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and their sex; and all are in action, even to the little gleaners. The true Church resembles this field. The faithful of every rank, age, and sex, have but one heart and one mind. According to their state, and the degree of their faith, all are animated to labour in the cause of God, and all are endeavouring to save either communities, families, or indi. viduals, from the wrath to come; as the reapers and gleaners endeavour to secure the rich sheaves, and even the single ears of grain, from the gathering storm.

If, in the course of this work, some truths are proposed which may appear new to the Christian reader, let him candidly appeal, for the validity of them, to the Holy Scriptures, and to the testimony of reason, supported by the most respectable authorities, such as the confessions of faith adopted by the purest Churches, together with the works of the most celebrated pastors and professors who have explained such confessions.

Among other excellent ends proposed in publishing the following sheets, it is hoped that they may bring back bigoted divines to evangelical moderation, and either reconcile, or bring near to one another the orthodox professor, the imperfect Christian, and the sincere deist.



His early piety. The great apostle of the Gentiles bore no resemblance to those who reject the service of God, till they are rendered incapable of gratifying their unruly passions. He was mindful of his Creator from his early Fouth, and as an observer of religious rites outstripped the most exact and rigid professors of his time; so that the regularity of his conduct, the fervour of his devotion, and the vivacity of his zeal, attracted the attention of his superiors in every place. Observe the manner in which he himself speaks on this subject, before the tribunal of Festus : “My manner of life, from my youth, which was at the first among mine own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews, which knew me from the beginning, (if they would testify,) that after the straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee,” Acts xxvi, 4, 5. Having occasion afterward to mention the same circumstances, in his Epistle to the Galatians, he writes thus: “Ye have heard of my conversation in time past, how I profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers,” Gal. i, 13, 14. And to what an extraordinary pitch of excellence he had carried his morality, may be inferred from the following short, but solemn declaration, which was made in the presence of persons who were very well competent to have convicted him of falsehood, had there been found the least blemish in his outward conduct: “Men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God unto this day,” Acts xxiii, 1. Such was the early piety of St. Paul; and such was the righteousness in which he trusted, when, through zeal for the Church and state, of which he was a member, he persecuted Christians as disturbers of the public peace.

Having seen the beautiful side of this apostle's early character, let us now consider his defects. As a member of the Jewish Church he was inspired with zeal, but that zeal was rigid and severe; as a member of society, his manners were probably courteous, but on some occasions his behaviour was tyrannical and inhuman; in a word, he possessed the whole of religion, except those essential parts of it, humility and charity. Supercilious and impatient, he would bear no contradiction. Presuming upon his own sufficiency, he gave himself no time to compare his errors with truth : and hence, covering his cruelty with the specious name of zeal, he breathed out “threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord,” Acts ix, 1. He himself, speaking of this part of his character, makes the following humiliating confession: "I was a blasphemer and a persecutor, and injurious," i Tim. i, 13. “ I verily thought with myself that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Which thing I also did in Jerusa

lem, and many of the saints did I shut up in prison, having received authority from the chief priests; and when they were put to death I gave my voice against them. And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities,” Acts xxvi, 9-11.

Nevertheless, this rigid Pharisee, who carried his devotion to bigotry, and his zeal to fury, had an upright heart in the sight of God. "I obtained mercy,” says he, after his conversion, “ because I did it ignorantly in unbelief," i Tim. i, 13; imagining, that when I persecuted the disciples of Jesus, I was opposing a torrent of the most dangerous errors.

Piety is that knowledge of God and his various relations to man, which leads us to adore, to love, and obey him in public and in private. This great virtue is the first trait in the moral character of St. Paul; and it is absolutely necessary to the Christian character in general, since it is that parent of all virtues, to which God has given the promise of the present life, and of that which is to come. But it is more particularly necessary to those who consecrate themselves to the holy ministry; since being obliged by their office to exhibit before their flock an ex. ample of piety, if they themselves are destitute of godliness, they must necessarily act without any conformity to the sacred character they have dared to assume.

If Quintilian the heathen has laid it down as a general principle, that it is impossible to become a good orator without being a good man, surely no one will deny that piety should be considered as the first qualification essential to a Christian speaker. Mons. Roques, in his “ Evangelical Pastor," observes that “the minister, by his situation, is a man retired from the world, devoted to God, and called to evangelical holiness. He is,” continues hc, “ according to St. Paul, “a man of God,' that is, a person entirely consecrated to God; a man of superior excellence; a man, in some sense, divine; and to answer, in any

degree, the import of this appellation, it is necessary that his piety should be illustrious, solid, and universal.” Without doubt this pious author had collected these beautiful ideas from the writings of St. Paul, who thus addresses Titus upon the same subject : “A minister must be blameless as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre : but a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate; holding fast the faithful word, that he may be able, by sound doctrine, both to exhort and convince the gainsayers,” Tit. i, 7-9. He must use sound speech, that cannot be condemned: in doctrine showing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity ; that he who is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of him,” Tit. ii, 7, 8.

A pastor without piety disgraces the holy profession which he has made choice of, most probably from the same temporal motives which influence others to embrace the study of the law, or the profession of arms. If those who are called to serve tables were to be “ men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom,” Acts vi, 3, it is evi. dent that the same dispositions and graces should be possessed, in a more eminent degree, by those who are called to minister in holy things. When thou art converted,” said Christ to Peter, “ strengthen thy brethren,” Luke xxii, 32.

No sight can be more absurd than that of an impenitent infidel engaged in calling sinners to repentance and faith. Even the men of the world look down with contempt upon a minister of this description, whose conduct perpetually contradicts his discourses, and who, while he is pressing upon others the necessity of holiness, indulges himself in the pleasures of habitual sin. Such a preacher, far from being instrumental in effecting true conversions among his people, will generally lead his hearers into the same hypocrisy which distinguishes his own character: since that which was said in ancient times holds equally true in the present day, “ Like people, like priest,” Hos. iv, 9. Luke. warm pastors make careless Christians; and the worldly preacher leads his worldly hearers as necessarily into carnal security, as a blind guide conducts the blind into the ditch. And to this unhappy source may be traced the degenerate manners of the present age, the reproach under which our holy religion labours, and the increasing triumphs of infidelity.

" The natural man,” saith St. Paul, “receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned,” i Cor. ii, 14. Now, if a minister, who is destitute of Scriptural piety, is counted unable to com. prehend the doctrines of the Gospel, how much less is he able to publish and explain them? And if those, who live according to the vain customs of the world, have not the righteousness of the Pharisees, with what propriety can they be called, I will not say, true ministers, but even pious Deists?

Though every candidate for the sacred ministry may not be in circumstances, to declare with St. Paul, “ I have lived in all good con. science before God unto this day:" yet all who aspire to that important office should, at least, be able to say with sincerity, “ Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence, toward God and toward man,” Acts xxiv, 16. Such were the morals and the conduct of a Socrates and an Epictetus : and worshippers like these,

coming from the east and from the west,” shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, “while the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness,” Matt. viii, 11, 12.


His Christian piety. It has been made sufficiently plain, under the preceding article, that St. Paul was possessed of a good degree of piety from his very infancy. Having been brought up in the fear of God by his father, who is supposed to have been a zealous Pharisee, he was afterward instructed at the feet of Gamaliel, a pious doctor of the law, to whose wisdom and moderation St. Luke has borne an honourable testimony, Acts v, 34. And so greatly had he profited in his youth by these inestimable privi. leges, that “ touching the righteousness which is of the law," he was blameless. But this piety was not sufficient under the New Testament. To become a Christian and a true minister of the Gospel, it is necessary to have not only the piety of a sincere Deist, or of a devout Jew, as St. Paul had before his conversion, but also those higher degrees of piety which that apostle possessed, after he had received the two-fold gift of deep repentance toward God and living faith in Jesus Christ. The basis of piety among the Jews was a knowledge of God, as Creator, Protector, and Rewarder : but, in order to have Christian piety, it is necessary, that to this knowledge of God as Creator, &c, should be added that of God the Redeemer, God the destroyer of all evils, God our Saviour; or in other words, the knowledge of Jesus Christ. “This is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent,” John xvii, 3.

But who can truly know, I will not say his Saviour, but merely his need of a Saviour, without first becoming acquainted with his own heart, and receiving there a lively impression both of his sin and his danger? A student in theology, who has not yet submitted himself to the maxim of Solon, “ Know thyself;" and who has never mourned under that sense of our natural ignorance and depravity which forced Socrates to confess the want of a Divine instructer:-a candidate, I say, who is wholly unacquainted with himself, instead of eagerly soliciting the imposition of hands, should rather seek after a true understanding of the censure which Christ once passed upon the pastor of the Laodicean Church : “Thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked," Rev. iii, 17.

If a young man steals into the ministry without this knowledge, far from being able to preach the Gospel, he will not even comprehend that first evangelical principle, “ Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven," Matt. v, 3. And instead of devoutly offering up to God the prayers of an assembled congregation, he will constantly begin the sacred office by an act of hypocrisy, in saying, “ Almighty Father, we have erred and strayed from thy ways like lost sheep. We have offended against thy holy laws. There is no health in us.

But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us, miserable sinners.” After making these confessions in public, when he is interrogated in private respecting that misery and condemnation, under a sense of which he so lately appeared to groan, he will not scruple immediately to contradict what he has so plainly expressed: thus discovering to every impartial observer, that when he prays in public, he prays either as a child who understands not what he repeats, or as a deceiver, who appears to believe what he really gives no credit to, and that merely for the sake of enjoying the pension of a minister, and his rank in society.

What is here said of ministers is equally applicable to Christians in generał. If any one dares to approach the sacramental table, there to make a profession of being redeemed from eternal death by the death of Christ, before he is deeply humbled under a sense of the condemnation due to his sin : can such a one be said to perform an act of piety? Is he not rather engaged in performing an act of vain ceremony and presumptuous dissimulation in the presence of God? The feigned humiliation of such a communicant would resemble that of a rebel subject, who, without any consciousness that his actions had merited death, should cast himself, from motives of interest, at the feet of his prince,

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