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all: yet behold! they are expressly said to be baptised in, or by, the sea, as well as by the cloud. Their being baptised, then, by the sea, must signify something else besides being immersed into, or covered or overwhelmed with it. What then, does it mean? Or how were they baptised by iti-As God sent a strong east wind to drive back and divide the waters; the same instrument was, no doubt, employed to continue them in this state. Now by the mighty agitation into which the waters were cast, by this violent repulsion; and the strong wind at the same time furiously blowing; it is easy to conceive the passing Israelites must be sprinkled with the spray of the tossing waves, and thus were baptised by it.

Here, then, is another incontestible instance of a scripture-baptism without immersion. The Israelites are expressly said to be baptised in, or by, the sea, as well as by the cloud; yet no one will presume to say they were buried or overwhelmed in it.

In further confirmation of this sense of the word, Caritw to baptise, I beg leave to ask-what is the real nature or design of christian baptism? It is unquestionably but an emblematical, or figurative thing. But what is the water, in this religious rite, designed to figure or represent ? Undoubtedly the Holy Ghost.* This is frequently in scripture, spoken of and promised, under the emblem of water :t and is represented as the great instrument of purifying, refreshing and strengthening the soul, as water is of the body. Accordingly, John says, I indeed baptise you with water ; but he, Christ, shall baptise you with the Holy Ghost.--E.rcept a person is born of water, and of the Spirit :-Repent, and be baptised, every one of you, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.-Can any forbid water, that these should not be baptised, who have received the Holy Ghost ? -The washing of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy Ghost. It is therefore, carefully to be observed, that the water, which in christian baptism is applied to the body, being intended as an emblem of the Holy Spirit, which is promised to the soul, to sanctify and cleanse it; it will throw great light on the present subject to take notice in what manner this Spirit is represented, in scripture, as communicated or given to us. Are we, generally, represented as immersed into, or overwhelmed with the Spirit : or else, as having it poured down upon us? Undoubtedly by the latter.

* See Luke iii. 16. John iii. 5. Acts i. 5. ii. 38. *. 47. 1 Cor. xii. 13. Tit. iii. 5.-of Isai. xliv. 3. Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 27. Johp iv. 10, 14. John yii. 38, 39.

By one Spirit we are all baptised into one body -And, he shall baptise you with the Holy Ghost and with fire. How was this done? The scripture itself informs us—viz. By the Holy Ghost descending, and sitting on them, in the form of cloven tongues of fire. Note, they were not overwhelmed, or covered, with the fire, when they were baptised with it; but it only fell upon, and rested on them. And see how St. Peter remarks upon this fact, namely, their being baptised with the Holy Ghost, and its resting on them in the form of fire ! verses 16, 17, 18. This is that, which was spoken by the Prophet Joel; and it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will POUR out of my Spirit Upon all flesh- And on my servants, and on my hand-maids I will POUR out, in those days, of my SPIRIT. Observe, This is that which was spoken-i. e. By this fact, of our baptism with the Spirit, is that prophecy, I will pour out fulfilled. --So Acts x. 44, 45. And xi, 15, 16. When Peter, and the

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Jews which were with him, saw the Holy Ghost BRETITI, RJ EXTEXulos Eti Ta torn, FALL ON, and POURED OUT UPON the gentiles; then remembered 1, says he, the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed BAPTISED with water; but be BAPTISED with the Holy Ghost. Hence, then, it is most evident, that this POURING OUT of the Spirit, which Peter saw, was that BAPTism with the SPIRIT of which CHRIST spake; and of which baptism with water was an intended emblem or sign.

See also, how the Apostle Paul, Tit. iii. 5, 6. joins the sign, and the thing signified; and illustrates the one, by the other. The washing of regeneration (i. e. the baptismal water, the sign) and the renewing of the Holy Ghost, (the thing signified by it, not, with which we are overwhelmed, nor into which we were dipt, but) which he hath shed exet poured out upon us abundantly-So then, the manner in which we all, by one Spirit, are baptised into one body, is by having that Spirit shed down, or poured out upon us; and of the imparting to us this Spirit, the baptismal water is the appointed emblem, representation or sign. Let it hence, then, be now fairly and impartially judged-In what manner this water is most significantly applied—If baptism, by immersion, be allowed to be more significative of a death unto sin, as is usually urged from Coloss. ii. 12; sprinkling or pouring on, surely, is much more significative of the promise of the Holy Spirit, and of its cleansing, supporting, and quickening infuences; which is the principal thing intended to be represented, and shewed forth, in this ceremony.

I beg leave farther to observe-In the christian scheme, every true disciple is represented as being consecrated a king, and a priest; a royal priesthood to God,* when admitted into the christian church. Now the divinely appointed rite of consecration to these offices, was unction, or pouring on them the sacred oil. But the baptism of christians is their inauguration into these offices; and the Holy Ghost, represented by the baptismal water is expressly called the unction or anointing, t by which we are consecrated to them. Now baptism by affusion, is a significant and lively emblem of this unction or consecration; whereas, in the mode of immersion, this part of the allusion is entirely lost.

Again.—Was not the baptismal water designed to signify and represent, that purging from an edil conscience'; that cleansing or purification ; which we obtain by the blood of Christ? But are we ever spoken of in scripture as overwhelmed with, or dipt into, that blood of the son of God? Is it not, on the contrary, always represented as sprinkled upon us ?

Finally. The circumstances or state of those in the ark, (1 Pet. iii. 21.) is said to be a figure, or resemblance, of christian baptism; but they were not dipt into the water and taken up again; as it is contended baptised persons ought to be; but only had water poured down upon them.

From these observations on the sense of the word, Barizu to baptise, in the New Testament; we proceed to its use in the greek version of the old, and in the Apocrapha. And here it is found but in the four following places.

Ecclus. xxxiv. 26. The person who was purified after the touch of a dead body, is called Carlousy, one baptised. Now the ceremony of his purification consisted chiefly, if not entirely, in sprinkling water upon him, see Numb. xix. 18.

* i Pet. ii. 9. Rev. v. 10.

t i John ij. 20, 27.

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And a clean person shall take hyssop and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon him that touched a bone, &c. And this water which was to be sprinkled, is emphatically and expressly called the water of separation, and a purification for sin, verse 9. There is mention indeed verse 19 of washing his cloaths and bathing himself in water. But this may, possibly, be understood not of the sprinkled; but of the sprinkler; who, it is plain from verse 21. contracted a defilement from his sprinkling, and even touching the water of separation; but as for the person sprinkled, from verse 12. it seems to follow that the mere sprinkling the water on him, the third and the seventh days, was all requisite to his cleansing. But supposing that he was also obliged to bathe his flesh; it is most evident that this bathing was not that application of water in which the ceremony of his cleansing chiefly consisted, nor on which his purification is made to depend, but the sprinkling it upon him. This fully appears from verses 13, 20. where the person, who had neglected this ceremonial purification, is threatened to be cut off. For what? For not having bathed his body? Nothing like it. No, but in each distinct threatening, bis guilt is expressly made to consist, in his not having the water of purification sprinkled upon him. And the apostle, it is observable, speaking of this very same purification, makes the efficacy of the ceremony to consist entirely in the sprinkling, without the least mention of the bathing. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of a heiser, (with which this water of purification was made) sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more, &c.* But

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* Heb.ix 13.


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