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CONTENTS

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CHAPTER IV.

STAGES AND PERIODE OF THE ENGLIBU LANGUAGE.

44. The Lord's Prayer in Anglo-Sax- 146. Specimen of Old English..

on

1947. Specimen of Middle English..

45. Specimen of Semi-Saxon

19 48. Specimen of Modern English

20

21

..... 21
PHONETIC ELEMENTS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

CHAPTER I.

SEPARATE PHONETIC ELEMENTS.

67. Definitions

33178. The Summation of Surd and so-

68. Organs of Production

33 nant Elements....

37

69. Classification of the Phonetic Ele- 79. The Summation of Explosive and

ments

34 Continuous Elements..

37

70. Vocalic or Vowel Sounds

34 80, Classification of the Elementary

71. Consonantal or Consonant Sounds 34 Consonantal Sounds according to

72. Articulate Sounds..

35 their Organic Formation....... 37

73. Analysis of Syllabic Sounds...... 35 81. Compound Sounds.

37

74. Surds and Sonants..

35 82. Phonetic Elements not in some oth-

75. Continuous and Explosive Sounds 36 er Languages

38

76. Table of the Phonetic Elements in 83. Difference of Quality in the same

the English Language

36 Element, both Vowel and Con-

77. Cognate Consonant Elements..... 37 sonantal

38

CHAPTER II.

.........

THE PHONETIO ELEMENTS IN COMBINATION.

84. Pronounceable Combinations ..... 39 87. Importance of the Fact just stated 40

85. Unpronounceable Combinations... 39 88. The Accumulation of Consonantal

86. A change of Elements in Pronun.

Elements

41

ciation...

40 89. Combinations not in the Language 41

CHAPTER III.

COMBINATIONS IN SYLLABLES.

90. Combinations in Syllables...... 4293. Rules of Syllabication..

43

91. Names of Words from their Divis- 94. Combinations in Words...

44

ion into Syllables.....

42 95. Monosyllabic Character of the En.

92. Principles of Division............ 43 glish Language.

44

CHAPTER IV.

96. Classical Accent

97. English Accent.........

AOCENT.

4598. Rules for English Accent.

46

45 99. Accent on Monosyllables.....

......, 46

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73

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THE ARTICLE

Section

Page Section

214. The Article ........

Page

107 216. The Article "an" or "a"

107

215. Relation of the Articles to the 217. The Article "the"

108

Proposition

107/218. Comparative Etymology

CHAPTER V.

THE PRONOUN.

219. The Pronoun

109 232. Self used with the Personal

220. Classification

109

Pronouns as a Reflective Pro-

221, The Extent of Pronouns

110

noun.

115

222. The Value of Pronouns.

110 233. Self a Substantive

115

223. Personal Pronouns..

110 234. “Self" emphatic

116

224. Declension of Personal Pronouns 111 235. Demonstrative Pronouns.. 116
225. Pronouns of the First Person... 111 236. Comparative Etymology

117
226. Substitution of Plurality for 237. Relative Pronouns

117

Unity...

112 238. Compound Relatives.

227. Pronouns of the Second Person 112 239, Subjunctive and Prepositive Pro-

228. Substitution of Plurality for

nouns....

Unity...

113 240. Interrogative Pronouns.

119

229. Pronouns of the Third Person .. 113 241. Comparative Etymology

120

230. The German Usage.

114 242. Adjective Pronouns.

120

231. Emphatic and Prepositive Forms 243. Reciprocal Pronouns

122

of the Possessive Case ....... 114 244. Indeterminate Pronouns

122

CHAPTER VI.

THE VERB.

245. The Verb

123 270. Classification of Auxiliary Verbs 134

246. Becker's Views

123 271. Derivation of Auxiliary Verbs .. 134

247. Classification of Verbs

123 272. Classification of Auxiliary Verbs,

248. Transitive Verbs......

124 in respect to their Mode of

249. Intransitive Verbs

124

Construction

136

250, The Attributes of Verbs.

125 273. Conjugation of the Auxiliary

251, The Persons of Verbs...

Verbs..

136

252. Numbers of Verbs ....

126 274. The Verb Substantive.

138

253. Tenses of the Verb...

126 275. Conjugation of the Verb "to be" 139

254. Forms for the Present Tense 127 276. The Ancient or Strong Conjuga-

255. Forms for the Past Tense ...... 127

141

256. Forms for the Future Tense 127 277. Conjugation of the Strong Verb

257. Forms for the Present Perfect

" to take"

145

Tense...

128 278. Two Forms of the Subjunctive

258. Forms for the Past Perfect Tense 128

Mode

146

259, Forms for the Future Perfect 279. Progressive Forms.

........... 150

Tense..

129 280. Emphatic Forms

150

260. Modes of the Verb..

129 281. Interrogative Forms

181

261. The Anglo-Saxon Modes 130 282. The Modern or Weak Conjuga-

262. The Characteristics of the Modes 131

tion

161

263. Inflection of the Infinitive 131 283. Conjugation of the Weak Verb

264. The Number of Modes

132

"to love"

151

265. The Participles...

132 284. Irregular Verbs.....

156

266. The Present Participle..

132 285. Derived Verbs..

161

267. The Past Participle.

133 286. Reflective Verbs

268. Conjugation..

133 287. Impersonal Verbs..

162

269. Auxiliary Verbs

134288. Defective Verbs..

163

CHAPTER VII.

ADVERBS.

289. Adverbs...

164 294. Adverbial Phrases

166

290. Origin of Adverbs

165 295. Comparison of Adverbs........ 166

291. Adverbial Pronouns,

165 296. Classification of Adverbs

167

292. Adverbs from Cases.

166 297. Primitive Adverbs of Place, with

293. Adverbs having the same Form

the analogous formations from

as Adjectives.,...

166

168

125

161

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