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is, the great eagle owl. This beautiful bird, in a niche like a ruin, looked vastly fine. As to the flowers which adorned this room, I thought they were all natural at iny first coming in; but on inspection, it appeared that several baskets of the finest kinds were inimitably painted on the walls by Marinda's hand.
These things afforded me a pleasing entertainment for about half an hour, and then Miss Bruce returned One of the maids brought in a supper-such fare, she said, as her little cottage afforded ; and the table was covered with green peas and pigeons, cream-cheese, new bread and butter. Everything was excellent in its kind.
The cider and ale were admirable. Discretion and dignity appeared in Marinda's behaviour; she talked with judgment; and under the decencies of ignorance was concealed a valuable knowledge.
CHARLOTTE LENNOX-CATHERINE MACAULAY. Among the literary names preserved by Boswell and Horace Walpole are those of MRS. CHARLOTTE LENNOX (1720-1804), and MRS. CATHERINE MACAULAY (1733-1791). The former wrote several novels, one of which, “The Female Quixote,' 1752, is an amusing picture of female extravagance consequent on romance-reading. Mrs. Len nox also published a feeble critical work, “Shakspeare Illustrated,' and translated from the French Brumoy's “Greek Theatre,' «The Life of Sully,' &c. The first novel of this lady (Harriot Stuart,’ 1751), was celebrated by Johnson and a party of ladies and gentlemen in the Devil Tavern, where a sumptuous supper was provided, and Johnson invested the authoress with a crown of laurel!
Mrs. Macaulay was an ardent politician, and in sentiment a republican—'the hen-brood of faction,' according to Walpole. Her chief work was a “History of England from the Accession of James I. to the Elevation of the House of Hanover,' 8 vols. 1763–83. Though a work of no authority or original information, this history has passages of animated composition. To ridicule Mrs. Macaulay's republicanism, Johnson one day proposed that her footman, 'a very sensible, civil, well-behaved fellow-citizen,' should be allowed to sit down to dinner with them. The lady, of course, was indignant; but she held to her levelling doctrines in theory, and before her death had visited George Washington in America, and written against Burke's denunciation of the French Revolution.
MRS. MONTAGU AND MRS. CHAPONE.
MRS. ELIZABETH MONTAGU (1720-1800) and Mrs. HESTER CHAPONB (1727-1801) were ladies of learning and ability, holding--particularly the former-a prominent place in the literary society of the period. Mrs. Montagu was left a widow with a large fortune, and her house became the popular resort of persons of both sexes distinguished for rank, classical taste, and literary talent. Numerous references to this circle will be found in Boswell's 'Johnson,' in the Life of Dr. Beattie,' the works of Hannah More, &c. Mrs. Montagu was authoress of a work highly popular in its day, “Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakspeare, compared with the Greek and French Dramatic Poets, with some remarks upon the Misrepresentations of M. de Vol. taire,' 1769. This essay is now chiefly valued as showing the low
state of poetical and Shakspearean criticism at the time it was written. A memoir, with letters, of Mrs. Montagu was published in 1873 by Dr. Doran, under the title of 'A Lady of the Last Century.' Mrs. Chapone's principal work is 'Letters on the Improvement of the Mind,' 1773. Two years afterwards she published a volume of Miscellanies in Prose and Verse.' All her writings are distinguished for their piety and good sense.
DR. RICHARD FARMER-GEORGE STEEVENS-JACOB BRYANT. In 1766, DR. RICHARD FARMER, of Er nuel College, Cambridge (1735–1797), published an 'Essay on the Learning of Shakspeare,' which was considered to have for ever put an end to the dispute concerning the classic knowledge of the great dramatist. Farmer certainly shewed that Shakspeare had implicitly followed English translations of the ancient authors—as North’s ‘Plutarch-copying even their errors; but more careful and reverent study of the poet has weakened the force of many of the critic's conclusions. The due appreciation of Shakspeare had not then begun.
A dramatic critic and biographer, GEORGE STEEVENS (1736-1800), was associated with Johnson in the second edition of his Shakspeare, 1773. In 1793 he published an enlarged edition of his Shakspeare. He was acute and well read in dramatic literature, but prone to literary mystification and deception. Gifford styled him the ‘Puck of commentators.
A student and scholar, JACOB BRYANT (1715-1804), engaged the attention of the learned and critical world throughout a long life by his erudition, inventive fancy, and love of paradox. His most celebrated works are—' A New System or Analysis of Ancient Mythology,' 1774–76 ; Observations on the Plains of Troy,' 1795 ; and a 'Dissertation concerning the War of Troy,' 1796. The object of Bryant was to shew that the expedition of the Greeks, as described by Homer, is fabulous, and that no such city as Troy existed. A host of classic adversaries rose up against him, to one of whom-Mr. J. B. S. Morritt, the friend of Sir Walter Scott-he replied, but his theory has not obtained general acquiescence. Bryant also wrote several theological treatises and papers on classical subjects. Is is worthy of remark that though this able and amiable man doubted and denied concerning Homer, he was a believer in the fabrications of Chatterton, having written observations to prove the authenticity of the Rowley poems.
This invaluable American author and patriot (1706–1790), by his writings and life, inculcated the virtues of industry, frugality, and independence of thought, and may be reckoned one of the benefactors of mankind. Franklin was a native of Boston in America, and was brought up to the trade of a printer. By unceasing industry and strong natural talents, which he assiduously cultivated, he rose to be
one of the representatives of Philadelphia, and after the separation of America from Britain, he was ambassador for the states at the court of France. Several important treaties were negotiated by him, and in all the fame and fortunes of his native country--iis struggles, disasters, and successes—he bore a prominent part. "The writings of Franklin are not numerous; he always, as he informs us, ' set a greater value on a doer of good than on any other kind of reputation.' His
Poor Richard's Almanac,'containing some liomely and valuable rules of life, was begun in 1732. Between the year 1747 and 1754 he commumicated to his friend, Peter Collinson, a series of letters detailing
New Experiments and Observations on Electricity, made at Philadelphia,' in which he established the scientific fact, that electricity and ligütning are the same. He made a kite of a silk handkerchief, and set it up into the air, with a common key fastened to the end of a hempen string, by which he held the kite in his hand. His son watched with him the result; clouds came and passed, and at length lightning came; it agitated the hempen cord, and emitted sparks from the key, which gave him a slight electrical shock. The discovery was thus made: the identity of lightning with electricity was clearly manifested; and Franklin was so overcome by his feelings at the discovery, that he said he could willingly at that moment have died! The political, miscellaneous, and philosophical works of Franklin were published by him in 1779, and were afterwards republished, with additions, by his grandson, in six volumes. His memoir of himself is the most valuable of his miscellaneous pieces; his essays scarcely exceed mediocrity as literary compositions, but they are animated by a spirit of benevolence and practical wisdom. In 1817, Franklin's grandson, William Temple Franklin, published two volumes of the
Private Correspondence' of his grandfather between the years 1753 and 1790. These are less known than his essays and autobiography --which have always been popular—and we shall subjoin a few extracts.
The Cost of Wars, and Eulogium on Washington. I hope mankind will at length, as they call themselves reasonable creatures, bave reason and seu8e enough to settle their differences without cutting throats: for in my opinion there never was a good war or a bad peace. What vast additions to the conveniences and comforts of liv ng might mankind have acquired, if the money spent in wars had been employed in works of public utility! What an extension of agriculture, even to the tops of our mountains; what rivers rendered navigable or joined by canals; what bridges, aqueducts, new roads, and other public works, édifices and improvements, rendering England a complete paradise, might not have heen obtained by spending those millions in doing good, which in the last war have been spent in doing mischief; in bringing misery into thousands of famili's, and destroying the lives of so many thousands of working-people, who might have performed the useful labour!
Should peace arrive after another campaign or two, and afford us a little leisure, I should be happy to see your Excellency (George Washington) in Europe, and to accompany you. if my age and strength would permit, in visiting some of its ancient and most famous kingdoms. You would, on this side the sea, enjoy the great reputation you have acquired, pure and free from those little shades that the jealousy and envy of a inan's countrymen aud contemporaries are ever endeavouring to cast over living merit. Here (in France) you would know, and enjoy, what posterity will say of Washington. For a thousand leagues have nearly the same effect as a thousand years.
The feeble voice of those grovelling passions cannot extend so far either in time or distance. Al present, I enjoy that pleasure for you: as I frequently hear the old generals of this martial country who study the maps of America, and_mark upon them all your operations) speak with sincere approbation and great applause of your conduct, and join in giving you the character of one of the greatest captains of the age. I must soon quit the scene, but you may live to see our country flourish, as it will amazingly and rapidly, after the war is over, like a field of young Indian corn, which long fair weather and sunshine had enfeebled and discoloured, and which, in that weak state, by a thunder-gust of violent wind, hail, and rain, seemed to be threatened with absolute destruction; yet the storm being past, it recovers fresh verdure, shoots ip with double vigour, and delights the eye, not of its owner oniy, but of every observing traveller.
A New Device for the American Coin. Instead of repeating continually upon every half-penny the dull story that every body knows—and what it would have been no loss to mankind if nobody had ever known—that George III. is King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, &c., to put on one side some important proverb of Solomon, some pious, moral, prudential, or economical precept, the frequent inculcation of which, by seeing it every time one receives a piede of money, might make an impression upon the mind, especially of young persons, and tend to regulate the conduct; such as on some, 'The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom;' on others, “Honesty is the best policy ;' on others,
He that by the plough would thrive, himself must either hold or drive;' on others, A penny saved is a penny got;' on others, “Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee;' on others, 'He that buys what he has no need of, will soon be forced to sell his necessaries;' on others, 'Early to bed and early to rise, will make a man healthy, wealthy, and wise;' and so on to great ety.
Argument for Contentment. All human situations have their inconveniences. We feel those that we find in the present; and we neither feel nor see those that exist in another. Hence we make frequent and troublesome changes without amendment, and often for the worse. In my youth I was passenger in a little sloop descending the river Delaware. There being no wind, we were obliged, when the ebb was spent, to cast anchor, and wait for the next. The heat of the sun on the vessel was excessive, the company strangers to me, and not very agreeable. Near the river-side I saw what I took to be a pleasant green meadow, in the middle of which was a large shady tree, where it struck my fancy I could sit and read-having a book in my pocket-and pass the time agreeably till the tide turned. I therefore prevailed with the captain to put me ashore. Being landed, I found the greatest part of my meadow was really a marsh, in crossing which. to come at my tree, I was up to my knees in mire; and I had not placed myself under its shade five minutes before the mosquitoes in swarms found ine out, attacked my legs, hands, and face, and inade my reading and my rest impossible; so that I returned to the beach, and called for the boat to come and take me on board again, where I was obliged to bear the heat I had striven to quit, and also the laugh of the company. Similar cases in the affairs of life have since frequently fallen under my observation.
WILLIAM MELMOTH-DR. JOHN BROWN. The refined classical taste and learning of WILLIAM MELMOTH (1710–1799) enriched this period with a translation of Pliny's ‘Letters.' Under the name of Fitzosborne, Melmoth also published a volume of · Letters on Literary and Moral Subjects,' remarkable for elegance of style, and translated Cicero's Letters and the treatises De Amicitia' and De Senectute,' to which he appended annotations. Melmoth was an amiable, accomplished, and pious man. His translations are still the best we possess; and his style, though sometimes feeble from excess of polish and ornament, is generally correct, perspicuous, and musical in construction.
DR. JOHN BROWN (1715–1766), an English divine, was popular in his own day as author of • Essays on the Characteristics of the Earl of Shaftesbury (1751), and an Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times. (1757). The latter was written at a period when there was a general feeling of dissatisfaction with public men and measures, and by its caustic severity and animated appeals excired much attention. Cowper says:
The inestimable Estimate of Brown
Rose like a paper kite, and charmed the town. But Pitt was called to the helm of the state, things looked brighter, and down came Brown's paper Estimate:
For measures planned and executed well,
Shifted the wind that raised it, and it fell. Dr. Brown wrote other occasional prose treatises now forgotten, and he evinced his command of verse by an · Essay on Satire,' addressed to Warburton, and prefixed by Warburton to his edition of Pope.' In almost every department of literature this versatile and indefatigable writer ventured with tolerable success; and he has been praised by Wordsworth as one of the first who led the wav to a worthy admiration of the scenery of the English Lakes. This was in 1753; Gray, who has been considered one of the earliest explorers of our romantic districts, did not visit the Lake country till 1769.
Description of the Vale of Keswick.-A Letter to a Friend. In my way to the north from Hagley, I passed through Dovedale; and, to say the truth, was disappointed in it. When I came to Buxton, I visited another or two uf their romantic scenes ; but these are inferior to Dovedale. They are all but poor miniatures of Keswick; which exceeds them more in grandeur than you can imagine ; and more, if possible, in beauty than in grandeur.
Instead of the narrow slip of valley which is seen at Dovedale, you have at Keswick a vast amphitheatre, in circumference about twenty miles. Instead of a meagre rivulet, a noble living lake, ten miles round, of an oblong form, adorned with a variety of wooded islands. The rocks indeed of Dove ale are finely wild, pointed, and irregular; but the hills are both little and unanimated ; and the margin of the brook is poorly edged with weeds, morass, and brushwood. But at Keswick, you will, on one side of the lake see a rich and beautiful landscape of cultivated fields, rising to the eye in fine inequalities. with noble groves of oak, happily disperscd, and climbing the ådjacent hills, shade above shade, in the most various and picturesque forms. On the opposite shore, you will find rocks and cliffs of stupendous height, hanging broken over the lake in borrible grandeur; some of them a thousand feet high, the woods climbing up their steep and shaggy sides, where mortal foat never yet approached. On these dreadful heights the eagles build their nests: a variety of waterfalls are seen pouring from their summits, and tumbling in vast sheets from mock to rock in rude and terrible magnificence; while, on all sides of this immense amphitheatre, the lofty mountains rise round, piercing the clouds in shapes as spiry and fantastic as the very rocks of Dovedale. To this I must add the frequent and bold projection of the cliffs into the lake, forming noble bays and promontories ; in other parts, they finely retire from it; and often open in abrupt chasms or clefts, through which at hand you see rich and uncultivated vales; and beyond these, at various distance, inountain rising