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the prisoner by a Friar Campbell. This infamous man who had expressed a favourable opinion of the articles to Patrick Hamilton in private, became his most insulting persecutor. The articles of which he was accused were these : 1. That corruption of sin remains in children after their baptism. 2. That no man, by the power of his free will, can do any good. 3. That no man is without sin as long as he liveth. 4. That every true Christian may know himself to be in a state of grace. 5. That a man is not justified by works, but by faith only. 6. That good works make not a good man, but that a good man doeth good works, and an ill man ill works, although these ill works, if truly repented, do not make an ill man.
7. That faith, hope, and charity are so linked together, that he that hath one of them hath all, and he that wanteth one wanteth all. 8. That God is the cause of sin in this sense,—that he withdraweth his grace from man, and grace withdrawn he cannot but sin. is devilish doctrine to teach that, by any actual penance, remission of sin is purchased. 10. That auricular confession is not necessary to salvation. II. That there is no purgatory. 12. That the holy patriarchs were in heaven before Christ's passion. 13. That the pope is antichrist; and 14. That every priest hath as much power as the pope.
Hamilton declared his readiness to assent to the first seven of these propositions. “The others," he said, “were disputable points, but such as he would not condemn unless he saw better reason than yet he had heard.” He knew the truth and was not ashamed to confess it. He had studied the Scriptures and believed the declared will of God. He was ready therefore to take his trial, and
9. That it
to hear the arguments of his adversary. But neither the arguments nor insults of Campbell could refute the Reformer, who preserved a calm and clear judgment throughout the trying occasion, and heard his sentence with heroic and Christian resignation.
It was to be executed that very day. Fear of rescue or court influence, which Hamilton's friends could readily use, and during the absence of the king, Beaton proceeded to the tragedy. Refusing to recant, the young Reformer was ready to die.
“The executors then stepped forward to do their office. They bound the martyr to the stake by an iron chain, which was passed around his middle, and they prepared to set fire to the pile of wood and coals. "The servant of God,' says Pitscottie, 'entered in contemplation and prayer to Almighty God to be merciful to the people who persecuted him, for there were many of them blinded in ignorance, that they knew not what they did. He also besought Jesus to be mediator for him to the Father, and that he would strengthen him with his Holy Spirit, that he might steadfastly abide the cruel pains and flames of fire prepared for him by that cruel people. Addressing himself likewise to the Father, he prayed that the pains of that torment might not be the occasion to make him swerve from any point of his faith in Christ Jesus, but to strengthen and augment him in his spirit and knowledge of the promise of, God for Christ Jesus sake, --"in whose name I make this oblation and offering; that is to say, my body in the fire, and my soul in the hands of Almighty God!”
“Fire was now laid to the pile, and exploded some powder which was placed among the faggots. The martyr's left hand and left cheek were scorched by the explosion; bat though thrice kindled took no steady hold of the pile.
Have you no dry wood?' demanded the sufferer. Have you no more gunpowder ?' It was some time before fresh billets and powder could be fetched from the castle, and his sufferings during the interval were extremely acute."
After the fire was rekindled, and “when nearly burned " through the middle by the fiery chain, a voice in the
crowd of spectators called aloud to him, that if he still had faith in the doctrine for which he died, he should give a last sign of his constancy. Whereupon he raised three fingers of his half-consumed hand, and held them steadily in that position till he ceased to live. His last audible words were, 'How long, Lord, shall darkness overwhelm this kingdom? How long wilt thou suffer this tyranny of men? Lord Jesus, receive my spirit ?'”
Thus the first Scottish martyr to the Reformation sealed his testimony; but it stirred the country, and aroused a 'feeling which rested not until the Popish religion was extirpated from the realm by the enlightenment and conversion of the people.
The clergy of Scotland were, as we have already stated, remarkably depraved both by ignorance and vice, but there were some among them who could appreciate a martyr's testimony.
“ On a careful examination of the traces of Hamilton's influence during the period now defined (from 1527 to 1540), it will be found that it principally affected three sections of his countrymen—the Augustinian canons, the Dominican friars, and the nobility and upper ranks of several parts of the kingdom.”
“Every one must have noticed the very prominent position which was taken in the general history of the Reformation by the order of St. Augustine. Luther himself, it is well known, was an Augustinian monk; and Staupitz, the first man from whom Luther learned any rudiment of evangelical truth, was vicar-general of the order in Saxony and Thuringaria. It was the same in Flanders, in France, and in Spain. The Augustinians of Antwerp were the first Lutherans of the Low Countries, and gave up to the cause of the Reformation, in the great square of Brussels, its two first martyrs-Henry Voes and John Esch. John Castellane, one of the earliest and most eminent of the French Protestants, was 'a religious man of the Friars' Eremites, of the order of St. Austin.' Dr. Cazalla, the celebrated Spanish Lutheran, who perished at Valladolid in the auto-de-fé of 1559, and who is described as a standard-bearer of the Gospellers, was an Augustinian friar. It was the same also in England, Dr. Robert Barnes, one of the first Englishmen who ventured to tell Wolsey, the truth, and who afterwards suffered martyrdom in Smithfield, was friar of the Augustinian monastery in Cambridge, where he gave shelter to the preaching of Latimer and Bilney, when these reformers were driven from the university pulpit of St. Mary's. It proved the same in Scotland too. It was the Scottish Augustinians who first gave disciples to the Reformation, and who first suffered in its cause. Patrick Hamilton was himself the abbot of an Augustinian house; and Alexander Alane, his first and most eminent convert, was, as we have seen, a canon regular of the Augustinian priory of St. Andrews.”
It is a striking fact in history that subsequent evange gelical movements among Romanists have generally risen
from the same order. The Jansenists were all followers of Augustine.
Some celebrated names among the Scottish clergy embraced the doctrines of Hamilton.
The death of Hamilton produced very different results from those his persecutors designed. His youth, his birth, his piety and his fervent preaching, drew general sympathy, and many began to inquire what were the principles for which he suffered. Knox informs us that a little treatise which Hamilton had composed in Latin, and which stated the gospel plan with great clearness and brevity was extensively circulated and produced a deep impression. There were several of the professors of the university who taught the doctrines of Hamilton. The confessor of the king, also, received the light of the truth by them and boldly taught what he believed. He was too near the king to be openly proceeded against ; but insinuations were suggested to the mind of the king in order to prejudice him against his faithful confessor. Seton soon found it necessary to depart. A Benedictine monk, Henry Forrest, was another of Hamilton's followers, and against him the archbishop proceeded. He was soon afterwards condemned as “equal in iniquity with Master Patrick Hamilton,” and was burned at the stake. “ My lord,” said a gentleman to the archbishop,"if ye burn any more, except ye follow my counsel, ye will utterly destroy yourselves. If ye will burn them, let it be in low cellars, for the reek (smoke) of Master Patrick Hamilton has infected as many as it blew upon.” That was a true saying, for the more they burned the more the Reformation spread. The blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church as it had been in the early ages of Christianity.