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Edgar was shocked and distressed beyond measure. He lamented his own want of fortune which denied him the means of assisting Mr. FitzHugh to get rid of these “land sharks," as he, with some justice, called them; but he offered to write to his rich uncle, and said he felt convinced Mr. Montague would lend her father what was required to pay off the debt to Mr. Babington's employers.

Coralie thanked him very warmly for his generous feelings and kind proposal, but she said her father could not apply for a loan to a total stranger ; no, things must take their course; nothing could be done to alter it.

They walked home by the light of the glittering stars, and in after days that evening walk was remembered with feelings which it would be difficult to describe-feelings which even in old age might recal the reveries of youth, and for a short space annihilate the lapse of years !

The hour of parting came; and the Albion sailed, carrying away the much-loved Ludovic FitzHugh and his gallant preserver, who had so entwined himself round the hearts of the now desolate Coralie and her affectionate and sympathising sister, Malvina.

Coralie kept her promise, and did what she considered her duty. She married Mr. Babington on his return from England. But, as Malvina had predicted, the sacrifice was made in vain. At first Mr. Babington pretended to be very friendly, then by degrees he became more and more distant to Coralie's family, until at length he threw off the mask, and wrote to Mr. FitzHugh that his house in London declined giving any more time for the payment of the debt owing to them. The sale of Boyne Hall was hurried on; it was bought in, at a price far beneath its value, by Mr. Babington for the London merchants who had a claim upon it, and the selfish Mrs. FitzHugh had the mortification of being obliged to remove to Cedar Grove.

To crown poor Coralie's misery, Mr. Babington, in spite of her entreaties, insisted on taking up his abode at her former home, Boyne Hall. In vain she protested against this; he sent to New York for gaudy furniture, and she was forced to reside at the place where every room, every tree, every flower, reminded her of the lamented past. Ludovic Fitz Hugh heard from his sister Malvina of


Coralie's unhappy marriage, and not long after, with grief and wrath, of Mr. Babington's shameful proceedings, and how uselessly Coralie had been sacrificed. Edgar Howard more than shared all the young brother's ardent feelings, and if the culprit, Babington, had been within their reach, they would have been tempted in their fury at him to have torn him to pieces. Many were the curses invoked on the heads of the “ land sharks,” the London creditors, and their estimable agent, but execrations could be of no avail.

Edgar Howard got a letter conveyed to Coralie under cover of one from Ludovic to Malvina, and it arrived in time to impart a ray of pleasure to her in her dying hours. She was too ill to write him in return, but she sent him a message through her sister, in which she told him it was her earnest prayer that, through their Redeemer's mercy, they might meet, pardoned and happy spirits, in those seraphic worlds which were only reached through the gloomy gates of death.

Coralie died of a broken heart; and Edgar Howard long, long remembered, with feelings of deep regret, his lost West Indian love !

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CHARLES LAMB objected very earnestly to the right of the moderns to compliment themselves, as moderns, upon the point of gallantry; that is to say, upon a certain obsequiousness, or deferential respect, which they profess to pay to women as women,-or, as Elia uncomfortably phrases it, to females as females.

He refused all faith in the reality of this claim-all belief in the influence of any such code of courtesy—so long as actresses remained liable to be hissed off the stage by gentlemen, and women were often whipped in public, and occasionally hanged. He would come to believe in it when he should see Dorimant hand a fish-wife across the kennel, or assist the apple-woman to pick up her wandering fruit, just dissipated by some unlucky dray. He would come to believe in it, he said, when the Dorimants in humbler life, so apt to plume themselves on their refinement, should act upon it in places where they are not known, or think themselves not observed—when the bagman should part with his admired box.coat, to spread it over the defenceless shoulders of some poor woman, passing to her parish on the roof of the same stage-coach with him, and drenched in the rain—when a woman should no longer be seen standing up in the pit of a London theatre, till sick and faint with exhaustion, with men about her, seated at their ease, and jeering at her distress; one of whom, however, with something more of manners or conscience than the rest, may be heard to significantly declare that “she should be welcome to his seat, if she were a little younger and handsomer.” Place this dapper warehouseman, says Elia, or that stage-coach traveller, in a circle of their own female acquaintance, and you shall confess you have not seen a politer-bred man in Lothbury.

Once more, Elia would begin to believe there is some such principle influencing our conduct, when more than one-half of the drudgery and coarse servitude of the world should cease to be performed by women. Till then, he could never believe this boasted point to be anything more than a conventional fiction; a pageant got up between the sexes, in a certain rank, and at a certain time of life, in which both find their account equally. But he would be even disposed to rank it among the salutary fictions of life, when in polite circles he should see the same attentions paid to age as to youth, to homely features as to handsome, to coarse complexions as to clear to the woman, as she is a woman, not as she is a beauty, a fortune, or a title.

And then Elia the Essayist goes on to declare that Joseph Paice, of Bread-street-bill, merchant, and one of the Directors of the South Sea Company, was the only pattern of consistent gallantry he had ever met with. This practical exemplar had not one system of attention to



womankind in the drawing-room, and another in the shop, or at the stall. Not that he made no distinction; but that he never lost sight of sex, or overlooked it in the casualties of a disadvantageous situation.

“I have seen him stand bareheaded-smile if you please—to a poor servant girl, while she has been inquiring of him the way to some street -in such a posture of unforced civility, as neither to embarrass her in the acceptance, nor himself in the offer, of it. He was no dangler, in the common acceptation of the word, after women : but he reverenced and upheld, in every form in which it came before him, womanhood. I have seen him-nay, smile not-tenderly escorting a market-woman, whom he had encountered in a shower, exalting his umbrella over her poor basket of fruit, that it might receive no damage, with as much carefulness as if she had been a Countess. To the reverend form of Female Eld he would yield the wall (though it were to an ancient beggarwoman) with more ceremony than we can afford to show our grandams. He was the Preux Chevalier of Age; the Sir Calidore, or Sir Tristan, to those who have no Calidores or Tristans to defend them. The roses that had long faded thence, still bloomed for him in those withered cheeks."

It is surmised that the uncommon strain of courtesy which regulated Joseph Paice's actions and behaviour towards all womankind indiscrimiDately, had“ its happy origin” in a rebuke he incurred, in early life, from his mistress, for treating her to an effusion of fine speeches, just after she had overheard him, in rather harsh tones, rating a young woman who had Dot brought home his cravats quite to the appointed time. The lady thought to herself that had she been poor Mary Such-a-one, naming the sempstress, she might have received the reverse of fine speeches; and these she determined not to accept, to the compromise of that sex, the belonging to which was after all her strongest claim and title to them.

And Lamb wishes the whole world of womankind would entertain the same notion of these things that Miss Winstanley-Joseph Paice's sweet Susan Winstanleyt-showed; for in that case we should see something of the spirit of consistent gallantry; and no longer witness the anomaly of the same man- a pattern of true politeness to a wife-of cold contempt, or rudepess, to a sister—"the idolator of his female mistress—the disparager and despiser of his no less female aunt, or unfortunate-still female-maiden cousin.” It is Elia's doctrine, in fine, that just so much respect as a woman derogates from her own sex, in whatever condition placed-her handmaid, or dependent-she deserves to have diminished from herself on that score; and probably will feel the diminution, when youth, and beauty, and advantages not inseparable from sex, shall lose of their attraction. I


Essays of Elia: Modern Gallantry. † Her death in the early days of their courtship, determined (not to say doomed) Joseph to life-long celibacy.

"What a woman should demand of a man in courtship, or after it, is firstrespect for her as she is a woman ;-and next to that, to be respected by him above all other women. But let her stand upon her female character as upon a foundation; "and let the attentions, incident to individual preference, be so many pretty additaments and ornaments—as many, and as fanciful, as you please-to that main structure. Let her first lesson be with sweet Susan Winstanley-to recerence her sex.”—ELIA, ubi suprà.


If the superiority in politeness, observes David Hume, should be al. lowed to modern times, the modern notions of gallantry, as the natural produce of courts and monarchies, will probably be assigned as the causes of this refinement. No one, he adds, denies this invention to be modern; and he refers to the Heautontimoroumenos, or Self-Tormentor, of Terence, where Clinias, whenever he comes to town, instead of waiting on his mistress, sends for her to come to him. But some of the more zealous partisans of the ancients having asserted modern gallantry to be foppish and ridiculous, and a reproach rather than a credit to these latter days,* Mr. Hume thinks it proper to examine the question. And he proceeds to argue that Nature has implanted in all living creatures an affection between the sexes, tending to a friendship and mutual sympathy which runs through the whole tenor of their lives; and that nothing, in fact, can proceed less from affectation than the passion of gallantry, which, on the contrary, is natural in the highest degree. But gallantry, he goes on to show, is as generous as it is natural. Strangers and foreigners being without protection, they receive, in all polite countries, the highest civilities, and are entitled to the first place in every company. A man is lord in his own family, and his guests are, in a manner, subject to his authority; hence he is always the lowest person in the company; attentive to the wants of every one; and giving himself all the trouble, in order to please, which may not impose too much constraint on his guests. And gallantry, Hume asserts, is nothing but another instance of the same generous attention. “As nature has given man the superiority over woman, by endowing him with greater strength both of mind and body," -for our David, pet and almost plaything of the Parisiennes though he was, disbelieved strenuously in what he would have scouted as a modern heresy, the intellectual equality of the sexes, “it is his [man's] part to alleviate that superiority as much as possible, by the generosity of his behaviour, and by a studied deference and complaisance for all her inclinations and opinions.

“ Barbarous nations display this superiority, by reducing their females to the most abject slavery; by confining them, by beating them, by selling them, by killing them. But the male sex, among a polite people, discover their authority in a more generous, though not a less evident manner; by civility, by respect, by complaisance, and, in a word, by gallantry.”+

So Lord Chesterfield unconditionally rules that civility is particularly due to all women;

“ and remember,” he bids his son, “ that no provocation whatsoever can justify any man in not being civil to every woman; and the greatest man in England would justly be reckoned a brute, if he were not civil to the meanest woman. It is due to their sex, and is the only protection they have against the superior strength of ours."

The third of Lord Berners's fifteen reasons why men should not speak ill of women (he adds twenty why they ought to speak well of them), is, that it is an act of cowardice for man who is strong, to offend woman who is weak. The second of the fifteen takes the form of this proposition

* See Lord Shaftesbury, The Moralists.

† Essays, Moral, Political, &c., by David Hume; ch. xiv., On the Rise and Progress of the Arts and Sciences.

| Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son, No. xcv.

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characteristic of the age, and of chivalric John Bouchier, Deputy-General of the King's Town of Calais, though in fact he translates from Diego de San Pedro, -" There is no sin more hateful than ingratitude ; and it is being ungrateful to the Virgin Mary if we do not honour all women for her sake.

Among the prominent characteristics of Charles Lamb himself, the Elia of real life, De Quincey specially notes the peculiar emphasis and depth of his courtesy, and asserts that in him this quality was a veritably chivalrous feeling, springing from his heart, and cherished with the sanotity of a duty." He (Lamb] says somewhere, in speaking of himself,

[] , under the mask of a third person whose character he is describing, that in passing a servant girl even at a street crossing, he used to take off his hat. Now, the spirit of Lamb's gallantry would have prompted some such expression of homage, though the customs of the country would not allow it to be literally fulfilled, for the very reason that would prompt it - viz. in order to pay respect-since the girl would, in such a case, suppose a man laughing at her.” But, as De Quincey contends, the instinct of Lamb's heart was- to think highly of female nature, and to pay a real homage, “not the hollow demonstration of outward honour, which a Frenchman calls his homage,' and which is really a mask for contempt,” | to the sacred idea of pure and virtuous womanhood.

France's Grand Monarque was a sublime exemplar of the national homage of which our author thinks so distrustfully. According to the most observant and least servile of high-born memoir writers, never was man so naturally polite as Lewis the Fourteenth ;-while towards women his politeness was without parallel; insomuch that he never passed the humblest petticoat without raising his hat-even to chambermaids, that he knew to be such, as often happened at Marly.

Of that good Bishop of Waterford, Dr. Chenevix, --who was so attached to his diocese, that when offered the Archbishopric of Dublin, he refused to leave his children"-we are told by his loving granddaughter, Mrs. Trench (one of whose sons, the present Archbishop of Dublin, inherits his great-grandsire's name, and something else and better), that his courtesy was specially that of Christianity, more solicitous to avoid offending the poor and low than the rich and great. I have seen him receive an old woman who asked alms in the street, and a young one who came to solicit a recommendation to the Magdalen Asylum, with all the politeness of a courtier, and all the respect of a supplicant."

This description would exactly apply to the manner of the late Thomas de Quincey, when some tattered crone asked an alms. Nothing could exceed the urbane attention with which he would give ear to her mumbling, rambling petition, unless it were the deferential grace with which he so ungrudgingly relieved her wants.

A. K. H. B., most Recreative of Country Parsons, and not least toilsome of City ones, in one of his multifarious Essays describes his walking up a very long flight of steps in a very poor part of Edinburgh, while there slowly ascended before him a feeble old woman, bent down appa

* Lord Berners's Castle of Love. † Autobiography of an English Opium-eater: Recollections of Charles Lamb. | Mémoires de Saint-Simon.

Remains of the late Mrs. Richard Trench, p. 11.

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