hist. Stu. p. 275. "The cessation being made, many of the Irish rebels came over into the king's service here under colonel Urnely."-Whitelock's Mem. p. 71, 73.


The cessation being concluded, "the king formed also the project of a peace, with these rebels, that he might employ not only the rest of the English troops, but also a good body of Irish, whom he intended to send for into England. But to make peace with the Irish, they must necessarily be satisfied in point of religion. This the king could not do without running counter to all his protestations of zeal for the protestant religion, and confirming in some measure the suspicions of those who believed him to have had an hand in the Irish rebellion. In a word, he could not take this step without relinquishing the interests of the Irish protestants, and giving the catholics there such advantages, as would render them very superior to the protestants. He must likewise forsake the interests of England, and cause her to lose in great measure the dominion she had always had over Ireland, since the conquest of that kingdom. Nay he was in danger of losing many friends in England by such a step. Those who were sincerely attached to him, and persuaded that he acted upon motives of justice and religion, must

needs have their eyes opened, when they saw him manifestly betray the interests of England, and the protestant religion, if he concluded with the Irish such a peace as they demanded."-Rapin, Vol. XII. p. 329.

But notwithstanding all these difficulties (" And though the parliament of Ireland, Lord Clarendon informs us, then sitting, sent commissioners to the king, in the name of the protestants in that kingdom, to prevent the making any peace, and with a petition to dissolve the cessation which had been made; and commissioners also came from the lord lieutenant and council, whereof some were of the privy council, assuring the king, that there could be no security for the protestants in that kingdom, but by leaving the Irish without any capacity or ability to trouble them for their perfidiousness was such, that they could not be trusted; and therefore they must be put into such a condition, by being totally disarmed, that they should not be able to do any mischief; or that all the protestants must leave the kingdom to the entire possession of the Irish."-Clarend. Vol. IV. P. 556-But notwithstanding all this) "As the king hoped that with the aid he should draw from Ireland, he should be able to give law to the parliament, and then be obliged to use no farther ceremony; he resolved not to debar himself of such an advantage, but to grant the Irish whatever they demanded. Accordingly, the Earl of Glamorgan was authorised by the king (by a warrant under his royal signet) to treat with these bloody rebels, and to grant them all their demands, on condition they would furnish him with a body of 10,000 men who should come into England. The date of this warrant (Rapin well observes) is remarkable: It was at a time when the kiug's affairs did not seem to require absolutely his making

use of the Irish catholics. In the foregoing campaign he had gained a signal advantage over the earl of Essex, with all the Western counties. It was just after the treaty at Uxbridge, where he did not think himself under a necessity of making any concessions. In a word; it was at a time when the parliament, by reason of the ill success of their arms, were employed in new modelling their army. It cannot therefore be said it was through despair that the king was driven to make use of the assistance of the Irish: it is rather very easy to perceive, it was solely to increase the superiority he then had over the parliament.--Rapin, Vol. XII. p. 330.

Lord Clarendon acknowledges, "that as this peace with the Irish provided for the exercise of the Roman catholic religion, so it did it in so immoderate and extravagant a manner, as made it obnoxious to all the protestants of the king's dominions."- Clarend. Vol. v. p. 204.

In this infamous treaty * the king solemnly engages and promises,

"I. That all the professors of the Roman catholic religion in Ireland shall enjoy the free and public use and exercise of their religion.

"II. That they shall hold and enjoy all the churches in that kingdom, which they are either now in possession of, or which have been enjoyed by them for four years last past and all other churches which are not now actually enjoyed by his protestant subjects.

"III. That the Roman catholics shall be exempted from the jurisdiction of the protestant cler

* These dark transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan, and the undoubted concern which the king had in them, see fully laid open, in a late curious treatise intitled, An Inquiry_into the Share which King CHARLES I. had in the Earl of GLAMORGAN'S transactions, &c. printed 1747.

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gy; and the Roman catholic clergy shall not be molested in the exercise of their jurisdiction over their respective catholic flocks.

"IV. That an act shall pass in the next parliament to be holden in Ireland ratifying these


"VII. The confederate catholics engage the public faith of the kingdom of Ireland to send over ten thousand men armed, to serve his majesty in England, Wales, or Scotland: And that two thirds of the clergy's revenues should be employed for the space of three years for their maintenance.

"Note. The king had most solemnly assured the parliament, that he would never consent, upon whatsoever pretence, to a toleration of the popish profession in Ireland, or the abolition of the laws in force against popish recusants in that kingdom."-Rapin, Vol. x11. p. 334.-Clarend, Vol. II. p. 492.

"Whitelock says, several of the Irish officers and soldiers came over with the king's army— Eight hundred native Irish rebels landed at Weymouth under Lord Inchiquin: (four regiments of them more landed in Wales :) another party at Beaumaris, which committed great spoils, destroying with fire what they could not carry off. Another party landed near Chester under the earl of Cork; and 1500 were cast away at sea. These wretches brought hither the same savage disposition as they had discovered in their own country; they plundered and killed people in cold blood, observing neither the rules of honour nor the laws of arms."--" In the victory won by Fairfax over the king's troops at Nantwich, amongst the slain were found 120 Irish women with long knives."Whitelock, p. 130.-Neal, Vol. III. p. 85, 86.Whitelock, p. 77." Some of the Irish rebels under prince Rupert stripped naked aged and un

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armed persons; some they inhumanly murdered; others they half hanged and afterwards burnt their flesh off from their bodies to the bare bone, and yet suffered them to live in torture."-Ibid, p. 103.

"This unhappy management of the king alienated the affections of great nuinbers of his friends who had the protestant religion at heart. Many, who wished well to his person, deserted him upon this occasion, and made their peace with the parliament, as the earls of Holland, Bedford, Clare, Carlisle, Sir Edward Deering and others: this last gentleman published the reasons of his conduct: the chief of which were, the Irish cessation; (the seeing so many Irish rebels in the king's army;) the king's preferring popish officers to chief places of trust and honour; and the language of the Oxford clergy and others, that the king should come no other way to his palace than by conquest. Many of the earl of Newcastle's soldiers (who was the king's general) in the North, upon the news of the Irish cessation, threw down their arms and offered a composition: And the parliamentary Chronicle says, that this single action lost the king all the Northern counties."-Neal ubi supra. -Whitelock, p. 77.

The king not only made this peace with the rebel Irish catholics, but to the earl of Glamorgan (a principal leader amongst them, and confident of the pope's nuncio there, by whom their affairs were directed) he writes, in a letter dated July 20, 1646, " If you can raise a large sum of money by pawning my kingdoms for that purpose, I am content you should do it. And tell the nuncio that if once I can come into his and your hands, which ought to be extremely wished for by you both, I will do it. If I do not say this from my heart, or if in any future time I fail you in this, may God never restore me to my king

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