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over mountain; among which new prospects present themselves in mist, till the eye is lost in an agreeable perplexity:
Where active fancy travels beyond sense,
And pictures things unseen. Were I to analyse the two places into their constituent principles, I should tell you that the full perfection of Keswick consists of three circumstances-beauty, horror, and immensity united-the second of which alone is fuund in Dovedale. of beauty it hath little, nature having left it nearly a diesert; neither its small extent, nor the diminutive and lifeless form of the hills, admit magnificence. But to give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined iu Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator, and Poussin. The first should throw his Helicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cois, the groves, the lake, and wooled islands; the second should dash out the horror of the rugged cliffs, the steeps, the hanging woods, and foaming waterfalls; while the grand pencil of Poussin should crown the whole with the majesty of the impending mountains.
So much for what I would call the permanent beauties of this astonishing scene. Were I not afraid of being tiresome, I could now dwell as long on its varying or accidental beauties. I would sail round the lake, anchor in every bay, and land you on every promontory and island. I would point out the perpetual change of prospect; the woods, rocks, cliffs, and mountains, by turns vanishing or rising into view; now gaining on the sight, hanging over our heads in thir full dimensions, beautifully dreadful; and now, by a change of situation, assuming new romantic shapes; retiring and lessening on the eye, and insensibly losing themselves in an azure inist. I would remark the contrast of light and shade, produced by the morning and evening sun; the one gilding the western, the other the eastern, side of this immense amphitheatre; while the vast shadow projected by the mountains, buries the opposite part in a deep and purple gloom, which the eye can hardly penetrate. The natural variety of colouring which the several objects produce is no less wouderful and pleasing: the ruling tints in the valley being those of azure, green, and gold; yet ever various, arising from an intermixture of the lake, the woods, the grass, and corn-fields; these are finely contrasted by the gray rocks and cliffs ; and the whole heightened by the yellow streams of light, the purple hues and misty azure of the mountains. Sometimes a serene air and clear sky disclose the tops of the highest hills; at other times, you see the clouds involving their summits, resting on their sides, or descending to their base, and rolling among the valleys, as in a vast furnace. When the winds are high, they roar among the cliffs and caverns like peals of thunder; then, too, the clouds are seen in vast bodies sweeping along the bills in gloomy greatness, while the lake joins the tumult, and tosses like a sea. But in calm weather, the whole scene becomes new; the lake is a perfect mirror, and the landscape in all its beauty; islands, fields, woods, rocks, and mountains are seen inverted and floating on its surface. By still moonlight (at which time the distant waterfalls are heard in all their variety of sound), a walk among these enchanting dales open such scenes of delicate beauty, repose, and solemnity, as exceed all description.
HORACE WALPOLE. HORACE WALPOLE (1717–1797) would have held but an insignificant place in British literature, if it had not been for his correspondence and memoirs, those pictures of society and manners, compounded of wit and gaiety, shrewd observation, sarcasm, censoriousness, high life, and sparkling language. His situation and circumstances were exactly suited to his
character and habits. He had in early life travelled with his friend Gray, the poet, and imbibed in Italy a taste for antiquity and the arts, fostered, no doubt, by the kindred genius of Gray, who delighted in ancient architecture and in classic studies. He next tried public life, and sat in parliament for twenty-six years. This added to his observation of men and manners, but without in
creasing his reputation, for Horace Walpole was no orator or states
His aristocratic habits prevented him from courting distinction as a general author, and he accordingly commenced collecting antiques, building a baronial castle, and chronicling in secret his opinions and impressions of his contemporaries! His income from sinecure offices and private sources, was about £4000 per annum; and, as he was never married, his fortune enabled him, under good management and methodical arrangement, to gratify his tastes as a virtuoso. When thirty years old, he had purchased some land at Twickenham, near London, and here he commenced improving a small house, which by degrees swelled into a feudal castle, with turrets, towers, galleries, and corridors, windows of stained glass, armorial bearings, and all the other appropriate insignia of a Gothic baronial mansion. Who has not heard of Strawberry Hill—that little plaything house,' as Walpole himself styled it, in which were gathered curiosities of all descriptions, works of art, rare editions, valuable letters, memorials of virtue and of vice, of genius, beauty, taste, and fashion, mouldered into dust! This valuable collection was in 1842 scattered to the winds—dispersed at a public sale. The delight with which Walpole contemplated his suburban retreat, is evinced in many of his letters. In one to General Conway-the only man he seems ever to have really loved or regarded-he runs on in this enthusiastic manner:
It is set in caamelled meadows, with filigree hedges
A sma!! Euphrates through the piece is rolled,
Aud little fishes wave their wings of gold. Two delightful roads, that you would call dusty, supply me continually with coaches and chaises; and barges, as solemn as barons of the Exchequer, move under my window. Richmond Hill and Ham Walks bound my prospect; but, thank God! the Thames is between me and the Duchess of Queensberry. Dowagers, as plenty as flounders, inhabit all around; and Pope's ghost is just now skimming under my window by a most poetical moonlight.
The literary performances with which Walpole varied his life at Strawberry Hill are all characteristic of the man. In 1758 appeared his Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors;' in 1761 his 'Anecdotes of Painting in England;' in 1765 his Castle of Otranto;' and in 1767 his ' Historic Doubts as to the character and person of Richard III.' He left for publication Memoirs of the Court of George II.,' and a large collection of copies of his letters. A complete collection of the whole, chronologically arranged, and edited by Mr. Peter Cunningham, was published in 1857-59 in nine volumes. The writings of Walpole are all ingenious and entertaining, and though his judgments on men and books or passing events are often inaccurate, and never
you ever saw.
profound, it is impossible not to be amused by the liveliness of his style, his wit, bis acuteness, and even his malevolence. liarity of his information, his private scandal, his anecdotes of the great, and the constant exhibition of his own tastes and pursuits, furnish abundant amusement to the reader. Another Horace Wal. pole, like another Boswell, the world has not supplied. and probably never will. The following letters are addressed to Sir Horace Mann, British envoy at the court of Tuscany, from 1741 to 1760.
The Scottish Rebellion.—Nov. 15, 1745. I told you in my last what disturbance there had been about the new regiments; the affair of rank was agaiu disputed on the report till ten at night, and carried by a majority of twenty-three. The king had been persuaded to appear for it, though Lord Granville made it a party-point against Mr. Pelham. Winnington did not speak. I was not there, for I could not vote for it, and yielded not to give any hindrance to a public measure-or at least what was called co-just now. The prince acted openly, and influenced his people against it; but it only served to let Mr. Pelham see what, like everything else, he did not know-how strong he is. The prince will scarce speak to him, and he cannot yet get Pitt into place.
The rebels are come into England : for two days we believed ihem near Lancaster, but the ministry now own that they don't know if they have passed Carlisle. Some think they will besiege that town, which has an old wall, and all the militia in it of Cumberland and Westinoreland; but as they can pass by it, I don't see why they should take it, for they are not strong enough to leave garrisons. Several desert them as they advance south; and altogether, good men and bad, nobody believes them ten thousand. By their marching westward to avoid Wade, it is evident that they are not strong enough to fight him. They may yet retire back into their mountains, but if once they get to Lancaster, their retreat is cut off; for Wade will not stir from Newcastle tili he has embarked them deep into England, and then he will be behind them. He has sent General Handasyde from Berwick with two regiments to take possession of Edinburgh. The rebels are certainly in a very desperate situation; they dared not meet Wade; and if they had waited for rim, their troops would have deserted. Unless they meet with great risings in their favour in Lancashire, I don't see what they can hope, except from a continuation of our neglect. That, indeed, has nobly exerted itself for them. They were suffered to march the whole length of Scotland, and take possesssion of the capital, without a man appearing against them. Then two thonsand men sailed to them, to run from them. Till the flight of Cope's army, Wade was not sent. Two roads still lay into England, and till they had chosen that which Wade had not taken, no army was thought of being sent to secure the other. Now Ligonier, with seven old regiinents, and six of the new, is ordered to Lancashire; before this first division of the army could get to Coventry, they are forced to order it to hall, for fear the enemy should be up with it before it was all assembled. It is uncertain if the rebels will march to the north of Wales, to Bristol, or towards London. If to the latter, Ligonier must fight them; if to either of the other, which I hope, the two armies may join and drive them into a corner. where they must all perish. They cannot subsist in Wales but by being supplied by the papists in Ireland. The best is, that we are in no fear from France, there is no preparation for invasions in any of their ports. Lord Clancarty, (1) a Scotchman of great parts, but mad and drunken, and whose family forfeited £90,000 a year for King James, is made vice-admiral at Brest. The Duke of Bedford goes in his little round person with his regiment; he now takes to the land, and says he is tired of being a pen-and-ink man. Lord' Gower insisted, too, upon going with his regiment, but is laid up with the gout.
With the rebels in England, you may imagine we have no private news, nor think of foreign. From this account you may judge that our case is far from desperate, though disagreeable. The prince, (2) while the princess lies-in, has taken to give
1. Donagh Maccarty, Earl of Clancarty. was an Irishman, and not a Scotchman. 2. Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707-1751).
dinners, to which he asks two of the ladies of the hed-chaniber, two of the maj 13 of honor. &c., by turns, and five or six others. He sits at the head of the table, drinks and harangues to all this medley till nine at night; and the other dav, after the affair of the regiments, drank Mr. Fox's health in a bumper, with three huzzas, for opposing Mr. Pelham:
"Si quâ fata aspera rumpas,
A new Marcellus shall arise in thee.-DRYDEN.] You put me in pain for my cagle, and in more for the Chutes, whose zeal is very heroic, but very ill placed. I long to hear that all my Chutes and eagles are safe out of the Pope's hands! Pray, wish the Suareses joy of all their espoueals. Does the princess pray abundantly for her friend the Pretender? Is she extremely abattun with her devotion ? and does she fast till she has got a violent appetite for supper ? And then, does she eat so long, that old Sarrasin is quite impatient to go to cards again? Good-night! I intend you shall still be resident from King George.
P.S -- forgot to tell you that the other day I concluded the ministry knew the diinger was all over; for the Duke of Newcastle ventured to have the Pretender's declaration burnt at the Royal Exchange.
Nov. 2?, 1745. For these two days we have been expecting news of a battle. Wade marched last Saturday from Newcastle, and must have got up with the rebels if they stayed for him, though the roads are exceedingly bad, and great quantities of snow have fallen. But last night there was some notice of a body of rebels being advanced to Penrith. We were put into great spirits by a heroic letter from the mayor of Carlisle, who had fired on the rebels and made them retire; he concluded with saying: "And so I think the town of Carlisle has done his majesty more service than the great city of Edinburgh, or than all Scotland together. But this hero, who was grown the whole fashion for four-and-twenty hours, had chosen to stop all oiher letters. The king spoke of him at his levés with great encomiums; Lord Stair said : “Yes, sir, Mr. Patterson has behaved very bravely.'. The Duke of Bedford interrupted him : My Jord, his name is not Patterson ; that is a Scotch name : his name is Pattinson. But, alack! the next day the rebels returned, having placed the women and children of the country in wagons in front of their army, and forcing the peasants to fix the scaling-ladders. The great Mr. Pattinson, or Patterson--for now his name may be which one pleases-instantly surrendered the town, and agreed to pay two thousand pounds to save it from pillage.
August 1, 1746. I am this moment come from the conclusion of the greatest and most melancholy scene I ever yet saw! you will easily guess it was the trials of the rebel lords. As it was the most interesting sight, it was the most solemn and fine; a coronation is a puppet-show, and all the splendour of it, idle; but this sight at once feasted one's eyes and engaged all one's passions. It began last Monday; three-parts of Westvinster Hall were inclosed with galleries, and hung with scarlet; and the whole ceremony was conducied with the most awful solemnity : nd decepcy, except in thy one poiut of leaving the prisoners at the bar, amidst ihe idle curiosity of some crowd, and even with the witnesses who had sworn against them, while the Lords adjourned to their own house to consult. No part of the royal family was there, which was a proper regard to the unhappy men who were become their victims. One hundred and thirty-nine Lords were present, and made a noble sight on their benches freqnent and full! The Chancellor was Lord High Steward; but though a most comely personage with a fine voice. his behaviour was mean, curiously searching for occasion to bow. to the minister that is 110 peer, and consequentiy applying to the other ministers, in a manner, for their orders; and not even ready at the ceremonial. To the prisoners he was peevish ; and instead of keeping up to the humane dignity of the law of England, whose character it is to point out favour to the criminal, he crossed them, and almost scolded at any offer they made towards defence. I had armod myself with all the resolution I could, with the thought of their crimes and of the danger past, and was assisted by the sight of the Marquis oi Lothian in weepers for his son, who fell at Culloden-but the first appearance of the
prisoners shocked me! their behaviour melted me! Lord Kilmarnock and Lord Cromartie are both past forty, but look younger.. Lord Kilmarnock is tall and slender, with an extreme fine person; his behaviour a most just mixture between dignity and submisston; if in anything to be reprehended, a little affected, and his hair too exactly dressed for a man in his situation; but when I say this, it is not to find fault with him, but to shew how little fault there was to be found. Lord Cromartie is an indifferent figure, appeared much dejected, and rather sullen: he dropped a few tears the first day, and swooned as soon as he got back to his cell. For Lord Balmerino, he is the most natural brave old fellow I ever saw: the highest intrepidity, even to indifference. At the bar he behaved like a soldier and a man ; in the intervals of form, with carelessness and humour. Le pressed extremely to have his wife, his pretty Peggy with him in the Tower. Lady Cromartie only sees her husband through the grate, not choosing to be shut up with him, as she thinks, she can serve him better by her intercession without. When they were to be brought from the Tower in separate coaches, there was some dispute in which the axe must go-old Balmerino cried, “Come, come, put it with me.' At the bar, he plays with his fingers upon the axe, while he talks to the gentleman-jailer; and one day, somebody coming up to listen, he took the blade and held it like a fan between their faces. During the trial, a little boy was near him, but not tall enough to see; he made room for the child, and placed him near himself.
When the peers were going to vote, Lord Foley withdrew, as too well a wisher; Lord Moray, as nephew of Lord Balmerino—and Lord Stair, as, I believe, uncle to his great grandfather. Lord Windsor, very affectedly, said, I am sorry I 'must say guilty upon my honour.' Lord Stamford would not answer to the name of Henry, having been christened Harry-what a great way of thinking on such an occasion ! I was diverted too with old Norsa, an old Jew that kept a tavern. My brother, as auditor of the excheqner, has a gallery along one whole side of the court. I said, “I really feel for the prisoners!', Old Issachar replied. Feel for them! pray, if they had succeeded, what would have become of all us?' When my Lady Townshend heard her husdand vote, she said, 'I always knew my lord was guilty, but I never thought he would own it upon his honour.' Lord Balmerino said, that one of his reasons for pleading not guilty, was, that so many ladies might not be disappointed of their show.. He said, “They call me Jacobite; I am no more a Jacobite than any that tried me: but if the Great Mogul had set up his standard, I should have followed it, for I could not starve.' London Earthquakes and London Gossip.—Mar. 11, 1751.
Portents and prodigies are grown so frequent,
That they have lost their name. My text is not literally true; but as far as earthquakes go towards lowering the price of wonderful commodities, to be sure we are overstocked. We have had a second, much more violent than the first; and you must not be surprised if. by next post, you hear of a burning mountain sprung up in Smithfield. In the night between Wednesday and Thursday last-exactly å month since the first shock-the earth had a shivering fit between one and two, but so slight, that if no more had followed, I don't believe it would bave been noticed. I had been awake, and had scarce dozed again--on a sudden I felt my bolster lift up my head; I thought somebody was getting from under my bed, but soon found it was a strong earthqnake, that lasted near half a minute, with a violent vibration and great roaring. I rang my bell; my servant came in, frightened out of his senses: in an instant we heard all the windows in the neighbourhood flung up. I got up and found people running into the streets, but gaw no mischief done: there has been some; two old houses flung down, several chimneys, and much china-ware. The bells rung in several houses.. Admiral Knowles, who has lived long in Jamaica, and felt seven there, says this was more violent than any of them : Francesco prefers it to the dreadful one at Leghorn. The wise say, that if we have not rain soon, we shall certainly have more. Several people are going out of town, for it has nowhere reached above ten miles from London: they say they are not frightened, but that it is such fine weather, ‘Lord! one can't help going into the country!' The only visible effect
* Dryden's All for Love.