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is the kingdom of God;* i. e. that these, also, have a place in the kingdom of the Messiah, which was now to be set up; and a right to the blessings which himself, the promised king, was come to bestow.

At another time, he took a little child into his arms, and shewing it to his disciples, says, whosoever shall receive one such little child, this child, in my name, receiveth me.f Now the receiving a child in Christ's name must mean the considering, or treating it as standing in some peculiar relation to Christ; as T8 xpose we belonging to Christ; as being a subject of his kingdom, or a part of his flock. That this is what our Lord means by, receiving in his name, hiinself has expressly shewn by thus explaining it in this same discourse, because ye belong to Christ :I whoso shall give you a cup of water to drink, in my name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you &c. Hence, then it is most evident, that infants may be, yea are to be, received in Christ's name; and that by this we are to understand, receiving them as belonging, or standing in some peculiar relation, to Christ; but in this peculiar relation to Christ an infant can no otherwise stand than by being solemnly devoted to him, and admitted into his kingdom and church.

And, that infants were to be admitted into the kingdom of the Messiah, or into that incorporated society of which he is the head, is quite rational to presume : for as they stood in absolute need of the redemption or grace which Messiah, the king, came to bestow on mankind; and as provision was made by the covenant of God for their actual receiving it; so there was the strongest reason to expect, that they would be solemnly acknowledged,

* Mat. xix. 14. Maik x. 14. Luke xviii. 16. + Mat. Xviii, 5. Mark ix. 37. Luke ix. 48. I Mark ix. 41.

and declared to be a part of that society or church which should be thus blessed and saved by him. In other words, that as they were condemned through the first Adam, and treated as sinners; so they should be justified through the second Adam and treated as righteous. But, if they were to be treated as righteous, and to be solemnly declared a part of that society, or church, whom Christ came to save, they were then to be baptized; for baptism was the ceremony in which all, who by God's covenant had a right to salvation, were to be admitted into the church, and solemnly declared to be of the number of the saved.

That, in the eye of the christian law, infants are actually under a sentence of condemnation and considered as sinners, by being made to suffer death the punishment and effect of sin, cannot be denied. By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon all, for that sow, ad quod, as far as which) or (per quem through whom) all are treated as if they had sinned.* Rom. v. 12. By one man's offence judgment came upon all men to condemnation. ver. 18. By one man's offence many were made sinners. ver. 19. In Adam all die. I Cor. xv. 22. Though infants are incapable of any moral or proper guilt, yet as in the wise scheme of God's providence they are at present subjected to innumerable pains, diseases, and death, the penal ef

Iniquity and sin are very frequently used in scripture, where not any real guilt or moral turpitude is meant, but only the effects or the punishment of sin. See Gen. xix. 15. I SAM. xxviii. 10. 2 Kings vii. 9. Isa. liii. 6, 11, 12.1. Pet. ji. 24. 2 Cor. v. 21. Heb. ix. 28. And this suggests an easy, and, doubtless, the true sense of that much controverted text, Psalm li. 5. I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me : alluding to the bitter sorrow's in which, in consequence of the first sin, (Gen. iii. 16.) the woo man is sentenced to conccire and to bring forth.

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fects of sin, through the disobedience of Adam; they are, agreeably to the style of scripture, said to have sinned, and to be made, i. e. treated as sinners.

Now, the same discourse of the Apostle, which represents them as condemned and suffering through Adam, represents them also as justified and saved by Jesus Christ. For, as by the offence of one (Adam) judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one (Christ) the free gift came upon all men to justification of life : for as by the disobedience of one, many were made sinners; so by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous.* As much as to say, the salutary effects of the second Adam's virtue, are as extensive as the penal ones of the first Adam's sin : or, as the malignity of that first offence reached even to infants, subjecting them to death ; so the benefit of Christ's obedience reaches also to infants, justifying, absolving, and restoring them to life. It procures for and gives to them that spirit of life, which releases and sets them free from the law of sin and death. Now of God's giving and of men's receiving this life-giving spirit, the baptismal water is the appointed token, or emblem, in the church.

This the scripture plainly intimates, by saying, Tit. iii. 5. We are saved, by the washing of regeneration (i. e. Baptism, the sign) and by the renewing of the Holy Ghost (the thing signified in that ceremonial washing) which he hath shed (o&txilly poured out upon us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

From this discourse of the Apostle (Rom. v.) the following deductions evidently flow. 1. That in the construction of the christian law, infants

* Rom. v. 18, 19.

are, most certainly, in a state of condemnation, and are treated as sinners. 2. That they are, therefore, capable of justification or remission, and stand in absolute need of it; in as much as, without it, they must eternally lie under the sentence of death. 3. As they are capable of this grace, and stand in absolute need of it, express provision is made, in the constitution of the gospel-covenant, for their being justified and saved. But 4. All who by the gospel-covenant are entitled to justification, salvation and life, are entitled also to baptism ; for baptism is a rite, instituted by God, to signify or betoken that those, who are entitled to the blessings of his covenant, shall certainly receive them.

The baptism of infants, viewed in this light, is a very rational institution. The great parent of mankind having, in the wisdom of his providence, subjected so vast a part of the race to miseries and pains through no default of their own, it was quite reasonable to believe, that his mercy would appoint them sone testimony of his favour, some monument or pledge that he had not abandoned this noble part of his creation to the ruin and death under which they were fallen. That, as they continually suffered the visible tokens of his displeasure in a variety of tormenting agonies; so, he would graciously ordain them also some visible token of his good will, some perpetual and standing sign, of his still accounting them his children, and that they were yet the objects of his tender and parental regard. It was perfectly just, I say, and reasonable to imagine that the great Parent of these tortured and suffering innocents, whenever he erected a church upon earth, would appoint some such standing token of his mercy and favour to them. Now this, we see, he did under the two former dispensations, both of Abraham and of fects of sin, through the disobedience of Adam; they are, agreeably to the style of scripture, said to have sinned, and to be made, i. e. treated as sinners.

Now, the same discourse of the Apostle, which represents them as condemned and suffering through Adam, represents them also as justified and saved by Jesus Christ. For, as by the offence of one (Adam) judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one (Christ) the free gift came upon all men to justification of life: for as by the disobedience of one, many were made sinners ; so by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous.* As much as to say, the salutary effects of the second Adam's virtue, are as extensive as the penal ones of the first Adam's sin : or, as the malignity of that first offence reached even to infants, subjecting them to death; so the benefit of Christ's obedience reaches also to infants, justifying, absolving, and restoring them to life. It procures for and gives to them that spirit of life, which releases and sets them free from the law of sin and death. Now of God's giving and of men's receiving this life-giving spirit, the baptismal water is the appointed token, or emblem, in the church.

This the scripture plainly intimates, by saying, Tit. iii. 5. We are saved, by the washing of regeneration (i. e. Baptism, the sign) and by the renewing of the Holy Ghost (the thing signified in that ceremonial washing) which he hath shed (oFixtty poured out upon us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

From this discourse of the Apostle (Rom. v.) the following deductions evidently flow. 1. That in the construction of the christian law, infants

* Rom. v. 18, 19.

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