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color, elegantly crossed or mottled with small they always keep on the tops of the hills, are dusky spots and minute bars; the head and neck scarcely ever found on the sides, and dever de with broad bars of black, rust color, and white : scend into the valleys. Their food is the mounthe belly and wings are white, but the shafts of tain berries and the tops of the heaths. See the greater quill-feathers black. In the male the Shooting. gray color predominates, except on the head and 3. T. tetrix, black grouse, or black cock, like neck, where there is a great mixture of red, with the woodcock, is fond of woody and mountainbars of white. The females and young birds ous situations; feeding on bilberries and other have a great deal of rust color in them. The mountain fruits, and in the winter on the tops of tail consists of sixteen feathers; the two middle the heath. In the summer they frequently deof which are ash colored, mottled with black, scend from the hills to feed on corn. They and tipped with white; the two next black, never pair: but in the spring the male gets upon slightly marked with white at their ends, the rest some eminence, crows and claps his wings, on wholly black; the feathers incumbent on the tail which signal all the females within hearing reare white, and almost entirely cover it. Ptar- sort to him. The hen lays seldom above six or migans are found in these kingdoms only on the seven eggs. When the female is obliged, during summits of the highest hills of the Highlands of the time of incubation, to leave her eggs in quest Scotland, of the Hebrides, and Orkneys; and a of food, she covers them up so artfully with few still inhabit the lofty hills near Keswick in moss or dry leaves that it is very difficult to disCumberland, as well as the mountains of Wales. cover them. On this occasion she is extremely They live amidst the rocks, perching on the gray tame and tranquil, however wild and timorous stones, the general color of the strata in those at other times. She often keeps to her best, exalted situations. They are very silly birds; though strangers attempt to drag her away. As so tame as to bear driving like poultry; and, if soon as the young ones are hatched, they are provoked to rise, take very short flights, making seen running with extreme agility after the mo a great circuit like pigeons. Like the grouse, ther, though sometimes they are not entirely disthey keep in small packs; but never, like those engaged from the shell. The hen leads them birds, take shelter in the heath, but beneath loose forward for the first time into the woods, to stones. To the taste they scarcely differ from a show them ant's eggs and the wild mountain grouse. These birds are called by Pliny lagopi, berries, which, while young, are their only food. their feet being clothed with feathers to the claws, As they grow older their appetites grow stronger, as the hare's are with fur: the nails are long, and they then feed upon the tops of the heather broad, and hollow. The first circumstance guards and the cones of the pine tree. In this manner them from the rigor of the winter; the latter they soon come to perfection. An old black enables them to form a lodge among the snow, cock is in length twenty-two inches, and weighs where they lie in heaps to protect themselves nearly four pounds. The bill is dusky; and the from the cold. The feet of the grouse are clothed plumage of the whole body black, glossed over in the same manner; but those of the last two the neck and rump with a shining blue. The species here described, which perch upon trees, coverts of the wings are of a dusky brown; the are naked, the legs only, being feathered, not be- inner coverts white; the thighs and legs are coing in want of such a protection.

vered with dark brown feathers; the toes re2. T. Scoticus, the red game, or moor-fowl, is semble those of the former species. The tai. peculiar to the British islands. The male weighs consists of sixteen black feathers, and is much about nineteen ounces; and is in length fifteen forked; the exterior feathers bend greatly outinches and a half. The bill is black : the irides wards, and their ends seem as if cut off. The hazel colored. The throat is red. The plumage female weighs only two pounds; and its length on the head and neck is of a light tawny red; is one foot six inches. The head and neck are each feather is marked with several transverse marked with alternate bars of dull red and bars of black. The back and scapular feathers black; the breast with dusky black and white, are of a deeper red; and on the middle of each but the last predominates. The back, coverts of feather is a large black spot; the breast and belly the wings, and tail, are of the same color as the are of a dull purplish brown, crossed with nu- neck, but the red is deeper. The tail is slightly merous narrow dusky lines; the quill-feathers forked ; it consists of eighteen feathers variegated are dusky; the tail consists of sixteen feathers with red and black. The feathers under the tail of an equal length, all of them (except the four are white, marked with a few bars of black and middlemost) are black, and the middle feathers orange. This bird hatches its young late in the are barred with red; the thighs are of a pale red, summer. It lays from six to eight eggs, of a barred obscurely with black; the legs and feet dull yellowish white color, marked with numbers clothed to the very claws with thick soft white of very small ferruginous specks; and towards feathers. The claws are whitish, very broad and the smaller end with some blotches of the same strong. The female weighs only fifteen ounces. hue. The colors in general are duller than those of 4. T. urogallus, the woodcock, inhabits woody the male ; the breast and belly are spotted with and mountainous countries; in particular, forests white; and the tips of some of the coverts of of pines, birch trees, and junipers; feeding on the wings are of the same color. These birds the tops of the former and berres of the latter ; pair in the spring, and lay from six to ten eggs. the first often infects the flesh with such a taste The young brood follow the hen the whole sum- as to render it scarcely eatable. In the spring mer; in the winter they join in flocks of forty it calls the fem to its haunts with a loud and vor fifty, and become remarkably shy and wild ; shrill voice; and is at that time so very inatten


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tive to its safety as to be very easily shot. It TETRASTYLE, in the ancient architecture, stands perched on a tree, and descends to the a building, and particularly a temple, with four females on their first appearance. They lay from columns in its front. eight to sixteen eggs; eight at the first and more TEʻTRICAL, adj. ? Fi. tetrique ; Lat. teas they advance in age. These birds are com

TETRI'Cous. mon in Scandinavia, Germany, France, and se

verse; sour. veral parts of the Alps. They are found in no In this the tetrical bassa finding him to excel, gave other part of Great Britain but the Highlands of him as a rare gift to Solyman. Scotland, and are very rare even in those parts.

Knolles's History of the Turks. They are there called capercalzie, auer-calzie, TETRODON, in ichthyology, a genus of and in the old law books caperkally; the last fishes arranged by Linnæus under the class of signifying the horse of the woods: this species amphibia, and order of nantes; but placed by being, in comparison of others of the genus, pre- Gmelin under the class of pisces, and order of eminently large. The length of the male is two branchiostegi. The jaws are bony, stretched out, feet nine inches; its weight sometimes fourteen and cloven at the point; the aperture of the gils pounds. The female is much less, the length is linear; the body is muricated beneath, and being only twenty-six inches. The sexes differ there are no ventral fins. There are thirteen also greatly in colors. The bill of the male is species ; of which the most remarkable is T. of a pale yellow; the head, neck, and back, are lineatus, called by Mr. Hasselquist fahaka, which elegantly marked with slender_lines of gray and is the Egyptian and Arabic name. It has of late black running transversely. The upper part of been found in the Nile about Cairo, but was the breast is of a rich glossy green; the rest of never known in former times. It is said to grow the breast and the belly black, mixed with some to a prodigious size. When just caught it prieks white feathers; the sides are marked like the the skin if it is taken in the bare hands, and proneck; the coverts of the wings crossed with un- duces small pustules in the same manner a; dulated lines of black and reddish brown; the nettles. The flesh is poisonous. Mr. Foster exterior webs of the greater quill-feathers are confirms the account of the poisonous nature of black: the tail consists of eighteen feathers, the a species of tetrodon in his account of New Calemiddle of which is the longest; these are black, donia. marked on each side with a few white spots. TETTER, n. s. Sax. teter. A scab; a The legs are very strong, and covered with brown scurf; a ringworm. feathers; the edges of the toes are pectinated. A most instant tetter barked about, Of the female the bill is dusky; the throat red; Most lazar like, with vile and loathsome crust, the head, neck, and back, are marked with trans- All my smooth body. Shakspeare. Hamlet. verse bars of red and black; the breast has some

A scabby tetter on their pelts will stick. Dryden. white spots on it, and the lower part is of a plain TETUAN, a sea-port of Morocco, in the proorange color; the belly is barred with pale orange vince of El Garb, on the Mediterranean, withic and black; the tips of the feathers are white. The the Straits of Gibraltar. A branch of the Atlas, tail is of a deep rust color, barred with black, passing through the province of Tedla, comes tipped with white, and consists of sixteen fea- within a few miles of the town. The envirous thers. See SHOOTING.

are planted with vineyards and gardens, and the TETRAPET'ALOUS, adj. Gr. Teotapes and oranges are reckoned very superior. Several Teralov. Such flowers as consist of four leaves European consuls and merchants were settled round the style.

here till 1770, when an Englishman having shot All the tetrapetalous siliquose plants are alkale- a Moor the emperor banished all Europeans, and . scent.

Arbuthnot. would no longer permit any to reside there. A TETRAPODOLOGY (Terpatos, and loyos) considerable communication, however, is mainthat branch of zoology which treats of quadru- tained with Gibraltar, whence ships often repair, peds, in the Linnæan system called mammalia. when the wind is unfavorable for making Tan

TETRAPOLIS, an ancient name of Antioch giers; and our fleets, entering the Mediterranean, in Syria, because it contained four cities. often water and victual in the bay. Thirty miles

TETRARCH, n. s. Fr. tetrurque ; Lat. te- south-east of Tangiers. trarcha; Gr. Tetpapxns. A Roman governor TETZEL, or Testzel (John), a monk of the of the fourth part of a province.

sixteenth century, whose honest bigotry may be All the earth,

classed among the proximate causes of the ReHer kings and tetrarchs, are their tributaries : formation. He was born at Piern upon the Elbe, People and nations pay them hourly stipends. and, having taken the habit of St. Dominick, re

Ben Jonson. ceived a commission from the archbishop of A TETRARCH is a prince who holds and go- Mayence, to preach up the indulgences of Leo verns a fourth part of a kingdom. Such origi- X. The extravagant power and virtue which he nally was the import of the title tetrarch; but it attributed to his commodities, declaring that they was afterwards applied to any petty king or were sufficient to procure impunity for a sinner, sovereign; and became synonymous with eth- though he had even violated the mother of God narch.

herself! first roused the indignation of Luther, TETRASTICK, n. s.

Gr. τετραςιχος.

An and drew upon him those attacks which were at epigram or stanza of four verses.

length transferred from the effect to the cause, and The tetrastick obliged Spenser to extend his sense diverted from combating the absurdities themto the length of four lines, which would have been selves to exposing the corruption of the systery more closely confined in the couplet. Pope. by which they were sanctioned. The eyes of the




papal government were at length, when too late, both seated, according to Mela, beyond the opened to the mischief which Tetzel had occa- Elbe, on the Sinus Codanus, or' Baltic; and sioned, and he received so severe a rebuke from there, it is supposed, lay the country of the Teuthe legate that he is said to have died of a broken tones, now Ditmarsh ; diversity of dialects proheart in 1519.

ducing the different terms Teut, Tut, Dit, Tid, TEUCER, the son of Scamander by Ida the and Thod, which in the ancient German language founder and first king of Phrygia, from whom signified people. Of these Teutones Virgil is to his subjects were called Teucri. Dardanus mar- be understood in the epithet Teutonicus, an apried his daughter Batca, and succeeded him.- pellation which more lately came to be applied Virg. En. 11. 108.

io the Germans in general, and later still the apTeucer, a son of Telamon and brother of pellation Alemanni. Ajax. He built a town in the isle of Cyprus, The TEUTONIC LANGUAGE is supposed to which he called Salamis from his birth-place. have been the language of the ancient Germans,

TEUCRI, a name given the Trojans from and hence is reckoned amongst the mother Teucer their first king.

tongues. See ParloLOGY. TEUCRIUM, germander, in botany, a genus Teutonic Order, an order of military knights, of plants belonging to the class of didynamia, established towards the close of the twelfin cenand order of gymnospermia; and in the natural tury, in the Holy Land, where, after the death of system ranging under the forty-second order, Barbarossa, the Germans behaved with so much verticillatæ. The corolla has no upper lip, is bravery, that Henry king of Jerusalem, the padivided into two parts beyond the base, and is triarch, and several other princes, determined to divaricated where the stamina issue out. There reward their valor by instituting the order. They are thirty species ; of which three are natives of had at first the title of the knights of St. George, Great Britain, viz.

and afterwards were called Equites Mariani, or 1. T. chamædrys, the smaller creeping ger- knights of St. Mary. Among their other oblimander, has fibrous, very creeping, spreading gations it was required that every knight should roots; many four cornered, very branchy, trailing be of noble parentage; that the order should destalks, nearly a foot long; oval, cuneiform, cut, fend the Christian religion and the Holy Land; crenated leaves on short foot-stalks ; and reddish that they should exercise hospitality towards tije Howers, growing almost in a verticillus, on whorls, Christians in general, but particularly those of round the stalk, three on each peduncle; ap- their own country; and that they should with all pearing in June and July.

their power endeavour to propagate and extend 2. T. scocodonia, wood sage, or germander, is the Christian faith and the religion of Jesus. In distinguished by leaves which are heart-shaped, 1190, having become rich by donations from the serrated, and petiolated ; by racemi, which are superstitious, they elected their first grand master, lateral and ranged in one row; and by an erect Henry Walpot, a German, who had distinguished stem. The flowers are straw-colored, and the himself by his zeal and valor. In 1191 pope filaments red. The plant has a bitter taste, and Celestine III. confirmed their privileges already smells like hops with a little mixture of garlic. granted, giving them the title of the Teutonie It is used in brewing in the isle of Jersey instead knights of the hospital of St. Mary the Virgio. of hops.

By the conditions of this bull they vowed perpe 3. T. scordium, the common water germander, tual continence, obedience, and poverty; oblihas creeping perennial roots, sending up many gations which it may well be imagined were not square, procumbent, or trailing stalks, branching very strictly kept. See Poland, and Parssia. diffusely; oblong, indented, serrated, close-sit- TEW'EL, n. s. Fr. tuyau or tuyal. Defined ting, opposite leaves; and small reddish flowers, below. generally two together, from the sides of the In the back of the forge, against the fire-place, is stalks and branches, in July and August. This fixed a thick iron plate, and a taper pipe in it about plant was formerly considered as medicinal, but five inches long, called a tewel, or teuel iron, which has now fallen into disuse. It grows naturally comes through the back of the forge; into this tewel in marshy places, in the isle of Ely and other is placed the bellows.

Moon. parts of England, and most parts of Europe ; TEWIT, in ornithology. See Tringa. and is sometimes admitted into gardens, in moist TEWKESBURY, a market town and borough places, for variety, and as a medicinal plant. of England, in the county of Gloucester, situated

TEURART, an ancient town of Africa, in on the eastern bank of the Avon, vear its conFez, seated on a mountain, near the river Za; it fluence with the Severn. The access to the town was anciently a very important city.

is by several commodious bridges. That over TEUTHIS, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes the Avon is a stone structure of considerable belonging to the order of abdominales. The length. The town is large, handsome, and pahead is somewhat truncated on the fore part; the pulous. It consists mostly of three principal branchil membrane has five rays; the teeth streets, with several lanes and alleys branching equal, rigid near each other, forming a regular off, which are mostly well paved and lighted. series. There are two species, viz. 1. T. hepatus; The houses in the town are chiefly built of brick, and 2. T. Java.

but the old habitations with projecting stones, TEUTHRAS, king of Mysia. See Telephus. and pyramidal roofs, have been mostly pulled

TEUTOBOCHUS, a gigantic king of the down. The act for paving and lighting the Teutones.

streets was obtained in 1786; and, from that TEUTONES, or Teutoni, an ancient people, period, a growing spirit of improvement has always by historians joined with the Cimbri; diffused itself among the inhabitants. Of the public buildings the principal is the Abbey beautiful proportions, in four stages of open church, alnıost the only remains of the ancient arched work, with a tomb beneath, surrounded monastery. This structure displays an interest- by an embattled border, and the sides ornamenting example of early Norman architecture, com- ed alternately with single and double arches. bined with specimens of other kinds. It is built This splended monument appears to have been in the cathedral form, and consists of a nave, erected to the memory of Hugh le Despencer, choir, transept, and central tower, with the addi- and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of William tion of several chapels. The nave and choir Montacute earl of Salisbury. Other elegant are separated from the aisles by eighteen massive monuments we have not room to particularise. columns sustaining the roof, and four substantial Tewkesbury abbey was founded in the year piers which support the tower. The arches 715, by two Saxon brothers, Dodo and Odo, above the columns in the nave and over the piers who were then dukes of great opulence and high are plain and semicircular, but those of the choir consideration in the kingdom of Mercia, and are pointed. Above the crown of the former the first lords of the manor here. Besides the arches runs a triforium, opening into the nave church, Tewkesbury contains meeting-houses for by a series of double round headed arches, two Independents, Quakers, Baptists, and Methodover each arch. The roof of the nave is orna- ists. The town-hall is a handsome building. mented with groins springing from crocket heads The old town hall, or Tolsey, originally served over each pillar; and at the intersections are as a market place; but, after that building was various angels and other figures, playing on dif- removed, twenty persons entered into an agreeferent musical instruments. At ihe west end is ment with the corporation to erect the present a large window, with a pointed arch, which ap- market-house, in consideration of a grant of the pears to have been introduced within a semicir- profits of the stalls, &c., for ninety-nine years. cular arch in 1656. The aisles are lighted with The curious old structure which had for centuries pointed arched windows. These were probably been used as the borough jail was originally the altered to that shape about the beginning of the companile or bell tower annexed to the abbey: fourteenth century. In 1796 this was again al- this was pulled down in 1817, and a most subtered, fitted up with new pews, and otherwise stantial and elegant school, for the education of improved, at an expense of £2000. The effect children on the national or Bell's system, erected of this portion of the fabric is singularly beau- in its place. The new jail is a neat and suitable tiful. The east end is hexagonal, and is sepa- building, situate at the top of the High-street rated from the aisles hy six massive short columns, The house of industry is singularly spacious and which support pointed arches. Beneath these commodious, and situate on Holme bill, near the are some large monuments, and over the arches entrance of the town from Gloucester. The are windows filled with painted glass. On the charitable institutions in the town are a free south side of the altar are three stone stalls, part grammar school, endowed charity school, schools of which displays some elegant carving. The on the national and Lancasterian plans, a great ceiling is adorned with a profusion of tracery, number of alms-houses, a dispensary, a lying-in and at each intersection is a carved flower or charity, and numerous other benevolent associaknot of foliage. Branching out from the north tions. Tewkesbury had once a considerable and south aisles of the choir are five or six small share in the clothing business, but this trade has private chapels or oratorios, containing the long since declined. It was likewise noted for tombs or ashes of their respective founders. The its mustard. At present the chief manufacture Lady chapel is entirely destroyed; but a large carried on in the town is that of stocking framearch, through which it was entered from the work knitting, particularly in cotton. A conchurch, is still seen on the outside. The clois- siderable trade is also carried on in malting, and ters were on the south side of the nave, and the making of nails. Tewkesbury was incorsome fragments of them still remain. The tower porated by a charter granted by queen Elizabeth, is lofty, and, according to the abbey chronicles, and confirmed by James I.; but, in the reign of was once terminated by a wooden spire, which James II., the corporate officers surrendered fell on Easter day 1559: the most remarkable their seal to that monarch, who in his second specimens of its architecture are three tiers of year re-incorporated them by the names of the arcades; in the upper part the arches of the mayor, alderman, and common council. The middlemost tier are intersected. The whole revolution which immediately followed prevented length of the church is 300 feet, of the transept the charter from being carried into effect, and 120. The breadth of the choir and side aisles is the town remained in a state of uncertainty as seventy feet; of the west front 100. The height to its government till the thirteenth of William from the area to the roof is 120 feet; the height III., when it was settled in the present form. of the tower is 152 feet. The monuments in By this, the government of the town is vested in Tewkesbury church have attracted the attention two bailiffs and four justices, annually chosen, of various antiquaries. Between two of the pil- and a recorder. The corporate body consists of lars on the north side of the choir is an elegant twenty-four principal burgesses, and the same and light chapel of stone, erected by abbot Par- number of assistants; but, as each principal burker in 1097, over the tomb of Robert Fitz-Hamon, gess holds also the office of assistant, the memwho was slain at Falaise, in Normandy, in 1107, bers of the corporation are now uniformly conand originally buried in the chapter-house, fined to twenty-four persons, instead of fortywhence his bones were removed by abbot Robert eight as formerly. The town sends two members in 1241. On the north side of the altar is a to parliament, the privilege of which was obtained monument of the most delicate sculpture and from James I. in 1609. The right of election


is possessed by the freemen and freeholders. It

In religion was at Tewkesbury that the last battle was fought What errour, but some sober brow between the adherents of the houses of York and Will bless it, and approve it with a test ! Lancaster, which it is well known proved fatal

Shakspear. to the latter. The field on which it was fought

Some prime articles of faith are not delivered in a is still called the bloody meadow, and is situated literal or catechistical form of speech, but are col

lected and concluded by argumentation out of seaabout half a mile from the town. In the civil

tences of scripture, and by comparing of sundry terts wars, in the reign of Charles I., Tewkesbury was

with one another,

White. the scene of many severe contests. Markets on

Men's daily occasions require the doing of a thouWednesday and Saturday, and various annual sand things, which it would puzzle the best testmax fairs. Ten miles north of Gloucester, and 102 readily to bethink himself of a sentence in the Bible, W.N.W. of London.

clear enough to satisfy a scrupulous conscience of the TEW'TAW, v.a. Formed from lew by re- lawfulness of.

Sanderson duplication. To beat; to break.

He extends the exclusion unto twenty days, which The inethod and way of watering, pilling, break in the textuary sense is fully accomplished in Obe. ing, and tewtawing of hemp and fax, is a particular

Broere. business.


I see no ground why this reason should be testuary

to ours, or that God intended him an universal headTEXAS, a tract of country in North America,


Glassrile. claimed by the United States as a part of Loui

We expect your next siana, and by Spain as a part of the Internal Should be no comment, but a test, provinces, included in the intendency of San To tell how modern beasts are vext. TF aller. Luis Potosi. It is bounded north by Red River, His mind he should fortify with some few tests, east by the state of Louisiana, south by the gulf which are home and apposite to his case. South of Mexico, and west by the del Norte; contain

TEXTURE, n. s.

Lat tertus. The act or ing upwards of 100,000 square miles. There

Tex'tile, adj. manner of weaving; a are some scattering Spanish presidios in this

Tex'TRINE. web or thing woven; parcountry, yet it is for the most part a wilder- ticular combination of parts: the adjective corThe population was estimated in 1807 at

responding 7000. The interior towards Red River is bar

The placing of the tangible parts in length or ren, but the part towards the gulf of Mexico re- transverse, as in the warp and woof of textiles. sembles the southern part of Louisiana.

Bacon's Natural History. TEXEL, an island of the Netherlands, at the The materials of them were not from any herb, as entrance of the Zuyder Zee, separated from other textiles, but from a stone called ariantus. North Holland by the narrow channel called the

Wilias. Mars-diep. Its form is oblong, twelve miles

Spirits—in length, and about six in breadth, and it is se- Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound

Milton. cured from the sea by strong dikes. The soil is Receive, no more than can the fluid air.

Under state of richest testure spread. Id. well fitted for sheep pasture, and it has long been noted for its cheese. Besides the town of Texel, it

Skins, although a natural habit unto all before the contains six villages, and has in all about 5000 invention of texture, were something more unto


Brodee. inhabitants. It has a large and secure harbour,

It is a wonderful artifice, how newly batched with a fort which commands the entrance; it maggots, not the parent animal, because she emits has likewise a commodious roadstead on the

no web, nor hath any textrine art, can convolve the east. It was in the neighbourhood of the Texel stubborn leaf, and bind it with the thread it weaves that admiral Blake defeated the Dutch under from its body.

Derkam. Van Tromp, in 1653 : in 1673 another battle A veil of richest texture wrought she wears. was fought near this, between the Dutch and the

Pope. combined fleets of England and France, with

Others, far in the grassy dale,

Thomson's Spring. doubtful success; a result far different from that their humble texture weave. of an encounter near the Texel in the end of Au- TEXTURE properly denotes the arrangement gust 1799, between the British and Dutch fleets, and cohesion of several slender bodies or threads when the latter, disaffected to the republican interwoven or entangled among each other, as in government, surrendered after a slight resistance, the webs of spiders, or in the cloths, stuffs, &c. TEXT, n. s.

Fr. terte; Latin Texture is also used in speaking of any union or Text'MAN, n. s.

That on

constituent particles of a concrete body, whether Text'UARY, adj. & n. s. which a comment is by weaving, hooking, knitting, tying, chaining, written; a sentence of scripture: textman and indenting, intruding, compressing, attracting, or textuary mean one versed in texts : textuary also any other way. In which sense we say, a close means contained in the text; or serving as a compact texture, a lax porous texture, a regular

or irregular texture, &c.



j. Haddon, Printer, Fiusbury.

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