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HE plans of the house reproduced below are designed to suit the requirements of the man of small means, who prefers the two-storey to the bungalow type, but who, nevertheless, desires something a little more distinctive than the ordinary run of houses of this kind.
The house here shown cost £1,200, and is eligible for the full Government grant of £260, thereby reducing the net expense to the individual to £940. Besides being reasonable in cost of erection, it will also be found very economical to run.
The distinctive feature of the house is the L-shaped living room, 23 ft. long by 11 ft. 6 in. in the sitting room, and 15 ft. in the dining-recess; it has been planned as the result of the experience of living in a similar room for many years. The floor and air space of one large room offer far more advantages than could be obtained in two of a smaller size. A single fire on the open hearth is sufficient to warm the whole room, and yet it can be practically used as two rooms whenever
FIRST FLOOR PLAN.
The north front is planned to face the road, the living rooms, kitchen and main bedrooms facing south on to the garden.
A notable economy is effected by having only one chimney stack, and this, combined with the use of ordinary bricks, hand-made tiles, oak front door and white-painted woodwork, gives to the whole the dignity of perfect simplicity. D. G. T.
HE basic idea of this plan is to provide as large a
curtail the size of one of the north bedrooms and would
the other rooms, and to eliminate passages
The living room has a length of 24 ft., with a minimum
On the first floor are four bedrooms, one larger than
The house is built of 9 in. brickwork rendered
lobby has a cupboard for hats and coats opening out of
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
in cement, but it would be well adapted to 11 in.
INCREASES IN COSTS OF LABOUR AND MATERIAL.
The accompanying diagram illustrates the percentage variations that have occurred since 1914 in the cost of labour and the average costs of materials required for a cottage of the parlour type similar to the Ministry's type plan, No. 97.
For the sake of convenience a common datumn line has been used, from which the curves rise and from which the percentages are calculated. A period of six years covered, i.e., from July, 1914, to July, 1920. From 1914 to 1919, the variations are shown year by year, and from January, 1919, to July, 1920, the variations are shown month by month.
The percentages are based upon the average London rates of materials and the rates of wages ruling in the London area.
As difficulty was experienced in obtaining the output of labour for similar cottage work in 1914, and during the war period, the present day output of labour has been adopted throughout.
It should be remembered that the percentages have in all cases (with the exception of those in connection with the lowest curve) been calculated from July, 1914. The percentage variation between intermediate stages must not, therefore, be taken as the difference between
the figures given on the scale on the left of the diagram, for the reason that a percentage calculation based upon another percentage will not give a true result.
It is of interest to note that the average costs of materials at the end of 1918 (or at the end of the war period) were approximately 114 per cent. above those appertaining in July, 1914, and at the same date the cost of labour was approximately 56 per cent. above. In July, 1920, the costs of materials were approximately 27 per cent. above those in December, 1918, and the cost of labour at the same date was approximately 74 per cent. above.
The lowest curve indicates the percentage variations on the total cost of labour and materials over each preceding stage. The downward inclinations, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a fall.
reduced, and this can only be brought about by the It is of national importance that the cost of housing is loyal co-operation of all concerned in building operations and increased production. If this desirable condition could be effected, the future development of the curves, shown in the diagram, would then be downwards.
H. C. W. D.
HOUSING OF THE WORKING CLASSES
DIAGRAM SHEWING THE INCREASES IN COSTS OF LABOUR & MATERIAL SINCE JULY 1914 BASED ON A BURBAN TYPE COTTAGE SIMILAR TO
CAMBERWELL HOUSING SCHEME.
S there had been considerable delay in putting forward a housing scheme for the Borough of Camberwell, His Majesty's Office of Works were asked by the Ministry of Health to afford any assistance in their power to the Council, in order to make up for lost time.
The Council desired the work to be undertaken by direct administration, in order to eliminate if possible the high costs which were claimed to be due to the intervention of a contractor. The public spirit of the workmen would be aroused. They would interest themselves in the scheme, with the result that the work would be forwarded much more expeditiously than under a contractor, and would be undertaken more economically in the end. Co-operation of Labour and Trades Council.
The Labour and Trades Council of the Borough were consulted with a view to securing the fullest co-operation of local labour in the scheme.
It certainly must be said that these claims have undoubtedly been substantiated. The general progress of the work has been rapid and excellent; the amount of skilled labour has been increased in accordance with the requirements of the three jobs; while the output of the labour has been above that of the normal output on other works in London. The men show the keenest interest in furthering the progress of the work, and act throughout as recruiters for the necessary labour required as the job opens up. As a result, the number of mechanics and labourers on the job on 31st July, 1920, was 674, which numbers have been obtained in a period of roughly 11 weeks from the commencement. To obtain such a number of these tradesmen for a small scheme of less than 300 houses within 11 weeks is a tribute to the method of executing the work, and the credit for this is mainly due to the Labour and Trades Council and its members working upon the sites.
At the beginning, considerable suspicion of Government organisation was evinced, but that suspicion has entirely disappeared, and, generally, the spirit shown during the negotiations with the Labour and Trades Council has been admirable, and excellent results are being obtained. Scope of the Scheme.
The scheme embraces three sites, viz.: the Casino
House site on the corner of Herne Hill and Red Post Hill, and the Hawkslade Road and Lanbury Road sites in the Peckham Rye district.
The Casino House site is hilly and well timbered with fine trees, and in the preparation of the lay-out plans trees have been preserved wherever worthy, while a fine area has been allotted for a recreation ground. This site presents somewhat expensive features inasmuch as its difference in level is 55 ft. from the top to the bottom end. The total number of houses on the three sites is 290, made up as follows :
There is undoubtedly a strong feeling of local patriotism in the borough, and a great desire that the Council shall be in the forefront in the matter of housing, but further sites are required to meet the needs of the borough. These are difficult to find, and until this difficulty has been overcome the scheme will be limited to the number of houses now in course of erection.
The houses on the Casino House site are built of Fletton bricks rough casted externally, with tiled roof at 45 deg. pitch, and casement windows. On the other two sites, stock bricks are used throughout for the walls, the roofs being slated at 30 deg. pitch, and sliding sash windows being employed.
At the conference with the Labour and Trades Council it was agreed that the labour should be obtained so far as possible through the Labour and Trades Council, it being stipulated that that Council must meet the requirements of the sites as made known to them, and supply labour in the proper categories and of the right quality. No difficulty has, of course, been experienced as regards the general labourers, but bricklayers and carpenters have been difficult to procure in sufficient numbers from time to time.
The labour brought on to the site by this means is passed through the Employment Exchange, which does
all the work in connection with records, cards, etc.
The appointment of foremen was made by a small committee of representatives of the Office of Works and of the Labour and Trades Council, and every man appointed by that Committee has proved efficient.
The appointment of the leading hands was left to the foremen, while the site stewards have been recognised throughout, and all grievances discussed between them and representatives of the Office of Works. Although matters in dispute have arisen from time to time, in no case has there been a stoppage of work, and all difficulties have been settled amicably. As a result, the labour has been retained on the site when once started, and the increases in the circumstances have been all that could
The shortage of bricklayers and carpenters is too well known to need emphasis here, but in spite of this shortage, 115 bricklayers and 60 carpenters are at work, and this number is still increasing. In addition, there are already eight plasterers, six plumbers and five painters.
Questions have arisen from time to time, such as a demand for a guaranteed week. The situation has been clearly explained to the labour, and they have recognised the lack of power of the Department with regard to this, and have left the question over for national settlement, which it is hoped will be reached in the near future.
The scales of wages on the site are :--