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died archdeacon of Middlesex. A complete edition of his works, with a life of the author by Bishop Van Mildert, was published at Oxford, in eleven volumes, in 1823.

WILLIAM WHISTON (1667-1752) was an able but eccentric scholar, and so distinguished as a mathematician, that he was made deputyprofessor of mathematics in the university of Cambridge, and afterwards successor to Sir Isaac Newton, of whose principles he was one of the most successful expounders. Entering into holy orders, le became chaplain to the bishop of Norwich, rector of Lowestoft, &c. He was also appointed Boyle lecturer in the university, but was at length expelled for promulgating Arian opinions. He then went to London, where a subscription was made for him, and he delivered a series of lectures on astronomy. Towards the close of his life, Whiston became a Baptist, and believed that the millennium was approaching, when the Jews would all be restored. Had he confined himself to mathematical studies, he would have earned a high name in science; but his time and attention were dissipated by liis theolog. ical pursuits, in which he evinced_more zeal than judgment. His works are numerous. Besides a ‘Theory of the Earth' in defence of the Mosaic account of the creation, published in 1696, and some tracts on the Newtonian system, he wrote an 'Essuy on the Revelation of St. John' (1706), Sermons on the Scripture Prophecies' (1708), ‘Primitive Christianity Revived,'five volumes (1712), “Memoirs of his Own Life? (1749–50), &c. An extract from the last-mentioned work is subjoined : Whistonian Controversy.-Anecdote of the Discovery of the Newtonian

Philosophy. After I had taken holy orders, I returned to the college, and went on with my own studies there, particularly the mathematics and the Cartesian philosophy, which was alone in vogue with us at that time. But it was not long before 1, with immense pains, but no assistance, set myself with the utmost zeal to the study of Sir Isaac Newton's wonderful discoveries in his · Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica,' one or two of which lectures I had heard him read in the public schools, though I understood them not at all at that time-being indeed greatly excited thereto by a paper of Dr. Gregory's when he was professor in Scotland, wherein he had given the most prodigious commendations to that work, as not only right in all things, but in a manner the effect of a plainly divine genius, and had already caused several of his scholars to keep, acts, as we call them, upon several branches of the Newtonian philosophy; while we at Cambridge, poor wretches, were ignominiously stndying the fictitious hypotheses of the Cartesian, which Sir Isaac Newton had also himself done formerly, as I have heard him say. What the occasion of Sir Isaac Newton's leaving the Cartesian philosophy, and of discovering his amazing theory of gravity was, I have heard him long ago, soon after my first acquaintance with him, which was 1694, thus relate, and of which Dr. Pens berton gives the like account, and somewhat more fully in the preface to his explication of his philosophy. It was this: an inclination came into Sir Isaac's mind to try whether the same power did not keep the moon in her orbit, notwithstanding her projectile velocity, which he knew always tended to go alony a straight line the tangent of that orbit, which makes stones and all heavy bodies with us fall downward, and which we call gravity ; taking this postulatum, which had been thonght of before, that such power might decrease in a duplicate proportion of the distances from the earth's centre. Upon Sir Isaac's first trial, when he took a degree of a great circle on the earth's surface, whence a degree at the distance of the moon was to be determined also, to be sixty measured miles only, according to the gross measures then in use, he was in some degree disappointed'; and the power that restrained the moon in her orbit, measured by the versed sines of that orbit, appeared not to be quite the same that was to be expected had it been the power of gravity alone by which the moon was there influenced. Upon this disappointment, which made Sir Isaac suspect that this power was partly that of gravity and partly that of Cartesius's vortices, he threw aside the paper of his calculation, and went to other studies. However, some time afterward, when Monsieur Picart had much more exactly measured the earth, and found that a degree of a great circle was sixty-nine and a half such miles, Sir Isaac, in turning over some of his for- mer papers, lighted upon this old imperfect calculation, and, correcting his former error, discovered that this power, at ihe true correct distance of the moon from the earth, not only tended to the earth's centre, as did the common power of gravity with us, but was exactly of the right quantity; and that if a stone was carried up to the moon, or to sixty semi-diameters of the earth, and let fall downward by its gravity, and the moon's own menstrual motion was stopped, and she was let fall by that power which before retained her in her orbit, they would exactly fall towards the same point, and with the same velocity; which was therefore no other power than that of gravity. And since that power appeared to extend as far as the moon, at the distance of 240,000 miles, it was but natural or rather necessary, to suppose it might reach twice, thrice, four times, &c. the same distance with the same diminution, according to the squares of such distances perpetually : which noble discovery proved the happy occasion of the invention of the wonderful Newtonian philosophy.


DR. HUMPHREY PRIDEAUX. DR. WILLIAM NICOLSON (1655–1727), successively bishop of Carlisle and Londonderry, and, lastly, archbishop of Cashel, was a learned antiquary and investigator of our early records. He published Historical Libraries of England, Scotland, and Ireland'--collected into one volume, in 1776-being a detailed catalogue or list of books and manuscripts referring to the history of each nation. He also wrote ‘An Essay on the Border Laws,' A Treatise on the Laws of the Anglo-Saxons,' and 'A Description of Poland and Denmark.' The only professional works of Dr. Nicholson are a preface to Chamberlayne's ' Polyglott of the Lord's Prayer,' and some able pamphlets on the Bangorian Controversy.

Dr. MATTHEW TINDAL (1657–1733) was a zealous controversialist, in times when controversy was pursued with much keenness by men fitted for higher duties. His first attacks were directed against priestly power, but he ended in opposing Christianity itself; and Paine and other later writers against revelation have drawn some of their weapons from the armoury of Tindal. Like Dryden and many others, Tindlal embraced the Roman Catholic religion when it became fashiionable in the court of James II.; but he abjured it in 1687, and afterwards became an advocate under William III. from whom he received a pension of £200 per annum. He wrote several political and theological tracts, but the work by which he is chiefly known is entitled ' Christianity as Old as the Creation, or the Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature (1730). The tendency of this treatise is to discredit revealed religion: it was answered by Dr. Waterland; and Tindal replied by reiterating his former statements and arguments. He wrote a second volume to this work shortly before his death, but Dr. Gibson, the bishop of London, interfered, and prevented its publication.

After the death of Tindal, it appeared from his will that he had left a sum of £2000 to Budgell—already noticed as one of the writers of the Spectator'-but this sum was so disproportioned to the testator's means, that Budgell was accused of forging the will, and Tindal's nephew got it set aside. The disgrace consequent on this transaction is supposed to bave been the primary cause of Budgell's commiting suicide. The nephew, NICHOLAS TINDAL (1687–1774), was a Fellow of Trinity College, and chaplain of Greenwich Hospital. He translated some works and was author of a continuation of Rapin's History of England.'

Another of the sceptical writers of this period was JOHN TOLAND (1669–1722), author of Christianity not Mysterious' (1696), a work which occasioned much controversy. He wrote various treatises on theological and historical subjects, and was a learned but pedantic student, always in trouble and difficulties. His works were never collected, and are now forgotten.

DR. HUMPHREY PRIDEAUX (1648–1724) was author of a still popu. lar and valuable work, the Connection of the History of the Old and New Testament,' the first part of which was published in 1715, and the second in 1717. He wrote also a Life of Mahomet' (1697), * Directions to Church-wardens' (1707), and 'A Treatise on Tithes (1710). Prideaux's ' Connection is a work of great research, connecting the Old with the New Testament by a luminous historical summary. Few books have had a greater circulation, and it is in, valuable to all students of divinity. Its author was highly respected for his learning and piety. He was archdeacon of Suffolk, and at one time Hebrew lecturer at Christ Church, Oxford. His extensive library of oriental books has been preserved in Clare Hall, Cambridge, to which college it was presented by himself.


Two distinguished philosophical writers adorn this period, Shaftes. bury and Berkeley. Both were accomplished and elegant authors, and both, in their opinions, influenced other minds. The moral sense of the former was adopted by Hutcheson, and the idealism of Berkeley was reproduced by Hume.

ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER, the third Earl of Shaftesbury, was born in London in 1671. After a careful private education, lie travelled for some time, and in 1693 entered the House of Commons. Five years afterwards, he repaired to Holland, and cultivated the society of Bayle and Le Clerc. On his return, he succeeded to the earldom, and spoke frequently in the House of Lords. All his parliamentary appearances were creditable to his talents, and lionourable to his tasto and feelings. His first publication was in 1708, ' A Letter on Enthusiasm,' prompted by the extravagance of the French prophets, whose zeal had degenerated into intolerance. In 1709, appeared his ‘Moralists, a Philosophical Rhapsody,' and 'Sensus Communis,' an essay upon the freedom of wit and humour. In this latter production lie vindicates the use of ridicule as a test of truth. In 1710, lie pub. Jished another slight work, a · Soliloquy, or Advice to an Author.' Soon afterwards, ill health compelleil Lord Shaftesbury to seek a warmer climate. He fixed on Naples, where he died in February 1713, at the early age of forty-two. A complete collection of his works was published in 1716, in three volumes, under the general title of Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, and Times.'

The style of Shaftesbury is lofty and musical. He bestowed great pains on the construction of his sentences, and the labour is too apparent. Desirous also of blending the nobleman and man of the world with the author, a tone of assumption and familiarity deforms some of his arguments and illustrations. He was an ardent admirer of the ancients, and, in his dialogue entitled “The Moralist,' has adopted in a great measure the elevated style of his favorite Plato. With those who hold in like estimation the works of that 'divine philosopher, and who are willing to exchange continuity, precision, and simplicity, for melody and stateliness of diction, 'The Moralists cannot fail to be regarded, as it was by Leibnitz and Monboddo, with enthusiastic admiration.

The religious tendency of Shaftesbury's writings has been extensively discussed. That he is a powerful and decided champion against the atheists is universally admitted; but with respect to his opinion of Christianity, different views have been enteriained. A perusal of the Characteristics' will make it evident that much of the controversy which the work has occasioned has arisen from the inconsistent opinions expressed in its different parts. Pope informed Warburton, that to his knowledge the Characteristics' bail done much larm to revealed religion. The poet himself was a diligent reader of the work, as appears from his Essay on Man.'

As a moralist, Lord Shaftesbury holds the conspicuous place of founder of that school of philosophers by whom virtue and vice are regarded as naturally and fundamentally distinct, and who consider man to be endowed with a 'moral sense' by which these are discriminaied, and at once approved of or condemned, without reference to the self-interest of him who judges. In opposition to Hobbes, he maintains that the nature of man is such as to lead to the exercise of benevolent and disinterested affections in the social state; and he carnestly inculcates the doctrine, that virtue is more conducive than vice to the temporal liappiness of those who practice it. He cpeaks of conscience, or a natural sense of the odiousness of crime ani injustice;' and remarks, that as, in the case of objects of the external senses,

'the shapes, motions, colours, and proportions of these latter

being presented to our eye, there necessarily results a beauty or deformity, according to the different measure, arrangement, and disposition of their several parts; só, in behaviour and actions, when presented to our understanding, there must be found, of necessity, an apparent difference, according to the regularity and irregularity of the subjects. The mind,' says he, 'feels the soft and harshi, the agreeable and disagreeable, in the affections; and finds a foul and fair, a harmonious and a dissonant, as really and truly here, as in any musical numbers, or in the outward forms or representations of sen. sible things. Nor can it withhold its admiration and ecstasy, its aversion and scorn, any more in what relates to one than to the other of these subjects. However false or corrupt it be within itself, it finds the difference, as to beauty and comeliness, between one heart and another; and accordingly, in all disinterested cases, must approve in some measure of what is natural and honest, and disapprove what is dishonest and corrupt.' This doctrine, which in the pages of Shaftesbury is left in a very imperfect state, lias been successively followed out by Dr. Hutcheson of Glasgow, and subsequently adopted and illustrated by Reid, Stewart, and Brown.

Platonic Representation of the Scale of Beauty and Love. From

The Moralists.' I have now a better idea of that melancholy you discovered ; and notwithstanding the humorous turn you were pleased to give, I am persuaded it has a different foundation from any of those fantastical canses I then assigned to it. Love, doubtless, is at the bottom, but a nobler love than such as common beauties inspire.

Here, in my turn, I began to raise my voice, and imitate the solemn way you had been teaching ine. Knowing as you are (continued I.) well knowing and experienced in all the degrees and orders of beauty, in all the mysterious charms of the particular forms, you rise to what is more general; and with a larger heart, and mind more comprehensive, you generously seek that which is highest in the kind. Not captivated by the lineaments of a fair fa:e, or the well-drawn proportions of a human body, you view the life itself, and embrace rather the mind which adds the lustre, and renders chiefly amiable.

Nor is the enjoyment of such a single beauty sufficient to satisfy such an aspiring soul. It seeks how to combine more beauties, and by what coalition of these to form a beautiful society. It views communities, friendships, relations, duties; and considers by what harmony of particnlar minds the general harmony is composed, and commonweal established. Nor satisfied even with public good in one community of men, it frames itself a nobler object, and with enlarged affection seeks the good of mankind. It dwells with pleasure ainiilst that reason and those orders on which this fair correspordence and goodly interest is established. Laws, constitutions. civil and religious rites ; whatever civilises or polishes rude mankind; the sciences and arts, philosophy, morals, virtue; the flourishing state of human affairs, and the perfection of human nature: these are its delightful prospects, and this charın of beauty which attracts it.

Still ardant in this pursuit-such is its love of order and perfection-it rests not here, nor satisfies itself with the beauty of a part, but extending further its communicative bounty, seeks the good of all, and affects the intarest and prosperity of the whole. True to its native world and higher country, 'tis here it seeks order and perfection, wishing ihe best, and hoping still to find a juet and wise administration. And siuce all hope of this were vaíu aud idle, if no Universal Mind presided ; since, withont such a supreme intelligence and providential care, the distracted universe must be condemned to suffer infinite calamities, 'tis here the generous mind labours

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